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Sample records for carp ctenopharyngodon idellus

  1. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  2. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  3. Molecular cloning of the MARCH family in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and their response to grass carp reovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mi; Huang, Rong; Xiong, Lv; Luo, Lifei; Chen, Geng; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; He, Libo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-02-20

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an economical aquaculture species in China, and the Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) that causes hemorrhagic disease seriously affects the grass carp cultivation industry. Substantial evidence indicates that there is an association between the membrane-associated RING-CH family of E3 ligase (MARCH) family and immune defense in mammals, while functional studies on non-mammalian MARCH proteins are limited. In order to know the characteristics of the MARCH genes in C. idellus, eight MARCH genes (MARCH1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11) were cloned and the open reading frames (ORF) were identified in grass carp. All MARCH proteins in grass carp contained an RING-CH domain, which is characteristic of the MARCH protein. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different MARCH proteins gathered into their separate clusters. All eight members of the MARCH gene family were detected in all tissues sampled, but the relative expression level differed. In addition, the mRNA expression of all the MARCHs was regulated at different levels in the immune organs after a GCRV challenge, and they responded robustly in both the intestine and liver. The mRNA expression of MARCH8, MHC II, TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1 in the intestine after GCRV infection was analyzed, and the results showed that MARCH8 could negatively regulate TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1, which signaled via the MAPK or NF-κB-activation pathways that play vital roles in immunity. Our findings identified a novel gene family in C. idellus and provided novel evidence that MARCH genes are inducible and involved in the immune response. Moreover, MARCH8 might function to negatively regulate immune receptors in C. idellus. Therefore, the MARCH might play a vital role in regulating the immune response of C. idellus.

  4. Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV.

  5. ENU-induced mutagenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by treating mature sperm.

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    Xia-Yun Jiang

    Full Text Available N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis is a useful approach for genetic improvement of plants, as well as for inducing functional mutants in animal models including mice and zebrafish. In the present study, mature sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were treated with a range of ENU concentrations for 45 min, and then wild-type eggs were fertilized. The results indicated that the proportion of embryos with morphological abnormalities at segmentation stage or dead fry at hatching stage increased with increasing ENU dose up to 10 mM. Choosing a dose that was mutagenic, but provided adequate numbers of viable fry, an F1 population was generated from 1 mM ENU-treated sperm for screening purposes. The ENU-treated F1 population showed large variations in growth during the first year. A few bigger mutants with morphologically normal were generated, as compared to the controls. Analysis of DNA from 15 F1 ENU-treated individuals for mutations in partial coding regions of igf-2a, igf-2b, mstn-1, mstn-2, fst-1 and fst-2 loci revealed that most ENU-treated point mutations were GC to AT or AT to GC substitution, which led to nonsense, nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations. The average mutation rate at the examined loci was 0.41%. These results indicate that ENU treatment of mature sperm can efficiently induce point mutations in grass carp, which is a potentially useful approach for genetic improvement of these fish.

  6. Regulation of adipocytes lipolysis by n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Li, Chao; Huang, Jiqin; Ji, Hong

    2014-10-01

    N-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) have been shown to inhibit body fat accumulation in animals. To clarify the mechanism of this fat-lowering effect of n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, isolated grass carp mature adipocytes were incubated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations for 6 h. The release of glycerol to the medium was detected, and the expression of the lipolysis-related genes was analyzed. In experiment 2, a 95-day feeding trial was conducted with two diets formulated with either lard oil (as control) or fish oil (supplying n-3 HUFA as treatment) as the main lipid source. The glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) released from the isolated adipocytes of both groups were detected after the feeding period. The expression of select lipolysis-related genes in adipose tissue was also analyzed. The results from experiment 1 showed that the release of glycerol was significantly increased by DHA and EPA (P lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and leptin, was also significantly elevated in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated that glycerol and FFA release from the isolated adipocytes were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The expression level of ATGL, HSL, TNFα and leptin in the treatment group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The present results provide novel evidence that n-3 HUFAs could regulate grass carp adipocyte lipolysis in vitro or in vivo, and the effect might be in part associated with their influence on the expression of lipolysis-related genes and lipolysis-related adipokines genes.

  7. Molecular characterization of trypsinogens and development of trypsinogen gene expression and tryptic activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and topmouth culter (Culter alburnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guo-Liang; Li, Yang; Gao, Ze-Xia; Wang, Huan-Ling; Wang, Wei-Min

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gene structures and expression of trypsinogens, as well as the trypsin activities of the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (herbivorous) and the topmouth culter Culter alburnus (carnivorous), which are commercially important freshwater species of the family Cyprinidae in China. Isolated full-length trypsinogen cDNA clones were 869 bp and 857 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences were 242aa and 247aa long, both containing the highly conserved residues essential for serine protease catalytic and conformational maintenance. The results from isoelectric and phylogenetic analyses suggest that grass carp trypsinogen is grouped with teleost trypsinogen group I, while topmouth culter trypsinogen is grouped with group II. The expression pattern of trypsinogen mRNA was similar between these two species, appearing 2 days post-hatching (dph) and reaching peaks at 11 and 23 dph. The trypsin-specific activities in both species were detected 2 dph and reached the major peaks at 8 dph, however the minor peaks were observed at 20 dph in the grass carp and 17 dph in the topmouth culter. The trypsin-specific activity was significantly higher in the grass carp than in the topmouth culter, which may be attributed to the nature of their different nutritional habits.

  8. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus,from two different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jiajia; YU Yuhe; ZHANG Tanglin; GAO Lei

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host.External and internal conditions of the host,including its habitat,affect the intestinal bacterial community.Similarly,the intestinal bacterial community can,in turn,influence the host,particularly with respect to disease resistance.We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake.We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes,from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified.Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination,we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish,except for DF-7,and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities(Mantel one-tailed test,R=0.157,P=0.175).Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond.A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  9. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  10. Effect of Sugar on the Changes in Quality of Lightly Salted Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets under Vacuum Packaging at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Jingru; Fan, Hongbing; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the effect of a low concentration of sugar on the changes in quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during storage under vacuum packaging at 4°C, we determined the sensory score, total viable counts, biochemical quality, and physical quality of fish fillets. Fish samples were left untreated, dry cured with 1.3% salt, or dry cured with 1.3% salt plus 1.0% sugar. Compared with untreated samples, curing treatments reduced chemical changes reflected in pH, inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine, and total volatile base nitrogen; decreased the formation of phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine; and increased the overall sensory quality of fillets (P < 0.05). Compared to dry cured with 1.3% salt samples, sugar treatment significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) the increase in pH and total volatile base nitrogen value, but it promoted microbial growth and the formation of phenylethylamine and tyramine at later stages of storage. By considering each indicator, the addition of sugar, which can improve the taste of fillets, has no significant effect on the shelf life of vacuum-packaged grass carp fillets.

  11. ONTOGENY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACTS IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS), YELLOWCHECK CARP(ELOPICHTHYS BAMBUSA) AND TOPMOUTH CULTER(CULTER ALBURNUS)%草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌消化道组织的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国良; 杨代勤; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    研究仔稚鱼消化机能的发育变化对于掌握鱼类早期发育阶段的消化特点、营养需要及提高仔稚鱼成活与生长等均有重要意义.采用HE、PAS等染色方法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鳡(Elopichthys bambusa)和翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)消化道组织的早期发育进行了研究,结果表明:(1)初孵仔鱼卵黄囊的相对体积以鳡的最大; (2)均在孵后2d和3d分别出现肠管和口裂,在孵后3d、4d和2d分别出现肠腔; (3)在孵后4d、7-9d和4d其肠腔内分别出现食物团,表明此时草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌已分别开始外源性摄食; (4)在孵后5d、6d和6d其肠道内表面分别出现黏膜褶,随后在稚鱼中其黏膜褶的高度和数量不同程度的发育; (5)草鱼和鳡的肠道分别在孵后14d和30d出现盘曲,而在翘嘴鲌的切片图中未发现其肠道的盘曲; (6)草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌的肠道分别于孵后17-23d、30d和24-29d出现数量较多的黏液细胞,此时标志着食性的转换和分化过程基本完善.%A thorough understanding of the temporal process of structure and function of larval and juvenile digestive systems has important values for investigating the digestive characteristics, nutritional needs of larva and juveniles, and enhancing their survival and growth. In inland aquaculture in China, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, yellowcheck carp Elopichthys bambusa and topmouth culter Culter albumus are economically important freshwater species that belong to the family Cyprinidae, with entirely different nutritional needs. Using the methods of histology, a comparative study among the above species in early developmental stages was conducted in our study to examine the ontogeny of digestive tracts. The results of the three species in different days post hatching (dph) showed the following: (1) yellow-check carp had the maximum relative bulk of yolk sac in newly hatched larva in the three species; (2) the intestinal tubes and oral fissures

  12. 氧化鱼油诱导草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 肝胰脏谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶通路的应激反应%Induced Stress of Glutathione/Glutathione Transferase Gene Pathway in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by Dietary Oxidized Fish Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀秀; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 陈科全; 李婷; 罗其刚

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile grasscarp Ctenopharyngodon idellus w ith body w eightof (74.8±1)g w ere reared in netcagesdisposed in a pond and fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic sem i-purified diets containing soybean oil (6S),fish oil (6F),2% oxidized fish oil (2O F),4% oxidized fish oil(4O F),and 6% oxidized fish oil(6O F)atw atertem perature of25~33℃ for72 days to study the effects ofdietary oxidized fish oilon oxidative stress pathw ay by detecting ofG SH /G STs pathw ay gene expression,G SH content,and SO D activity in hepatopancr eas of grass carp.The results show ed thatthe expression of GCLC in 6O F group w as significantly reduced (P0.05).The expression of GSR w as found to be reduced in each group,w ith significantdifference betw een 6F group and 4O F group (P0.05);各试验组 GSR 的表达活性均下调,6F 和4OF 组间显著下调(P<0.05);GSTPI 的表达活性均显著下调(P<0.05),与饲料中(EPA+DHA)含量呈线性负相关关系;除6F 组外,其余各组 MGST1的表达活性均较6S 组显著下调(P<0.05),且 MGST1的表达活性与饲料丙二醛(MDA)含量呈二项式关系,与6S 组相比,其余各组肝胰脏中 GSH 含量及 SOD 活性均显著下调(P<0.05)。氧化鱼油引起草鱼 GSH/GST 合成通路基因表达相适应,肝胰脏 GSH 合成相关基因和 MGST1的表达活性下调,而 GSTPI 的表达活性增强。GSH/GSTs 通路基因表达活性和 GSH 含量随饲料中氧化鱼油的增加呈梯度变化。

  13. DAMAGE OF OXIDIZED FISH OIL ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEPATOPANCREAS OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼肝胰脏结构和功能的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    To investigate effects of oxidized fish oil on the structure and permeability of hepatopancreas of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), five iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were formulated with soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil at different concentrations, 6%fish oil, 6%soybean oil, 2%oxidized fish oil and 4%soybean oil, 4%oxi-dized fish oil and 2%soybean oil, 6%oxidized fish oil for a 72d experiment. Result showed that oxidized fish oil signi-ficantly increased (P<0.05) the content of ALB, GLB, MDA, GSH of grass carp serum and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the content of GSH, SOD of grass carp hepatopancreas. Oxidized fish oil significantly increased (P<0.05) the HSI, content of lipid of hepatopancreas and TG content of serum, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the ratio of HDL and LDL at the same time. Oxidized fish oil significantly enhanced the content of TC on serum and hepatopancreas and the content of TBA on hepatopancreas (P<0.05) but significantly diminished the content of serum TBA (P<0.05). Oxi-dized fish oil caused fatty liver by disrupting the fat metabolism, mitochondrial damage of hepatopancreas by impact-ing bile acid accumulation, hepatopancreas cell fibrosis, and tissue atrophyin grass carp. In conclusion, products of oxi-dized fish oil may cause grass carp oxidative stress and decrease antioxidant capacity of grass carp hepatopancreas.%为了探讨饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏组织结构及其功能的影响,研究以豆油、鱼油及氧化鱼油作为饲料脂肪源,分别设计鱼油组(6F)、豆油组(6S)、2%氧化鱼油(4S2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(2S4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能的半纯化饲料,在池塘网箱中养殖72d。结果显示:氧化鱼油显著增加草鱼血清ALB、GLB、MDA和GSH含量(P<0.05),显著降低肝胰脏GSH和SOD含量(P<0.05);氧化鱼油会显著增加草鱼肝胰脏指数及肝胰脏脂肪含量(P<0.05),且草

  14. Functional properties and quality control of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat%草鱼肉蛋白酶解物功能特性及质量控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 尤娟; 罗永康

    2011-01-01

    采用Neutrase对草鱼鱼肉蛋白进行了酶解,得到了水解度(DH)为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物(NH),并分析了pH与水解度对酶解产物功能特性的影响.结果表明,酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性在pH为4时达到最低,而后随pH的增大而增加.在pH为3~8的范围内随水解度的增加,酶解产物的溶解性增加,起泡性降低.pH为4时,水解度为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物的热稳定性之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05),且随水解度升高而增大.在pH为3-5的范围内酶解产物的乳化性随水解度升高而降低.酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性间存在相关性(P<0.05).%Functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Neutrase(NH) at 4.72% , 9.80% and 13.32% of degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The solubilities,emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were the lowest at pH4.With the DH rising,the solubilities of hydrolysates increased,but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3~8.The NH displayed a lower heat stability with the DH rising at pH4 (P <0.05).As the DH rise,the emulsion activity index decreased in the pH range of 3 ~ 5. And there were significant relationship between solubility, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity( P <0.05 ).

  15. PREPARATION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST IGM, IGZ AND IGD IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN TISSUES%草鱼IgM、IgD和IgZ的抗体制备与组织表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严伟; 肖凡书; 聂品

    2012-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish in aquaculture industry of China. However, grass carp breeding is plagued by a number of diseases, mostly caused by viruses and bacteria, so the understanding of its immune system is essential for its aquaculture. In this paper, the expression, purification, and polyclonal antibody preparation of the IgM, IgZ and IgD gene were described. The expression primers were designed based on the reported open reading frame (ORF) of IgM, IgZ and IgD gene from grass carp, and incorporated with Kpnl and HindⅢ restriction sites. PCR cycling conditions were as follows: 95℃ for 5min; 95℃ for 45s, 56℃ for 1min, 72℃ for 1min for 30 cycles; 72℃ for 6min. The IgM, IgZ and IgD gene were cloned into pET-32a expression plasmid at the KpnⅠ and HindⅢ restriction sites, and the recombinant plasmids were verified by sequencing. The re-combinant plasmids were transformated into Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) strain. Sodium dodecyl sul-fate-polyacrylamide gel elactrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that recombinant protein were satisfactorily expressed by optimizing the concentration and induction time of Isopropy1_β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). All recombinant proteins were expressed as inclusion bodies in agreement with the expected molecular weight, and were purified successfully by using affinity chromatography in the denatured condition. The purified proteins were then injected into Japanese white rabbits in order to obtain polyclonal antisera. Western blot analysis showed that the purified IgM, IgZ and IgD recombinant proteins were recognized by the rabbit antisera, respectively. By using the rabbit antisera of IgM and IgZ, Western blotting showed that IgM and IgZ expressed in intestine, head kidney, trunk kidney, skin, spleen, brain, gill and blood.%根据已报道的草鱼免疫球蛋白IgM、IgZ和IgD的序列设计表达引物进行PCR扩增,将扩增片

  16. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-03

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs.

  17. EFFECTS OF DIETARY OXIDIZED FISH OIL ON THE INTESTINAL STRUCTURE AND PERMEABILITY OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料氧化鱼油引起草鱼肠道结构损伤、通透性增加

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道组织结构及其通透性的影响,本实验以豆油、鱼油及氧化鱼油作为饲料脂肪源,分别设计鱼油组(6F)、豆油组(6S)、2%氧化鱼油(4S2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(2S4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能的半纯化饲料。经72d池塘网箱养殖后,实验结果显示:(1)氧化鱼油显著增加(P<0.05)草鱼血清和肠道MDA含量、增加肠道GSH含量(P<0.05),但随氧化产物含量上升GSH含量出现下降。(2)氧化鱼油会显著降低肠道内胆汁酸的含量(P<0.05)。(3)氧化鱼油会显著增加肠道绒毛中杯状细胞的数量(P<0.05),且随着氧化产物的增加,肠道微绒毛高度呈现先上升后下降趋势。(4)氧化鱼油会导致肠道紧密连接间隙增大,增加肠道通透性,使血清中D-乳酸及内毒素含量显著增加(P<0.05)。结果表明,饲料中鱼油氧化产物损伤了草鱼肠道组织结构,尤其是肠道上皮细胞紧密连接结构损伤严重,从而破坏了肠道黏膜的机械屏障功能,使肠道通透性显著增加,肠道细菌内毒素等发生转移。鱼油氧化产物会引起草鱼肠道氧化与抗氧化应激反应,干扰草鱼“肝-肠”正常胆汁酸循环,致使草鱼肠道胆汁酸不足。%To investigate effects of oxidized fish oil on the structure and permeability of intestine of grass carp (Cteno-pharyngodon idellus), five iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were formulated with soybean oil, fish oil and oxidized fish oil at different concentrations:6%fish oil, 6%soybean oil, 2%oxidized fish oil and 4%soybean oil, 4%oxidized fish oil, and 2%soybean oil, 6%oxidized fish oil, respectively. Compared with the 6%soybean oil, the oxidative product of fish oil at low level increased serum and intestine MDA and GSH content but diminished the GSH content at high level. The oxidized fish oil significantly reduced intestine bile acid content (P<0.05). The

  18. Antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) meat%草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解物抗氧化性及功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 罗永康; 尤娟

    2011-01-01

    为全面了解水解度(DH)、蛋白酶种类对草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解产物抗氧化性和功能特性的影响,采用木瓜蛋白酶及Alcalase 2.4L在各自最适条件下进行酶解,制备水解度为10%和20%的酶解产物,对其功能特性进行分析.结果显示:随着水解度升高酶解产物的亚铁离子螯合能力增强,但还原力和清除DPPH自由基的能力下降(P<0.05).相同水解度下与Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物相比,木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物具有较强的清除DPPH自由基能力和还原力(P<0.05).2种蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性均在pH4时达到最低,而后随pH升高而增大.相同pH下随着水解度的升高酶解产物的溶解性增强,乳化性下降.相同pH及水解度下木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性和起泡性小于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物,但乳化性优于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物.酶解产物的抗氧化性及功能特性受水解度及蛋白酶种类的影响.%Antioxidant activity and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4L(HA) and Papain (HP) with different ( 10%, 20%) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated.With the DH rising,the metal chelating activity increased while the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased of both HA and HP(P<0.05).At the same DH test,HP possessed a better DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power than HA did (P<0.05).The solubilities, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were lowest at pH 4.When the DH increased, the solubilities of hydrolysates increased, but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3-8.And HP displayed higher emulsion activity index but lower solubility and foaming capacity than HA did.The result revealed that the antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp meat were determined by the DH and types of the enzymes.

  19. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR QUINOCETONE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%喹烯酮在草鱼体内生理药动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宁; 刘永涛; 杨秋红; 艾晓辉

    2015-01-01

    为了预测喹烯酮在草鱼体内药物残留, 建立其在草鱼体内生理药动学模型.通过搜集大量文献获得鱼的生理解剖参数, 采用已有的喹烯酮试验数据拟合得到药物特异性参数.基于 acslXtreme 生理药动学软件,进行模型假设、血流图设计、质量平衡方程的建立和模型拟合.喹烯酮为小分子药物, 其分布服从血流限速型, 在肝脏代谢, 从肾脏消除.喹烯酮通过口服进入肠道, 然后经肝脏代谢进入血液循环, 因此设定 5 个房室, 即肝、肾、肌肉、肠和其他组织.经过一系列的计算和调试, 最终建立喹烯酮在草体内5室生理药动模型, 成功拟合连续饲喂药物 60d之后的药物残留消除曲线, 其中肝脏中的预测结果比肾脏和肌肉高, 与实测数据一致.因此, 喹烯酮在鱼体内生理药动模型具有一定的应用价值, 将是药物残留检测的新亮点.%An effective physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model can be used to analogize and extrapolate the in vivo drug concentrations in different administrations and environments, as well as in different species of animals, hence it has become more and more popular in the drug residual prediction in aquatic animals. In order to predict drug residues of quinocetone in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), we established the PB-PK model of quinocetone in this study. We obtained the physiological and anatomical parameters of fish from literatures, and estimated the drug-specific parameters of quinocetone by fitting the existing data. We used the physiological pharmacokinetic soft-ware, asclXtreme, to make the model assumptions, to design the blood flow chart, to generate the mass balance equa-tions and to complete the model fitting. Quinocetone was a small molecule drug, and itsin vivo disposition was blood flow-limited. It was metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidney. Quinocetone entered the intestine through oral administration and

  20. 草鱼线粒体型超氧化物歧化酶的生化遗传特性%Genetic and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜勤; 罗琛

    2004-01-01

    , population genetics, and identification of different strains in the same species. However, the biochemical and genetic features of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase have not been well characterized in fishes. In this study, we investigated the genetic phenotypes and biochemical features of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (fm-SOD) with polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Our data revealed three isoforms of fm-SOD which were named fm-SOD 1, fm-SOD 2 and fm-SOD 3 according to their positions from the positive pole to the negative pole. The combination of three isoforms of fm-SOD constitute three distinct biochemical phenotypes. Phenotype 1 was only associated with the fastest migratory isoform fm-SOD 1 and phenotype 3 with the slowest migratory isoform fm-SOD 3, while phenotype 2 was associated with all three isoforms. In the wild group of grass carp, all three phenotypes were observed, whereas in the mito-gynogenetic group, only phenotypes 1and 3 were observed. The ratio of the three phenotypes in the wild group was consistent with the 1: 2: 1 ratio ofMendelian inheritance for 2 alleles of a single locus in the autosomal chromosomes. These results suggested that: (1) the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene in grass carp resided in chromosomes instead of mitochondrial DNA; (2) mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was encoded by a single locus; (3) there were at least two variant alleles in grass carp and (4) the fm-SOD is composed of two subunits. In addition, the fm-SOD was sensitive to the mixture of 15% ethanol and 25 % chloroform but resistant to H2O2, indicating that the fm-SOD in grass carp is Mn-SOD [ Acta Zoologica Sinica 50(3): 389-394, 2004].

  1. Effect of Chromium on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting GUO; Yuanyuan MA; Peng TIAN; Yan LIU; Lunqiang YUAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of chromium on ox- idative damage and antioxidant capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp). [Method] The grass carps were treated with hexavalent chromium (Cr^6+) solution at concentrations of 0, 7.23, 14.47, 28.94 mg/L, and then the content of malondialde- hyde (MDA), the level of total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and the activity of gtu- tathione-S-transferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas of grass carp were determined after 96 hours in different treatment groups. [Result] The content of MDA presented increasing trend with the increase of exposure Cr^6+ concentrations. The activity of T-AOC increased firstly, then decreased with the increasing Cr^6+ exposure concentra- tions, showing that the level of T-AOC was induced in tow and medium concentrat ions (7.23 and 14.47 mg/L), but inhibited in high concentrations (28.94 mg/L). Among the exposure groups, the level of T-AOC in medium concentration group (14.47 mg/L) was significantly higher than the control (P〈0.05). Except the low concentration groups (7.23 mg/L) of which the GST activity was slightly induced, the GST activities of the other groups all showed downward trend with increasing Cr^6+ levels, and the activity of GST in 28.94 mg/L group was significantly lower than the control group (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Cr^6+ could cause large oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas of grass carp, thus poisoning it, and Cr^6+ may further damage the organizational structure and physiological function of grass carp.

  2. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, Phigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  3. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2014-01-01

    采用RT-PCR方法,以青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼肌肉提取总 RNA 为模板,运用 GenBank中BLAST 同源性搜索,寻找亲缘关系相近的鱼类基因序列,采用Primer5设计简并引物,进行 H2A N-端序列扩增,通过胶回收和连接,然后转化到载体中进行克隆测序,分别获得青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因序列,长为364 bp ,分析发现均属于不稳定蛋白质,等电点为10.48~11.02,平均亲水性为0.179~0.264。序列同源性比对结果显示,青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼同狭孔金线鲃和斑马鱼基因H2A编码蛋白质同源性极高,达到85%以上,与其他物种同源性较低,其中狭孔金线鲃与青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼的亲缘关系比斑马鱼更近,分子系统学分析也支持这一结果。青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼H2A衍生抗菌肽与庸鲽 Hipposin抗菌肽同源性极高,不仅存在碱性氨基酸,还存在酸性氨基酸。组蛋白 H2A N-端可衍生 Hipposin类抗菌肽,均为阳离子α螺旋结构抗菌肽。%Antimicrobial peptide derived from Histone H2A ,one of the chromosome structure protein ,is a cationic antimicrobial peptide showing a potential to substitute antibiotics .The characterization of histone H2A and the derivative antibacterial peptides are important for understanding of the mechanism and antibacterial difference among peptides derived from different H 2A genes in different fish .In this study , RT‐PCR was used to amply the H2A cDNA with the total RNA as the template in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus , grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus , silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp A ristichthys nobilis .The homologous H2A gene sequences were selected in the BLAST in GenBank ,and aligned in software Mega5 . The universal primers were designed in software Primer5 to amplify H2A genes collected and linked with a T‐vector ,and transferred into the

  4. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  5. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning, Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expre-ssion of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用.本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS).该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2 263 bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF) 1 575 bp、5'非编码区(UTR) 118 bp和3' UTR 570 bp.其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59 kD,等电点为7.02.在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3' UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3' UTR AC重复序列相似.序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%.同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357.此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH 结合位点.根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群.采用实时荧光定量PCR (Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征.结果显示,草鱼CAT mRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低.本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础.%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp {Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The gene CA T (GenBank Accession No. FJ560431) was 2 263 base-pairs (bp), including a complete protein coding region (ORF) of 1

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  7. Effects of Different Concentrations of Zinc Ion on Histological Structure of Brain and Hepatopancreas and Hepatopancreatic SOD Activity in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同质量浓度 Zn2+对草鱼脑、肝胰脏组织结构及肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2016-01-01

    T he influences of different concentrations of zinc ion (Zn2+ ) (0 ,9 .52 ,13 .14 ,18 .30 ,25 .02 , and 34 .53 mg/L ) on histological structure of brain and hepatopancreas and superoxide dismutase (SOD ) activity in hepatopancreas were studied in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus with body weight of some 10 g at water temperature of (20 ± 1) ℃ by a hydrostatic test to seek for the accumulation and toxicity mechanism of heavy metals .It was found that the LC50 of Zn2+ to grass carp was 23 .058 mg/L in 24 h , 10 .155 mg/L in 48 h ,and 19 .317 mg/L in 96 h ,with safe concentration of 4 .068 mg/L calculated by for‐mula(48 h LC50 × 0 .3)/(24 h LC50/48 h LC50 )2 and 1 .0155 mg/L estimated by formula 96 h LC50 × 0 .1 .In the early stage of Zn2+ poisoning ,the grass carp exposed to Zn2+ had clustered brain cells with the slightly enlarged nuclei ,and as the time elapsed ,the brain cells aggregated significantly ,and the w hole brain cells were almost filled with the nuclei .The hepatopancreas cells were found to be expansion ,discrete ,nuclear reduction ,a slight overflow of the cytoplasm ,a small number of liver cell cytoplasm overflow ,and residu‐al nuclear material scattered distribution in the grass carp exposed to Zn 2+ ,thus leading to cell necrosis . With the increase in Zn2+ concentration and time ,the activity of SOD in the hepatopanceas of grass carp w as decreased .%水温(20±1)℃,采用静水测试法研究了养殖水体中不同质量浓度Zn2+(0、9.52、13.14、18.30、25.02、34.53 mg/L )对体质量约10 g的草鱼脑和肝胰脏的组织结构及肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响,探讨重金属的毒性积累和毒性机制。试验结果表明,Zn2+对草鱼的24、48 h和96 h半致死质量浓度分别为23.058、19.317、10.155 mg/L ,由公式(48 h LC50×0.3)/(24 h LC50/48 h LC50)2和96 h LC50×0.1计算出安全质量浓度分别为4.068 mg/L和1.0155 mg/L。

  8. 草鱼ghrelin基因的分子克隆与组织分布及其摄食调控作用分析%Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and food intake regulatory effects of ghrelin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 李家乐; 沈玉帮; 傅建军; 王荣泉; 宣云峰

    2012-01-01

    ghrelin是一种在脊椎动物摄食调节过程中起重要作用的脑肠肽,具有明显的摄食促进作用.实验利用同源克隆技术获得了草鱼ghrelin基因的cDNA序列和DNA序列,其中cDNA序列全长506 bp,包括90 bp的5 '端非编码区(5’-untranslated region,5'UTR),312 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),以及104 bp的3’端非编码区(3’-untranslated region,3'UTR).开放阅读框编码的103个氨基酸的ghrelin前体肽,经剪切加工后形成含有19个氨基酸的成熟肽.氨基酸序列分析结果显示,草鱼ghrelin与硬骨鱼类ghrelin相似度最高,而与其他脊椎动物相似度较低,同时草鱼ghrelin成熟肽N端的“活性中心”(active core)为鲤科鱼类中常见的GTSF形式.与大多数硬骨鱼类的ghrelin基因结构相同,草鱼ghrelin基因也包括4个外显子和3个内含子.荧光定量PCR检测到ghrelin mRNA大量分布于草鱼的前肠和脾,脑、肾、肝、肌肉、皮和鳔等组织也有ghrelin mRNA分布.草鱼脑和肠中的ghrelin表达水平在摄食后下降,随着饥饿时间的延长表达水平逐步升高,最后维持在较高水平,表明ghrelin作为摄食启动信号对草鱼的摄食活动起到了促进作用.%Ghrelin is one of vital brain-gut peptides involved in feeding regulation in vertebrates, and is well known for its appetite-stimulating capacity. Nucleotide sequences of ghrelin gene were identified both at DNA and cDNA levels, using homology-based cloning techniques from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The 506 bp full-length ghrelin cDNA consists of a 90 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 312 bp open reading frame and a 104 bp 3'-untranslated region. The 103-amino acid prepropeptide encoded by open reading frame turns into a mature peptide with 19 amino acids after posttranslational modification, putative amino acid sequence analysis among vertebrates indicated that grass carp ghrelin showed the highest sequence homology with teleosts, and lower homology

  9. cDNA cloning and function of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene (Igf-Ir) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼胰岛素样生长因子1受体基因cDNA全序列的克隆及功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春雪; 蒋霞云; 陈杰; 邹曙明

    2014-01-01

    , the IGF-IR mRNA signal was strong in brain, spinal cord, and in rapidly growing regions such as tail-fin tip. Our results provide insight into the IGF-IR signaling pathways and provide a basis for future genetic breeding of grass carp.%本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增法(RACE)克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)IGF-IR基因全长cDNA序列,并对该基因在草鱼不同时期胚胎和成鱼不同组织中的表达进行了分析。序列分析表明,草鱼IGF-IR基因cDNA序列全长5741 bp,包括5′端非翻译区822 bp,3′端非翻译区581 bp,开放阅读框4338 bp,共编码1445个氨基酸。序列比对结果显示,草鱼 IGF-IR 可能属于 a 型,该基因编码的氨基酸序列与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)IGF-IRa、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)IGF-IRa和人类(Homo sapiens)IGF-IR的相似性分别为95%、93%和66%,具有较高的同源性,表明该基因在长期进化中具有较高的保守性。RT-PCR结果表明,该基因从16 hpf(hours post fertilization)胚胎期到出苗期都有表达,在成鱼大部分组织中均有表达。原位杂交结果显示,草鱼IGF-IR mRNA在不同时期胚胎组织中广泛存在,其中在脑部、脊索和尾部等生长旺盛组织的细胞中表达量较高。本研究为进一步探索草鱼IGF-IR基因在生长发育信号通路中的作用和育种提供了基础资料。

  10. Purification and characterization of α2-macroglobulin from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α2巨球蛋白的分离纯化与若干特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤玲; 陆承平

    2004-01-01

    α2-Macroglobulin was purified from grass carp plasma by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000,gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The three steps of the procedure resulted in the purification of grass carp plasma α2 M. The purified product was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under natural conditions and the proteins showed a single band. Meanwhile, it was analyzed by SDS, PAGE under reducing conditions and the proteins showed double bands with molecular weight of about 95 kD and 80 kD. This result demonstrated that grass carp α2M was composed of two distinct subunits. Most properties of grass carp α2M were similar to that of human α2M. Grass carp α2M treated with trypsin produced the fast form of the molecule more mobile in PAGE, but the untreated grass carpR2M had the property of electrophoretically slow-form. α2M was a nonspecific proteinase inhibitors of blood plasma. Inhibition of activity of Aeromonase hydrophilas extracellular proteinase (AhECPase) showed that grass carp α2M could inhibit the proteinases secreted from invading bacteria. Double immudiffusion of α2M demonstrated no cross-antigenicity between grass carp' s and human α2M

  11. 不同加工方式下草鱼鱼糜制品中杂环胺生成与变化的研究%Formation and variation of heterocyclic amines in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)surimi products by different cooking methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪生; 徐琦; 张美琴; 吴瑛; 吴光红

    2014-01-01

    文章研究了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)鱼糜制品在水煮、200℃烘烤和140~200℃油炸条件下杂环胺的变化,并初步探讨了杂环胺形成机制。11种杂环胺的质量分数采用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法进行测定。结果表明杂环胺的种类和生成速率与加工方式有关。水煮方式下仅检出2种杂环胺,第60分钟时总量为1.78μg·kg -1;200℃烘烤方式下检出9种杂环胺,第30分钟时总量为75.78μg·kg -1;200℃油炸方式检出9种杂环胺,第8分钟时总量高达115.11μg·kg -1。在140~200℃油炸温度下杂环胺的质量分数随着油炸时间和温度的增加而显著增大(P ﹤0.05),生成杂环胺的种类也有所增加。%We investigated the effect of different cooking methods on variation of heterocyclic amines in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)surimi products and discussed their formation mechanism. With ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tan-dem mass spectrometry,we detected the contents of 11 kinds of heterocyclic amines. Results reveal that types of heterocyclic amines and their formation rate were related with cooking methods. Only two kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 1. 78 μg·kg - 1 at the 60th minute by boiling method;nine kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 75. 78 μg·kg - 1 at the 30th minute by 200℃ baking method;nine kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 115. 11 μg·kg - 1 at the 8th minute by 200 ℃ frying method. At frying temperature of 100 ~ 200 ℃,the types and contents of heterocyclic amines increased significantly with increase of frying tem-perature and time.

  12. 饲料中氧化鱼油对草鱼生长及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Dietary Oxidizes Fish Oil on Growth and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤; 萧培珍

    2015-01-01

    A 72-day experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized fish oil on growth and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) . Soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil as lipid sources, five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets were formulated with 6%soybean oil (6S group), 6% fish oil (6F group), 2% oxidized fish oil+4% soybean oil (2OF group), 4%oxidized fish oil+2% soybean oil (4OF group) and 6% oxidized fish oil (6OF group), respectively. A total of 350 grass carp with the average body weight of (74.82±1.49) g were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The results showed as follows:compared with 6S group, the spe-cific gain rate ( SGR) of grass carp in 6F, 2OF, 4OF and 6OF groups was decreased by 5.81% to 11.50%, the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) was increased by 8.64% to 17.28%, and the differences were significant ( P<0.05) . The content of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA) was positively correlated ( power function) with the SGR of grass carp. On the contrary, the dietary acid value ( AV) , peroxide value ( POV) and malon-dialdehyde ( MDA) content were negatively correlated ( power function) with SGR of grass carp, and posi-tively correlated ( power function) with FCR. It meant that, a little AV, POV or MDA content in diets could decrease the growth of grass carp, and reduce the utilization rate of protein and the content of muscle PUFA, and disturb the lipid metabolism. With the further increase of dietary AV, POV and MDA content, the influ-ence of dietary AV, POV and MDA content on growth rate and feed efficiency were stabled in the high level. Results indicate that, on one hand the fish oil provides the diatary unsaturated fatty acids, on the other hand the side effects of the oxidized product for growth of grass carp also significantly show. The key to improve the ef-ficiency of grass carp utilize the lipids is to keep suitable

  13. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  14. Effects of Dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%饲料中添加龙须菜对草鱼生长性能、血清生化指标及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 刘永坚; 李雅婷; 陈先权; 曾帅霖; 田丽霞

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth performance, serum biochemical indices and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) , juvenile fish at the average body weight of (15.94±0.10) g were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing graded levels of Gracilaria lemaneiformis [ 0 ( control group ) , 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively ] for 8 weeks. Each diet fed four water tanks and each tank had 30 fish. The results showed as follows:1) there were no significant differences in weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth ratio ( SGR) , survival rate ( SR) and feed efficiency ( FE) of fish fed diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis ( P>0.05) . 2) Hepato-somatic index ( HSI) of fish in experimental groups was higher than that in control group, and the differences were significant except 5% supplementation group ( P0.05), however, there were significant differences in the contents of ash and crude lipid in whole body, crude lipid in liver and moisture in muscle ( P0.05). 5) Fatty acid composition in muscle of grass carp was affected by diets with different proportions of Gracilaria lemane-iformis. Diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis could significantly affect the contents of fatty acids except C14∶1, C20∶0 and C20∶2 in muscle ( P0.05)。2)各试验组的肝体指数( HSI)均高于对照组,对照组与除5%添加组外的其他试验组的差异均达到显著水平( P0.05),而饲料中不同添加比例龙须菜对全鱼粗灰分与粗脂肪、肝脏粗脂肪及肌肉水分含量有显著影响(P0.05)。5)饲料中龙须菜添加比例影响了草鱼肌肉脂肪酸的组成,除C14∶1、C20∶0、C20∶2外,其他肌肉脂肪酸的含量均受到饲料中龙须菜的添加比例的显著影响(P<0.05),其中肌肉多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)含量及n-3/n-6 PUFA均在3%添加组获得最高值。1%、2%

  15. EFFECTS OF MDA ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEPATOPANCREAS AND INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料丙二醛对草鱼生长、肝胰脏及肠道结构和功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 周亚琴; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated effects of MDA on the growth performance, structure and function of hepatopancreas and intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and evaluated effects between MDA and other products of oxi-dized fish oil. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were prepared with soybean oil, fish oil and different level of MDA for a 72-day experiment. The results indicated that MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both signifi-cantly increased the FCR of grass carp and decreased the SGR and PRR of grass carp (P<0.05). Only MDA signifi-cantly decreased the LRR (P<0.05). Moreover, MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly de-creased the TBA content in serum (P<0.05), and increased the content of TC, TG and MDA and the activity of SOD in serum (P<0.05). Only MDA significantly increased ALT content and decreased the radio between HDL and LDL in serum (P<0.05). MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly increased the lipid content of hepato-pancreas (P<0.05) and stimulated the oxidative stress of hepatopancreas. MDA damaged the morphology in hepatopan-creas cell and significantly decreased the number of nucleus of hepatopancreas cell (P<0.05), which lead to the obvi-ously trend of fibrosis of the hepatopancreas cell. MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly in-creased the number of goblet cells in the microvilli (P<0.05). To the permeability, serum D-lactic acid and endotoxin significantly increased because of the defect of the tight junction, the hyperplasia and edema of villi. In conclusion, MDA decrease the growth performance of grass carp by regulating the oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil affect the hepatopancreas with different mechanism. Both MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil can mediate the function of intestine.%为了探讨丙二醛(MDA)对草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus (74.82±1.49) g生长、肝胰脏及肠道

  16. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) PRKRIP1, A NEW IMMUNE RELATED GENE%草鱼免疫相关基因Prkrip1的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董锋; 廖兰杰; 朱作言; 汪亚平

    2013-01-01

    With the expansion of the scale of grass carp, the viral disease of grass carp greatly affeated the yield of grass carp. To carry out fish virus immune response-related functional genes research, Partial cDNA sequence of Prkrip1 in grass carp was isolated from head kidney cDNA library by the method of homology cloning. The full length cDNA of grass carp Prkrip1 was obtained by means of 3′RACE and 5′RACE, respectively. The full length cDNA of grass carp Prkrip1 was 1057 bp, consisting of a 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 39 bp, a 3′-terminal UTR of 472 bp, and an open reading frame of 546 bp. Sequence alignment showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of grass carp Prkrip1 had an overall similarity of 69%-87% to that of other species homologues. Amino acid sequence analysis in-dicated the existence of three nuclear localization signals, a dsRNA binding region and an N-terminal conserved region as binding element of PKR. Then we used PCR to obtain a genomic DNA which covers the entire coding region of grass carp Prkrip1. In the 8.5 k-long genomic sequence, six exons and five introns were identified. The promoter re-gion-driven GFP eukaryotic expression plasmid was constructed. Expression of the GFP reporter gene confirmed the promoter cloned in this study was active, could be used for the analysis of the transcriptional regulation. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that grass carp Prkrip1 was expressed predominantly in liver and PBL, medium in gill, spleen, intestine, skin, brain, muscle, kidney and lower in head kidney. Whereas under GCRV-infection condition, the expres-sion of Prkrip1 gene was significantly up-regulated in most immune-related tissues in a time-dependent manner, in which Prkrip1 expression was increased to the highest value in four days post-infection, and then began to decline five days post-infection. In the fourth day, the two tissues with the highest expression level were intestine and liver, and higher expression in the spleen

  17. 草鱼中国土著群体与欧美日移居群体遗传差异的线粒体序列分析%GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) GENETIC STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AMONG NATIVE POPULATIONS IN CHINA AND INTRODUCED POPULATIONS IN USA, EUROPE AND JAPAN BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL SEQUENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓; 李思发; 王成辉; 徐嘉伟; 杨琴玲

    2009-01-01

    草鱼是中国的土著鱼类,自20世纪60年代以来已被移居到100多个国家和地区,主要用来控制水草或水产养殖.本研究通过线粒体D-Loop区(764bp)和COII+tRNA基因(719bp)序列分析,了解草鱼的中国土著群体(长江、珠江、黑龙江)和国外移居群体(匈牙利多瑙河、美国密西西比河、日本利根川河)之间以及各地方群体间的遗传差异.结果表明,中国土著草鱼群体的遗传变异高于国外移居群体;分子方差分析(AMOVA)表明,不同草鱼群体的遗传变异主要来自群体内,而不同地域间的差异极少;群体两两间Fst值比较表明,大多数群体之间遗传差异极显著;由TCS构建的单倍型网络结构图显示,长江草鱼群体是最原始的群体,其他水系草鱼均由长江群体演化而来;通过基因流分析发现,匈牙利多瑙河群体和日本利根川河群体来自长江和黑龙江群体,美国密西西比河群体除引自长江、黑龙江水系外,还有部分引自于珠江水系.%Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater species in aquaculture. Meanwhile, the grass carp is originally distributes in China, and then it has been introduced into more than 100 countries for aquatic weed control and aquaculture since 1960s. In the past five decades, the grass carps have been adapted to the local environment and developed local groups. However, the genetic variation among the grass carps in native and introduced regions, as well the genetic phylogeny, is not clear. Meanwhile, there is no available literature to clarify which river systems in China are the most likely origins of colonized populations in introduced regions. In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial D-Loop (764bp), COII + tRNA (719bp) were analyzed from native (the Yangtze, Amur and Pearl Rivers in China) and introduced (the Danube River in Hungary, the Mississippi River in USA and the Tonegawa River in Japan) populations of the

  18. Application of Natural Deodorant and Preservative in the Preservation of Fresh Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%天然复合脱腥保鲜液对草鱼的脱腥保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 茅林春

    2009-01-01

    研究比较了黄酒、姜葱蒜以及姜葱蒜-黄酒复合脱腥保鲜液对于新鲜草鱼鱼肉的脱腥效果,并选用脱腥效果最好的姜葱蒜-黄酒复合脱腥保鲜液应用于新鲜草鱼鱼肉的保鲜.通过测定货架期草鱼鱼肉的pH值、挥发性盐基总氮、TBA值、菌落总数以及感官评定,研究了脱腥保鲜液对于草鱼鱼肉货架期品质的影响.结果表明,该复合脱腥保鲜液能够有效地保持鱼肉的货架期品质,延缓鱼肉pH值、TVBN值、TBA值以及菌落总数的升高.%Deodorant effect of yellow wine,aqueous extraction of ginger,onion and garlic and yellow wine together with extraction of ginger,onion and garlic were compared in fresh grass carp deodorization,and the most effective deodorant,yellow wine together with extraction of ginger,onion and garlic was used to keep the preservation quality of grass carp fillets. The effects on preservation quality were determined by biochemical (pH,total volatile basic nitrogen,thiobarbituric acid),microbiological (total bacterial count) and sensory determinations during storage at 4℃. The extraction exhibited a beneficial effect on inhibiting lipid oxidation and bacterial growth in the fillets. Increases of pH,total volatile basic nitrogen,thiobarbituric acid and total bacterial count in fillets during storage were significantly reduced by the extraction.

  19. 草鱼肝脏GPT酶的动力学特征及对Nic的敏感性研究%Study on the kinetics characteristics of GPT from Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and its sensitivity to Niclosamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进英; 王新石; 李文新

    2011-01-01

    The supernatant fluid of liver homogenate of Grass carp was used as enzyme solution.L25 (56)orthogonal matrix and spectrophotometric method was adopted to determine the optimal reaction system of the enzyme solution and its sensitivity to Niclosamide.The results is enzyme concentration 0.1 mg/mL、 α-ketoglutaric acid concentration 3 μmol/ml、pH value of the reaction system 8.5、reaction temperature 50℃、 reaction time 70min.It showed that the effect of enzyme concentration anda-ketoglutaric acid concentration to the activity of GPT is extremely significant(p<0.01)and the effect of temperature and time is significant(p<0.05).Under the optimal conditions, the inhibition ratio of GPT activity were 23.08、26.56、26.40、31.13and 35.95% respectively after be treated with series concentrations of Nic( 0.25、0.5、1.0、2.0 and 4.0 mg/L )by lh in vitro.There was a significant liner regression between the concentration of Nic and GPT inhibition ratio(R2= 0.9479).Preliminary presumption showed that GPT in the liver of Grass carp is one target of biochemical toxicity which was caused by Nic.%以草鱼肝脏匀浆上清液为GPT酶液,用L25(56)正交和分光光度法,测试其催化反应的最适条件及对Nic的敏感性.试验表明:在酶液浓度0.1 mg/mL、α-酮戊二酸3μmol/mL、反应体系pH8.5、反应温度50℃及反应时间70 min时,GPT转氨基速率达到最大值,其中酶浓度和底物对其活力影响均达到极显著水平(p<0.01),pH值和温度对其活力影响达到显著水平(p<0.05);在GPT反应最适条件下测得,0.25、0.5、1.0、2.0及4.0 mg/L的Nic与GPT共存1 h,其活性抑制率分别为23.08、26.56、26.40、31.13及35.95%,Nic浓度与GPT活性抑制呈良好的线性关系(R2=0.9479).初步推定草鱼肝脏GPT是Nic致其死亡的生化靶点.

  20. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤

    2014-01-01

    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  1. 草鱼鱼鳞胶原蛋白的提取及其部分生物学性能%Isolation and partial biological properties of scale collagens from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海波; 梁艳萍; 汪海婴; 周坚; 张寒俊

    2012-01-01

    以草鱼鱼鳞为原料,分别提取鱼鳞中的酸溶性胶原蛋白(ASC)和酶溶性胶原蛋白(PSC),着重开展了其包括热稳定性、体外酶降解性以及胶原海绵材料特性在内的相关研究,并与哺乳动物来源的猪皮胶原(PC)相比较.实验结果表明,制备所得的3种胶原蛋白均为典型的Ⅰ型胶原并具有完整的三螺旋结构;PC的热变性温度(41.6℃)明显高于ASC(34.8℃)和PSC(35.2℃);3种胶原蛋白的体外酶降解性能受水解酶的种类、胶原蛋白提取方法、胶原蛋白来源、胶原蛋白受热历史以及蛋白的自组装程度影响.胶原蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶对淡水鱼胶原均具有不同程度的降解能力,但胶原蛋白酶的降解能力最强;相同条件下,3种胶原蛋白体外酶降解率依次为ASC>PSC>PC;经热变性处理后胶原蛋白的体外酶降解率明显提高而经体外自组装处理后其体外酶降解率均出现不同程度的降低;3种胶原样品冻干后得到的胶原海绵材料具有不同的机械性能和组织结构,ASC和PSC海绵是一种多孔但拉伸承受力较弱的海绵材料,而PC则与之相反.%In this study, the acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) were extracted from scale of grass carp by the methods of acid and acid-pepsin. The partial biological properties of these collagens were researched and compared with pig skin collagen (PC). Experiment results indicate that the ASC, PSC and PC were type I collagen and the triple helical structure in the three collagen samples. The thermal transition temperature of PC(41.6 ℃) was obviously higher than that of ASC(34.8 ℃) and PSC(35.2 ℃). The in vitro enzyme degradation properties of collagens were influenced by many factors, such as the enzyme variety, the isolation methods of collagen, the collagen sources, the thermal treatment and self-assembly degree of collagens. PSC can be degraded by collagenase, trypsin and papain

  2. Effects of Freshwater Mussels Hyriopsis cumingii on Plankton Community Structure in an Intensive Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus Pond%河蚌对草鱼混养精养池塘中浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗林; 郑曙明; 王广军; 赵峥

    2015-01-01

    Twenty thousand 1 year old freshwater mussel H yriopsis cumingii was stocked into 2 grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (with body weight of 50 g) ponds of each 0 .8 hm2 and water depth of 1 .8 m at stocking density of 12 000 per pond polycultured with silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with body weight of 24—100 g at stocking density of 500 individuals per pond and bighead carp A ristichthys no-bilis with body weight of 150 g at stocking density of 100 individuals per pond ,2 same size and stocking ponds without freshwater mussel as control ponds .The species and biomass of phytoplankton were deter-mined in the ponds in a 24 day interval to look insight on effects of freshwater mussel on phytoplankton community structure .The results showed that there were the phytoplankton of 94 species ,48 genera ,6 phyla in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,while 91 species ,42 genera ,6 phyla were observed in the con-trol ponds ,with the dominant species accounting for 47 .8% in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,and 41.8% in the control ponds ,with Cyclotella and Synedra in Bacillariophyta ,besides Chlorella ,Scenedes-mus and Closterium in Chlorophyta .The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton was found from 1.24 to 1 .41 in the fish mussel polyculture ponds and from 1 .26 to 1 .36 in the control ponds .The density of the phytoplankton were varied from 539 .23 × 104ind/L to 1289 .53 × 104ind/L in the fish-mussel polycul-ture ponds and from 669 .57 × 104 ind/L to 1608 .50 × 104 ind/L in the control ponds ,with the biomass of 6 .68—12 .47 mg/L in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds and 8 .40—18 .62 mg/L in the control ponds .The growth and reproduction of phytoplankton was to some extent restrained in the fish mussel plyculture ponds ,indicating that fish- mussel polyculture can change phytoplankton community structure ,and en-hance the ability to automatically adjust the water ,and more conducive to aquaculture .%试验池塘4口 ,每口面积0 .8 hm2

  3. Cloning and Expression of PKR Gene of Ctenopharyngodon idellus Induced by PolyI:C in vitro%PolyI:C体外诱导草鱼PKR基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景芬; 刘莉; 曹访

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at cloning PKR gene from Ctenopharyngodon idellus induced by PolyI:C in vitro,so as to provide foundation for study on the anti-virus genes of C.idellus.[Method] By referring to the PKR gene sequences of zebra fish(AJ852023.1) and Carassius auratus(AY293929.1) in Genbank,three pairs of degenerate primers were designed with Primer Premier 5.0 software;in vitro C.idellus kidney cells(CIK) were treated with 100 μg/ml of Poly I:C for 12,36 and 48 h,and then total RNA of the cells treated was extracted for amplifying the PKR gene by RT-PCR.[Result] The PKR gene was amplified from the cells treated with Poly I:C for 36 and 48 h,but not from the cells treated for 12 h;in addition,the expression level increased with the processing time.Part of the amplified sequence of C.idellus shared the homology of 100% and 81.48% with the sequences of carp and zebra fish separately.[Conclusion] Part of the PKR gene sequence was cloned successfully from C.idellus.Moreover,we have proved that PolyI:C induction is effective for PKR protein expression,which will provide reference for treating viral diseases of C.idellus.%[目的]克隆草鱼的PKR基因,为草鱼抗病毒基因研究奠定基础。[方法]依据GenBank上斑马鱼(AJ852023.1)和鲫鱼(AY293929.1)的PKR基因序列,利用Primer Premier 5.0软件设计了3对简并引物; 采用100μg/ml PolyI:C体外分别处理草鱼肾细胞(Ctenopharyngodon indellus kidney cells,CIK)12、36、48h,并提取处理后细胞的总RNA,逆转录后用降落PCR方法扩增这3个处理时间细胞中 PKR 基因。[结果]处理12h时未扩增出PKR基因,处理36和48h时都扩增到了PKR基因,并且表达量随处理时间的增加有所升高,扩增到的部分序列与鲫鱼和斑马鱼的该段序列同源性分别为100.00%和81.48%。[结论]试验成功获得了草鱼PKR基因的部分序列,PolyI:C高效诱导草鱼PKR蛋白表达将有助于开创治疗草鱼类病毒病的一种新思路。

  4. 鲩鱼脂肪酸的组成及其含量的GC—MS分析%Composing of Fatty Acid of Ctenopharyngodon idellus by GC -MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小霞; 张明辉; 谢俊刚

    2012-01-01

    The composition and contents of fatty acid in Ctenopharyngodon idellus were determined by GC - MS. The fatty acid was extracted by benzene and methyl - esterified by acid and alkali combination method. The relative contents of each composition were determined by area normalization based on the total ion chromatography. Results showed that 26 kinds of fatty acids were in the Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the contents of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid in Ctenopharyngodon idellus were 38.46% and 61.54% , respectively. The main fatty acids were linoleic acid 31.83%, o- leic acid 29.89% , and palm acid 11.36%.%采用气相色谱-质谱法分析了鲩鱼中脂肪酸的化学组成及各成分的含量。鲩鱼中的脂肪经石油醚提取、酸碱结合法甲酯化、GC—MS测定、总离子流图峰面积归一化法测定各组分相对含量。鲩鱼中检出26种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸含量为38.46%,不饱和脂肪酸61.54%。,含量较高的脂肪酸是亚麻油酸31.83%,油酸29.89%,棕榈油酸11.36%。

  5. Molecular cloning and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class I genes from grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chun; XU Guangxian; LIN Changyou; HU Tuanjun; YAN Ruoqian; George F GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the molecular sequences,allelic polymorphism and the tertiary structure of grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus) MHC class I,and to further study their relationship with disease resistances,grass carp MHC class I gene (Ctid-MHC I) was cloned from a cDNA library and the allelic polymorphism in the population was investigated.The results showed that most of the variations exist in the peptide-binding domain (PBD) and high polymorphism was identified in the Ctid-MHC I allelic genes from 12 individuals.Based on the genetic distance,Ctid-MHC class I can be classified into 6 types (from Ctid-MHC I-UA to Ctid-MHC I-UF) which were subdivided into 9 lineages (from A to I).Comparison of the Ctid-MHC I among animals and humans showed that the key amino acids of the peptide binding sites are conserved.Analysis of the tertiary structure of the PBD between Grass carp and human crystallographic data of HLA-A2,the variation with insertion or deletion was found in eight regions (A~H).The phylogenetic tree of MHC class I indicates the evolution of MHC class I among grass carp,fish,amphibian,birds,higher vertebrates and humans.

  6. Protective roles of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx isoforms against grass carp reovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myxovirus resistance (Mx proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3 were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%, and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN

  7. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  8. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Li, Ling; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ai-Xuan; Cai, Wen-Jing; He, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ya-ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Xiao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass carp exhibits food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory during development. However, currently little is known about the ...

  10. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  11. Storage of unfertilized eggs of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in artificial media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Safarzadenia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of artificial storage media, temperature and holding duration on the percentage of eyed embryos, hatching and malformed larvae of grass carp eggs, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Grass carp ova, outside the ovary cavity, were stored in GCACF (Grass Carp Artificial Coelomic Fluid and Dettlaff extender at 4°C and 20°C for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. GCACF medium was made base on composition of grass carp coelomic fluid. For this work and designing the GCACF medium, ova were collected from ten females and they were filtered and coelomic fluid was separated for chemical composition analysis. This study was done with 16 treatments and one control group in three replicates. The results shown that storage duration and artificial media had significant effects on eyed embryos rate and hatching percentage (P0.05. Also, temperature had significant effects on the percentage of eyed embryos and hatching (P0.05. Eyed embryo and hatching rates decreased with increasing storage duration. Highest eyed embryo and hatching rate between treatments were observed in GCACF, 30 min storage and 4°C and lowest of them were observed in Dettlaff extender at 20°C and 180 min storage.

  12. Cloning and analysis of 5' flanking sequence of α-amylase gene from Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α-淀粉酶基因5'侧翼序列克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书礼; 李新辉; 杨计平; 李跃飞; 李捷; 帅方敏; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    应用PCR和Genome Walking技术克隆获得长度为168 bp的草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)α-淀粉酶基因外显子Ⅰ序列和2063 bp的5'侧翼序列。将草鱼α-淀粉酶基因外显子Ⅰ序列与已知几种鱼类α-淀粉酶基因外显子Ⅰ序列比对,相似度为68%~86%。将草鱼α-淀粉酶基因5'侧翼序列进行生物信息学分析,确定了其转录起始区域及转录起始位点( TSS);在TSS上游30 bp处有1个TATA-box,-58 bp处有CCAAT-box;在5'侧翼序列中还发现有GATA-1、OCT-1、GR、HNF-3、AP1和SP1等转录因子结合位点。草鱼α-淀粉酶基因5'侧翼序列的克隆,为进一步研究不同食性鱼类α-淀粉酶基因侧翼序列的差异、鱼类α-淀粉酶基因的表达、功能及调控机理奠定基础。%PCR and Genome Walking methods were applied to obtain a 168 bpα-amylase gene exon Ⅰ sequence and a 2 063 bp α-amylase gene 5'flanking sequence from grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The sequence alignment of α-amylase gene exon Ⅰbetween grass carp and other fishes showed that the similarity was 68% ~86%. The sequence analysis of α-amylase gene 5' flanking sequence of grass carp confirmed a transcription initiation region and a transcriptional start site( TSS). There were a TATA-box at 30 bp and a CAAT-box at -58 bp. There were some transcriptional factor binding sites in theα-amylase gene 5'flanking sequence,such as GATA-1,OCT-1,GR,HNF-3,AP1 and SP1. The α-amylase gene 5' flanking sequence of grass carp was cloned successfully, which provides references for studies on differences ofα-amylase gene 5'flanking sequence between different feeding fishes,as well as on the expression,function and regulation mechanism of α-amylase gene in fishes.

  13. Effects of Feeding Broad Bean and Dehulling Broad Bean Diets on Growth Performance, Muscle Quality and Blood Physiological-Biochemical Indices of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛盼; 胡毅; 郇志利; 黄云; 余建波; 肖调义

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响。试验选取初始体重为(860±40) g的草鱼450尾,随机分为3组,分别为对照组、蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组,每组设置3个重复,每个重复放养50尾草鱼。对照饲料参考草鱼商品饲料配方配制,蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料分别用蚕豆和去皮蚕豆部分替代对照饲料中的豆粕、菜籽粕及棉籽粕,蚕豆和去皮蚕豆的用量均为80%。试验期为20周。结果表明:与对照组相比,蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组草鱼的增重率和饲料系数无显著变化(P>0.05),但脏体指数和肝体指数显著降低(P0 . 05 ) , but the viscerosomtic index and hepato-somatic index were significantly reduced ( P <0 . 05 ) . Feeding BB and DBB diets significantly increased the number of red blood cells and white blood cells, the contents of serum glucose, total cholesterol and urea nitro-gen and the activity of serum glutamic-oxal(o)acetic transaminase (P<0. 05), but significantly reduced the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group, the muscle moisture content and water loss rate in BB and DBB groups were significantly decreased ( P<0 . 05 ) , but the crude lipid content was significantly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) , the myofibril length and muscular fiber diameter were signifi-cantly raised ( P<0 . 05 ) , and the contents of delicious amino acids and essential amino acids were significant-ly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) . The results indicate that feeding BB and DBB diets have no negative effects on the growth performance, but all can change the muscle quality of grass carp, and there is no necessary association between the change of muscle quality and broad bean skin.

  14. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, Y-P; He, S; Liang, X-F; Tao, Y-X

    2017-04-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis further indicated ciMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4Rs. Using reverse transcription PCR, we found that mc4r messenger RNA was expressed in the brain as well as various peripheral tissues in grass carp. The pharmacological properties of ciMC4R were investigated using 4 agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-MSH (NDP-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We showed that all 4 ligands could bind to ciMC4R and initiate dose-dependent intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Grass carp MC4R had the highest affinity for NDP-MSH. Both NDP-MSH and ACTH (1-24) exhibited higher potencies compared to the other 2 endogenous agonists. The ciMC4R was constitutively active, with significantly increased basal cAMP level compared with that of human MC4R (P < 0.01). The availability of ciMC4R and its pharmacologic characteristics provide a basis for future investigation of its functional roles in regulating diverse physiological processes and novel insights into understanding the mechanism of food habit transition in grass carp.

  15. Malondialdehyde Causes Glutathione/Glutathione Transferase Pathway Oxidative Stress in Intestine and Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%丙二醛引起草鱼肠道、肝胰脏谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶通路抗氧化应激

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀秀; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 陈科全; 徐登辉; 彭侃; 罗其刚

    2015-01-01

    为了研究丙二醛( MDA )对草鱼肠道、肝胰脏抗氧化防御能力的影响,以谷胱甘肽(GSH)/谷胱甘肽转移酶(GSTs)通路为研究对象,选择初始体重(74.8±1.0) g的草鱼(Cteno-pharyngodon idelluspond) ,随机分为4组,每组设3个重复,每个重复20尾. 4组草鱼分别投喂基础饲料(对照组)以及在基础饲料中添加61 ( B1 组)、124 ( B2 组)、185 mg/kg ( B3 组) MDA的试验饲料,在池塘网箱养殖72 d后,测定肠道、肝胰脏和血清中MDA和GSH含量,采用荧光定量PCR( qRT-PCR)方法测定草鱼肠道、肝胰脏GSH/GSTs通路中谷氨酸-半胱氨酸连接酶催化亚基( GCLC)、谷胱甘肽还原酶( GSR)、pi-谷胱甘肽硫转移酶( GSTpi)、微粒体谷胱甘肽硫转移酶1( MGSt1)基因表达量. 结果显示:1)与对照组相比,除B3组肝胰脏MDA含量显著升高( P0.05);各试验组血清MDA含量均显著升高(P0.05);B1、B2组血清GSH含量显著升高( P0.05);B2、B3组肠道及B3组肝胰脏GSTpi表达量显著上调( P0.05); serum MDA content of all experimental groups were significantly higher than that in control group ( P0.05);compared with control group, serum GSH content of B1 and B2 groups was signifi-cantly increased ( P0.05);the expression level of GSTpi was significantly up-regulated in intestine of B2 and B3 groups and in hepatopancreas of B3 group( P<0.05); the expression level of MGST1 was significantly up-regulated in intestine of B3 group ( P<0.05); the expression level of MGST1 was significantly down-regulated in hepatopancreas of all experimental groups ( P<0.05) . The results show that MDA causes GSH/GSTs pathway oxidative stress in intestine and hepatopancreas of grass carp and impacts of MDA have some differences in intestine and hepatopancreas.

  16. An Experiment Study on the Energy Budget and Conversion Efficiency of Ecosystem in Ployculture of Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼混养生态系统能量收支的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋颀; 田相利; 董双林; 王芳; 张振东

    2011-01-01

    采用陆基围隔实验法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鲢鱼(Hypophythalmichthys molitrix)和鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)不同混养系统的能量收支和转化效率进行了研究.实验共设置7个处理组,分别为草鱼单养(G)、草鱼和鲢鱼二元混养(GS)、草鱼和鲤鱼二元混养(GC)以及草鱼、鲢鱼和鲤鱼按照不同比例放养的三元混养(GSC1、GSC2、GSC3和GSC4).研究结果表明,实验期间各系统接收的总太阳辐射能为4970 MJ·m-2;光能利用率在0.25%~0.33%之间,各处理组之间差异显著(P<0.05);光合能转化效率以草鱼单养组最低,且与GS、GSC2、GSC3和GSC4处理组之间差异显著(P<0.05);各混养组与草鱼单养组相比,总能量转化效率分别提高了43.51%、11.62%、30.16%、64.30%、38.49%和61.90%,其中,以GSC2为最高,GSC4次之;单位净产量耗饲料能以单养草鱼组最高,显著高于GS、GSC2和GSC4处理组(P<0.05);各处理组沉积能量在3.42~17.73MJ·m-2之间,各处理组间差异显著(P<0.05),各组沉积能量占总投入能量的比例分别为30.92%、12.18%、39.08%、29.43%、28.90%、28.87%和29.80%.本研究结果表明,不同食性鱼类混养系统能够提高光合能转化效率和总能量利用率,降低沉积能量,从而有效提高系统对输入能量的利用效率.%The energy budget and conversion efficiency of different ecosystems, in which Ctenopharyng odon idellus, Hypophythalmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were cultured in different mono- and poly-culture treatments, were studied in land-based enclosures. There were seven treatments; grass carp treatment (G); grass carp and silver carp treatment (GS); grass carp and common carp treatment (GC) and four treatments stocked grass carp, silver carp and common carp with different proportion (GSC1, GSC2, GSC3, GSC4). The results indicated that the solar radiation energy during the experiment was 4970 MJ m~2. The solar energy

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED IN AN OUTBREAK ON BACTERIAL DISEASE OF CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS%草鱼的一种急性细菌性传染病病原的分离鉴定及致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 郭慧芝; 焦冉; 张书环; 刘志新; 姚卫建; 聂品

    2011-01-01

    草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的细菌性疾病是草鱼人工养殖过程中经常出现的疾病.文章对河南一草鱼养殖场2009 年8 月出现的暴发性细菌性传染病进行了研究.该渔场饲养的草鱼成鱼和鱼苗出现了体表溃烂、局部出血,肠系膜充血、出血,腹腔积水等症状,并大量死亡.从濒死草鱼的内脏中分离到3 株细菌,经形态学、生理生化特性及16S rDNA 序列分析,鉴定为霍乱弧菌(Vibrio cholerae)、嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonashydrophila)和柱状黄杆菌(Flavobacterium columnare).其中,从患病鱼苗体内分离到霍乱弧菌; 从成鱼分离到嗜水气单胞菌和柱状黄杆菌.回归试验证明3 株细菌均能使草鱼致死,其中霍乱弧菌和嗜水气单胞菌对草鱼的半数致死量(LD50)分别是0.15×104 cfu/g 和0.96×103 cfu/g.从草鱼中分离到致病性霍乱弧菌是首次报道.药敏试验表明,在所试的17 种抗生素中,霍乱弧菌仅对利福平、左旋氧氟沙星、链霉素、奥复星、庆大霉素等5 种抗生素敏感; 嗜水气单胞菌仅对菌必治、奥复星、庆大霉素等3 种抗生素敏感; 而柱状黄杆菌则对其中的氨苄青霉素、利福平、左旋氧氟沙星等10 种抗生素均敏感.%The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is very important in aquaculture in China. However, the grass carp is often infected with bacterial diseases, resulting in huge economic losses in recent years. This paper reported an acute haemorrhagic disease of Ctenopharyngodon idellus in Henan Province, China. The typical symptoms of the disease included decay of dorsal and caudal fins, congestion and hemorrhage in skin, muscle and intestine and ascites.The aim of this research was to isolate the pathogens of bacterial haemorrhagic disease in grass carp and to determine their LD50 in grass carp, and also to identify the sensitivity to antibiotics. The pathogen were isolated from gill, liver, spleen, kidney and ascites of infected grass

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  19. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  20. Manganese deficiency or excess caused the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier, as regulated by NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling, in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Tang, Ren-Jun; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune components and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) under dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency or excess were investigated. Fish were fed the diets containing graded levels of Mn [3.65-27.86 mg Mn kg(-1) diet] for 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that Mn deficiency significantly decreased the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, up-regulated tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 8 and the signalling factor nuclear factor-κB p65, and down-regulated interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor of signalling factors κB-α and target of rapamycin mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI). However, Mn deficiency did not change the C3 content in the PI, whereas it decreased the C3 contents in the MI and DI. Additionally, Mn depletion also resulted in significantly low mRNA levels for tight junction proteins (claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-15, occludin and zonula occludens-1), antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, GPx and CAT) and NF-E2-related factor-2 in the intestines of fish. Excessive Mn exhibited toxic effects similar to Mn deficiency, where optimal Mn contents reversed those indicators. In conclusion, Mn deficiency or excess causes the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier relating to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling in grass carp. Furthermore, quadratic regression analysis at 95% maximum response of lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities in the distal intestine of young grass carp revealed the optimum dietary Mn levels to be 8.90 and 8.99 mg kg(-1) diet, respectively.

  1. Induction of diploid gynogenesis in Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) using UV-irradiated grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fopp-Bayat, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the first successful induction of meiotic gynogenesis in Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) using heterologous sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with DNA inactivated by means of UV-irradiation at 4800 J/m(2). The cold shock at 6 degrees C (duration of 20 min) started in the nineth minute after fertilization was found as efficient in retaining the second polar body and producing meiotic diploids. Successful induction of meiotic gynogenesis was confirmed by the microsatellite DNA analysis, which revealed only maternal inheritance in gynogenetic offspring. Ploidy of gynogenetic offspring was verified by the application of active nucleoli counting analysis.

  2. A one-step molecular biology method for simple and rapid detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) primers designed against conserved regions of segment 6 (s6) gene were used for the detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 subtype. The entire amplification could be completed within 40 min at 62...

  3. 木糖-草鱼肽美拉德反应产物的抗氧化性%Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products derived from xylose and ctenopharyngodon idellus peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵谋明; 刘洋; 张佳男; 吴长平; 苏国万

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative deterioration of oil and protein is a common problem in the food industry, which led to trending studies of safe antioxidants with strong antioxidant activity. Ctenopharyngodon Idellus is a commercial fish, which is rich in proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and is widely distributed in fresh-water throughout China,. In recent years, the Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was prepared as condiment or nourishment, however, further studies are limited. In this study, Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was hydrolyzed by three proteases (papain, PTN6.0, and Alcalase2.4 L), and the hydrolysate was isolated at two fractions of molecular weight above and below 5 kD by ultrafiltration. The fraction below 5 kD (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide) was heated with or without xylose at 100℃for different times (30 min to 240 min). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, UV absorption, and volatile components of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and thermal degradation products (TDPs) with different reaction times were evaluated, respectively. This study focuses on the effects of Maillard reaction on the antioxidant activity and the volatile components from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide and its derivatives. The correlation between reaction products, volatile components, and their antioxidant activity were also analyzed. Results revealed that the browning intensity and UV absorption of the intermediate products of MRPs were much higher than those of TDPs. Antioxidant activity of MRPs increased with increasing heat time, while TDPs had no obvious change. In addition, MRPs showed better antioxidant activity. Reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of MRPs for 240 min was 17.77 and 3.32 times than those untreated. 51 kinds of volatile compounds were separated and identified from MRPs; among them, pyrazines, furans, pyrroles, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols had relatively high concentration. Whereas, aldehydes were the largest content of volatile

  4. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain(MyHC)from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武英; 符贵红; 宾石玉; 蒙涛; 周瑞雪; 成嘉; 赵发兰; 张红芳; 张建社

    2010-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain(MyHC)is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle.We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp,including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%–76%homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish,walleye pollack,white croaker,chum salmon,and carp.The putative sequenc...

  5. Safety Concentration Assessment and Acute Toxicity of Tetrachloroethylene to Ctenopharyngodon Idellus%四氯乙烯对草鱼的急性毒性及其安全浓度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史济月; 王桂燕; 王洋; 王国清; 张换东; 周启星

    2007-01-01

    采用环境毒理学方法中的半静水实验考察了四氯乙烯对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的24、48、72、96h的半数致死浓度(LC50).其目的在于评价水环境中四氯乙烯对鱼类的影响,为制定渔业水质标准提供参考数据.结果表明四氯乙烯对草鱼的毒性为高毒,四氯乙烯对草鱼24、48、72、96h的LC50及其95%的置信区间分别为43.28(41.43~45.21)、40.98(39.34~42.69)、39.60(38.20~41.06)、37.71(36.66~38.79)mg/L,其安全浓度为0.377 mg/L.

  6. Efeito do gelo clorado sobre parâmetros químicos e microbiológicos da carne de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella Effect of chlorinated ice on chemical and microbiological features of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scherer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A rápida perecibilidade dos peixes provoca perdas na industrialização e comercialização desse alimento. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência da utilização de gelo clorado para ampliar a vida-de-prateleira de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram realizadas contagens de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos na carne, e determinada a concentração de bases voláteis totais e o pH da carne de carpas armazenadas inteiras, sob refrigeração (3±1ºC, cobertas com gelo sem cloro ou clorado (5ppm, ao longo de 20 dias. O cloro reduziu significativamente (pThe rapid spoilage of fishes causes economical losses in the processing and marketing of these products. In the present study, the efficiency of chlorinated ice to increase grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella shelf life was evaluated. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated in the flesh of grass carp stored refrigerated (3±1ºC for 20 days, covered with chlorinated (5ppm or non-chlorinated ice. Chlorine significantly reduced (p<0,05 mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count in the flesh, as well as pH and the initial values of TVBN. TVBN values were low and did not exhibit great changes over the storage time. Results showed that grass carp shelf life could be extended around 3 days by using chlorinated ice. Besides, pH and TVBN values were considered unsuitable to assess grass carp spoilage.

  7. Study on the adaptation changes of intestinal microbiota in Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed on different diets%草鱼肠道微生物对食物改变适应性变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝耀彤; 吴山功; 王桂堂; 邹红; 李文祥

    2015-01-01

    对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)先饲喂人工饲料再饲喂苏丹草,运用PCR-DGGE的方法,比较了食物改变引起的草鱼肠道微生物菌群结构的变化过程。结果显示,饲喂同种饲料的草鱼后肠与前、中肠样品间菌群结构存在显著差异(TH0-F0=-2.268, P<0.05; TH0-M0=-2.470, P<0.05),饲喂不同种食物的相同肠段样品间菌群结构也存在着显著差异( P<0.05)。微生物多样性指数显示,后肠样品Shannon指数H′一般不低于4.25,而前、中肠样品H′均未超过4.25。对后肠样品进一步研究发现,食物改变11 d之后,后肠微生物菌群基本达到稳定。结果表明,草鱼肠道不同部位内容物菌群结构不同,后肠样品具有更高的微生物多样性,并且食物的改变会对草鱼肠道微生物菌群产生快速而显著的影响。%PCR-DGGE fingerprinting was used to reveal the adaptation process of intestinal microbiota in Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed on artificial diet and Sudan grass .DGGE profiles of foregut , midgut and hindgut samples were compared and the results showed that the bacterial communities from hindgut contents were significant differences with those from foregut and midgut contents in C.idellus fed the same diet (TH0-F0 =-2.268, P<0.05; TH0-M0 =-2.470, P<0.05).More-over, the bacterial communities of artificial feed and Sudan grass samples from the same intestinal segment (P<0.05) al-so exhibited significant differences .In addition , Shannon index ( H′) of hindgut samples was almost no less than 4.25 , while H′of foregut and midgut samples was generally no more than 4.25 .The DGGE analysis of 27 hindgut samples indi-cated that intestinal microbiota reached to stabilization at 11 days later from feeding on sundan grass instead of artificial feed.In conclusion , microbiotas in different intestinal segments were different in C.idellus and food transformation also has a

  8. A study on the usability of pond water used for growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella valenciennes in salad-lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Zeki Eltez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquaponics is a bio-integrated food production system that, aquaculture (fish production in intensive culture ponds and hydroponics (plant growing in water with nutrient solution plant production are made together. This study was designed in the shape of a closed system; two different feeding dose (3% and 4% of the live weight of the pool Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes feed with cultivation used pool water, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT in the form of the nutrient solution system designed as a lettuce-salad (Lactuca sativa group of crops to investigate the applicability of the system with the aim of cultivating the effects upon and carried out.

  9. Attractive effects of different light intensities on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同光照强度对鲢、草鱼的诱集效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦孝辉; 王从锋; 刘德富; 熊锋; 汪玲珑

    2015-01-01

    We studied the attractive effects of the light source located in lock model on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyng-odon idellus at different light intensities. The results show that the mean relative time aggregation rate[R(t)]in the dark area with light source was higher than the control group(no source). R(t)in the dark area in all light-source groups increased with increasing light intensity,and so did the distance between central location of fish group and location of light source. As for the H. molitrix,there was no obvious aggregation phenomenon(P > 0. 05)in all groups. Therefore,negative phototaxis of C. idellus could be used in driving the fish to the upstream by arranging light in the downstream of the chamber,but use of light trapping or driving H. molitrix are not fea-sible.%为研究船闸中灯光诱驱鱼技术,观察了不同强度光源对鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、草鱼(Ctenopha-ryngodon idellus)的诱集效果。结果表明,与对照组(无光源)相比,有光组的草鱼在暗区的平均相对时间聚集率[R(t)]均明显升高。随着光源强度的增加,各组中暗区的 R(t)变大,鱼的群体重心位置与光源的距离也随之变大,草鱼总体上表现出一定的负趋光性。所有组次中,鲢在2组弱光源下表现出对光照强度没有明显的选择性(P >0.05),与对照组相比无明显的诱集或驱赶效果,而在强光源条件下表现出远离光源的特性。因此,可利用草鱼的负趋光性,在闸室下游部分布置灯光将其驱赶至上游,而利用光源诱集或驱赶鲢的方案不可行。

  10. Cloning and expression of Calreticulin full length cDNA in tissues of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼钙网蛋白的克隆与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭威; 王海英; 吴锐全; 谢骏; 郁二蒙; 吴垠; 余德光; 王广军; 龚望宝

    2012-01-01

    钙网蛋白是一种高度保守的分子伴侣蛋白,作为内质网主要的钙结合蛋白,广泛存在于真核生物细胞中,在病毒、寄生虫感染以及温度、氧气胁迫等情况下对细胞起保护作用.本试验中采用RACE方法首次克隆获得草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus钙网蛋白cDNA全序列,其全长为1389 bp,开放阅读框为1263bp,编码为421个氨基酸.将获得的草鱼钙网蛋白编码氨基酸序列与其它物种分别进行同源性比较,发现草鱼与斑马鱼Danio rerio、虹鳟Oncorhynchus mykiss的同源性较高,分别为86.26%、76.78%,而与人Homo sapiens、小家鼠Mus musculus的同源性为69.67%、69.19%.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,钙网蛋白在草鱼的肌肉、肠道、皮肤、肝胰脏、肾脏、脾脏、鳃和鳍中均有表达,其中在肝胰脏、鳍条中的表达量最高,除与皮肤中的表达量无显著差异外(P>0.05),均显著高于其它5个器官组织(P<0.05).%Calreticulin (CRT) as a highly conserved molecular chaperone protein extensively exists in eukaryotic cells, and CRT on the surface of the cell can protect cells in temperature, and oxygen stresses, pathogens and parasitic infections. The full length cDNA of calreticulin was cloned from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by race and per methods to ecvaluate the expression in different tissues . The gene was founf to consist of 1 389 bp with an open reading frame of 1 263 bp, encoding 421 amino acids. The amino acid sequence analysis showed that the grass carp Calreticulin had higher homology with zebra fish (86. 26% ) , and rainbow trout (76. 78% ) , and had 69.67% amino acid identity to murine and 69.19% to human CRTs. Tissue expression studies showed that CRT gene was all detected but expression was different in the tested tissues including muscle, skin, intestine, hepato-pancreas, kidney, spleen, gills and rays, but the expression in the hepatopancreas liver and fins was found maximum, significantly higher

  11. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes ( IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon ( IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  12. 直接进样电喷雾串联质谱法测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂%Determination of Phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus Muscle by Direct-injection Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友谊; 张虹; 戴志远

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon idellus muscle by direct-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with modified Bligh Dyer method and the crude extracts were taken directly into the electrospray ionization source by syringe pump. Under the precursor ion scan and neutral loss scan) intrasource separation and identification of six classes of phospholipids including phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositoU phosphatidyl serine, phos-phatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid were achieved. The intensity of quasi-molecular ion of the phospholipids and concentration showed good linear relation in a certain range. The recoveries (67.1% -96.6%) and precision meet the requirements for analyzing biological samples. This method has been applied to analyze the molecular species and content of four class phospholipids from Cteno-pharyngodon idellus muscle. The method is simple, fast accurate, and reproducibility with excellent stability, and suitable to analyze phospholipids from various biological samples for lipidomics research.%建立了直接进样电喷雾串联质谱测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂的方法.以Bligh Dyer法提取总脂质,采用流动注射泵直接进样的方式将样品导人电喷雾离子源,利用串联三重四级杆质谱的母离子扫描和中性丢失扫描功能,通过扫描磷脂的特征性子离子或中性质量丢失实现对磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂酰肌醇、磷脂酰丝氨酸、磷脂酰甘油和磷脂酸六类磷脂的源内分离和鉴定.结果显示,在-定的浓度范围内,磷脂的浓度与磷脂直接进样电喷雾电离后形成准分子离子的响应值呈现良好的线性关系,回收率(67.1%~96.6%)和精密度可以满足生物样品分析的要求.采用本方法测定了草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂

  13. 草鱼天然抗性相关巨噬蛋白基因全长cDNA的克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of natural resistance associated macrophage protein(Nramp)gene cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉顶; 徐进; 罗晓松; 周勇; 肖艺; 曾令兵

    2011-01-01

    Natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family is a novel family of functional related proteins with innate resistance to intracellular parasites in mammals, which has the capacity of enhancing macrophages that are meant to kill pathogens. However, few reports are available about the structure and function of Nramp in lower vertebrates such as teleosts. In this study, cDNA of Nramp gene was amplified from liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Nramp gene was 3 158 bp, including a 155 bp 5'terminal UTR, a 1 368 bp 3' terminal UTR and a 1 635 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 554 amino acid residues, which contained the signature features of the Nramp protein family: 12 transmembrane (TM)domains, a consensus transport motif (CTM) with 20 amino acid residues between the transmembrane domains 8 and 9. The deduced amino acid sequence of grass carp Nramp exhibited about 62.5%-90.2% homology with 16 other vertebrate Nramp sequences. Compared with the other fish's Nramps, the unique feature of grass carp Nramp was the presence of two iron-responsive regulatory-protein-binding sites (IRE) in 3'UTR and 5'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the grass carp Nramp was clustered with other fish Nramps and was closer to Nramp2 of mammals. RT-PCR results of grass carp Nramp transcripts in different tissues indicated that the grass carp Nramp transcripts were highly abundant in head kidney and spleen and low in muscle and skin. The grass carp kidney cells (CIK) challenged with the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) could evidently elevate Nramp mRNA levels in cell cultures.%天然抗性相关巨噬蛋白(Nramp)家族是一类抑制胞内寄生菌侵染的天然免疫相关蛋白.本研究克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Nramp基因并进行了表达分析.该基因cDNA序列全长为3158 bp,编码1个含544个

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF MYLOPHARYNGODON PICEUS AND CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS BY PCR -RFLP ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA Cyt b GENE%利用线粒体 DNA Cytb 基因 PCR-RFLP 分析方法鉴别青鱼和草鱼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 郝大奎; 付佩胜

    2014-01-01

    建立了一种以线粒体细胞色素 b(Cyt b)基因为标靶,应用 PCR -RFLP 技术进行草鱼和青鱼种质鉴定的分析方法。设计一对引物 QYCYT -S 和 QYCTY -A 分别对青鱼和草鱼的 Cyt b 基因进行了 PCR 扩增,并选用 BglⅠ和 EcoRⅡ两种限制性内切酶对扩增产物进行酶切分析。结果表明,草鱼和青鱼都可以扩增出1111 bp 的条带,两种酶切检验发现,草鱼扩增产物能被 BglⅠ切成247 bp 和864 bp 两个片段,而青鱼的 PCR 产物能被 EcoRⅡ切成140 bp 和971 bp 两个片段,这表明,mtDNA Cyt b 基因 BglⅠ和EcoRⅡ的酶切位点都可作为鉴定青鱼和草鱼的有效分子标记。利用 PCR -RFLP 分析 mtDNA Cyt b 基因的方法操作简单,是一种快速鉴别草鱼和青鱼的可靠方法。%A method to distinguish Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus was developed based on the PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)Cytb gene.A pair of PCR primers QYCYT-S and QYCYT-A was employed to amplify a fragment of mtDNA Cytb gene in Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.BglⅠand EcoR II restriction enzyme digestion analysis was further conducted against the PCR products.The results showed that a 1 1 1 1 bp long amplification fragment can be successfully abtained from both species.Restriction analysis showed that the amplification fragment from Mylopharyngodon piceus can be only restricted by Bgl I into two bands with the length of 247 bp and 864 bp,while the amplification fragment from Ctenopharyngodon idellus can be only restricted by EcoRⅡ into two bands with the length of 140 bp and 971 bp.The result suggests that the Bgl Ⅰand EcoR Ⅱ sensitive,restriction sites of mtDNA Cytb gene can be used as effective molecular identification markers between the two spicies of Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.This study demonstrated that the PCR -RFLP analysis of mtDNA Cytb gene is a rapid method to accurately

  15. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on complement system and complement c3 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus%盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体系统及补体 c3作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耀宗; 周霞; 韩冰; 黄涛; 黄利挂; 李学刚

    2016-01-01

    为了探究盐酸小檗碱(berberine hydrochloride )对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)补体 c3的作用机理,用含0、0.06%、0.12%、0.24%盐酸小檗碱饲料投喂草鱼,在第7 d、14 d 检测血清中补体 c3含量,在第14 d 检测肝脏中补体 c3 mRNA 表达量及急性感染嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)后存活情况。并进一步对盐酸小檗碱体内药代动力学和补体消耗试验进行了研究。结果显示;摄食盐酸小檗碱的草鱼血清中补体 c3含量和肝脏补体 c3 mRNA 表达量均显著性增加(P <0.05/P <0.05),草鱼的存活率与对照组相比也有显著性提高(P <0.01)。补体消耗试验结果显示,当盐酸小檗碱在血清中浓度小于5 mg/L 时与对照组相比补体消耗不显著,当盐酸小檗碱浓度大于5 mg/L 时,补体消耗达到显著性差异(P <0.05),表明此时盐酸小檗碱与补体 c3直接结合,激活补体。药代动力学实验发现,灌服盐酸小檗碱后,出现双峰现象,两峰值分别是0.243 mg/L 和0.117 mg/L,此浓度远远低于与补体 c3直接结合量最低量(5 mg/L)。结果表明,盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体 c3的作用机理可能是通过上调补体 c3mRNA 的表达增加补体 c3数量,而非通过直接结合补体 c3来改变其活性。%To explore the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the complement c 3 of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the level of complement c3 in serum were studied for 7 day and 14 day, the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver and resistance against acute Aeromonas hydrophila infection in C.idellus were evaluated after 14 days of feeding with berberine hydrochloride at the rate of 0, 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.24%, respectively.The pharmacokinetics in vivo and complement consumption test in vitro of berberine hydrochloride were further studied .The results showed that the complement c3 levels in serum and the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver of

  16. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  17. Expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yongyan; Lu, Xiaonan; He, Libo; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Aidi; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Noxa, a pro-apoptotic protein, plays an important role in cell apoptosis. The researches about noxa gene were concentrated in mammalians, whereas the role and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in fish were still unclear. In this study, the expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp were analyzed. Noxa was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues but the relative expression level differed. After exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), mRNA expression level of noxa was down-regulated at the early phase whereas up-regulated at the late phase of infection. Luciferase assays showed that the promoter region -867 ∼ +107 of noxa had high activity and the region -678 ∼ -603 was important in the response to GCRV infection. By deleting the predicted transcription factor binding sites, transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were found important for noxa in response to GCRV infection. Moreover, the noxa promoter was biotin-labeled and incubated with nuclear extracts from GCRV infected cells. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were also enriched in the combined proteins. Therefore, the results suggested that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ may play an important role in the regulation of noxa. Our study would provide new insight into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in teleost fish.

  18. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  19. Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

    2012-05-01

    The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp.

  20. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  1. Two grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 genes exhibit different yet conserved functions in development and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Lin, Si-Tong; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%. Their mRNAs are not detected in zygotes. At 14hpf, grass carp igfbp5b mRNA was detected in the somites, while igfbp5a mRNA has some possible signal around the eye and head region. At 24hpf, both igfbp5a and igfbp5b mRNA appear to be limited to the presomitic mesoderm. At 36hpf, igfbp5a mRNA was only detected in the midbrain, while igfbp5b mRNA was detected in both the midbrain and notochord. Overall, both mRNAs were expressed in most adult tissues. igfbp5a and igfbp5b were significantly upregulated in the muscle and liver after injection of 10μg per kilogram body weight of zebrafish growth hormone (zGH), while their hepatic expression was downregulated by 50μg zGH. During fasting, both igfbp5a and igfbp5b mRNAs were significantly downregulated in the muscle but upregulated in the liver. Collectively, the results suggest that the two igfbp5 genes play important but different roles in the regulation of growth and development in grass carp.

  2. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  3. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release.

  4. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  5. Molecular cloning and gene/protein expression of FAT/CD36 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the regulation of its expression by dietary energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Gao, Weihua; Wu, Fan; Yu, Lijuan; Lu, Xing; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2017-01-18

    Fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) functions as a membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter in various tissues in land animals. Not much is known about the CD36 molecule in teleost fish. Therefore, we studied CD36 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, ciCD36). The full-length complementary DNA sequence of ciCD36 was 1976 bp, with an ORF of 468 amino acids, which had high sequence similarity to the CD36 of common carp. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of ciCD36 was high in the intestine, heart, liver, visceral tissue, and brain, but absent in the kidney. The protein expression of ciCD36 was high in the brain, intestine, liver, heart, muscle, eye, visceral tissue, gonad, and gill, but not in the kidney. Four groups of grass carp (16 tanks) were fed three times daily to satiation with 17.2 kJ gross energy/g diet (control, CON), 19.4 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by proteins, HP), 19.9 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by fat, HF), and 19.1 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by carbohydrate, HC) for 11 weeks, respectively. At the end of the feeding experiment, the fish were fasted for 48 h, and the brain, heart, intestine, and liver were sampled and designated as the 0-h samples. The fish were then fed a single meal of the above four diets, and these tissues were collected at 8- and 24-h intervals after refeeding to analyze ciCD36 mRNA and protein expression levels. The results showed that at the transcriptional and translational levels, ciCD36 expression was significantly affected by refeeding time and the different diets (P energy in grass carp. Translational regulation might be responsible for the observed variations in ciCD36 expression.

  6. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  7. Trunk kidney of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) mediates immune responses against GCRV and viral/bacterial PAMPs in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijun; Li, Qingmei; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Li, Yinqian; Rao, Youliang

    2013-03-01

    Trunk kidney is a vital organ for excretion in teleosts. There have been sporadic reports of processing pathogens for the immune function in trunk kidney. However, molecular processes of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) responding to virus and viral/bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are poorly elucidated in trunk kidney. In the present study, we investigated transcriptional profiles of twelve representative immune-related genes (TLRs (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR22); RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2); NLRs (NOD1 and NOD2); adapter molecules (MyD88 and IPS-1); effector molecule type I interferon (IFN-I) and immunoglobulin M (IgM)) in trunk kidney tissue of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as Ci) injection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) utilizing quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression patterns of these genes (IgM excepted) were examined post GCRV infection and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation in primary trunk kidney cells of grass carp. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR22 and CiMyD88 were increased post GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. The mRNA transcriptions of CiTLR7 were obviously activated with GCRV challenge. Remarkably, the mRNA expressions of CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2 and CiIPS-1 were largely up-regulated with GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. Interestingly, the expression tendencies of CiNOD1 and CiNOD2 were differential not only in GCRV challenge and poly(I:C) stimulation, but also in LPS and PGN stimulation. It was demonstrated that CiIFN-I induced powerful anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects in trunk kidney. In addition, the expression of CiIgM was induced at 72 h post GCRV injection in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that trunk kidney of grass carp serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering anti-viral and anti-bacterial immune responses both

  8. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC₅₀) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC₅₀ were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L⁻¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L⁻¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L⁻¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened.

  9. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp.

  10. 提取条件对草鱼鱼油特性的影响及其脂肪酸组成分析%Effect of extraction conditions on oil qulity and fatty acids composition of fish oil extracted from Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳新; 苏阳; 郝婷婷; 祈岩; 冯叙桥

    2013-01-01

    The optimal extraction conditions and their effect on oil quality and fatty acid composition of fish oil extracted from the liver and fat( 1:1 )of Ctenopharyngodon idellus by using diluted alkaline hydrolysis method was investigated.The results indicated that the extraction ratio,iodic value,acid value,peroxide value and soap stock content were significantly affected by extraction conditions.The optimal extraction conditions determined by extraction ratio,iodic value,acid value,peroxide value and saponified matter content were that the volume ratio of the minced liver and fat of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and water was 1:1 ,the immersion time in water bath at 45℃ was 5min,the pH of the sample solution was adjusted to 10.0 with NaOH solution(1:1,W/V),and the sample solution was precipitated in 10mL 4% NaCl solution for 5min at 60℃, then the fish oil was obtained after centrifugation.The yield of fish oil extracted from Ctenopharyngodon idellus by the optimal extraction conditions was 84.81% ±0.56%.The results of the analysis of the prepared fish oil showed that it comprised of 22 kinds of fatty acid,i.e.l6:0,18:In-9,20:5n-3(DHA)and 22:6n-3(EPA) ,and saturated fatty acids accounted for about 30%, which stearic acid was maximum for 18.5% .unsaturated fatty acids accounted for about 60% , which oleic acid was maximum for 18.6% ,and EPA accounted for 0.7% ,DHA accounted for 0.5%.%以草鱼的肝脏和脂肪(1:1)混合物为原料,采用稀碱水解法制备草鱼鱼油,研究草鱼鱼油提取条件对其特性的影响,并分析其脂肪酸的组成.结果表明,提取条件对鱼油的提取率、碘价、酸价、过氧化值和含皂量影响很大,以它们为指标得出的最佳工艺条件为:经绞肉机绞碎后的肝脏和脂肪糜与水1∶1混合后,在45℃下水浴5min,用NaOH溶液(1:1,W/V)调至pH10.0,加入鱼糜质量分数10%的4% NaCl溶液,在60℃下盐析5min,离心分离鱼糜后,取上清液得到鱼油,在该

  11. Molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP) in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R-H; Chang, Z-G; Sun, J; Yang, F; Nie, G-X; Ji, H

    2016-10-01

    TRIP (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Factor (TRAF)-Interacting Protein), a member of the TNF superfamily, plays a crucial role in the modulation of inflammation in vertebrates. However, no information about TRIP is available in teleosts. In this study, the full-length cDNA of TRIP, containing a 5'UTR of 112 bp, an ORF of 1359 bp, and a 3'UTR of 29 bp before the poly (A) tail, was cloned from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The TRIP gene encoded a protein of 452 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 51.06 KD and a predicted theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.11. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that TRIP mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined in grass carp, with the highest expression in the kidney, followed by the intestine and thymus. However, lower levels of expression were also detected in fat, spleen, liver, gonad and heart. Subcellular localization and two-hybrid analysis revealed that TRIP was located in the nucleus and that it interacted with TRAF1 and TRAF2 in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, similar to TNF-α, IL-10 and TRIP mRNA expression was upregulated in the spleen of fish fed high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets, suggesting that TRIP might be associated with the response to excessive energy intake. The mRNA relative expression of TRIP was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after hepatocyte of C. idella was treated with 2 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 h, while the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TRIP might play important roles in immune defense and has the potential to be used as a anti-inflammation target in grass carp.

  12. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) the lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, complement component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) mRNA expression; (2) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b; (3) the transcription abundance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) genes. In conclusion, the positive effect of PL on gill health is associated with the improvement of the immunity, antioxidant status and tight junction barrier of fish gills. Finally, based on ACP activity, C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills

  13. Dietary pantothenic acid deficiency and excess depress the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical functions by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (253.44 ± 0.69 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of PA (PA1, PA15, PA30, PA45, PA60 and PA75 diets) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that compared with PA deficiency (PA1 diet) and excess (PA75 diet) groups, optimal PA supplementation increased (P TOR) mRNA expression levels in some intestinal segments; (2) reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b in the intestine; (3) Claudin 12, Claudin 15a and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. In conclusion, optimum PA promoted growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of signaling molecules NF-κB P65, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK in grass carp intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG and intestinal lysozyme activity, the optimal PA levels in grass carp (253.44-745.25 g) were estimated to be 37.73 mg/kg and 41.38 mg/kg diet, respectively.

  14. 草鱼酶解技术研究%The Technology of Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Muscle in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷金莲; 徐怀德; 韦亚萍

    2007-01-01

    应用对比试验和正交试验方法对草鱼进行酶解技术研究.试验结果表明,胃蛋白酶酶解草鱼酶用量为(E/S)0.6%,温度55℃,pH 2.0,酶解5 h氨基态氮含量较高,为0.0190 g/L;枯草杆菌蛋白酶酶解草鱼酶用量为(E/S)0.01%,温度45℃,pH 6.5,酶解4 h氨基态氮含量较高,为0.0417 g/L;胰蛋白酶酶解草鱼酶用量为(E/S)0.64%,温度50℃,pH 8.0,酶解5 h氨基态氮含量较高,为0.0472 g/L.通过对3种蛋白酶在最优条件下酶解草鱼肉的比较可知,枯草杆菌蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶酶解效果较好.为草鱼深加工提供了一定的科学依据.

  15. Evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced Chinese herbal medicines against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a widespread ciliated ectoparasite and results in severe economic loss in the aquaculture industry. Since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat I. multi...

  16. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  17. 草鱼鳃介导草鱼呼肠孤病毒免疫应答%GILL MEDIATES IMMUNE RESPONSES AFTER GRASS CARP REOVIRUS CHALLENGE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青梅; 陈利军; 饶友亮; 付小哲; 苏建国

    2014-01-01

    采用草鱼呼肠孤病毒腹腔注射草鱼,通过定量 RT-PCR 检测了12个抗病毒免疫相关基因在鳃中不同时间点的表达模式,以了解鳃对内源性病毒的免疫应答。模式识别受体基因 CiTLR3、CiTLR7、CiTLR22、CiRIG-I、CiMDA5、CiLGP2、CiNOD1和CiNOD2,以及干扰素基因CiIFN-I的表达在注射病毒后12h、24h、48h及72h基本都上调。IgM基因的表达仅在72h上调。接头分子CiMyD88和CiIPS-1基因的表达在早期下调(6h),然后逐渐上升。为了证实病毒感染的可靠性,通过RT-PCR检测了病毒VP4基因。结果表明草鱼鳃在抗病毒免疫方面发挥着重要作用。%Gill plays an important physical barrier role in defending environmental microbes. How are im-mune responses to endogenous viruses in gill? In the present study, mRNA expressions of 12 antiviral im-mune-related genes were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in grass carp (Cteno-pharyngodon idella) gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR7, CiTLR22, CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2, CiNOD1, CiNOD2 and CiIFN-I were almost up-regulated at 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h. Additionally, the mRNA expression of CiIgM was triggered at 72h. However, relative expres-sions of CiMyD88 and CiIPS-1 were down-regulated at 6h, and subsequently increased. To further verify the reliability of viral infection, VP4 gene (outer capsid protein of GCRV, segment 6) was checked by RT-PCR amplification. The results indicate that gill serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering antiviral immune responses in grass carp.

  18. Methionine Requirement of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idell) during Middle Growth Stage%生长中期草鱼蛋氨酸需要量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐炳荣; 冯琳; 刘扬; 姜俊; 胡凯; 姜维丹; 李树红; 周小秋

    2012-01-01

    本试验通过研究饲料蛋氨酸水平对生长中期草鱼生长性能和消化吸收能力的影响,旨在确定生长中期草鱼的蛋氨酸需要量.选用平均体重为(259.00±0.48)g的草鱼900尾,随机分为6个处理(每个处理5个重复,每个重复30尾),分别饲喂蛋氨酸水平为2.19、4.72、7.18、9.67、12.21和14.69g/kg的试验饲料,试验期49 d.结果表明:与蛋氨酸水平为2.19 g/kg时相比,提高饲料中蛋氨酸水平显著地提高了生长中期草鱼的增重、摄食量、饲料效率、特定生长率和蛋白质效率(P<0.05).当蛋氨酸水平达到7.18 g/kg时,增重和特定生长率达到最大值.蛋氨酸水平显著影响生长中期草鱼的肝胰脏和肠道重量、肝胰脏和肠道蛋白质含量以及肠道长度(P<0.05),对肝体指数没有显著影响(P>0.05).当蛋氨酸水平≥4.72 g/kg时,肝胰脏和肠道重量以及肠道长度在各处理间差异不显著(P>0.05).肝胰脏和肠道蛋白质含量分别在蛋氨酸水平为9.67和12.21 g/kg时达到最大值.当蛋氨酸水平为7.18 g/kg时,肝胰脏和肠道胰蛋白酶、糜蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性均达到最大值.当蛋氨酸水平为4.72 g/kg时,肠道淀粉酶活性达到最大值,且与其他处理间差异达到显著水平(P<0.05).蛋氨酸水平显著影响各肠段Na+,K+-ATP酶、碱性磷酸酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶和肌酸激酶活性(P<0.05).由此得出,饲料中适宜水平的蛋氨酸可以提高生长中期草鱼的生长性能和消化吸收能力.以特定生长率为标识,当饲料胱氨酸含量为1.61 g/kg时,生长中期草鱼(259~498 g)的蛋氨酸需要量为10.41g/kg饲料或34.71 g/kg蛋白质.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine level on growth performance , digestive and absorptive ability of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idell) during middle growth stage, and to determine the methionine requirement of grass carp during middle growth stage. A total of 900

  19. The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-κB P65, IκBα and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively.

  20. Exogenous phospholipids supplementation improves growth and modulates immune response and physical barrier referring to NF-κB, TOR, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling factors in the intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activity and immune response and intestinal physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Results indicated that 3.29% PL increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) content (P intestine, suggesting that optimum PL could improve fish intestinal immunity. In addition, 3.29% PL increased the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), the content of glutathione (P intestine, indicating that the optimum PL could improve fish intestinal physical barrier. Finally, based on the PWG, C3 content in the DI, ACP activity in the DI, intestinal PC content and intestinal ASA activity, the optimal dietary PL levels for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) were estimated to be 3.46%, 3.79%, 3.93%, 3.72%, and 4.12%, respectively.

  1. 草鱼BPI/LBP基因的克隆及特征研究%Cloning and characterization of BPI/LBP gene from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 黄腾; 彭丽敏

    2011-01-01

    【目的】克隆草鱼杀菌通透性增加蛋白/脂多糖结合蛋白(Bactericidal permeability-increasing pro-tein/LPS-binding protein,BPI/LBP)基因的cDNA全长,分析其结构特征,研究其表达规律,为进一步探明其功能奠定基础。【方法】首先用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术(RACE),克隆草鱼BPI/LBP基因的cDNA全长,然后用生物信息学方法分析BPI/LBP基因的结构特征,最后用半定量RT-PCR检测BPI/LBP基因在草鱼不同组织(血、脑、眼%【Objective】 The full-length cDNA sequence of bactericidal permeability-increasing protein/LPS-binding protein(CiBPI/LBP) from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella was cloned to study the characterization and expression profile and to lay a foundation for the functional studies.【Methods】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was identified from grass carp gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The structural characterization was analyzed by bioinformatics method.The CiBPI/LBP expression pattern was examined in different tissues(blood,brain,eye,foregut,midgut,hindgut,gas blander,gill,head kidney,trunk kidney,heart,liver,muscle,skin and spleen) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.【Result】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was 1 568 bp,encoding 473 amino acid(aa) residues,including signal peptide,BPI1 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP N-terminal domain) and BPI2 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP C-terminal domain).The molecular weight of the deduced protein was 51 551 u,and the isoelectric point 8.69.The amino acid sequence of CiBPI/LBP possessed 90%,73%,73%,and 72% identities with the BPI/LBPs of Cyprinus carpio,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Ictalurus punctatus and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis respectively.CiBPI/LBP protein firstly clustered with BPI/LBP in Cyprinidae species,Cyprinus carpio in the phylogenetic analysis.CiBPI/LBP mRNA was detected in all the 15 tested tissues by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR,high in gill,head kidney and trunck kidney

  2. 饲料中添加芽孢杆菌对草鱼表观消化率及消化酶活性的影响%Dietary supplement of Bacillus spp.affected apparent digestibility, digestive enzyme activity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲艺; 吴志新; 杨丽; 彭小云; 袁娟; 毕鹏; 刘红; 陈孝煊

    2012-01-01

    在草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)饲料中分别添加0(Ⅰ组)、1×108(Ⅱ组)、3×108(Ⅲ组)、5×108cfu/g(Ⅳ组)芽孢杆菌(Bacillus spp.)持续投喂草鱼,收集粪便测定草鱼对各营养物质的表观消化率和消化酶活性.结果表明:投喂30 d后,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪表观消化率和Ⅳ组粗蛋白、粗脂肪表观消化率均显著高于Ⅰ组(对照组),其中Ⅱ组的表观消化率最高,且芽孢杆菌添加量与营养物质表观消化率最符合一元二次曲线方程.Ⅱ组中肠和Ⅱ、Ⅲ组肝胰脏蛋白酶活性均显著提高;Ⅱ组的前肠和后肠淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组;Ⅱ、Ⅲ组后肠脂肪酶活性均显著高于对照组.投喂60 d后,消化酶活性也有相似的结果.双因子方差分析表明:芽孢杆菌的添加量对中肠、后肠和肝胰脏蛋白酶活性,前肠、中肠和后肠淀粉酶活性,中肠和后肠脂肪酶活性均有显著影响;投喂时间对肝胰脏蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性有显著影响.%Ctenopharyngodon idellus were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0 (I), 1 X 108 (II)>3×108(III)>5×108 cfu/g(IV) Bacillus spp. Respectively for 30 days. Feces was collected to detect apparent digestibility of feed nutrients. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude lipid in I group was significantly lower than the other treatment groups (P<0. 05). Quadratic curve e-quation was the best to fit the relationship between dosages of Bacillus spp. And apparent digestibility of nutrients. Protease activity of the mid-gut in II group and the hepatopancreas in II,III groups increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). Amylase activity of the fore-gut and hind-gut in II,III group increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). Lipase activity of the hind-gut in II,III group increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). After feeding for 60 days, the similar results appeared. Two-way analysis of

  3. Cloning of the Pept1 gene and analysis of its expression in Cteno-pharyngodon idellus tissues%草鱼小肽转运载体 PepT1基因的克隆与表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯军厂; 刘臻; 鲁双庆; 聂国兴; 周玲; 孙浪

    2013-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of the small peptide transporter PepT1-mediated protein digestion and absorption, a full-length cDNA sequence of the PepT1 gene was cloned from Ctenopharyngodon idellus using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The full-length cDNA sequence of PepT1 had 2762 nucleotides, including 141 nucleotides at 5′UTR and 479 nucleotides at 3′UTR. Its open reading frame had 2142 nucleotides encoding a 713-amino-acid peptide. The PepT1 gene sequences from C. idellus were most similar to those of Carassius au-ratus and Danio rerio at 77.6% and 74.0%, respectively; the deduced amino acid similarities were 78.0% and 76.7%, respectively; but the PepT1 gene sequence varied in similarity to other animals from 53.9% to 59.1%, and the deduced amino acid similarities were 60.5%—61.6%. The encoded protein molecular weight was predicted at 79.29 kD with pI at 5.87. The PepT1 protein had 11 helix trans-membrane regions; its amino acid sequence was highly homologous to those of other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PepT1 gene sequence clustered with C. auratus and D. rerio as its closest neighbor. The abundances of PepT1 mRNA assayed by real-time PCR were differentially expressed by tissue type; the highest expression was in the foregut tissue and the second was in the muscle. However, PepT1 mRNA expression was relatively stable after incubation for 7 days. The PepT1 gene expressed rhythmically in the small intestine of C. idellus. Its expression was higher during the night and lower during the day. This work provides a theoretical basis for the molecular mechanism of protein digestion and absorption by the small peptide transporter PepT1, which mediates intestinal transport of small pep-tides in vivo.%  采用同源克隆和 RACE 技术克隆草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)PepT1基因的全长 cDNA 序列.该 cDNA全长为2762 bp,包含141 bp 的5′UTR 序列,479 bp 的3′UTR 序列,2142 bp 开放阅读框,编码713

  4. Vitamin E deficiency depressed fish growth, disease resistance, and the immunity and structural integrity of immune organs in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Referring to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Hong; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth, disease resistance and the immunity and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of vitamin E (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 and 225 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that compared with optimal vitamin E supplementation, vitamin E deficiency caused depressed growth, poor survival rates and increased skin lesion morbidity in grass carp. Meanwhile, vitamin E deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 and complement component 4 contents in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (P E deficiency down-regulated antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2A, -2B, β-defensin), IL-10, TGFβ1, IκBα, TOR and S6K1 mRNA levels (P E deficiency caused oxidative damage, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and signaling molecules Nrf2 (P E deficiency also induced apoptosis by up-regulating capase-2, -3, -7, and -8 mRNA levels in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp. In conclusion, this study indicated that dietary vitamin E deficiency depressed fish growth, impaired the immune function and disturbed the structural integrity of the head kidney, spleen and skin in grass carp, but optimal vitamin E supplementation can reverse those negative effects in fish. The optimal vitamin E requirements for young grass carp (266.39-1026.63 g) to achieve optimal growth performance and disease resistance based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and skin lesion morbidity were estimated to be 116.2 and 130.9 mg/kg diet, respectively. Meanwhile, based on immune indicator (LA activity in the head kidney) and

  5. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, Nrf2, Keap1 and apoptosis-related genes in the fish gill.

  6. 糖对草鱼肝脂代谢关键基因转录水平的调控研究%Effects of Carbohydrates on Transcription of Five Key Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君君; 卢荣华; 常志光; 秦超彬; 杨峰; 聂国兴

    2015-01-01

    在目前集约化水产养殖模式下,草鱼肝脂质代谢紊乱问题比较严重,已引起人们的高度关注。为获知糖对草鱼肝脂代谢的影响及作用机理,本研究分别从活体和细胞水平上分析了糖对肝脂代谢5个关键基因转录水平变化的影响。采用实时荧光定量 PCR(qRT‐PCR)技术,检测了在低糖(糖含量24%)和高糖(糖含量42%)投喂条件下草鱼肝脏中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶的转录水平变化,H·E染色观察肝脏组织形态学变化;并检测了在不同浓度葡萄糖作用下,草鱼肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶和脂蛋白脂酶基因的表达变化。结果显示,肝组织中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶在高糖组中的表达量显著高于对照组和低糖组(P <0.05),过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α在高糖和低糖条件下变化不明显(P>0.05);H · E染色观察发现在高糖条件下草鱼肝组织出现了大量的脂肪蓄积;在其肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶、脂蛋白脂酶的mRNA表达量随葡萄糖浓度增加均呈先升后降趋势,分别在葡萄糖浓度为10 mmol/L和20 mmol/L时达到最高值(P <0.05)。研究结果表明,葡萄糖可能通过调节固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶和脂蛋白脂酶等基因的表达进而调节体内糖向脂的转化过程。研究结果为丰富鱼类糖代谢调控机理提供研究资料,并有望为提高鱼类饲料糖的利用效率提供理论依据。%In current intensive aquaculture ,the hepatopancreatic lipid metabolic disorderis are serious in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ,and has caused the attention of people .The transcriptional effects of carbohydrates on the five key genes involved in lipid metabolism in

  7. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 mRNA levels (P spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen immunity and cause inflammation. Meanwhile, compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency decreased the activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity through depression of antioxidative ability, induction of apoptosis and disruption of tight junctional complexes. In addition, except the activities of ACP and MnSOD, and mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1, Occludin and MnSOD, the effect of vitamin C on fish head kidney, spleen and skin immunity and structural integrity other indicators model are similar under infection of A. hydrophila. Finally, the vitamin C requirement for the growth performance (PWG) of young grass carp was

  8. Cloning and Exnression of PKR Gene of Ctenonharvngodon idellus Induced bv PolvⅠ: Cin Vitro%PolyⅠ:C体外诱导草鱼PKR基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景芬; 列莉; 曹访

    2011-01-01

    [目的]克隆草鱼的PKR基因,为草鱼抗病毒基因研究奠定基础.[方法]依据GenBank上斑马鱼(AJ852023.1)和鲫鱼(AY293929.1)的PKR基因序列,利用Primer Premier 5.0软件设计了3对简并引物;采用100 μg/ml Polyl:C体外分别处理草鱼肾细胞(Ctenopharyngodon indellus kidney cells,CIK)12、36、48h,并提取处理后细胞的总RNA,逆转录后用降落PCR方法扩增这3个处理时间细胞中PKR基因.[结果]处理12h时未扩增出PKR基因,处理36和48h时都扩增到了PKR基因,并且表达量随处理时间的增加有所升高,扩增到的部分序列与鲫鱼和斑马鱼的该段序列同源性分别为100.00%和81.48%.[结论]试验成功获得了草鱼PKR基因的部分序列,Polyl:C高效诱导草鱼PKR蛋白表达将有助于开创治疗草鱼类病毒病的一种新思路.%[Objective] The study aimed at cloning PKR gene of Ctenopharyngodon idellus induced by PolyI: C in vitro, so as to provide foundation for study on the anti-virus genes of C. Idellus. [ Method] On the basis of the PKR gene sequences of zebra fish (AJ852023.1) and carp ( AY293929.1) in Cenbank, three pairs of degenerate primers were designed using Primer Premier 5.0 software; in vitro C. Idellus kidney cells (CIK) were treated with 100 μg/ml of Poly Ⅰ: C for 12, 36 and 48 h, and then total RNA of the cells treated was extracted for amplifying the PKR gene by RT-PCR. [Result] The PKR gene was amplified from the cells treated with Poly Ⅰ:C for 36 and 48 h. But the cells treated for 12 h; in addition, the expression level increased with the processing time. The amplified partial sequence of C. Idellus shared homology of 100.00% and 81.48% with carp and zebra fish sequence separately. [Conclusion] Part of the PKR gene sequence was cloned successfully from C. Idellus, PolyⅠ:C induction was effective to PKR protein expression.

  9. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  10. 硫丹对罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus×O.niloticus)和草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的急性毒性研究%Study on Acute Toxicity of Endosulfan to Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus ×O.niloticus) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯常亮; 甘居利; 林钦; 陈洁文; 汪敏

    2011-01-01

    为控制虫害农业上大量使用硫丹,因此硫丹可通过多种途径进入水环境中.养殖环境和水产品中已发现硫丹残留,这给养殖环境和食品安全造成潜在威胁.通过半静态试验方法测定了罗非鱼和草鱼的半致死浓度,并估算了其在水环境中的安全浓度.结果表明,罗非鱼和草鱼的半致死浓度分别为1.97(1.26 -2.87) μg·L-1和2.33(1.66 - 3.32) μg· L-1,安全浓度分别为0.20和0.23 μg· L-1.为进一步验证这2种鱼对硫丹的抗性,将罗非鱼和草鱼在最低剂量组(0.7 μg·L-1)中暴露60d,发现这2种鱼个体状态良好.因此,初步证明这两种鱼在水中的安全浓度比目前国家规定的标准值要高.但是关于硫丹对这2种鱼的内分泌干扰、生殖和生长等方面的影响还需作进一步的研究.

  11. The Effect of Glutathione/Glutathione Transferase Gene Pathway in Intestinal of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by Feeding Oxidized Fish Oil%饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶通路基因表达活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀秀; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 陈科全; 彭侃; 徐登辉; 罗其刚

    2016-01-01

    为了研究饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼肠道抗氧化防御能力的影响,以谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶(GSH/GSTs)通路为研究对象,以豆油、鱼油、氧化鱼油为饲料脂肪源分别设计豆油组(6S)、鱼油组(6F)、2%氧化鱼油(2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能半纯化饲料,在池塘网箱养殖草鱼[平均体重(74.8±1)g]72 d.采用荧光定量PCR(RT-QPCR)的方法,测定了草鱼肠道组织中谷氨酸-半胱氨酸连接酶催化亚(GCLC)、谷胱甘肽合成酶(GSS)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GSR)以及谷胱甘肽S-转移酶的ω1(GSTωI)、PI-谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTPI)和微粒体谷胱甘肽S-转移酶1(MGStl)的表达活性,并测定了肠道中谷胱甘肽GSH的含量.结果显示,2OF、4OF和6OF组草鱼肠道中GSH/GSTs通路基因表达均上调,其中6F组中MSGT1在肠道中表达显著上调(P<0.05),4OF组中GSR和MGST1在肠道中表达显著上调(P<0.05),6OF中GCLC和MGST1在草鱼肠道中表达显著上调(P<0.05);GCLC表达活性与饲料中MDA含量呈多项式的关系,MGST1表达活性与饲料中AV和(EPA+DHA)呈多项式关系.结果表明,氧化鱼油使草鱼肠道GSH/GSTs通路基因表达活性上调,且GSH/GSTs通路基因表达活性对不同浓度氧化鱼油所引起的肠道氧化损伤具有不同的应对方式.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE-DECOMPOSING BACTERIA IN THE INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA (VAL.)%草鱼肠道纤维素降解细菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王微微; 吴山功; 邹红; 郑英珍; 程莹寅; 王桂堂

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota in the animal digestive tracts plays an important role in the nutrition and metabolism of their host. Many cellulose-ingesting animals need the microorganisms in their digestive tracts for degrading cellulose and therefore providing the energy. For example, cellulose-decomposing bacterial population has been frequently found in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an herbivore fish species. However, knowledge about this type of bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the species of the cellulose-decomposing microbiota in the content and mucosa in the intestine of grass carp. We isolated and cultured the cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut, mid-gut and hindgut of the intestine using the medium with carboxymethycellulose (1%) as its sole carbon source. Entero-bacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR fingerprint was utilized to identify different genotypes of the iso-lated bacteria. The cellulose-degrading activity of each strain was indicated by the ratio of the diameter of the clear zone to the diameter of the colony. We identified the genotypes of these bacteria by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Forty strains of cellulose-decomposing bacteria from intestinal content and mucosa of grass carp were identified. Two geno-types of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria were discovered in the content of foregut and hindgut, and in the mucosa of midgut and hindgut. Only one genotype of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria was discovered in the mucosa of foregut and midgut. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the majority of the cellulolytic bacteria was Aeromonas which accounted for 85%of the total bacterial isolates. Enterobacter accounted for 7.5%and the“uncultured bacterium”accounted for 5%. The ability of degrading cellulose varied remarkably among different bacterial strains. High enzy-matic activity was observed in some isolates of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. The bacterial isolates with a

  13. 芽孢杆菌对草鱼生长和肠粘膜抗氧化功能及养殖水质的影响%Effects of Bacillus on Water Quality, Growth and Antioxidant Activity of Intestinal Mucosa of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫芬; 邓斌; 陈南南; 梁权; 周绪霞

    2012-01-01

    A 45d culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of Bacillus on growth, antioxidant activity of intestinal mucosa of grass carpCtenopharyngodon idellus) and water quality. 450 grass carps with initial average weight of (51.0 ± 2.3) g were randomly divided into 3 groups (control group, treatment group 1 and 2 ; three rep- licates for each group and 50 fish per replicate). Control group was fed with the basal diet, Group 1 were fed the basal diet supplemented with Bacillus complex ( proportion of mixture of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens : 1 : 1 ; 105 cfu/g) , and Group 2 were fed the basal diet supplemented with B. subtilis only (105efu/g). The results indi- cated that compared with the control group, water nitrite nitrogen level in Group 1 and Group 2 significantly de- creased from the 21^st day to the end of the experiment (except on the 35th day for group 1, P 〈0.01 ) ; and ammo- nium nitrogen level in group 2 also decreased significantly on the 21^st and 35^th day. No significant differences were found for water pH and nitrate nitrogen level among the three groups. Supplementation of Bacillus also decreased the death rate ( P 〈 0.05 ) and improved the growth performance of grass carps. Compared with the control group, WGR of Group 1 and Group 2 increased by 52.93% (P 〈0.01 ) and 21.78% (P 〈0.05), and ADFI increased by 44.44% (P 〈0.01 ) and 16.67% (P 〈0.05), respectively; and compared with Group 2, supplementation of complex Bacillus increased both WGR and ADFI of grass carp significantly (25.58% and 23.81% , respectively, P 〈 0.01 ). Further study showed that supplementation of Bacillus improved partial antioxidant capacity of intestinal mucosa of grass carp, as was evidenced by increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). it can be concluded that, Bacillus supplementation in basal diets can improve water quality and antioxi- dant capacity of

  14. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity of bioactive peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of skin from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Jierong; De Gobba, Cristian; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp skin pieces were homogenized in water and hydrolyzed by Alcalase®, collagenase, proteinase K, and/or trypsin at their optimum conditions. Samples were taken at various degrees of hydrolysis and were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory...... activities. Alcalase and collagenase completely hydrolyzed the skin with different rates, and released peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity. These activities increased linearly with increasing degrees of hydrolysis. Subsequent incubation of the collagenase...... hydrolysates with trypsin slightly increased the antioxidant activity. Proteinase K, although only partially hydrolyzing the skin, also catalyzed the release of peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities. These results show that skin by-products from grass carp can...

  15. 草鱼hsp70和hsp90对温度急性变化的响应%Effect of rapid temperature change on expression of hsp70 and hsp90 in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鑫; 董云伟; 王芳; 董双林

    2013-01-01

    Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most important cultured fishes in China. During transportation in summer,massive mortality often occurs. As molecular chaperones,Hsps assist cells in their recovery from stress and promote cytoprotection. Limited reports described the expression of Hsps in grass carp at high temperatures, and the relationship between oxygen consumption, expression of heat shock protein and mortality needs to be investigated based on the oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT) to further elucidate the thermal adaptation of this species to high temperature in view of integrated biology. In the present study,the expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 after rapid temperature increase were studied. Grass carps were acclimated at 20 t and then exposed to designated temperatures(20,22,24, 26,28,30,32,34 ℃) for 3 h heat shock. After 2 h-recovery at 20℃, liver, muscle and gill of tested fish were sampled and hsp70 and hsp90 were determined using semi-quantitive real-time PCR. Expression of hsps increased with temperature increase until 32℃ in muscle and gill, and then decreased at 34 ℃. In liver, expression of hsps kept increasing in all temperature treatments. These results indicated that hsp70 and hsp90 were sensitive to temperature increase in grass carp. Analyzed heat shock proteins data with previous results of oxygen consumption and lethal temperatures of grass carp, the physiological adaptations of grass carp could be explained by oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT), which pointed out that the imbalance between oxygen demand and tissue oxygen supply ability was the primary factor which limited organisms' thermal tolerance and the ability of aerobic metabolism greatly limited the survival of organism beyond critical temperatures. With temperature increase, the maximum value of oxygen consumption in grass carp occurred at 28 ℃, and then the oxygen consumption decreased when

  16. 投饲率对草鱼生长、体组成和能量收支的影响%Effects of ration levels on growth, body composition and energy budgets of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 罗伟; 王春芳

    2016-01-01

    为了建立草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idella)的精准投喂模型管理系统,研究了不同投喂水平下草鱼的能量收支。实验在水温(27.5±2.0)℃条件下,选用初始体重(71.03±1.13) g的草鱼,共设5个不同投饲水平(饥饿、1%鱼体重(1% BW)、2% BW、4% BW和饱食),研究摄食水平对草鱼生长、鱼体组分和能量收支的影响。结果显示:随投喂水平的增加,草鱼鱼体水分减少,粗蛋白含量、粗脂肪含量和能量增加,灰分含量先减少后增加。特定生长率和热积温生长系数均随投喂水平的增加先增加再降低,在5%鱼体重时达到最大,且高于饱食投喂组。饵料转化率( FE)在投喂水平为体重2%组最高,且显著高于其他各组。干物质和能量表观消化率随投喂水平的增加而显著增加,蛋白质表观消化率在投喂水平为体重2%组显著高于其他组。生长能比例随投喂水平的增加而显著增加,而在体重2%组到饱食组间均无显著性差异;代谢能与生长能相反。在最大投喂水平下的能量收支方程为:100 C=21.72 F+4.25 U+45.85R+28.18 G或100 A=61.94R+38.06G。结果表明,5%鱼体重的投喂量为草鱼此阶段的最佳投喂水平。%A growth trial was carried out at 5 ration levels ( starvation, 1% BW, 2% BW, 4% BW and satiety) to in-vestigate the effects of ration levels on the growth, body composition and energy budget of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (initial body weight 71. 03 ± 1. 13 g) at (27. 5 ± 2. 0)℃. The weight gain rate and the thermal-unit growth coeffi-cient both increased to maximum at 5% BW and then decreased. Feed conversion efficiency was highest in the ration level of 2% BW. Moisture contents decreased while crude protein, lipid and gross energy increased. Ash content initially de-creased and then increased with ration levels. Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy increased with the increasing ration levels. Apparent digestibility

  17. Molecular cloning and nutrient regulation analysis of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 gene in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Liang; Chen, Shuai; Xu, Jian-He; Yi, Le-Fei; Peng, Yong-Xing; Pan, Qian; Shen, Xin; Dong, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Xia-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G-motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates. Relative expression profile of ACSL1 mRNAs in different tissues indicated that ACSL1a is highly expressed in heart, mesenteric adipose, and brain tissues, whereas ACSL1b is highly expressed in heart, white muscle, foregut, and liver tissues. Nutrient regulation research showed that the expression levels of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were significantly down-regulated when 3, 6, and 9% fish oil were added in diet of grass carp as compared to the control group. However, no significant difference in the levels of ACSL1 mRNA was observed between the experimental groups. This study demonstrated the relationship between ACSL1a and ACSL1b genes in grass carp and laid a foundation for further research on ACSL family members in other species.

  18. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity at a 95% maximum, the dietary Phe requirement of young grass carp (256-629 g) was estimated to be 8.31 g kg(-1), corresponding to 2.75 g 100 g(-1) protein.

  19. Cinética de deterioração apresentada por filés de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella embalados a vácuo sob diferentes condições de refrigeração Kinetics of deterioration presented bt vacuum packaged grass carp (Ctenopharryngodon idella fillets under different refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Prentice

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da oferta de produtos pesqueiros e, as práticas de aquicultura poderão incrementar o consumo destes produtos, desde que a exigência cada vez maior dos consumidores por alimentos de melhor qualidade, frescos e naturais, seja levada em consideração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um estudo tecnológico visando à obtenção de um alimento minimamente processado à base de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, estudando os fatores que influenciam na qualidade dos filés de carpa sob embalagem com atmosfera modificada a vácuo, armazenadas a temperatura de refrigeração. Em resumo, o processamento mínimo aplicado às amostras, aliado à embalagem a vácuo permitiu aumentar a vida-útil dos filés de carpa-capim.The offer of fishery products and the Aquaculture practices will can increase consume if the exigency for fresh and high quality products would be attend. The objective of this work was obtain a MPR product with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, studying the factors that was important in the quality and in the deterioration of the products with modified atmosphere packaging at vacuum, stored at refrigeration temperature. In short, the MPR practices applied in the products and the vacuum packaging, allowed to increase the storage time of the grass carp fillets.

  20. 草鱼加热过程中肌肉蛋白质的热变性%Denaturation of muscle protein in Ctenopharyngodon idelhus during heat processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕燕; 邱澄宇; 李来好; 林洪; 陈培基; 郝淑贤; 杨贤庆

    2005-01-01

    The variations of muscle tissus, peroxidase and Ca22+ -ATPase activities and Vp (pasteurization value) were investigated with the fresh samples of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) heated at different temperatures, thus revealing the mechanism of denaturation of muscle protein by heating. The experimental results showed the great difference in muscle tissue structure before and after the samples heated. In the initial stage of heating the water loss accounted for 50% of the total. When the samples were separately heated at 75, 85, and 95℃, fk values (dehydration curve slope) were 5, 4.1 and 1.7, respectively, while Vp reaching 40 minutes were 22, 8 and 5 min, respectively. As to the time for deactivation of peroxidase in the heated samples at the various temperatures, it varied from 38, 10 and to less than 6 min, respectively and the deactivation rates of Ca2+ -ATPase in 1 min were 50%, 88% and 100%, respectively. Consequently, the higher temperature the sample was heated, the faster rate of thermocon ductivity, the lower rate of water loss, and the faster rate of peroxidase deactivation it was. Also, the Vp for the least requirement of pasteurization ( Vp≥40min) was obtained.

  1. Effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella%镁对草鱼生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪福保; 罗莉; 文华; 高开进; 陈任孝; 郭玉阳; 朱根廷

    2011-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Purified casein-gelatin-based diets (containing 76. 9 mg mg/kg) supplemented with six levels of Mg (0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg, respectively) were fed to juvenile grass carps (initial weight: 10. 68 ±0. 14 g). The results showed that: the highest specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention ( PR), weight/length (W/L) and lowest feed conversion rate (FCR) were observed for fish fed the diet containing 692. 0 mg mg/kg ( P < 0. 05 ). The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved the liver function of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), but the liver function was mildly impaired, and the spleen index was significantly improved in fish fed the high-Mg diets ( i. e. 1200 and 2400 mg mg/kg supplemented). With the increase of dietary magnesium, liver aspartate alanine transaminase ( GOT and GPT) showed a downward trend, while the GOT/GPT ratio was first increased and then decreased. But the liver glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was in the opposite trend. The GOT/GPT ratio reached the maximum at 692.0 mg/kg magnesiun level (P < 0. 05 ), while GDH activity reached the minimum. The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved liver malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and promoted hepatic glycogen deposition ( P < 0. 05 ). High-Mg diets ( = 1200 mg/kg supplemented) significantly reduced blood glucose levels of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), and the other groups showed no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ).%在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的纯化日粮(镁含量76.9 mg/kg)中添加不同水平的镁(0、150、300、600、1200和2400 mg/kg),研究镁对体重为(10.68±0.14)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响,时间为10周.结果显示:日粮中适

  2. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  3. Immunity decreases, antioxidant system damages and tight junction changes in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during folic acid deficiency: Regulation of NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This investigation used the same growth trial as the previous study, which showed that folic acid deficiency retarded growth in young grass carp (the percent weight gain of Groups 1-6 were 102.32 ± 3.41%, 137.25 ± 10.48%, 179.78 ± 3.95%, 164.33 ± 3.21%, 143.35 ± 8.12% and 115.28 ± 2.66%) [1]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary folic acid on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junctions in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10, 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results indicated that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities, and the complement component 3 content in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were decreased with folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P Folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) up-regulated interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression, meanwhile down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in the PI, MI and DI (P folic acid deficiency decreased fish intestinal innate immune function may be partly contributed to the regulation of NF-κB p65 pathway. Moreover, the activities and corresponding gene expression of glutathione content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase in fish intestine were depressed by deficient folic acid diet (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, up-regulated Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression in fish intestine (P folic acid diet damaged fish intestinal antioxidant capacity partly by regulating Nrf2/Keap1 pathway

  4. Cloning and Expression Analysis of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nrdp1 from Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼E3泛素连接酶Nrdp1基因cDNA克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗黎丽; 杨竹青; 王自蕊; 熊六凤; 周秋白

    2013-01-01

    神经调节素受体降解蛋白1(neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1,Nrdpl)是一种新的E3泛素连接酶,可调节细胞增殖和凋亡等.研究采用RACE方法从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)肝脏中克隆了Nrdpl的全长cDNA序列;采用半定量RT-PCR方法分析该基因在草鱼不同组织中表达情况.结果表明:该序列全长cDNA大小为1 865 bp(GenBank登录号:JX864048),其中开放阅读框为954 bp,编码318个氨基酸,预测分子量大小为36.09 ku,pH为7.0时理论等电点为5.83;5’和3’非翻译区的长度分别为291 bp和620 bp,在3’非翻译区发现2个mRNA不稳定信号(ATTTA)和1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(ATTAAA).该蛋白序列没有信号肽和跨膜结构,其二级结构主要以α-螺旋为主,不含β-折叠.氨基酸序列保守性分析表明,草鱼Nrdp1与斑马鱼、虹鳟及人的同源性分别为98%、94%和89%;该基因在心脏和脑中的表达量较多,在肌肉和血液中表达很少.%Nrdpl ( neuregulin receptor degradation protein - 1) is a newly defined E3 ubiquitin ligase and regulates the cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of grass carp Ctenopha-ryngodon idella Nrdp1 (gcNrdpl) consists of 1865 bp with a 291 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 620 bp 3' UTR, with an open reading frame of 954 bp encoding the 318 amino acids which is predicted to have no signal petptide and transmembrane helices. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcNrdpl showed 98% , 94% and 89% of identity to zebra fish Danio rerio, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and human Homo sapiens Nrdpl, respectively. The domain search revealed that gcNrdpl contains a RING domain (at amino acids 18 -56) and Pfam domain (at amino acids 137 -315). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcNrdpl is clustered in a same clade with zebra fish and rainbow trout Nrdpl. RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA is con-stitutively expressed in all the examined organs examined of healthy fish

  5. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  6. 网箱养殖患病草鱼细菌分离鉴定与回复感染研究%A Preliminary Study of Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Net Cage-Cultured Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Retrieved Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀荣; 曾燕玲; 魏志琴

    2012-01-01

    In the present experiment, the traditional microbiology method was used to isolate the endophyt-ic bacteria from Lateolabrax japonicus of net cage culture in the Wujiang River. A total of 7 strains were isolated. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplificated by PCR. and 600 bp fragments were obtained. These 600 bp fragments were successfully sequenced and entered into the NCBI (http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov /). Alignment analysis was made by BLAST tool to analyse the homology. The results showed that the 7 stains were Serratia proteamaculans (homology of 95%) . Staphylococcus saprophyticus (homology of 99%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (homology of 97%) , Providencia alcalifaciens (homology of 99%) , Aeromonas hydrophila (homology of 99%) , Aeromonas salmonicida (homology of 97%) , and Acinetobacter (homology of 97%). The bacteria were used for retrieved infection of the healthy C. idellus. S. proteamaculans, S saprophyticus, P. fluorescens, P. alcalifaciens and A. hydro phila were shown to have comparatively large hazard to grass carp, while A. salmonicida, and Acinetobacter induced no obvious infection.%利用常用细菌分离纯化方法从患病草鱼中分离出7株菌株,分别编号为Ⅰ~Ⅶ;对7株菌株的16 S rRNA 基因序列进行PCR扩增,均得到长约600 bp的片段;将扩增结果进行测序,测序结果输入到美国国立生物技术信息中心(NCBI,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/),用BLAST工具对序列进行同源性比对分析.结果表明:Ⅰ为沙雷氏菌,同源性达95%; Ⅱ为腐生葡萄球菌,同源性达99%;Ⅲ为荧光假单孢菌,同源性达97%;Ⅳ为产碱普罗威登斯菌,同源性达99%;Ⅴ为嗜水气单孢菌,同源性达99%; Ⅵ为杀鲑气单孢菌,同源性达97%;Ⅶ为不动菌属,同源性达97%.将Ⅰ~Ⅶ号菌株回复感染健康草鱼,结果沙雷氏菌、腐生葡萄球菌、荧光假单孢菌、产碱普罗威登斯菌和嗜水气单孢菌对草鱼的危害较大,而杀鲑气单孢菌和不

  7. Changes of biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) during chilled storage and effect on biogenic amines during thermal processing%草鱼冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月美; 包玉龙; 罗永康; 王航

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in biogenic amines and other quality indicators during chilled storage(4 ℃) and effect of thermal processing on biogenic amines (85 ℃,15 min) of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by observing the drip loss,sensory assessment,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),total viable counts and content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine,2-phenylethyl-amine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine).The correlation was analyzed between biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp.The resuhs showed that drip loss,TVB-N and total viable counts increased with storage time,which accorded with the changes of sensory scores.The preservation life of grass carp at 4 ℃ was 9 days.During the storage,putrescine and cadaverine changed most significantly that putrescine content reached (17.12 ± 4.40) mg·kg-1 and cadaverine content reached (237.47 ±3.96) mg·kg-1 at 15th day.Besides,cadaverine and putrescine had good correlation with drip loss,sensory assessment,TVB-N and total viable counts.After thermal processing,contents of putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and spermine decreased slightly,saying that thermal processing could not remove the biogenic amines of grass carp effectively.%文章研究了草鱼(Ctenpharyngodon idellus)冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响.将经过前处理的草鱼鱼片于4℃条件下贮藏,对其感官品质、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、菌落总数、汁液流失率以及生物胺等指标进行测定,另外经过85℃、15 min的热处理后对草鱼鱼片的生物胺进行测定,探求其变化规律及草鱼的生物胺与其品质指标的相关性.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,草鱼的汁液流失率、TVB-N、菌落总数均呈现明显的上升趋势,与感官分值的变化趋势相符,草鱼的感官接受极限为9d.草鱼鱼片在冷藏加工过程中变化最显著的生物胺是腐胺和尸胺,第15

  8. 高锰酸钾与敌百虫对草鱼幼鱼的联合毒性%Joint Toxicity of Potassium Permanganate and Trichlorphon to Juvenile Grass Carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温茹淑; 刘炳佳; 方展强

    2012-01-01

    采用静水实验法考察了高锰酸钾与敌百虫对草鱼幼鱼的联合毒性效应.结果显示,高锰酸钾与敌百虫的联合毒性在24、48、72和96 h时均表现为拮抗作用,且随着时间的延长,拮抗作用逐渐减弱.组织病理学的结果表明,暴露于高锰酸钾和敌百虫混合溶液中的草鱼幼鱼的肝脏、肾脏和鳃均发生了各种类型的病变.

  9. Cloning and characterization of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) Toll-like receptor 9%草鱼TLR9基因全长cDNA的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 彭丽敏; 董捷

    2011-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of Toll-like receptor 9 ( CiTLR9 ) gene was identified from grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idella)gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The CiTLR9 cDNA was 3 468 bp, encoding 1 058 amino acid (aa) residues, including signal peptide, 16 leucine rich repeat (LRR) motifs, one transmembrane zone and one Toll/IL-1 receptor ( TIR ) domain. The molecular weight of the deduced protein is 121 921 u, and the isoelectric point is 8.80. The amino acid sequence of CiTLR9 possessed 85% ,82% ,55%, and 55% identity with the TLR9s of Cyprinus carpio,Danio rerio,Salrno salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss respectively. CiTLR9 protein firstly clustered with TLR9s in Cyprinidae species, Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio in the phylogenetic analysis. CiTLR9 mRNA was detected in all the tested 15 tissues ( blood, brain, eye, foregut, midgut, hindgut, gas bladder, gill, head kidney,trunk kidney, heart, hepatopancreas, muscle, skin, spleen ) by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR, highly in gill,blood and head kidney. The results serve further studies on functions of TLR9 and exploitation of immunostimulators in grass carp.%采用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术,从草鱼鳃组织中克隆了Toll样受体9(Toll like receptor 9,TLR9)基因的cDNA全长.序列分析表明,草鱼TLR9 eDNA全长3 468 bp,编码1 058个氨基酸,其中包括18个氨基酸组成的信号肽、16个富含亮氨酸重复结构域(1eucine rich repeat,LRR)、1个跨膜区和1个TIR结构域(Toll/IL-1 receptor).该蛋白的分子量为121 921 u,等电点为8.80.氨基酸序列的同源性分析显示,草鱼TLR9与鲤TLR9的同源性最高(85%),依次为斑马鱼(82%)、大西洋鲑(55%)、虹鳟(55%).在系统发生树上,草鱼TLR9首先与鲤科的鲤和斑马鱼聚类.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,草鱼TLR9在被检测的15个组织中都有表达,其中在鳃中的表达最高,其次为血、头肾等.这些结果为进一步深入研究TLR9

  10. 复合芽孢杆菌对草鱼与鲢鳙混养的鱼种池水质的净化作用%Mixture of Bacillus Has Purification Effect on The Water in The Grass Carp with Silver Carp and Aristichthys nobilis Fish Fry Collection Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利丹; 王海; 李景胜; 韩立忠; 杨建光

    2015-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus juveniles with total length of 3 cm were polycultured with bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis juveniles and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix at a initial density of 3100 grass carp juveniles, 1100 bighead carp juve-niles, and 1100 silver carp juveniles in a 0.53 hm2 test pond where a mixture of Bacillus was administrated once every 15 d and at a ini-tial density of 2900 grass carp juveniles, 1500 bighead carp juveniles, and 1500 silver carp juveniles in a 0.667 hm2 control pond where no mixture of Bacillus was administrated. Water quality indicators were monitored in the test and control ponds 3 d after administrat ion of the Bacillus mixture. It was found that the water quality indicators was shown to be 18% lower COD, 6% lower ammonia nitro-gen level, and 41% lower unionized ammonia level in the test pond than in the control pond. However, higher Secchi disk transparency (28%)and dissolved oxygen level were observed in the test pond compared with those in the control pond, indicating that the mixture of Bacillus has purification effect on the water in an aquaculture pond.%试验池面积0.53hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养全长3cm 草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 0.31万尾、鳙Aristichthys nobilis 0.11万尾、白鲢 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 0.11万尾,每15d 泼洒复合芽孢杆菌 Bacillus;对照池面积0.667hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养草鱼0.29万尾、鳙0.15万尾、白鲢0.15万尾,不泼洒复合芽孢杆菌。在泼洒复合芽孢杆菌3d 后,检测试验池和对照池水质,研究复合芽孢杆菌对水质净化的作用。结果表明:试验池塘全年 COD、氨氮和非离子氨水平分别比对照池低6%、18%和41%,而透明度(28%)和溶解氧则增加。复合芽孢杆菌对养鱼池塘水质具有明显的净化作用。

  11. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  12. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  13. 主养草鱼池塘三种混养模式下鱼类肠道菌群PCR-DGGE比较%Comparative on Fish Intestinal Microbiota from Three Polyculture Patterns in Mainly Cultural Grass Carp Pond by PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴; 熊邦喜; 朱玉婷; 施培松; 余育和

    2012-01-01

    消化道微生物在宿主生长、营养和健康等方面起到重要的作用.本实验采用基于PCR扩增的变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术比较研究了主养草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)池塘三种不同混养模式下的鱼类肠道菌群差异.结果表明,三种混养模式下同种鱼的生长率出现显著性差异(P<0.05),而肠道细菌16SrDNA V3区特征片段PCR-DGGE指纹分析显示草鱼的肠道菌群相似性较高(>42.2%);投喂配合饲料的草鱼与摄食浮游生物的鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis和匙吻鲟(Polyodon spathula)肠道菌群结构相差最大(<19%),鲢和鳙肠道菌群相似性较高(>41.6%),除模式Ⅱ鳙的肠道和匙吻鲟的胃菌群具有较高的相似性(>50.3%)外,匙吻鲟的消化道菌群和鲢鳙的相似性低.实验共回收测序了14条特定DGGE条带中的DNA片段,并进行系统进化分析,结果显示,这14条条带分别归属于4个细菌类群:变形细菌门(Proteobacteria),拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes),厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)和梭杆菌门(Fusobacteria).研究结果为鱼类混养模式的优化,饲料研发和鱼病防治提供了基础参考资料.%The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the growth, nutrition and well being of the host, and it would be necessary to know the microflora structure in the gastrointestinal tract and the influence factors. The present study used 16S Rdna polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology to investigate the intestinal microbiota diversity of fanned fishes from three polyculture patterns with grass caxp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as a major component. The results showed that there was significant differences among special growth rate of the same species from the different polyculture patterns after four months' cultivation and data analysis (P 42.2%) of grass carp intestinal bacteria in different polyculture patterns. The intestinal

  14. Characterization of two heat shock proteins (Hsp70/Hsc70) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): evidence for their differential gene expression, protein synthesis and secretion in LPS-challenged peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Two cDNAs, encoding the stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and the constitutively expressed 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70), were isolated from grass carp. The Hsp70 and Hsc70 cDNAs were 2250 bp and 2449 bp in length and contained 1932 bp and 1953 bp open reading frames, respectively. Tissue distribution results showed that Hsp70/Hsc70 was highly expressed in gill, kidney, head kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Using grass carp PBLs as a cell model, effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mRNA and protein levels of Hsp70/Hsc70 were examined. In this case, LPS increased the mRNA expression of Hsp70 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on Hsc70 mRNA expression. In agreement with this, LPS elevated the intracellular Hsp70 markedly, but not the Hsc70 protein levels in parallel experiments. Furthermore, Hsp70 protein was also detected in culture medium. Moreover, inhibition of LPS on Hsp70 release in a time-dependent manner was observed, indicating that there may be a dynamic balance between Hsp70 stores and Hsp70 release in grass carp PBLs following exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results not only shed new insights into the different regulations of LPS on Hsp70/Hsc70 gene expression, protein synthesis and release, but also provide a basis for further study on the functional role of Hsp70 in fish immune response.

  15. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling.

  16. 草鱼腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶克隆及序列分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADENYLOSUCCINATE LYASE cDNA AND GENOMIC DNA IN GRASS CARP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈刚; 顾继锐; 辜文博; 朱文漓; 吴江; 刘汉元; 徐恒

    2009-01-01

    腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶(Adenylosuccinate lyase,ADSL)是嘌呤核苷酸合成过程中的关键酶.研究以草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道cDNA文库为基础,应用PCR、RT-PCR和RACE技术,成功获得了草鱼肠道组织腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶基因的cDNA全长和基凶组DNA全长.该基因全长1584 bp,包含一个1449 bp的开放阅读框,编码482个氨基酸,与其他脊椎动物比对显示,其序列具有较高的保守性.草鱼腺苷酸基琥珀酸裂解酶基因组DNA由13个外显子和12个内含子组成,其外显子拼接位点非常保守.遵循GT-AG原则.%Ctenopharyngodon idellus, which is common known as grass carp, is a kind of large cyprinoid fish in China. It lives in both north and south water of China and is the most important fish in Chinese fresh water aquaculture. Grass carp can efficiently transform vegetable protein into high-quality animal protein. So people call the grass carp "cattle and sheep in water". The intestine of grass carp is the main part for nutrition digestion and the functional genes from the intestinal cell are tightly connected with the efficient transformation of vegetable protein and animal protein. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) gene encoding enzymes involved in two pathways of purine nucleotide metabolism are of considerable biological and medical importance. It catalyzes two similar but separate reactions in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway. Now, we are trying to build a connection between grass carp genome project and the industrialization of function feedstuff depended on the information that we have got from this research. In this research, we clone the full length cDNA and genomic DNA of ADSL from grass carp intestine, which is very important in the purine metabolism. The cDNA sequence of Grass Carp ADSL gene contains complete ORF starting at nucleotide 64 with a stop codon at nucleotide 1510-1512. The translated region is of 1446 nucleotides with full open reading frame (ORF

  17. 维生素A对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响%Effects of vitamin A on growth performance,body composition and serum transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 文华; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟; 杨长庚

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究VA对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响,以确定草鱼饲料中VA适宜的添加量。【方法】采用酪蛋白和脱脂豆粕为蛋白源、白糊精为糖源、玉米胚芽油和大豆油为脂肪源的半纯化饲料作为基础饲料,配制VA水平为0(对照组),810,1 620,2 520,3 224,3 980,7 950,16 386IU/kg的8组试验饲料,饲养初始体质量为(10.79±0.52)g的草鱼12周,每组3个重复,每重复40尾,试验结束后测算体质量增长率、特定生长率、饲料系数、鱼体营养成分以及血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性等指标。【结果】对照组的草鱼幼鱼,在试验后期有8.33%出现眼球突出、尾鳍充血的症状,添加VA试验组的草鱼未出现类似症状;饲料中VA含量在0~1 620IU/kg时,体质量增长率随饲料中VA增加而显著增加(P〈0.05),饲料中VA含量〉7 950IU/kg时,体质量增长率显著降低(P〈0.05);特定生长率的变化趋势与体质量增长率类似,而饲料系数变化趋势与体质量增长率相反;VA对草鱼成活率和全鱼水分、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分含量无显著性影响(P〉0.05);饲料中缺乏VA会显著降低血清中ALP的活性,同时显著提高GPT和GOT的活性(P〈0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,饲料中缺乏VA会引起草鱼幼鱼眼球突出、尾鳍充血和肝功能异常,饲料中添加适量的VA会促进草鱼的生长,降低饲料系数,但过量的VA会降低草鱼幼鱼的生长速度。对草鱼体质量增长率与饲料中VA含量进行折线回归分析,可知草鱼幼鱼获得最佳生长时对VA的需要量为1 653IU/kg,同时建议饲料中VA含量不宜超过7 950IU/kg。%【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of the dietary vitamin A on growth,body composition and transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella),to determine optimal

  18. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  19. 十溴二苯乙烷对草鱼幼鱼肝脏和肌肉组织氧化应激效应的影响%Oxidative Stress Effects of Decabromodiphenylethane on the Liver and Muscle Tissues of Juvenile Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩倩; 张丽娟; 胡国成; 于云江; 甘炼; 崔科; 黄楚珊

    2016-01-01

    十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)是目前在全球范围内广泛使用的新型溴代阻燃剂,其环境风险已引起广泛关注,但目前仍缺乏针对水生生物的毒性研究数据.作者通过饲料中添加十溴二苯乙烷暴露的方式对草鱼幼鱼进行长期暴露实验,研究500、1 000和3 000mg·kg-1三个饲料添加剂量暴露组和1个对照组长期暴露对草鱼幼鱼肝脏和肌肉组织中氧化应激酶(SOD、CAT和GSH-PX)活性和抗氧化物质(GSH)含量的影响.结果显示:暴露8周后,随着DBDPE暴露水平的升高,草鱼幼鱼肝脏组织中氧化应激酶(SOD、CAT和GSH-PX)和抗氧化物质(GSH)均表现出低浓度诱导及高浓度抑制的效应.500和1 000 mg·kg-1剂量组草鱼幼鱼肝脏组织中SOD、CAT和GSH-PX活性和GSH含量均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),且均在500mg·kg-1剂量组达到最高.3 000 mg·kg-1剂量组SOD、CAT和GSH-PX活性和GSH含量低于500和1 000mg·kg-1暴露组,但与对照组无显著性差异(P>0.05).草鱼幼鱼肌肉组织中氧化应激酶活性变化甚微,3个浓度剂量组肌肉组织中SOD、CAT活性和GSH含量以及500mg·kg-1剂量组GSH-PX活性与对照组均无显著性差异(P>0.05).研究成果表明DBDPE暴露影响草鱼幼鱼肝脏组织的抗氧化防御系统,可以诱导草鱼幼鱼产生氧化应激效应.

  20. 草鱼幼鱼实用日粮中添加紫花苜蓿草粉效果评价%EVALUATION OF DRY CLOVER MEAL AS A FEED PROTEIN RESOURCE IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP.CTENOPHARYNGODON INELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华林; 钟鸣; 冯健; 罗波; 赵海祥

    2011-01-01

    实验旨在评估苜蓿草粉作为草鱼饲料的潜在蛋白原料的可能性.360尾草鱼幼鱼[(8.72±0.34)朗分成6个实验组,每个实验组3个平行组,每组20尾鱼,养殖于250 L循环水族箱中.试验日粮1、2、3、4、5添加2.5%、5%、10%、15%和20%苜蓿草粉,分别占日粮总蛋白的1.75%、3.50%、7.0%、10.5%和14%.对照组日粮以大豆粕、花生粕、棉籽粕和菜籽粕作为对照蛋白源.所有日粮为等蛋白质(粗蛋白28.5%)和等能量(15.92 mJ/kg).实验期为56d,实验各组鱼在整个试验期间,没有出现死亡.2.5%和5%苜蓿草粉日粮组(试验日粮1、2)鱼较对照组鱼生长性能与饲料效益有所提高,10%组(试验日粮3)与对照组无显著性差异,但15%和20%日粮组(试验日粮4、5)鱼较对照组鱼显著性下降(P<0.05).结果表明,苜蓿草粉在草鱼日粮中适宜添加量为7.8%.最多可以添加到10%.%In order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, the research interest has been directed towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of dried clover (Medicago sativa L.) meal as an alternative protein source for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. A 56d feeding trial was carried out on 6 triplicate groups of 20 fish (8.72±0.34) g in 250 L aquaria connected to a re-circulating system. Five test diets were formulated to contain clover meal at levels of 2.5%,5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the diets or 1.75%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 10.5% and 14.0% of the total plant dietary protein (Diet 1, 2,3, 4 and 5) respectively and one diet acting as a control which included soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources. All diets were isonitrogenous (28.5% crude protein) and isoenergetic (15.92 M J/kg).No mortality was observed during the whole test period. Fish in diets with 2.5% and 5% dry clover meal (Diet I and 2

  1. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  3. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  4. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  5. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  6. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Pconserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  7. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  8. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  9. 感染小瓜虫草鱼幼鱼组织病理学变化%Histopathological Changes in Juvenile Grass Carp with Parasite Ichthyophthirius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珍珍; 苏文; 陶秉春

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological changes were observed in brain ,heart ,gill ,fin ,head kidney ,midkidney , premaxilla ,skin and viscus in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus infected with protozoon Ichthyophthirius sp .The protozoon was found in various organs included gill filaments ,premaxilla , pectoral fins and dorsal fins ,and there was congestion in the brain ,and the auricle ,ventricule and arterial balls of the heart .There was congestion in the gill filaments with inflammatory cells infiltration ,the disappeared partly gill lamella structure ,and respiratory epithelial cells .The congestion in the head kidney , the fatty degeneration and hyalinization of epithelial cells of renal tubuls and the connecting tubule ,and enlargement of glomerula led to the disappearance of renal follicle ,with congestion in renal interstitium . The collagen fiber of dense layer in abdominal subcutaneous tissue showed part hyaline degeneration ,the congestion vein ,the intestinal mucous epithelial cell shed partly ,and the almost dissolved epithelial cells . The serious congestion was observed in the hepatopancreas ,and venous congestion appeared in the liver sinusoids and spleen .%应用组织病理学方法,对感染小瓜虫草鱼幼鱼的脑、心脏、鳃、鳍、头肾、中肾、上颌、皮肤肌肉及内脏团等组织器官进行观察。观察结果表明,各组织器官均有明显的组织病理学变化,鳃丝、上颌、胸鳍及背鳍等组织器官可见小瓜虫寄生;脑组织淤血;心耳、心室及动脉球内发生淤血;鳃丝淤血并有炎细胞浸润,部分鳃小片结构消失,呼吸上皮细胞脱落;头肾淤血;中肾肾小管、连接小管的上皮细胞内出现脂肪样变及玻璃样变,肾小球肿大导致肾小囊囊腔消失,肾间质淤血;腹皮下致密层胶原纤维发生玻璃样变,静脉淤血;肠道黏膜层部分上皮细胞脱落,严重者上皮细胞溶解消失,黏膜下层可见炎细胞浸润

  10. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  11. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL VE ON MEAT QUALITY AND ANTI-OXIDANT CAPACITY OF ADULT GRASS CARP%VE对草鱼成鱼肌肉品质和抗氧化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小勤; 胡斌; 冷向军; 李家乐; 文华

    2009-01-01

    在VE含量为24.1 mg/kg的实用基础饲料中分别添加VE 0(对照组)、25、50、100、200 mg/kg,饲喂平均体重为(614.9±60.5)g的草鱼60d.考察VE对草鱼成鱼生长性能、肌肉品质和抗氧化性能的影响.结果表明,各组草鱼增重率分别为51.6%、53.5%、53.4%、53.5%、54.8%,饲料系数分别为2.28、2.17、2.20、2.19、2.15,饲料中添加25-200 mg/kg VE对草鱼成伍增重率、饲料系数无显著影响(P>0.05);在肌肉品质方面,饲料中添加VE对肌肉水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量无显著影响(P>0.05).肌肉保鲜肉滴水损失和冷冻肉渗出损失随VE添加量的增加而降低;随饲料中VE添加量的增加,肌肉、肝脏中VE含量增加,丙二醛含量则显著降低(P<0.05),其中VE添加量为200 mr,/kg组的肌肉、肝脏VE含量较对照组增加431.0%、353.7%,丙二醛含量则下降67.2%、61.3%(P<0.01);在血清抗氧化能力方面,当VE添加量≥50 mg/kg后,草鱼血清SOD活性显著提高(P<0.05),而血清总抗氧化能力在VE添加量0-100 mg/kg各组间尤显著差异,200 mg/kgVE组的血清总抗氧化能力较对照组显著增高(P<0.05).上述研究表明,饲料中添加VE能促进草鱼生长,改善肌肉品质,增强机体抗氧化能力.以生长性能为标准,草鱼成鱼饲料(基础饲料含VE 24.1 mg/kg)中的VE添加量25 mg/kg;以肌肉品质、抗氧化能力指标为标准,草鱼成鱼饲料中的VE添加量为200 mg/kg.%A Study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental vitamin E(VE) in practical diet on growth, meat quality and anti-oxidant capacity of adult grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Basal diet, added with VE 0 (control group) , 25 , 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, were fed to adult grass carp for 60 days. The basal diet contained 28. 05% crude protein, 3. 25% crude fat and 24.1 mg/kg VE. Adult grass carp, with body weight of (614.9+60.5) g, were divided into five treatments with triplicate groups, and raised in 15 cement pools (3.0m x 2.5m x

  12. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  14. Dataset on differential gene expression analysis for splenic transcriptome profiling and the transcripts related to six immune pathways in grass carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper are related to the research article entitled “Transcriptome profiling of developing spleen tissue and discovery of immune-related genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella” (Li et al. 2016 [1]. Please refer to this article for interpretation of the data. Data provided in this submission are comprised of the expression levels of unigenes, significantly differentially expressed genes(DEGs, significant enrichment GO term and KEGG pathway of DEGs, and information of the transcripts assigned to six immune pathways.

  15. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  16. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  17. Construction of a subtractive cDNA library from the intestinal tissue of grass carp experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila%草鱼肠道组织差异表达基因消减文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建明; 陈韬; 肖调义; 陈立祥; 章怀云

    2007-01-01

    以致病性嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)人工感染的1龄草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道组织为材料,应用抑制性差减杂交技术,构建了肠道组织的消减cDNA文库.以草鱼管家基因β-actin作为差减指标检测文库差减效率达210倍,表明感染细菌后某些差异表达基因得到了相应倍数的富集.将获得的cDNA片段连接到A/T载体,并转化大肠杆菌DH5α感受态细胞.

  18. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  19. Effect of crosslinking method on biological properties of grass carp skin collagen sponges%交联方法对草鱼皮胶原蛋白海绵性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海波; 梁艳萍; 李云雁; 王敏; 方成; 汪海婴

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of crosslinking method on biological properties of grass carp skin collagen sponge was discussed. Collagen was extracted from skin of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and collagen sponge was prepared from this collagen. Then,this collagen sponge was crosslinked with different methods,such as UV, dehydrothermal, EDC/NHS and glutaraldehyde crosslinking processes. At the same time, the biological and mechanical properties of those collagen sponges, including degree of crosslinking, denaturation temperature,tensile strength and enzymatic sensitivity in vitro,were evaluated and compared. Experiment results indicated that the grass carp skin collagen was type I collagen. The degree of crosslinking of different crosslinking methods decreased in the order of glutaraldehyde (72. 0% ) > EDC/ NHS(32. 5% ) > dehydrothermal(29. 9% ) > UV( 15. 6% ). Compared with control collagen sponges,the denaturation temperature (67. 4 ℃), tensile strength ( 125. 6 kPa)and enzymatic sensitivity in vitro of collagen sponges crosslinked by glutaraldehyde were significantly improved ( P < 0. 05 ); EDC/NHS crosslinking could lead to obvious increasing in denaturation enthalpy (6. 86 J/g)and moderate improving on tensile strength (98.6 kPa) and enzymatic sensitivity for collagen sponge ( P < 0. 05). The changes of biological and mechanical properties of collagen sponges after being crosslinked by dehydrothermal and UV crosslinking processes were not notable. The results of FTIR showed that glutaraldehyde crosslinking could improve properties of collagen sponges by forming new covalent bond in triple helix structure of collagen, while EDC/NHS crosslinking do that by forming new hydrogen bonds among collagen molecules. This research shows that glutaraldehyde and EDC/NHS crosslinking could lead to obvious improvement in properties of collagen sponges but the influences on properties of collagen sponges after being crosslinked by dehydrothermal and UV crosslinking

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  2. 草鱼出血病%Grass carp bleeding disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱并生

    2011-01-01

    @@ 草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idella是我国重要的淡水鱼类养殖品种,但养殖过程极易发生出血病导致草鱼大量死亡,给草鱼养殖业带来巨大损失。我国在20世纪70年代开始进行病原的研究,1980年发现病毒颗粒并确认为草鱼出血病病原,1991年国际病毒分类委员会将其命名为草鱼呼肠孤病毒(Grass carp reovirus,GCRV)。一直以来除呼肠孤病毒感染草鱼引起出血病外,未见有病毒和细菌混合感染的报道。本刊2009年8期介绍了邓国成、叶星等发表的文章“草鱼出血病混合感染的嗜水气单胞菌的分离、鉴定与理化特性”[1]。作者采集广东、福建等省部分地区的病鱼进行病原分析,发现所检病鱼样本存在病毒和细菌合并感染的情况,细菌性病原为嗜水气单胞菌Aeromonas hydrophila。研究结果为草鱼病害的有效防治提供了新的思路与科学依据。

  3. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  4. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats.

  5. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  6. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  7. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  8. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  9. Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

    2013-12-01

    Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks.

  10. Cloning and analysis of the full-length cDNA sequences of the heat shock protein 70 gene from silver carp, grass carp and Nile tilapia%鲢鱼、草鱼和尼罗罗非鱼热休克蛋白70基因cDNA全序列的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何珊; 梁旭方; 李观贵; 王琳; 郁颖

    2009-01-01

    采用RT-PCR技术和RACE技术分别从淡水食毒藻鱼类鲢鱼(Hypophthalmichthys molotrix)、尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis nilotica)及草食性鱼类草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)肝脏扩增出热休克蛋白70(HSP70)cDNA全序列,并与其它鱼类、两栖类和哺乳类动物的HSP70氨基酸进行了同源性比较.结果表明,鲢鱼、草鱼和尼罗罗非鱼肝脏HSP70基因cDNA全长分别为2356 bp、2348 bp和2242 bp,分别编码649、649和638个氨基酸.鲢鱼、草鱼和尼罗罗非鱼HSP70与其它鱼类、两栖类和哺乳类动物HSP70氨基酸同源性均较高,表明其在进化上高度保守,且承担着重要的生理功能.构建系统进化树发现,鲢鱼、草鱼与其它鲤科鱼类斑马鱼、银鲫(Carassius auratils gibelio)的HSP70氨基酸同源性较高,处于同一进化树分枝;而尼罗罗非鱼HSP70未与其它鲈形目鱼类,如鲷科鱼类聚为一枝,而是占据一个独立的分枝,这与克隆得到的鲢鱼、草鱼肝脏HSP70基因可能为结构型HSP70,而尼罗罗非鱼肝脏HSP70基因可能为诱导型HSP70的结果相一致.%Heat shock protein 70 ( HSP70) full-length cDNAs were cloned from the liver of two phytoplanktivorous freshwater fish, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica) , and one herbivorous fish, grass carp (Cunopharyngodon idella) using RT-PCR and RACE. Sequence analysis revealed that the silver carp, grass carp, and Nile tilapia HSP70 cDNAs were 2356, 2348, and 2242 bp in length, and contained an open-reading frame ( ORF) of 1950 bp ( encoding a polypeptide of 649 amino acids) , 1950 bp ( encoding a polypeptide of 649 amino acids), 1917 bp (encoding a polypeptide of 638 amino acids), respectively. Silver carp, grass carp and Nile tilapia HSP70 sequences are highly homologous to other fish, amphibia and mammals HSP70, which suggests that they play a role in fundamental cellular processes. Results of the phylogenetic analysis revealed that silver carp

  11. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844, and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845 were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50 of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term: common carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1; grass carp: control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (~38% and muscle (~50% of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively. Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon

  12. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  13. 草鱼调理食品加工工艺%The processing technology of grasp carp (Ctenopharyn odon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤庆; 宋莹; 林婉玲; 刘名求

    2014-01-01

    以新鲜草鱼为原料,经分割成鱼块后用食盐、白砂糖、生抽、白酒及葱、姜、甘草对草鱼进行调理加工,并以感官评价为指标确定浸渍液的最佳配方,在此基础上以质构、色泽、感官评价和NaCl含量为指标进一步研究了浸渍时间和蒸制时间对产品品质的影响,最终确定了草鱼调理食品生产的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:浸渍液适宜配方为,食盐2 g/100 g、白砂糖lg/100 g、生抽2 mL/100 g、白酒1 mL/100 g、葱:姜:干草(质量比2∶1∶1)36g/100 g,浸渍时间为4h,蒸煮时间为15 min,在此条件下加工出的产品品质最佳.

  14. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  16. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  17. EFFECTS OF INFUSING TAURINE SOLUTION ON DIGENSTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS%灌喂牛磺酸对草鱼消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙勇; 罗莉; 幺相姝; 王颖; 刁晓明

    2004-01-01

    采用灌喂方法研究牛磺酸对草鱼肠道和肝胰脏消化酶活性的影响,包括时间梯度试验和浓度梯度试验2部分.结果表明:(1)肠道蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性均在灌喂后2 h达到峰值,肝胰脏蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性分别在2 h和5h达到峰值而脂肪酶活性则随时间延长一直升高;(2)肠道蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性分别在灌喂浓度为0.8,0.8和1.0 mg/mL时达到峰值,肝胰脏3种消化酶的活性则分别在灌喂浓度为0.2,0.6和0.8 mg/mL时达到峰值.

  18. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  19. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2) of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gyno- genetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important signifi- cances in both biological evolution and production application.

  20. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Squaliobarbus curriculus (♀) × Ctenopharyngodon idella (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiao-Lin; Liu, Min; Xiao, Tiao-Yi; Xu, Bao-Hong; Su, Jian-Ming

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we reported the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Squaliobarbus curriculus (♀) × Ctenopharyngodon idella (♂), which was obtained by artificial hybridization. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,616 bp, with the base composition of 31.15% A, 25.02% T, 27.66% C, and 16.17% G. It contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of these genes is the same as that found in the teleosts. All the protein initiation codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitogenome of the hybrid of S. curriculus (♀) × C. idella (♂) provides an important data set for the study in genetic mechanism.

  2. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  3. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  4. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  5. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections.

  6. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  7. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host.

  8. 草鱼幼鱼对缬氨酸需要量的研究%Research on Dietary Valine Requirement of Juvenile Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉; 王亚哥; 李芹; 汪福保; 陈时; 刘彪; 文华

    2010-01-01

    试验选用体重(9.5±0.3)g的草鱼幼鱼,随机分成6个组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾;以花生仁粕、酪蛋白及明胶为蛋白质源,分别饲喂缬氨酸水平为7.3~22.3 g/kg的6组等氮半精制饲料(粗蛋白质含量为32%),经70 d的生长试验研究其日粮缬氨酸的最适需求量.试验结果表明:日粮缬氨酸水平对草幼鱼的增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率、肌肉RNA/DNA比率、鱼体常规成分组成、消化酶活性、肝胰脏谷草-谷丙转氨酶和谷氨酸脱氢酶活性以及血液学指标都有显著的影响(P<0.05).随日粮缬氨酸水平的增加,增重率,特定生长率、蛋白质效率及肌肉RNA/DNA比率均呈先升后降趋势,均在16.3 g/kg组达到最大值(P<0.05).以增重率、特定生长率、肌肉RNA/DNA比率为基础对饲料缬氨酸水平进行二次回归分析,确定草鱼幼鱼日粮(32%粗蛋白质)缬氨酸适宜需要量分别为15.6、15.1及16.0 g/kg(日粮基础)或48.8、47.2及50.0 g/kg(日粮蛋白质基础).

  9. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  10. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  11. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  12. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  13. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  14. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  15. In vivo measurement of protein functional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Wang, Zhicheng Zhang, Qinyi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational changes in proteins are fundamental to all biological functions. In protein science, the concept of protein flexibility is widely used to describe protein dynamics and thermodynamic properties that control protein conformational changes. In this study, we show that urea, which has strong sedative potency, can be administered to fish at high concentrations, and that protein functional changes related to anesthesia induction can be measured in vivo. Ctenopharyngodon idellus (the grass carp has two different types of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, urea-insensitive and urea-sensitive, which are responsible for the heat endurance of fish. The urea-sensitive NMDA receptor showed high protein flexibility, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor showed less flexibility, and the protein that is responsible for ethanol anesthesia showed the lowest flexibility. The results suggest that an increase in protein flexibility underlies the fundamental biophysical mechanisms of volatile general anesthetics.

  16. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  17. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  18. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  19. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  20. Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home.

  1. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  2. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning,Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expression of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用。本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS)。该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2263bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF)1575bp、5'非编码区(UTR)118bp和3'UTR570bp。其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59kD,等电点为7.02。在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3'UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3'UTR AC重复序列相似。序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%。同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357。此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH结合位点。根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群。采用实时荧光定量PCR(Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征。结果显示,草鱼CATmRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低。本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础。%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide.The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus).The gene CAT(GenBank Accession No.FJ560431) was 2 263 base

  3. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  4. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  5. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE USE OF GALICIAN CARP IN AQUACULTURE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is know that first attempts of cap culture in ponds started as early as in XIII century. One of oldest strain is Galician carp. Therefore, it is important to highlight the historical development and conditions of the distribution of Galician carp across the territory of Western Ukraine and in European countries. Findings. We determined the main periods in the development of pond fish culture and its one of main object — carp. Galician carp was first presented at the Agricultural Exhibition in Berlin in 1880 by the farm Kanov, which was located on the territory of Galicia. These carp was characterized by nice flesh properties and relatively early maturation that caused interest in fish farmers. Galician carp was reared in ponds during early stages of aquaculture development, therefore we examined historical information on the use of this group in fish culture. Few-scaled (mirror Galicia carp were used not only as a commercial fish as a pure line but also for crossing with other groups of carps for obtaining higher productivity values due to heterozygosis. Throughout centuries, low level of selection, fish diseases, damages caused by wars resulted in the virtual disappearance of this carp group. Therefore, currently, Galician carp remained in few fish farms of Ukraine and they need further studies in order to be preserved as a native species, which became rare and vanishing. Originality. This work is a generalization of historical information on the development and establishment of fish culture on the territories, which belonged to Galicia. A special attention is given to Galician carp, which is currently rare and vanishing on the territory of Ukraine. This carp played an important role taking into account their effect when forming Ukrainian strains of carp. Practical value. This review of historical information on Galician carp can be used during further study of a complex of technical and biological properties of this group of carp

  6. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Breck, J.T.; Wittmann, M.E.; Cooke, R.M.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Zhu, Z.; Johnson, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonindigenous bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix; hereafter, “Asian carps” [AC]) threaten to invade and disrupt food webs and fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes through their high consumption of plankton. To quantify the potential effects of AC

  7. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  8. A common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line shares morphological and functional characteristics with macrophages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A carp leucocyte cell line (CLC), originating from peripheral blood, was characterised to assess its suitability for studies into carp macrophage functions. The cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised against carp head kidney macrophages. Other macrophage characteristics observed were: bindi

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis of skin color variation in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied.In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains.In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values.

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  11. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S; Chapman, Duane C.; Hoff, MIchael H.

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp, black carp, bighead carp, and silver carp are native to Asia, and in North America are referred to as Asian carps. These fishes have been popular aquaculture species for more than a thousand years. After their importation to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, all of these species have escaped confinement. There is concern about the ecological and economic damage consequences of introducing these environmental engineers into North America.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  13. Influence of Different Salting Methods on the Salting Rate and Physicochemical Property of Grass Carp%不同腌制方式对草鱼腌制速率和理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 吕飞; 丁玉庭

    2012-01-01

    Effects of four different salting methods ( brining B, brining with vinegar BV, dry salting D, vacuum pluse tumbling VP) on the salting rate and the physicochemical changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were studied. To achieve the same NaCl content, VP used the least time. Moisture content and Aw of grass craps treated by D and VP tended to decrease with increasing salting time (p〈0.05). Total weight change ratio tended to decrease when salted by D and VP, while, increasing when salted by B and BV (p〈0.05). When achieved the same NaCl content, different salting methods produced influence on the physicochemical properties of grass carp. The pH and formaldehyde nitrogen of D and VP treated fish tended to increase. The lowest pH and Formaldehyde nitrogen was found in samples treated by BV, while the total titratable acids increased in this samples. BV produced damage to protein as indicated by lower protein solubility and higher MFI (p〈0.05). In conclusion, the physicochemical changes of grass carp muscle during salting were governed by the applied salting method.%研究不同腌制方式(湿腌,醋腌,真空滚揉腌制,干腌)对草鱼腌制速率和理化性质的影响。干腌和真空滚揉腌制草鱼随着腌制时间增加重量不断降低,其Aw和水分含量降低速率快(P〈0.05),湿腌和醋腌草鱼重量随腌制时间的增长而增加(P〈0.05),达到相同含盐量时真空滚揉所需时间最少,不同腌制方式对草鱼理化性质产生了很大影响,醋腌草鱼pH和氨基态氮较低(p〈0.05),总酸较高(p〈0.05),湿腌对蛋白影响最小,其蛋白抽提率最高(P〈0.05),MFI最小(p〈0.05)。

  14. [Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

    2013-01-01

    The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides.

  15. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  16. Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the extent of arsenic (As) contamination in five common species of freshwater fish (northern snakehead [Channa argus], mandrarin fish [Siniperca chuatsi], largemouth bass [Lepomis macrochirous], bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis] and grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus]) and their associated fish pond sediments collected from 18 freshwater fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The total As concentrations detected in fish muscle and sediment in freshwater ponds around the PRD were 0.05-3.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w. wt) and 8.41-22.76 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt), respectively. In addition, the As content was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to total organic carbon (TOC) contents in sediments. Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) showed that omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals from the sediment than carnivorous fish. In addition, feeding habits of fish also influence As accumulation in different fish species. In this study, two typical food chains of the aquaculture ponds were selected for investigation: (1) omnivorous food chain (zooplankton, grass carp and bighead carp) and (2) predatory food chain (zooplankton, mud carp and mandarin fish). Significant linear relationships were obtained between log As and δ (15)N. The slope of the regression (-0.066 and -0.078) of the log transformed As concentrations and δ (15)N values, as biomagnifications power, indicated there was no magnification or diminution of As from lower trophic levels (zooplankton) to fish in the aquaculture ponds. Consumption of largemouth bass, northern snakehead and bighead carp might impose health risks of Hong Kong residents consuming these fish to the local population, due to the fact that its cancer risk (CR) value exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels (10(-4)) stipulated by the USEPA.

  17. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (♂) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0 became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A1). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A1 fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A1, there were 85% tetraploids (A1-4n), 10% triploids (A1-3n) and 5% diploids (A1-2n), suggesting that diploid A0 could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A0 was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A1, only A1-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A1-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A1-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A1-4n developed well and mainly contained Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ-stage oocytes. The Ⅳ-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of Ⅳ-stage oocytes. Because A1-2n and A1-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A1-4n fish not

  18. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with

  19. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  20. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts

  1. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  2. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  3. Function of the opioid system during inflammation in carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in modulation of both innate and acquired immune responses, thus altering resistance to a variety of infectious agents. We sequenced and characterized carp opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR) and found their regulated expression in piscine leukocytes. Moreover, both in

  4. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  5. Trypanosomiasis-induced Th17-like immune responses in carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-γ2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite.

  6. Histological and immunohistochemical observations on the early development of head kidney in Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼头肾发生组织学与免疫组织化学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雪彬; 常藕琴; 石存斌; 付小哲; 王亚军; 吴淑勤

    2013-01-01

    Histogenesis of the head kidney was examined in the collected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) from 1 to 103 days post hatching(dph).Histological technology was applied to learn the change of the structure of the head kidney and the changes in the distribution of IgM (immunoglobulin M) positive cells and PAS (periodic acid schiff reaction) positive cells in head kidney.The primordium of the head kidney formed at 6 dph.And in the primordium several undifferentiated hemopoietic stem cell spread among the renal tubules which were derived from the protonephridia.Then,the immune cells increased gradually due to the hemopoietic stem cells' differentiation from 7 dph to 16 dph.Between 17 dph and 103 dph,the renal tubules degenerated gradually and the lymph and haematogenous tissues sustained by the reticulo-endothelial system(RES) became the major component of the head kidney.By 65 dph,the head kidney was histologically similar to mature fishes,formed as a lymphoid-adrenergic tissue.Cells producing IgM as lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain.A few PAS positive cells were observed by 7 dph while several IgM positive cells were occasionally first detected at 17 dph.PAS positive cells and IgM positive cells were both increased with age and finally scattered all over the head kidney.In short,the head kidney in grass carp was almost mature histologically by 65 dph;as an immune organ,the development of the head-kidney in juvenile grass carp can be divided into three stages characterized by the Ⅰ-absence of cells involved in immunity,Ⅱ-presence of cells only involved in nonspecific immunity,and Ⅲ-emergence and proliferation of cells involving in both nonspecific and specific immunity.%为研究草鱼头肾的组织发生发育,应用组织学技术,对1 ~ 103 dph(day post hatching)的草鱼头肾进行观察分析,描述了头肾的组织结构变化及免疫球蛋白M(IgM)阳性细胞及过碘酸雪夫氏(PAS)阳性细胞的

  7. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio carpio L. POPULATIONS IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Tomljanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study common carp populations from Croatian fish ponds (Draganići, Končanica, Našička Breznica, Orahovica (Grudnjak and Poljana, and three carp populations from open waters (Sava and Danube rivers and Vransko lake were analyzed, with total of 295 specimens. All populations were checked for 20 morphometric and 13 meristic parameters. The analysis was conducted using Principal component analysis (PCA and Constrained linear analysis of canonical redundancy (RDA. According to the number gill rakers the most distinguished are carps from Sava river and Vransko lake, and some individuals from the Danube river, while the fish pond populations do not emphasize by this parameter. Fish pond populationes Grudnjak, Draganići, Končanica and Našice are overlapping. The Danube population is divided into two groups: one group is closely associated with fish pond populations, while another group is closely link with populations of carp in open waters. Specimens of carp from the Danube, which are morphologically similar to fish pond carps are considered to have recently entered into open water and still have the external characteristics of domestic carps. By this research a significant separation of domestic and open waters carp was revealed which has proven Monte Carlo test (F=347.191; p=0.002, however, a clear separation of domestic strains of common carps is not noticeable.

  9. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  10. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  11. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  12. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  13. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  14. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  15. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts and the consequences of differential activation for the individual host.The general aspects of the teleost immune system are very similar to those of the mammalian immune system. Polarisation of m...

  16. CARPS An integrated proposal and data collection system

    CERN Document Server

    Brister, K

    2002-01-01

    Modern scripting languages and database tools combined provide a new framework for developing beam-line control and data management software. The CARPS system supports data collection by storing low level beam-line control commands in a database and playing these commands back to collect data sets. This system is combined with proposal and data management tools for support of both local and remote users.

  17. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species.

  18. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  19. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  20. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  1. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.M.; Wittmann, M.E.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Rutherford, E.S.; Zhang, H.; Mason, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called

  2. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  3. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, I.R.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Forlenza, M.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.

    2015-01-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30–40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like rec

  4. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  5. Carp macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes secrete an interleukin-1-like factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Weyts, F.A.A.; Debets, R.; Flik, G.

    1995-01-01

    Carp, Cyprinus carpio L, macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes obtained from pronephros were cultured. Supernatant was harvested after 48 h and tested for interleukin-1 (IL-1) bioactivity. A concentration-dependent stimulation of proliferation was found of carp Ig− lymphocytes as well as of the

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  7. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  9. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  10. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  11. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  12. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  13. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2008-06-01

    The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  14. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  15. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  16. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  18. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  19. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  20. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  1. The dynamics of the plankton for the second summer of carp polyculture with phytoplankton consumer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biologic processes in water are strictly dependent on physical-chemical factors. By maintaining the balances of the environmental factors, it can ensures the micro and macro fauna development with direct implication on breeding and developing the fishy material.The aim of this article was to monitor and register the plankton dynamics in six rearing ponds for the polyculture of carp (Cyprinus carpio with Asian complex species: silver carp (H. molitrix, grass carp (Ct. idella and bighead carp (A. nobilis. The experiment took place in six ponds of C.C.D.P. Nucet, during a period of 120 days.At the end of the experiment one determined that the evolution of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was in a close correlation with both the variation of physical-chemical factors as well as with thetechnology of the fishy material in these ponds.

  2. FEEDING AND GROWHT OF CARP YEARLINGS AT THE DIRECTIONAL FORMATION OF NATURAL FOOD BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and growth of carp yearlings in nursery ponds of the experimental farm “Nyvka” at the directional formation of natural food base have been studied. It was found that application of methods of directional formation of natural food base, including fertilization of nursery ponds with different organic fertilizers, resulted in supplying juvenile carp with natural food. The content of live feed objects (zooplankton, zoobenthos in carp gut in the experiment was 48.3?50.4% versus 32.6% in the control. Survival of carp yearlings from stocked non?grown larvae was higher in the experiment and composed 31.5 - 48.6% versus 21.0 in the control; fish productivity was 326.0 - 736.3 kg/ha and 232.1 kg/ha, respectively.

  3. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  4. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  5. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  6. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  7. SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES OF TWO-YEAR OLD CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out in three variants of experimental fish ponds in which different technologies were applied (l - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; II - fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; III - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with pellets containing 20% of protein. Carp was reared under conditions of policulture with total stock density 3250 ind. ha-1 (2500 ind•ha-1 carp 250 ind•ha-1 silver carp, 250 ind•ha-1 bighead and 250 ind•ha-1 grass carp. Average weights of fishes were from 29 to 77 g. The values of some hematological and biochemical indices of carp were estimated (hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCHC, total protein and total lipids. The mean value of concentration of hemoglobin was 111,80±18,38 gl-1 (variant I; 121,60±15,86 gl-1 (variant II and 122,00±15,61 gl-1 (variant III. Hematocrit value was 0,25±0,03 L˙L-1 0,30±0,03 L˙L-1 0,28±0,02 L˙L-1, and MCHC 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,25±0,01 L˙L-1 resp. The concentration of total protein in blood plasma of carp was 27,00±0,32 g˙L-1 (variant 1, 32,00±0,52 g˙L-1 (variant II and 34,00±1,02 g˙L-1 (variant III. The concentration oftotallipids was 10,1O±0,29 g˙L-1,11,20±1,60 g˙L-1 and 1l,20±1,60 g˙L-1 resp. The differences between means values of these indices found in carp of different variants were significant (P>0.05 only for values of total protein (table 3 in variant III where carp was fed with protein of animal origin.

  8. Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

    2011-06-01

    The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder.

  9. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  10. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaiKun Luo, Jun Xiao, ShaoJun Liu, Jing Wang, WeiGuo He, Jie Hu, QinBo Qin, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Yun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200 by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀ and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂. We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100. We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100 and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150, respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

  11. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. McColl; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationshi...

  12. Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The potential migration of Asian carp through the Illinois River, Des Plaines River, and Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is one risk facing the...The potential migration of Asian carp through the Illinois River, Des Plaines River, and Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is one severe risk...ecological risk to U.S. waters. They are voracious eaters, and thus are in direct competition with native planktivores, juvenile fishes, and mussels

  13. Isozyme Analysis of Jin Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Var Jin)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang YANG; Jun HAO; Di BAO; Aijun LIANG; Wankun JIN; Chongwen LI; Xinghua ZHANG; Shi DONG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to carry out isozyme analysis of jin silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys mofitrix Var Jing). [Method] The isozyme of AAT, EST, cc-GPD, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and PROT of muscles and liver in two populations of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Jin silver carp (a breed through se- lective breeding) and artificially propagated population bought from Jingzhou city, Hubei Province were examined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. [Result] Eigh- teen loci were observed in two populations. Two loci of GPI and PGM in Jing sil- ver carp population and the locus of GPI in Jingzhou population were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci (maximum allele frequency-〈0.99) of Jing silver carp and Jingzhou populations were 11.11% and 5.56% respectively, expected het- erozygosity were 0.015 0 and 0.001 1 respectively. The Nei's genetic distances were 0.000 59 between two populations. The result of chi-square test of the GPI gene in two populations showed that their genetic structure has very significant dif- ference. [Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for large-scale extension of Jing silver carp.

  14. Water-quality sampling plan for evaluating the distribution of bigheaded carps in the Illinois Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Terrio, Paul J.

    2017-02-27

    The two nonnative invasive bigheaded carp species (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) that were accidentally released in the 1970s have spread widely into the rivers and waterways of the Mississippi River Basin. First detected in the lower reaches of the Illinois Waterway (IWW, the combined Illinois River-Des Plaines River-Chicago Area Waterway System) in the 1990s, bighead and silver carps moved quickly upstream, approaching the Chicago Area Waterway System. The potential of substantial negative ecological and economic impact to the Great Lakes from the presence of these species is a concern. However, since 2006, the population front of bigheaded carps has remained in the vicinity of Joliet, Illinois, near river mile 278. This reach of the IWW is characterized by stark changes in habitat, water quality, and food resources as the waterway transitions from a primarily agricultural landscape to a metropolitan and industrial canal system. This report describes a 2015 plan for sampling the IWW to establish water-quality conditions that might be contributing to the apparent stalling of the population front of bigheaded carps in this reach. A detailed description of the study plan, Lagrangian-style sampling approach, selected analytes, sampling methods and protocols are provided. Hydrographs from streamflow-gaging stations show IWW conditions during the 2015 sampling runs.

  15. Serum biochemical parameters of farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanţi Patriche

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in ichthyo-pathology of recent years, interpretation of fish serum biochemical parameters is often difficult by lack of reference values. That is why to know the value of the serum biochemical parameters can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses and responses to therapy. This paper provides data concerning biochemical composition of carp serum (Cyprinus carpio bred at Brateş Farm of Institute of Research and Development for Aquatic Ecology, Fishing and Aquaculture from Galaţi and Pleaşa Farm from Ploieşti, Romania. In research conducted onCyprinus carpio were determined following serum biochemical parameters: glucose (GLU, total proteins (TP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, cholesterol (CHOL, triglyceride (TRIG, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, iron (Fe.

  16. Otter (Lutra lutra L. damage in commercial carp ponds of southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Wisniowska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the otter Lutra lutra was studied at 198 commercial carp Cyprinus carpio ponds (total area 811.9 ha located near Zator, an Experimental Fish Farm in southern Poland. The food habits of the otter were determined by the analysis of 344 spraints collected monthly from December 2000 to December 2001. Data were expressed as frequency of occurrence and per cent of biomass. Fish represented the main food resource of otters, occurring in 97.4% of faecal samples. Carp occurred in 9.3% of faecal samples. Percentage share of carp in biomass of food consumed by otters averaged 14.2% per year. The 97.6% of eaten carp was classified as carp fry production, ranging between 3.0 cm and 7.9 cm in body length (mean: 5.7± 0.92 SD. The economic consequences of otter predation on fish are discussed. Riassunto Danni causati dalla Lontra (Lutra lutra sulla produzione di carpe allevate in bacini idrici della Polonia meridionale La dieta della Lontra Lutra lutra è stata studiata in 198 bacini idrici (superficie totale 811,9 ha; Polonia meridionale utilizzati per l’allevamento di carpe Cyprinus carpio, tramite l’analisi di 344 feci, raccolte mensilmente da dicembre 2000 a dicembre 2001. I dati ottenuti sono stati espressi sia come frequenza percentuale (F% sia come percentuale di biomassa (B%. La principale categoria alimentare è costituita dai pesci (F%: 97,4%, di cui le carpe rappresentano il 9,3% e il 14,2% in F% e B% rispettivamente. Il 97,6% delle carpe mangiate è costituito da avannotti di lunghezza compresa tra 3 e 7,9 cm (media: 5,7± 0,92 SD. L’impatto economico della Lontra sulla produzione delle carpe è discusso.

  17. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  18. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  19. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in a controlled field test in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Edithe Andria-Mananjara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by farmers and consumers, for its good growth and supposed low number of intermuscular bones. We performed an on-farm experiment using a “common garden” design to control environmental variation, in order to compare the growth and survival, as well as the number of intermuscular bones of nude carp to two other common scale cover phenotypes of the same species, the mirror and scaly carps. We found that survival of nude carps was lower or equal to that of mirror carps at all stages of the farming process, while growth performance was lower than that of mirror carps in some ponds only. Globally, the biomass production per fish stocked was always lower in nude carp compared to mirror carp. The number of intermuscular bones was the same in nude, mirror and scaly carps. We conclude that as in Europe, it would be valuable to farm mirror rather than nude carps, as the supposed benefits of the latter are not supported by our experiment in typical Malagasy farming conditions.

  20. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  1. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  2. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  3. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  4. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van N.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (mur

  5. Physicochemical Process, Crustacean, and Microcystis Biomass Changes In Situ Enclosure after Introduction of Silver Carp at Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control cyanobacteria blooms with silver carp in Lake Taihu, an in situ experiment was carried out by stocking silver carp at a biomass of 35, 70, and 150 g m-3 and no carp control in waterproof enclosures. Physicochemical water parameters and biomass of plankton were measured in enclosures to evaluate the suitable stocking density of silver carp for relieving internal nutrients and constraining cyanobacteria growth in Lake Taihu. It is found that the 35 g m-3 silver carp group and 70 g m-3 silver carp group presented lower total phosphorus, lower chlorophyll-a, and higher water transparency. Increased nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, which indicated the result of algae decline in fish presence enclosures, was attributed to decline of phosphorus. Phosphorus decline also exerted limitation on reestablish of cyanobacteria bloom. Crustacean zooplankton biomass and Microcystis biomass decreased significantly in fish presence enclosures. Silver carp could be more effective to regulate algae bloom in enclosures with dense cyanobacteria. Therefore, nonclassic manipulation is supposed to be appropriate method to get rid of cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Taihu by stocking 35 to 70 g m-3 silver carp in application.

  6. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  7. Experimental transmission of malacosporean parasites from bryozoans to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and minnow ( Phoxinus phoxinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, D S; El-Matbouli, M

    2010-04-01

    To address whether a fish host is involved in the life cycles of malacosporeans of the genus Buddenbrockia, cohabitation experiments with different bryozoan and fish species were conducted. Samples were analysed by malacosporean-specific PCR, partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA, and light and electron microscopy. Co-habitation challenges with bryozoans resulted in malacosporean infections detected mainly in the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). Sequences of the minnow parasite and of worm-like Buddenbrockia stages in Plumatella repens were identical and showed 99.5% similarity to Buddenbrockia plumatellae and 96.3% similarity to the sequence obtained from carp. One sample, comprising 4-5 zooids of statoblast-raised bryozoans cohabitated with infected carp was PCR-positive, but no overt infection could be observed in the remaining colony. Light and electron-microscopy of kidney samples of infected minnows revealed single cells within kidney tubules, whereas in carp, sporogonic stages were found in kidney tubules. Phylogenetic analysis of the Buddenbrockia spp. known to date placed the carp-infecting species at the base of the B. plumatellae clade, but low posterior probability makes this node questionable. The present study showed that Buddenbrockia spp. were able to infect cyprinid fish, showing stages in kidney-tubules strikingly similar to those of T. bryosalmonae.

  8. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  9. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kenneth A; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-12-08

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationship between virus transmissibility and virulence. Based on observations from natural outbreaks, as well as the biology of virus-host interactions, we hypothesize that (i) close contact between carp provides the most efficient transmission of virus, (ii) transmission occurs at regular aggregations of carp that favour recrudescence of latent virus, and (iii) the initially high virulence of CyHV-3 will decline following its release in Australia. We also suggest that the evolution of carp resistance to CyHV-3 will likely necessitate the future release of progressively more virulent strains of CyHV-3, and/or an additional broad-scale measure(s) to complement the effect of the virus. If the release of CyHV-3 does go ahead, longitudinal studies are required to track the evolution of a virus-host relationship from its inception, and particularly the complex interplay between transmission, virulence and host resistance.

  10. Identification of housekeeping genes suitable for gene expression analysis in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-kai; Yu, Ju-hua; Xu, Pao; Li, Jian-lin; Li, Hong-xia; Ren, Hong-tao

    2012-10-01

    Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) is an important economic fish species cultured in China. In this report, we performed a systematic analysis to identify an appropriate housekeeping (HK) gene for the study of gene expression in Jian carp. For this purpose, partial DNA sequences of four potential candidate genes (elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), beta-actin (ACTB), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were isolated, and their expression levels were studied using RNA extracted from nine tissues (forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, fore-intestine, hind-intestine, ovary, muscle, heart, kidney) in juvenile and adult Jian carp. Gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and expression stability was evaluated by comparing the coefficients of variation (CV) of the Ct values. The results showed that EF-1α was the most suitable HK gene in all tissues of juvenile and adult Jian carp. However, at distinct juvenile and adult developmental stages, there was not a single optimal gene for normalization of expression levels in all tissues. EF-1α was the most stable gene only in forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, heart, and kidney. These results provide data that can be expected to aid gene expression analysis in Jian carp research, but underline the importance of identifying the optimal HK gene for each new experimental paradigm.

  11. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, β-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp Procypris rabaudi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Jiang, Wanxiang; Song, Zhaobin

    2009-05-01

    Rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang), is an endemic fish species in China. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of it by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction with conserved primers and primer walking sequencing method. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp is 16595 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of most other vertebrates. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) in rock carp mitochondrion is located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region) with 35 nucleotides in length. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 943 bp in length. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB), an extended termination associated sequence (ETAS), an AT-repeat microsatellite sequence and a putative promoter sequence for H-strand transcription (HSP) were identified within this region. The microsatellite sequence has a very low variation, with only one repeat alteration in 50 checked individuals (from 12 to 13 repeats). The phylogenetic analysis for rock carp was performed with Bayesian and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result suggested that traditional taxonomic barbines possibly originated more early than cyprininaes; rock carp was placed at the position between barbines and cyprininaes, while has a closer relationship with cyprininaes than barbines.

  13. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.

  14. Acoustic deterrence of bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) to a broadband sound stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Murchy, Kelsie A.; Cupp, Aaron R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the potential of acoustic deterrents against invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). This study examined the phonotaxic response of the bighead carp (H. nobilis) to pure tones (500-2000 Hz) and playbacks of broadband sound from an underwater recording of a 100 hp outboard motor (0.06-10 kHz) in an outdoor concrete pond (10 × 5 × 1.2 m) at the U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center in La Crosse, WI. The number of consecutive times the fish reacted to sound from alternating locations at each end of the pond was assessed. Bighead carp were relatively indifferent to the pure tones with median consecutive responses ranging from 0 to 2 reactions away from the sound source. However, fish consistently exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) greater negative phonotaxis to the broadband sound (outboard motor recording) with an overall median response of 20 consecutive reactions during the 10 min trials. In over 50% of broadband sound tests, carp were still reacting to the stimulus at the end of the trial, implying that fish were not habituating to the sound. This study suggests that broadband sound may be an effective deterrent to bighead carp and provides a basis for conducting studies with wild fish.

  15. A refined electrofishing technique for collecting Silver Carp: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Wesley W.; Glover, David C.; Bouska, Kristen; Garvey, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Detecting nuisance species at low abundance or in newly established areas is critical to developing pest management strategies. Due to their sensitivity to disturbance and erratic jumping behavior, Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix can be difficult to collect with traditional sampling methods. We compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) of all species from a Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) electrofishing protocol to an experimental electrofishing technique designed to minimize Silver Carp evasion through tactical boat maneuvering and selective application of power. Differences in CPUE between electrofishing methods were detected for 2 of 41 species collected across 2 years of sampling at 20 sites along the Illinois River. The mean catch rate of Silver Carp using the experimental technique was 2.2 times the mean catch rate of the LTRM electrofishing technique; the increased capture efficiency at low relative abundance emphasizes the utility of this method for early detection. The experimental electrofishing also collected slightly larger Silver Carp (mean: 510.7 mm TL versus 495.2 mm TL), and nearly four times as many Silver Carp independently jumped into the boat during experimental transects. Novel sampling approaches, such as the experimental electrofishing technique used in this study, should be considered to increase probability of detection for aquatic nuisance species.

  16. Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZHONGAN; QUNHUALI; 等

    1999-01-01

    The spindle behavior and MPF activity changes in the progression of oocyte maturation were investigated and compared with cytological observation and kinase assay between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and amphimictic colored crucian carp.MPF activity was measured by using histone H1 as phosphorylation substrate.There were two similar oscillatory MPF kinase activity changes during oocyte maturation in two kinds of fishes with different reproductive modes,but there existed some subtle difference between them.The subtle difference was that the first peak of MPF kinase activity was kept to a longerlasting time in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp than in the amphimictic colored crucian carp.It was suggested that the difference may be related to the spindle behavior changes,such as tripolar spindle formation and spindle rearrangement in the gynogenetic crucian carp.

  17. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Fish raised in aquaculture ponds may get infected with fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) during the nursing stage. Freshwater snails serve as intermediate hosts for FZT and we wanted to explore the possibility of controlling snails by stocking nursery ponds with a few juvenile specimens...... offered snails as food; the odds of survival of fry from tanks with medium sized and large black carp was 5.6% and 39.9%, respectively of that of fry in tanks with small sized black carp. Since the large black carp also consumed fewer snails than medium sized fish, we believe that large specimens were...... stressed in the experimental aquaria. Under semi-field conditions, presence of the black carp had no effect on survival of fry of Oreochromis niloticus and C. carpio both in the absence and presence of snails as alternative food. The black carp consumed most snails offered with the exception of some...

  18. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  19. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  20. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  1. Accumulation of Mercury in The Tissues of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) From Common Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tomas; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Farkova, Dagmar; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to assess mercury content in the great cormorant in the Třeboň region pond systems (Czech Republic) in terms of its potential to accumulate mercury from common carp. Selected tissues samples were taken from 51 cormorants and 30 common carp. In the food chain the cormorant was found to have the potential to accumulate mercury, where the muscle total mercury was roughly 35 times higher compared to the total mercury content in the carp muscle as its food. A statistically significantly higher overall mercury content (p mercury content of the cormorant was within the range 64.3%-87.3%. The results can help us to gain a better understanding of how mercury is distributed and accumulated in the aquatic food chain.

  2. Effects of co-cultured fish species combination and formulated feed supplement on phytoplankton community in the enclosures with inte-grated culture of freshwater pearl mussel and fishes%不同鱼类混养组合与饲喂方式对鱼蚌综合养殖水体浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金玉; 王岩; 戴杨鑫; 李由明

    2014-01-01

    利用三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)、草鱼(Ctenoparyngodon idellus)、银鲫(Carassius gibelio)、鲢(Hypopthalmic-hthys molitrix)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)构建鱼蚌综合养殖系统,通过155 d围隔(面积32 m2)实验检验两种鱼类组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙或鲢+鳙)和两种饲喂方式(投喂或不投喂配合饲料)对浮游植物群落结构的影响。采用2×2设计,设4个处理: GISB-F(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)、GISB-NF(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)、SB-F(鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)和SB-NF(鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)。每个围隔内三角帆蚌、草鱼、鲫、鲢和鳙的放养量分别为20、15、5、5和5 ind。结果表明,各处理围隔内浮游植物生物量平均值为3.7×108~6.0×108 cell·L–1。改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式对浮游植物种类组成、优势种优势度、群落多样性、生物量以及浮游植物生物量中蓝藻的比例无显著影响,但投喂配合饲料导致叶绿素 a 增加。浮游植物实验前期主要优势种为十字藻属(Crucigenia)和栅藻属(Scenedesmus)种类,后期为平裂藻属(Merismopedia)和微囊藻属(Microcyslis)种类,表明浮游植物群落演变具有明显的季节性特点以及优势种逐渐演化为蓝藻的规律。水温、氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数对浮游植物群落结构具有显著影响。各处理围隔内氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数均随时间延长而增加,说明改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式不会影响围隔内蓝藻水华发生的趋势。%A 155-day enclosure experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of co-cultured fish species combina-tion (either the combination of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, gibel carp Carassius gibelio, silver carp Hypoph-thalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis or the combination of silver carp and bighead carp) and formulated feed supplement regime (with or without feed supplement) on phytoplankton community in

  3. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  4. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lysak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish.  Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  6. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. ALAM; M. A. KHAN; M. A. HUSSAIN; D. MOUMITA; A. G. MAZLAN; K. D. SIMON

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp,Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh.However,its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality.The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H.molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City,Bangladesh.Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus,Dactylogyrus vastator,Ichthyophthirius multifilis,Gyrodactylus elegans,Lernaea sp.,Apiosoma sp.,Myxobolus rohitae,Camallanus ophiocephali,and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill,skin,stomach,and intestine of host fish.The highest level of infection was observed for host skin,while lower levels were observed for host gill,stomach,and intestine.The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H.molitrix varied with the season.In particular,the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February),when fish are most susceptible to parasites.The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H.molitrix.

  7. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  8. Effect of Nitrobenzene on the Embryo Development of Bighead and Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jingjie; GUAN Qingzhi; CHEN Weixing; ZHU Lei; FAN Zhaoting

    2008-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on the mortality and abnormality rate of bighead and silver carp embryos were studied to provide reference for the evaluation of the effect of nitrobenzene to aquatic organisms and aquatic environment.The results showed that the development of bighead and silver carp embryos was delayed, the mortality and abnormality rates were raised when the embryos were treated with ≥0.010 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,and with ≥0.085 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,the mortality rates showed 100%.

  9. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the com...

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  11. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A

    2017-02-02

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection.

  13. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J.; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection. PMID:28148967

  15. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem = Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Aline Veiverberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor degordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflowermeal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was higher

  16. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits in filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton (Hungary

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    Zoltán Vitál

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (H. molitrix are freshwater planktivorous fish originated from Eastern Asia, which were introduced all over the world. Previous studies suggested that bighead carp with comb-like gill rakers feeds mainly on zooplankters, while silver carp with sponge-like filtering apparatus filters smaller particles and the majority of its diet is composed of phytoplankton. In Lake Balaton, however, the Asian carp stock is formed by the hybrids of these two species, whose filtering apparatus varies within the whole range from comb-like to spongious structures. Since there is no information on how hybridization affects the feeding efficiency of Asian carps, we analysed the relationship between gill raker morphology and food size-distribution in hybrid Asian carps, in Lake Balaton. Filtering apparatus of each sampled fish (n=26 was characterized by two morphological indexes, assumed to be indicative of feeding efficiency. First, the effective area of the filtering apparatus was measured relative to the respiration organ; the width of the gill raker relative to the width of the gill-filaments was determined at the centre of the gill-arch. Second, density of pores on the outer surface of the spongy gill raker areas was counted, while zero scores were given to comb-like areas. Feeding of fish was determined from the filtrate suspension collected directly from the inner surface of gill rakers. Diet items were identified, counted and classified into three phyto- (> 40 μm, 40−10 μm, 1.3 mm, 1.3−0.4 mm, < 0.4 mm size groups. Contrary to our expectations, no significant relationship was found between the gill raker morphology and phyto- and zooplantonic food size distribution in hybrid Asian carps. Thus, the Asian carp stock, consisting of hybrids with variously mixed phenotypes, consumes similar food, but seasonality has a significant impact on their diet.

  17. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

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    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  18. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

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    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  19. Electro-mechanical noise in atrial muscle fibres of the carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, S; Richter, J; Landau, E M; Lass, Y

    1977-08-15

    Steady membrane voltage fluctuations have been observed in atrial muscle fibres of the carp. These voltage fluctuations produce minute mechanical escillations, as revealed by an interference contrast microscope. The steady voltage fluctuations may be related to abnormal automaticity in the heart.

  20. Characterization of macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes from the pronephros of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Groeneveld, A.; Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    To analyse the functional activity of different leucocyte types, carp pronephros cells were separated on Percoll density gradients and by use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell populations were characterised by light and electron microscopy and by flow cytometry. Fractions enriched in macr

  1. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  2. Differential transcription of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onara, D.F.; Forlenza, M.; Gonzalez, S.F.; Rakus, K.L.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and

  3. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    1991-01-01

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  4. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 yea

  5. Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and Water Transport Surveys in the Illinois River, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ECORP 3914 Murphy Canyon Rd, Ste A232 San Diego, CA 92123 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 11. Contract or Grant No. Contract HSCG32-10-D-R00021... sport fishes. Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and Water Transport Surveys in the Illinois River, Volume I 2 UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC

  6. THERMAL AND OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN CARP PONDS DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

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    Magdalena Wiśnios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presents changes of oxygen indices in carp ponds during the summer season. The basis of the research were regular water tests conducted in two ponds: Mydlniki II intended for carp farming in the second year of fish production cycle and Bocian used for carp farming in the third (final year of breeding. The temperature of pond water in July and August was optimal for development and farming of cyprinid fish and ranged from 16.6 to 30.5 °C. The lowest value of oxygen dissolved in water (6.4 mg·dm-3 was registered in Mydlniki II pond and was higher than the oxygen optimum for carp (5 mg·dm-3. Oxygen saturation in water of fish ponds exceeded the optimum upper limit value (168% on a few dates, however, it posed no lethal threat for fish. In August in Bocian pond oxygen saturation fell within the range of optimal values, creating better conditions for fish development. In the secondary pond (Mydlniki II it was found that oxygen saturation in water on 12 dates was lower than the low optimal value (96%.

  7. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dasgupta; D Basu; L Ravi Kumar; S Bhattacharya

    2001-09-01

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte migrated towards the animal pole, reached the micropyle and then dissolved (GVBD). By using different concentrations of insulin i.e., 0.063, 0.63, 6.3 and 12.6 M, optimum amount required was found to be 6.3 M. Induction of GVBD by insulin could be blocked by cycloheximide (Chx), a translation inhibitor, while actinomycin D (AcD) had no effect suggesting non-involvement of transcriptional activity in this process. Addition of the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) stimulated ( < 0.01) GVBD of carp oocytes and its combination with insulin showed an additive effect. Gonadotropin (GtH) caused GVBD but its effect was greatly augmented by insulin. Our results demonstrate that not only can insulin alone induce GVBD in carp oocytes, but it also augments the stimulatory effect of DHP or IGF-I or GtH on GVBD. This information will be important in hormonal manipulation during induced breeding of carp.

  8. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  9. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  10. Respiratory Neuron Activity in the Mesencephalon, Diencephalon and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Jüch, P.J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional properties, localization and connections of neurons with a respiratory-rhythmic firing pattern in the mesencephalon, diencephalon and cerebellum of the carp were studied. Some neurons acquire respiratory rhythm only as a side effect of respiration via sensory stimulation by movements

  11. Hepatic Histopathological Characteristics and Antioxidant Response of Phytoplanktivorous Silver Carp Intraperitoneally Injected with Extracted Microcystins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI; PING XIE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the hispathological characteristics and antioxidant responses in liver of silver carp after intraperitoneal administration of microcystins (MCs) for further understanding hepatic intoxication and antioxidation mechanism in fish. Methods Phytoplanktivorous silver carp was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted hepatotoxic microcystins (mainly MC-RR and-LR) at a dose of 1000μg MC-LReq./kg body weight, and liver histopathological changes and antioxidant responses were studied at 1, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively, after injection. Results The damage to liver structure and the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ghitathione peroxide (GPX) were increased in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion In terms of clinical and histological signs of intoxication and LD50 (i.p.) dose of MC-LR, silver carp appears rather resistant to MCs exposure than other fishes. Also, the significantly increased SOD activity in the liver of silver carp suggests a higher degree of response to MCs exposure than CAT and GPX.

  12. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  13. Response to Stress in 17 alpha-hydroxylase Deficient Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt, van H.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the stress response during 3 hours net confinement stress and recovery period of 22 hours in normal (STD) and in 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficient common carp (E5). Fish were raised for 6 months and sampled at T-0 (control, unstressed), 5 minutes, 20 minutes, 1 hour

  14. Stress and innate immunity in carp: corticosteroid receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, H.H.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Bury, N.R.; Sturm, A.; Flik, G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is deeply involved in immune regulation in all vertebrates. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) express four corticoid receptors that may modulate immune responses: three glucocorticoid receptors (GR); GR1, with two splice variants (GR1a and GR1b), GR2 and a single mineraloc

  15. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  16. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  17. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleu

  19. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  20. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  1. Development and use of genetically uniform strains of common carp in experimental animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, A B; Sukkel, M; Gort, G; Komen, J; Richter, C J

    1998-10-01

    Fish are widely used in numerous fields of basic and applied research. Currently, they are the third laboratory animal group in numbers, and will become increasingly important. Common carp is a major species in both aquaculture and research. Inbred strains of carp by gynogenetic (only female inheritance) and androgenetic (only male inheritance) reproduction techniques were developed at our university. With these methods, homozygous animals are produced in one generation and we present the production of homozygous inbred and F1 hybrid strains of common carp. As in mammalian research, using genetically well defined fish is a methodological necessity since in outbred stocks: (1) repeatability between experiments is low, (2) high levels of inbreeding may have accumulated and (3) high intrastrain variability might obscure treatment effects. Within inbred strains, the variation is reduced and as a result, less animals (compared to outbreds) are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. We illustrate this with experimental data from an F1 hybrid and partly outbred strain of common carp, both subjected to an antibiotic treatment resulting in reduced gonadal growth. Results obtained from a single inbred strain should be generalized with the use of a panel of inbred strains. We show that optimal allocation of animals between and within inbred strains depends on the ratio (variation between strains): (variation within strains). When selecting a panel of inbred strains, attention has to be paid to genetic relations between strains to avoid testing within a limited genetic range. It should be considered that in inbred strains, (genic) dominance and interaction effects are absent, due to the absence of heterozygous genotypes. In general, variation within inbred strains will be reduced for traits with a high degree of genetic determination. However, in inbred strains of carp produced by gynogenesis or androgenesis, the chromosome manipulation treatment induces

  2. Ecological impacts of filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Boros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (H. molitrix and their hybrids (collectively referred as Asian carps−AC are primarily planktivorous cyprinid fishes that have been introduced into more than 30 countries around the world, including Hungary. However, recent studies demonstrated that AC can adversely affect the water quality and native fish populations. In this study, we report on the rate of hybridization, growth parameters and feeding habits of AC, to assess their ecological impacts and life history traits in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Balaton. We found that the majority of the investigated AC (n=116 were hybrids. In general, hybrid AC with silver carp characteristics dominated the stock (90%, but 10% of individuals exhibited bighead carp phenotype and the proportion of bighead carp genes exceeded 98% in 4 individuals. However, the variance in phenotypes and the rate of hybridization did not influence significantly the feeding habits. Rather, the food composition was determined by the availability of different food resources and the concentration of suspended inorganic particles in the ambient water. Stable isotope analyses and microscopic analyses of gut contents revealed that the vast majority (>99% of the ingested and metabolised food was zooplankton (mainly Rotifers, Cladocerans and Copepods. Despite the low proportions of algae in the food, we identified 155 phytoplankton taxa in the foregut-contents, among which there were several species (e.g., Scenedesmus spp. and Microcystis spp. that survived the passage through the guts. Growth rates of AC were intermediate in Lake Balaton, while their condition factors were relatively high compared with other ecosystems. The relatively high condition factors were particularly interesting in the light of the high inorganic matter content of ingested food (43±9% in dry mass. We conclude that the presence of AC is an ecological threat to Lake Balaton, because AC can be important

  3. Genome wide identification, phylogeny and expression of zinc transporter genes in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT, and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP. Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc

  4. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  5. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  6. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-γ content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1β content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-α mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp.

  7. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    The growth performance of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.) was assessed over a period of six months through formulated feeds consisting of three seaweeds, namely Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Padina tetrastomatica and Stoechospermum marginatum. A...

  8. Development and evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for diagnosis of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mortezaei, Seyed Reza

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has been expanded rapidly to become a major commercial and food-producing sector worldwide in recent decade. In parallel, viral diseases rapidly spread among farms causing enormous economic losses. The accurate detection of pathogens at early stages of infection is a key point for disease control in aquaculture. Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) is a very severe pathogen of carp fishes in different parts of the world and is categorized as a reportable listed disease in the annu...

  9. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide), blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealwo...

  10. 两种碳源对草鱼养殖水质、藻类和微生物群落的影响%Effect of two different carbon sources on water quality and microbial community in grass carp culture systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 刘春花; 林文辉; 王芳; 石存斌; 吴淑勤

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of two different carbon sources on water quality and microbial com -munity in grass carp (Ctenoparyngodon idellus) culture systems.The experiment was carried out in 6 m2 canvas cages stocked with 150 grass carp ( individual weight 25.69 g ±0.73 g) .Starch ( GS) and starch with sodium acetate in the pro-portions of 19∶1 ( GSA) were used as carbon source and applied to the water column once a week .During a 60 d culture period, the total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (chl a) and the biovolume of phytoplankton in water increased gradually , while secchi disk visibility and C/N ratio declined, and total ammonia nitrogen ( TAN) kept below 0.25 mg/L.The different carbon sources had no significant effect on water quality and phytoplankton community pa -rameters.The average well color development ( AWCD) and Shannon-Weaver index ( H) obtained by the BIOLOG Eco plate assay was higher in GS treatment when compared to GSA treatment , and the differentials increased significantly dur-ing the culture period .This study showed that sodium acetate could reduce activity and diversity of microbial community , and enrich the phytoplankton species number and diversity .%为研究淀粉及其与乙酸钠的复合物(淀粉乙酸钠质量比为19∶1)两种碳源对草鱼养殖水体水质、藻类和微生物群落调控作用的差异,在为期60 d的试验中,每周向养殖水体添加一次碳源,添加量为当日水体氨氮含量的20倍,监测分析水体理化指标、藻类和微生物群落参数。结果显示:(1)试验期内,淀粉组(GS)和淀粉乙酸钠组( GSA)养殖水体氨氮保持在0.25 mg/L左右,总氮、总磷和叶绿素a均逐步升高,而透明度和碳氮比逐步下降,同次样品两试验组间水体理化指标差异不显著。(2)试验期内, GS组和GSA组藻类数量逐步上升,中后期显著高于前期,同次样品两试验组

  11. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  12. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness.

  13. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  14. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion.

  15. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  16. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  17. Beta-Glucan induced immune modulation of wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    but not in animals. β-glucans are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies based in mammalian systems have shown...... the importance of fibroblasts, macrophages, reactive oxygen species (especially hydrogen peroxide) and certain cytokines during wound healing processes. In fish however, only a few studies have been devoted tissue regeneration and modulation of cell proliferation during wound healing, even though mechanical...... to measure hydrogen peroxide, and allowed the monitoring of the ROS kinetics. Second, an in vivo study was performed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of β-glucan during wound healing in carp. Mechanically wounded carps were bath treated with β-glucans or left untreated. The wound healing process...

  18. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Histopathological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Gills Caused by Thiamethoxam

    OpenAIRE

    Elenka Georgieva; Stela Stoyanova; Iliana Velcheva; Vesela Yancheva

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of new neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on the histological structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) gills. Three experimental groups of fish were treated with 6.6, 10 and 20 mg/l thiamethoxam in laboratory conditions. Results showed different histological changes in the gill epithelium, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. The blood circ...

  20. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, H.; Ghasemi, M.; Hosseini, S.M.; Haghighi Karsidani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collect...

  1. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  2. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  3. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  4. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  5. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  6. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  7. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  8. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  9. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  10. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%.

  11. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-03-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of different dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no differences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with different protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly affected by the different diets ( Pconversion ratio were not different in fish fed the different dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased ( Pphosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level ( P 0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  12. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River.

  13. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  14. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n = 90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish × 6 treatments × 3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet.

  15. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  16. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  17. Respiratory adaptations in carp blood. Influences of hypoxia, red cell organic phosphates, divalent cations and CO2 on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Lykkeboe, G.

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns the adaptation of oxygen transporting function of carp blood to environment hypoxia, tracing the roles played by erythrocytic cofactors, inorganic cations, carbon dioxide and hemoglobin multiplicity. Carp acclimated to hypoxia ( 30 mmHg) display striking increases in blood...

  18. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  19. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  20. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  1. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  3. Melanomacrophage centers in kidney, spleen and liver: A toxic response in carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to mercury chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Pursetyo, Kustiawan Tri; Sulmartiwi, Laksmi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the potential of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) as a bioindicators of environment polluted with mercury chloride. This study used the carp fish that were kept in an environment that contained mercury chloride with a concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm for 21 days. The rate of accumulation of macrophages in the tissue of kidney, spleen and liver were measured by the activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase. The results showed that the MMCs in the spleen and liver tissue of the carp fish potential as the bio-indicators of polluted environment ≥0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The increased in accumulation of macrophages found in the kidney tissue of carp fish exposed to mercury chloride concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, although no significant difference with control (0 ppm). The suppressive effect of the accumulation of immune response showed at the carp fish liver tissue macrophages which were exposed to mercury chloride lower than carp fish that were not exposed.

  4. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  5. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  6. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  7. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  8. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality

  9. EFFECTS OF FURAZOLIDONE ON BACTERIAL FLORA IN WATER AND THE BODY SURFACE MUCUS OF GRASS CARP(Ctenopharyngogon idellus)%呋喃唑酮对饲养水及草鱼体表粘液中菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝煊; 吴志新; 罗宇良; 高海章; 陈喜群

    1999-01-01

    对饲养水中泼洒不同浓度(0.2mg/L、0.5mg/L和1.0mg/L)的呋喃唑酮后,研究了饲养水及草鱼体表粘液中好氧与兼性厌氧细菌的数量及组成变化.结果表明:用药前,饲养水及粘液中的菌群主要有Aeromonas、Enterobacteriaceae、Vibrio、Flavobacterium、 Acinetobacter、Pseudomonas、Corynebacterium、Staphylococcus和Bacillus,此外,水体中还检测到Micrococcus和Alcaligenes. 水体及粘液中的细菌数量在用药后12h或24h时降至最低,在48h或96h时恢复到原来的水平.用药后,水体及粘液中的优势菌群未发生改变,但 Flavobacterium的比例显著增加,Aeromonas、Vibrio和Enterobacteriaceae明显减少,Pseudomonas和Acinetobacter则未能检测到, 其他各类群的比例也有一定的变化.菌群的变化速度与用药浓度有关.

  10. 太湖鱼类放流增殖的有效数量和合理结构%Fish stocking quantities and structures of the fishery resources enhancement in Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 谷孝鸿; 王小林; 吴林坤; 陈非洲; 曹萍; 刘家驹; 张宪中

    2012-01-01

    根据2006-2007年太湖生物资源调查,估算出太湖浮游植物、浮游动物、底栖动物和水生植物总渔产潜力约为78494 t.太湖实施以渔改水的生物调控措施,应加大鲢、鳙放流数量和放流规格,在提高鱼产量的同时对抑制太湖蓝藻水华能起到积极作用;推算每年放流鳙约1000×104尾,鲢约300×104尾,规格为20尾/kg为宜.草鱼、团头鲂、青鱼、鲤等要在保护太湖水草和底栖动物资源和生物多样性前提下适当放流,每年宜放流草鱼150×104尾,团头鲂165×104尾,青鱼8×104 ~ 10×104尾,鲤夏花2500×104尾.而对调控鱼类结构小型化、单一化具有重要作用的肉食性鱼类翘嘴铂建议加大放流量,年放流量可扩大至500×104尾左右,在调控的同时提高湖泊渔业附加值.%According to the investigations of biological resources in Lake Taihu during 2006 -2007, we calculated that total fishery yield potential of phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and aquatic macrophytes in Lake Taihu was about 78494 t. In order to increase fish yields and inhibit cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Taihu, stocking number of silver carp (Hypohthalmichlhys molitrix Richardson) and bighead carpi Aristichthys nobilis Cuvier) should be increased to 10 million and 3 million tails, respectively, and the specification should be 20 tails per kilogram. To protect resources of aquatic macrophytes and zoobenthos, the reasonable stocking number of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Cuvier), blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala Yih) , black carp (Mylopharyngodan piceus Richardson) and common carp( Cyprinidae carpio Linnaeus) should be 1. 5 million, 1.65 million, 80 -100 thousand and 25 million tails,respectively. As topmouth cutler such as cutler albumus could play important roles in controlling miniaturization and singleness of fishery structure and increase added-value of fishery economy, its stocking quantity should be increased to S million tails.

  11. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  12. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  13. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offiine HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; WANG Yan-hong; WU Ren-an; WANG Shi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offiine combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  14. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  15. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  16. Characterization of the microbiota in lightly salted bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dapeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-04-01

    The microbiota of unsalted and salted (dry-cured with 2% salt) bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets during storage at 4 °C were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Eleven genera were present in the initial microbiota of bighead carp fillets, where Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Kocuria were the dominant bacteria. As storage time progressed, the microbial composition of both unsalted and salted fillets became less diverse. Additionally, differences in microbiota were observed between these two treatments. For unsalted bighead carp fillets, Aeromonas became the dominant genus at the end of storage and Pseudomonas was found less commonly. For salted fillets, Pseudomonas was the only bacteria identified at the end of storage.

  17. Prey species and size choice of the molluscivorous fish, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, N. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    ponds in northern Vietnam. Furthermore, shell strength of common snails was assessed. Average daily consumption as percentage of fish weight ranged from 8.12% for smaller fish (100-250 g) to 4.68% in the larger fish (610-1250 g). Bithynia fuchsiana, the intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis, and some...... intestinal trematodes were readily consumed by even the smallest black carp tested. The proportion of Melanoides tuberculata, an important host for intestinal trematodes, declined with an increase in its shell height. The same was observed for two viviparid snail species, Angulyagra polyzonata and Sinotaia......, to control snails serving as first intermediate hosts. However, the use of large juvenile (>2 kg) black carp in nursery ponds could be problematic and we decided to determine consumption rates by black carp of various sizes and their choice of different sizes of selected snail species found in aquaculture...

  18. Type II SOCS as a feedback repressor for GH-induced Igf1 expression in carp hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Xiao, Jia; He, Mulan; Ma, Ani; Wong, Anderson O L

    2016-05-01

    Type II suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) serve as feedback repressors for cytokines and are known to inhibit growth hormone (GH) actions. However, direct evidence for SOCS modulation of GH-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression is lacking, and the post-receptor signaling for SOCS expression at the hepatic level is still unclear. To shed light on the comparative aspects of SOCS in GH functions, grass carp was used as a model to study the role of type II SOCS in GH-induced Igf1 expression. Structural identity of type II SOCS, Socs1-3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (Cish), was established in grass carp by 5'/3'-RACE, and their expression at both transcript and protein levels were confirmed in the liver by RT-PCR and LC/MS/MS respectively. In carp hepatocytes, GH treatment induced rapid phosphorylation of JAK2, STATs, MAPK, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt) with parallel rises in socs1-3 and cish mRNA levels, and these stimulatory effects on type II SOCS were shown to occur before the gradual loss of igf1 gene expression caused by prolonged exposure of GH. Furthermore, GH-induced type II SOCS gene expression could be negated by inhibiting JAK2, STATs, MEK1/2, P38 (MAPK), PI3K, and/or Akt respectively. In CHO cells transfected with carp GH receptor, over-expression of these newly cloned type II SOCS not only suppressed JAK2/STAT5 signaling with GH treatment but also inhibited GH-induced grass carp Igf1 promoter activity. These results, taken together, suggest that type II SOCS could be induced by GH in the carp liver via JAK2/STATs, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt cascades and serve as feedback repressors for GH signaling and induction of igf1 gene expression.

  19. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Erol Gabor; Mihai Benţea

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group). Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex) at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spe...

  20. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  1. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  2. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  3. Estrogenic potencies of several environmental pollutants, as determined by vitellogenin induction in a carp hepatocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, J M; van Holsteijn, I; Giesy, J P; Seinen, W; van den Berg, M

    1999-08-01

    Estrogenic potencies of several xenoestrogens were determined in vitro, using cultured hepatocytes from a genetically uniform male carp strain (Cyprinus carpio). Estrogenicity was measured as induction of the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vtg), and compared to Vtg induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2). The order of estrogenic potency was: methoxychlor (MXCL) > o,p-DDT > chlordecone approximately/= bisphenol-A approximately/= 4-t-pentylphenol. Estrogenic potencies of these compounds varied from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-4) relative to E2. The synthetic estrogen DES had a relative estrogenic potency of 0.5, whereas dieldrin, beta-endosulfan, o,p-DDE, and toxaphene (technical mixture) did not induce vitellogenesis at concentrations up to 100 microM. Experiments in which cells were simultaneously exposed to E2 and these xenoestrogens showed that the Vtg-inducing activities of E2 and 4-t-pentylphenol or bisphenol-A were (partially) additive, whereas E2 antagonized the estrogenic effects of MXCL and o,p-DDT. The effect of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-induction on the estrogenicity of MXCL was studied by co-exposing cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD (10 pM) caused a greater than 50-fold induction of CYP1A, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but Vtg induction by MXCL was not significantly affected. This indicates that CYP1A is not involved in the bioactivation of MXCL to more potent estrogenic metabolites in carp. The CARP-HEP (hepatocyte) assay can detect xenoestrogens with a potency > or = 2 x 10(-5) relative to E2. It allows simultaneous testing of more than 10 compounds for both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, which makes it a promising tool for the screening of suspected xenoestrogens.

  4. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  5. Cytochrome p450 induction and gonadal status alteration in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) associated with the discharge of dioxin contaminated effluent to the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nakai, Kiyotaka; Aoto, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Aiko; Ushikoshi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2003-05-01

    Accumulations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected in the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan in which dioxin contaminated effluent was released during the period starting from November 1992 to March 2000. Higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents were observed in carps collected downstream to the dioxin release site (contaminated site) than the reference site. Modulations of cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme in liver, serum estrogen concentration and gonadal somatic index (GSI) were also measured as biomarkers for the contaminants. Total CYP content in livers was markedly higher in male and female carps from the contaminated site relative to the reference site fish. The expression level of the cytochrome p450 1A and Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were significantly higher in female carps from the contaminated site than from the reference site. A lower level of plasma estrogen was observed in carps from the contaminated site. The GSI in female carps from the contaminated site was smaller than that recorded at the reference site. The present study indicates that dioxins released to the Hikiji River might induce the CYP enzyme and inhibit the reproductive functions in common carps dwelling downstream from the release site.

  6. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes.

  7. 斑点气单胞菌对草鱼的毒力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩先朴; 李伟; 徐伯亥

    1987-01-01

    斑点气单胞菌(Aeromonas punctata)是危害草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus Cuv.et val.)的主要病原菌之一同时也危害鲢、鳙等多种鱼类。但作为一种病原菌对鱼类的毒力有多大,乞今还没有可靠的报道。

  8. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052 Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Strohschein Maschke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor de gordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflower meal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was

  9. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  10. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    , 3 and 7 post-wounding and samples were stored in RNA later for isolation of RNA. The physical tissue damage was performed using a sterile needle, which penetrated the skin and the underlying musculature in an area above the lateral line of the left side of fish. Carps at the age of 10, 16 and 24...... days post-hatch were stored and processed whole, whereas just the muscle (the left (wound area) and right filet (internal control)) was sampled for the two latter time-points. mRNA was extracted from the samples, cDNA was synthesised and gene expression was quantified using real-time RT...

  11. A refined electrofishing technique for collecting Silver Carp: Implications for management. Supporting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Wesley W.; Bouska, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The table provides all fish collected using two different electrofishing methods at Illinois River sites in 2012 and 2013. Length and weights were taken on most species and gender was taken from Silver Carp. Fishes were categorized whether they were netters (caught by nets) or jumpers (jumped in the boat while sampling) and only netters were used in analyses. Large numbers of shad were collected in 2013 and an additional spreadsheet includes abundance data in an aggregated form for those sites. The data is not sensitive/classified and there are no legal restrictions on who may obtain or use the data.

  12. Fish culture in heated effluents (eastern Europe). [Growth increase in carp and rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backiel, T.; Gay, B.; La Croix, M.J.B.; Ophel, I.L. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Dependence of growth and reproduction of cultivated fishes on temperature are briefly reviewed. Experiments with and commercial-size operations of various methods of fish culture with the use of heated effluents are exemplified. Cage culture, earthen ponds, flowing water culture have demonstrated possibilities of growth increase in carp and rainbow trout and of controlled reproduction of the former. Problems involved in utilization of various systems and several points of view on the use of low-grade heat for fish culture are considered.

  13. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  14. Muscle characteristics comparison between grass carp and crisped grass carp%普通草鱼与脆化草鱼的肌肉特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关磊; 朱瑞俊; 李小勤; 冷向军

    2011-01-01

    以9尾体重为(1 295.7±37.2)g的普通草鱼和9尾体重为(706.8±6.5)g脆化草鱼(脆肉鲩)为实验对象,对其肌肉理化及质构特性进行比较研究。结果显示:脆化草鱼肌肉粗蛋白含量高于普通草鱼(P〈0.05),粗脂肪和铁含量比普通草鱼低(P〈0.05),二者肌肉水分、粗灰分及钙、铬含量无显著差异;脆化草鱼肌肉pH、肌纤维密度和胶原蛋白含量均大于普通草鱼(P〈0.05);脆化草鱼在2 h和4 h的肌肉滴水损失低于普通草鱼(P〈0.05),但8 h后差别不大;脆化草鱼肌肉硬度和咀嚼力均比普通草鱼高(P〈0.05)。对肉质性状指标分析表明,在一定范围内,肌纤维密度、pH、胶原蛋白有提高肉质品质的作用趋势;肌肉脂肪含量与肌肉硬度,肌纤维密度与肌肉滴水损失之间均呈显著负相关(P〈0.05)。研究亮点:脆化草鱼是鱼类肉品研究热点之一;本研究较全面的分析普通草鱼和脆化草鱼的肌肉特点,其中无机元素、质构参数、pH和滴水损失对其肉质的影响,在鱼类肉品研究中较少;同时探求了多因子对肉品影响及其相互作用关系,为鱼类肌肉品质评价提供依据。%The differences in physical and chemical characteristics and textural mechanical properties in muscles between 9 grass carps(body weight of 1295.7 ± 37.2 g) and 9 crisped grass carps(body weight of 706.8 ± 6.5 g) were investigated in the present study.The results indicated that the content of protein in crisped grass carp muscle was higher,while the contents of crude lipid and ferrum were lower than those in grass carp(P〈0.05),and there were no significant differences in muscle moisture,crude ash,calcium and chromium contents in both groups.Crisped grass carp had higher pH value,muscle fiber density and collagen content in muscle than those of grass carp(P〈0.05).Compared with grass carp,muscle drip loss of crisped grass carp at 2 h,4 h

  15. Effect of phytase on growth,body composition and phosphorus content in tissues of juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed plant protein based diet%饲料中添加植酸酶对草鱼生长、体组成及各组织磷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马恒甲; 叶金云; 郭建林; 王友慧; 沈斌乾; 陈建明; 潘茜

    2011-01-01

    level of phytase was 1 000 U/kg-1 250 U/kg,the SGR,PER and phosphorus content of grass carp were enhanced,and FCR was improved compared with negative control group.If you want to reduce the supplemented level of monobasic calcium phosphate,the suitable supplemented level of phytase was 1 000 U/kg-1 250 U/kg.%选用初重为(39.68±3.05)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)幼鱼作为试验对象,在全植物蛋白基础饲料中添加植酸酶,设5种不同的植酸酶添加水平(500 U/kg、750 U/kg、1 000 U/kg、1 250 U/kg、2 500 U/kg),另设2个对照组,对照组1:全植物蛋白基础饲料中只添加1.5%的无机磷;对照组2:全植物蛋白基础饲料不添加植酸酶和无机磷,通过60 d的试验,探讨和研究植酸酶对草鱼生长、体组成及各组织磷含量的影响。结果表明,对照组1鱼体的特定生长率最大,饲料系数显著低于其它各组(P〈0.05);与对照组2相比较,全植物蛋白饲料中添加植酸酶后,当植酸酶添加水平大于1 000 U/kg时,草鱼的饲料系数显著降低、蛋白质效率得到显著提高;植酸酶对草鱼的形体指标没有显著影响;当植酸酶添加水平大于1 000 U/kg时鱼体粗脂肪含量有所降低;当植酸酶添加水平为1 000 U/kg时,其肌肉粗脂肪含量显著提高;添加植酸酶后鱼体、肌肉和脊椎骨中的磷含量有一定提高,且当植酸酶添加水平为1 250 U/kg时,肌肉和脊椎骨中的磷含量显著提高。结果表明,当植酸酶添加水平在1 000 U/kg~1250 U/kg时,与对照组2相比较,全植物蛋白饲料中添加植酸酶可提高草鱼的特定生长率和蛋白质效率、降低饲料系数,并显著提高草鱼磷的积累。若欲减少无机磷添加量,建议植酸酶添加水平为1 000 U/kg~1 250 U/kg。

  16. Molecular cloning of growth hormone receptor (GHR) from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ) and identification of its two forms of mRNA transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; GUO Qionglin; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was cloned from the liver of 2-year common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. ) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). Its open reading frame (ORF) of 1806 nucleotides is translated into a putative peptide of 602 amino acids, including an extracellular ligand-binding domain of 244 amino acids (aa), a single transmembrane domain of 24 aa and an intracellular signal-transduction domain of 334 aa. Sequence analysis indicated that common carp GHR is highly homologous to goldfish (Carassius auratus) GHR at both gene and protein levels. Using a pair of gene-specific primers, a GHR fragment was amplified from the cDNA of 2-year common carp, a 224 bp product was identified in liver and a 321 bp product in other tissues. The sequencing of the products and the partial genomic DNA indicated that the difference in product size was the result of a 97 bp intron that alternatively spliced. In addition, the 321 bp fragment could be amplified from all the tissues of 4-month common carp including liver, demonstrating the occurrence of the alternative splicing of this intron during the development of common carp. Moreover, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression level of GHR in tissues of 2-year common carp and 4-month common carp. The result revealed that in the tissues of gill, thymus and brain, the expression level of GHR in 2-year common carp was significantly lower than that of 4-month common carp.

  17. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca

  18. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  19. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  20. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  1. The induction of nitric oxide response of carp macrophages by transferrin is influenced by the allelic diversity of the molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurecka, P.M.; Irnazarow, I.; Stafford, J.L.; Ruszczyk, A.; Taverne, N.; Belosevic, M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The central role of transferrin (Tf) as an iron transporting protein has been extended by observations that modified versions of Tf also participate in the regulation of innate immunity. We report on the isolation of two carp Tf proteins (alleles D and G) to purity using rivanol precipitation and io

  2. Segregation of microsatellite alleles and residual heterogosity at single loci in homozygous androgenetic common carp (Cyprino carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Palstra, A.P.; Weerd, van de M.; Leffering, C.P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-three androgenetic progeny groups of common carp were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers to (i) verify the homozygous status of the 566 androgenetic individuals, (ii) analyse the microsatellite allele segregation, and (iii) study the possible association of microsatellite alleles with p

  3. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Tuin, van der S.J.L.; Yang Guiwen,; Schopman, N.; Mroczek, A.; Hermsen, G.J.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and align

  4. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  5. Experimental study on the possibilities of direct transfer of caesium 137 from sediment to the carps (Cyprinus carpio L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1983-06-01

    The exchanges of caesium 137 with the Rhone river water and deposits and its direct transfer from water and deposits to the carp are studied. The sediments have a high retention capacity for radiocaesium associated with fine particles and certain clays (illite). Caesium desorption from sediment to water is always very weak (less than 5% of the initial activity of the sediments; it varies with the agitation and salinity of the water. The transfer of caesium from the water to the carps is characterized by a regular increase of activity in the fish. After 63 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached, the carp have retained only 1% of the water activity, and their concentration factor is about 4. The transfer of caesium from sediment to the fish is weak but regular. After 79 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached. Less than 1% of the sediments activity is found in the fish; the transfer factor is about 10/sup -3/. Because of the high content of caesium 137 in sediments, the activity of the carp is increased and the concentration factor, calculated in relation to the surface water, is greater than 60.

  6. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  7. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  8. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  9. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group. Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spermatozoa of the three summers carp. Analyzing the results obtained shows that the addition of organic selenium in the nutrition of carp breeders caused a slight increase in protein, and fat decreased slightly from sperm, the differences between groups were non-significant (p>0.05%. The slight increase in the amount of protein in milt is due to the positive effect of organic selenium over glutathione peroxidase activity of sperm cores (SN-GSH-Px, which is an integral part of sperm chromatin with the possibility of amino-acid uptake. Researches regarding viability, meristically and somatic measurements of breeders were carried out and significant differences were recorded in the experimental group compared to the control.

  10. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine C

  11. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp...

  12. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  13. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  14. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide, blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers. Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC, as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP. The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide. There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing. The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes. Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors. Practical value. The modifications of composite

  15. THE LIPID COMPOSITION OF TISSUE OF SCALY CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL CARBON HIBERNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sysolyatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Establish and compare the content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain pond carp active life condition and under artificial hibernation carbon. Methodology. The experiments were conducted on the Ukrainian scaly carp breed (Cyprinus caprio L. weighing 250–270 g. To conduct research to form two groups (control — 5 copies of the fish and an experimental — each point hypobiosis exposure to 5 copies of the fish. Introduction of fish hypobiotically state conducted for the use of a patented model artificial hibernation. The selection of material performed by opening the first and second fish group on the 3, 6 and 24 hours of exposure, then it is frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Lipid extraction after homogenization of brain tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and gills was performed according to Folch. The content of the total lipids (from the weight of the dry residue after extraction was determined using the gravimetric method. The separation into individual lipid fractions were determined thin layer chromatography by plates "Silufol". Quantitative determination of total phospholipids — hydroxamate method; cholesterol — colorimetric method with three ferric chlorides. All the results are treated variation-statistical method using the Student's t-tests. Findings. These results suggest that the content of total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in the tissues of the carp pond in the active state of life is significantly different. The content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain in a carp pond introducing carbon dioxide into a state of artificial hibernation (hypercapnic hypoxia-medium is reduced in comparison with the control. Under these conditions, noted a slight increase in tissue phospholipids, as well as a significant increase in cholesterol and the coefficient (CL/PL, especially in the liver, indicating that the use of lipids in energy and adaptation processes

  16. Dynamics of microcystins-LR and -RR in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp in a sub-chronic toxicity experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Liqiang; Xie Ping; Ozawa, Kazuhiko; Honma, Takamitsu; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Park, Ho-Dong

    2004-02-01

    A sub-chronic toxicity experiment was conducted to examine tissue distribution and depuration of two microcystins (microcystin-LR and microcystin -RR) in the phytoplanktivorous filter-feeding silver carp during a course of 80 days. Two large tanks (A, B) were used, and in Tank A, the fish were fed naturally with fresh Microcystis viridis cells (collected from a eutrophic pond) throughout the experiment, while in Tank B, the food of the fish were M. viridis cells for the first 40 days and then changed to artificial carp feed. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure MC-LR and MC-RR in the M. viridis cells, the seston, and the intestine, blood, liver and muscle tissue of silver carp at an interval of 20 days. MC-RR and MC-LR in the collected Microcystis cells varied between 268-580 and 110-292 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively. In Tank A, MC-RR and MC-LR varied between 41.5-99.5 and 6.9-15.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW in the seston, respectively. The maximum MC-RR in the blood, liver and muscle of the fish was 49.7, 17.8 and 1.77 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively. No MC-LR was detectable in the muscle and blood samples of the silver carp in spite of the abundant presence of this toxin in the intestines (for the liver, there was only one case when a relatively minor quantity was detected). These findings contrast with previous experimental results on rainbow trout. Perhaps silver carp has a mechanism to degrade MC-LR actively and to inhibit MC-LR transportation across the intestines. The depuration of MC-RR concentrations occurred slowly than uptakes in blood, liver and muscle, and the depuration rate was in the order of blood>liver>muscle. The grazing ability of silver carp on toxic cyanobacteria suggests an applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination in eutrophic waters. - Silver carp are tolerant of cyanobacterial toxins, and might be used to control toxic algal blooms in highly eutrophic lakes.

  17. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish

  18. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  19. Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Lígia M; Bainy, Afonso C D; Ventura, Eliana C; Marques, Maria R F; Silva, José Roberto M C; Klemz, Cláudio; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0.1% of the total volume in water solution in a semi-static system at sublethal concentration (1 μg/L). Subsequently, the liver somatic index (LSI) and factor condition (K) were determined. The total cytocrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A isoform, and the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were determined from the hepatic microsomal fraction as well as the activity of the oxidative stress enzyme system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GP(X)), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Among the parameters assessed, EDS at the sublethal concentration in subchronic exposure caused significant changes in liver somatic indices as well as induction of the phase I biotransformation system and oxidative stress in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Thus, it is seen that the use of biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in this study proved to be an extremely important tool for detecting the adverse effects of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment, even at low concentration.

  20. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.

  1. Effects of growth hormone (GH) transgene and nutrition on growth and bone development in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Yushun; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2013-10-01

    Limited information is available on effects of growth hormone transgene and nutrition on growth and development of aquatic animals. Here, we present a study to test these effects with growth-enhanced transgenic common carp under two nutritional conditions or feeding rations (i.e., 5% and 10% of fish body weight per day). Compared with the nontransgenic fish, the growth rates of the transgenic fish increased significantly in both feeding rations. The shape of the pharyngeal bone was similar among treatments, but the transgenic fish had relatively smaller and lighter pharyngeal bone compared with the nontransgenic fish. Calcium content of the pharyngeal bone of the transgenic fish was significantly lower than that of the nontransgenic fish. Feeding ration also affected growth rate but less of an effect on bone development. By manipulating intrinsic growth and controlling for both environment (e.g., feeding ration) and genetic background or genotype (e.g., transgenic or not), this study provides empirical evidence that the genotype has a stronger effect than the environment on pharyngeal bone development. The pharyngeal bone strength could be reduced by decreased calcium content and calcification in the transgenic carp.

  2. Transgene for growth hormone in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) promotes thymus development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; WANG Yaping; JIA Weizhang; ZHU Zuoyan

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic carp were produced by microinjection of CAgcGHc into the fertilized eggs. Observation of the thymus development between the transgenics and non- transgenic controls was carried out. The thymus of one-year- old transgenics F1 showed a great increase in both size and weight. The unilateral thymus of the transgenics weighed from 190 to 295 mg with average 218.6 mg, whereas the unilateral thymus of the controls weighed 20-81 mg with average 42.5 mg; i.e. the thymus weight in the transgenics was 5.14 fold over that in the controls. The index of thymus/body weight in the transgenics was 2.97 fold over the controls. Light microscopy observation indicated that the thymus of the transgenics well developed with the thickened outer region and compactly arranged thymocytes, while the thymus in the controls were degenerating with the thinned outer region, scattered thymocytes and groups of fatty cells. Further analysis with the electron microscopy revealed that proliferous cells in the transgenics were mainly small lymphocytes and no pathological changes were found. The results confirmed that the "All-fish" GH-transgene promotes thymus development and thymocyte proliferation, and retards thymus degeneration. The study has laid a foundation for further analysis of the immunobiological function in GH- transgenic carp.

  3. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

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    Hao Lian

    Full Text Available The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1∶1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

  4. Rapid growth cost in "all-fish" growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeLiang; FU CuiZhang; HU Wei; ZHONG Shan; WANG YaPing; ZHU ZuoYan

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between growth rates and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of "all-fish"growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce the swimming abilities. Growth and swimming performance between transgenic fish and non-transgenic controls were compared. The results showed that transgenic fish had a mean body weight 1.4-1.9-fold heavier,and a mean specific growth rate (SGR) value 6%-10% higher than the controls. Transgenic fish,however, had a mean absolute Ucrit (cm/s) value 22% or mean relative Ucrit (BL/s) value 24% lower than the controls. It suggested that fast-growing "all-fish" GH-transgenic carp were inferior swimmers. It is also supported that there was a trade-off between growth rates and swimming performance, i.e.faster-growing individuals had lower critical swimming speed.

  5. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging.

  6. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

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    Stanislava Štěpánová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P<0.0001 were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L. The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae.

  7. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion by carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T; Aoki, S; Kojima, M; Harada, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion were studied for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). 2. The concentrations of these pesticides in muscle and viscera of the carp reached plateaus in 12-48 hr exposure. 3. The average values of bioconcentration factors (BCF) for diazinon were 20.9 in muscle, 60.0 in liver, 111.1 in kidney and 32.2 in gallbladder over the 168 hr exposure period. Similarly, those values were 4.3-26.7 for IBP, 2.7-17.3 for malathion, and 36.0-157.1 for fenitrothion. 4. The excretion rate constants of malathion (hr-1) were 0.13 for muscle, 0.12 for liver, 0.08 for kidney and 0.06 for gallbladder. Those of diazinon, IBP and fenitrothion (g.ng-1.hr-1) were 0.002-0.024 for muscle, 0.001-0.020 for liver, 0.0004-0.004 for kidney and 0.002-0.023 for gallbladder, respectively.

  8. Suppression of RNA Interference Pathway in vitro by Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Guo; Dan Xu; Hong-xu Xu; Tu Wang; Jia-le Li; Li-qun Lu

    2012-01-01

    The means of survival of genomic dsRNA of reoviruses from dsRNA-triggered and Dicer-initiated RNAi pathway remains to be defined.The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) replication on the RNAi pathway of grass carp kidney cells (CIK).The dsRNA-triggered RNAi pathway was demonstrated unimpaired in CIK cells through RNAi assay.GCRV-specific siRNA was generated in CIK cells transfected with purified GCRV genomic dsRNA in Northern blot analysis; while in GCRV-infected CIK cells,no GCRV-specific siRNA could be detected.Infection and transfection experiments further indicated that replication of GCRV correlated with the increased transcription level of the Dicer gene and functional inhibition of in vitro synthesized egfp-siRNA in silencing the EGFP reporter gene.These data demonstrated that although only the genomic dsRNA of GCRV was sensitive to the cellular RNAi pathway,unidentified RNAi suppressor protein(s) might contribute to the survival of the viral genome and efficient viral replication.

  9. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

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    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  10. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  11. Carp neutrophilic granulocytes form extracellular traps via ROS-dependent and independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, L; Golbach, L; Kolaczkowska, E; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Chadzinska, M

    2013-05-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been described as an important innate defense mechanism that leads to immobilization and killing of invading pathogens. NETs have been identified in several species, but the mechanisms involved in NET formation and their role in infection have not been well determined yet. Here we show that upon in vitro stimulation with different immunostimulants of bacterial, fungal or viral origin, carp neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly release NET structures. We analyzed the composition of these structures and the kinetics of their formation by confocal microscopy, by quantifying the levels of extracellular DNA and the release of enzymes originating from neutrophilic granules: myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Profiles of NET release by carp neutrophils as well as their enzyme composition are stimulus- and time-dependent. This study moreover provides evidence for a stimulus-dependent selective requirement of reactive oxygen species in the process of NET formation. Collectively the results support an evolutionary conserved and strictly regulated mechanism of NET formation in teleost fish.

  12. Winter Growth of Carps under Different Semi-Intensive Culture Conditions

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    Nadia Nazish* and Abdul Mateen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was planned to observe the influence of different semi intensive culture conditions i.e. organic and inorganic fertilizer with rice polish on the growth of carps during winter season. Two earthen ponds were selected and each pond was stocked with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rohu (Labeo rohita and Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a total number of 44 fishes. Pond 1 was treated with poultry dropping and urea while pond 2 was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish. The ponds were treated with at the rate of 0.2 g N/100g of wet body weight of fish. Fertilizers were added on weekly basis while rice polish was added daily. Total net fish production of pond 1 and pond 2 was remained 797.3 and 1033.0 kg/ha/year. The pond treated with fertilizer and artificial feed (rice polish showed 3.6% more fish production than the pond treated only with fertilizer. The physico-chemical parameters were measured on weekly basis. Temperature, light penetration, pH and planktonic biomass showed non-significant difference in both ponds. Pond 2 which was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish showed 1.26 times greater fish growth than pond 1 which was treated with poultry dropping and urea.

  13. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp..

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    Cameron R Turner

    Full Text Available Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp., an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  14. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  15. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed.

  16. THE OPTIMAL RATIO OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus AND COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY ON DEEP WATER POND

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    Imam Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond productivity can be increased by applied polyculture system in the deep pond. The purpose of this experiment is to examine the optimal ratio between nile tilapia and common carp, in order to increase the productivity. Nine concrete tanks (15 m2 with water depth of 2.2 m and were completed by water inlet, water outlet, and aeration. Both of nile tilapia and common carp with size ranging of 5-8 cm in total length were used. Stock density was 150 ind./m2. The difference ratio of both fish tilapia and carp of fish stocked as a treatment. The fish ratio this experiment were as followed: A 100%; B 80%:20%; C 60%:40%. Fish fed by pellet until at ad libitum. The duration of experiment was 100 days. Parameters such as survival, growth, and productivity were observed every ten days during the experiment period. Water quality parameters were also periodically observed. The results showed that survival of nile tilapia among the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05 where survival of common carp at B treatment was better than C treatment (P<0.05. The highest of growth of absolute weight (94.86±2.85 g and total length (14.71±1 cm of nile tilapia at B treatment was found (P<0.05 where the best of growth of absolute weight (106.52±10.47 g and total length (11.57±1.78 cm of common carp was also found at B treatment (P<0.05. Biomass productivity at B treatment was the highest compared with A treatment (P<0.05. Combination between polyculture and the deep water pond technology could increase productivity. The polyculture system and the deep water pond technology would be able to keep constant water quality within in the threshold accordance with the regulation for fish culture.

  17. Studies of ribonucleotide reductase in crucian carp-an oxygen dependent enzyme in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate.

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    Guro K Sandvik

    Full Text Available The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR, this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O(2 and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia, a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii, obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.

  18. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

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    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  19. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  20. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of the an...

  1. The growth characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio in the northern part of the Small Island of Brăila Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper are presented the results of the growth parameters for the carp population. The study was realized in the 2006-2009 period on a total number of 367 carp specimens caught into the Danube river km 170-196 (the arms: Cravia, Calia, and Fundu Mare Island. In order to estimate the population growth characteristic of the carp population the following relationship was determined: length - weight (L-W using equation W = a * Lb . The value of the coefficient b indicates an allometric increase, meaning the length increases faster than weight. Moreover, the good value of this coefficient, considered also as a condition factor (b = 2.845, shows us good growth conditions for this species in the researched area. Estimation of the growth parameters (von Bertalanffy L∞, k, to, led to obtaining of comparable values with other nearby regions carp populations.

  2. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen M.; Duc, Nguyen V.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam....... Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10-12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods. Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations....... In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results: The results showed...

  3. 草鱼cyclin G1基因的克隆、鉴定及适应性进化分析%Cloning,Identification and Adaptive Evolution Analysis of cyclin G1 Gene for Grass Crap(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海舟; 胡成钰

    2011-01-01

    本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝肾cDNA文库中克隆到草鱼cyclin G1基因。测序结果表明,草鱼cyclin G1全长cDNA为2118bp,使用ORF finder推译其开放阅读框为第256bp~第1155bp,编码299个aa,SMART在线软件预测其中N端第57个aa~第143个aa为细胞周期蛋白盒。同源性比对分析显示cyclin G1在鱼类中同源性极高,其中草鱼cyclin G1与斑马鱼的同源性为90%。通过PAML软件的密码子替换模型进行适应性进化分析,结果%In this research,we cloned cyclin G1 gene from the liver and kideny cDNA library in grass crap.The result of sequencing showed that the full length of cDNA of grass crap cyclin G1 was 2 118 bp,and the open reading frame was 256th~1 155th bp predicted by O

  4. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  5. DAR, Land Reform-Related Agencies and the CARP: A Study of Government and Alternative Approaches to Land Acquisition and Distrib

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Lourdes S.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the land acquisition and distribution process of the CARP by analyzing the nature and extent of participation of the various government agencies. Attempts are also made in identifying the areas where land reform can be hastened. While there are opportunities for change, the overall impact of these changes on land reform may not be as large in terms of area coverage, by mid-June 1998, the scheduled completion of CARP. Generally, there are many agencies involved in land refo...

  6. Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio,is an intriguing model system.In the present work,a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp.Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from the preliminary screening,and two of them are ZP3 homologues.Moreover,the full length ZP3 cDNAs were cloned from their oocyte cDNA libraries.The length of ZP3 cDNAs were 1378 bp for gyno-carp and 1367 bp for gono-carp,and they can be translated into proteins with 435 amino acids.Obvious differences are not only in the composition of amino acids,but also in the number of potential O-linked oligosaccharide sites.In addition,gyno-carp ZP3 amino acid sequence has an unexpected higher identity value with common carp (83.5%) than that with the closely related gono-carp (74.7%).The unique homology may be originated from the ancient hybridization.Northern blot analysis confirmed that expression of the ZP3 gene occurred exclusively in the oocytes.Because O-linked oligosaccharides on ZP3 have been demonstrated to play very important roles in fertilization,it is suggested that the extra O-linked glycosylation sites may be related to the unique sperm-egg recognition mechanism in gynogenesis.

  7. Using silver and bighead carp cell lines for the identification of a unique metabolite fingerprint from thiram-specific chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G; Nelson, Justine E; Leis, Eric M; Erickson, Richard A; Hubert, Terrance D; Amberg, Jon J

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology often requires the control of invasive species. One method is the development and use of biocides. Identifying new chemicals as part of the biocide registration approval process can require screening millions of compounds. Traditionally, screening new chemicals has been done in vivo using test organisms. Using in vitro (e.g., cell lines) and in silico (e.g., computer models) methods decrease test organism requirements and increase screening speed and efficiency. These methods, however, would be greatly improved by better understanding how individual fish species metabolize selected compounds. We combined cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool to facilitate the identification of new control chemicals. Specifically, we exposed cell lines established from bighead carp and silver carp larvae to thiram (7 concentrations) then completed metabolite profiling to assess the dose-response of the bighead carp and silver carp metabolome to thiram. Forty one of the 700 metabolomic markers identified in bighead carp exhibited a dose-response to thiram exposure compared to silver carp in which 205 of 1590 metabolomic markers exhibited a dose-response. Additionally, we identified 11 statistically significant metabolomic markers based upon volcano plot analysis common between both species. This smaller subset of metabolites formed a thiram-specific metabolomic fingerprint which allowed for the creation of a toxicant specific, rather than a species-specific, metabolomic fingerprint. Metabolomic fingerprints may be used in biocide development and improve our understanding of ecologically significant events, such as mass fish kills.

  8. Using silver and bighead carp cell lines for the identification of a unique metabolite fingerprint from thiram-specific chemical exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G.; Nelson, Justine; Leis, Eric M; Erickson, Richard A.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology often requires the control of invasive species. One method is the development and use of biocides. Identifying new chemicals as part of the biocide registration approval process can require screening millions of compounds. Traditionally, screening new chemicals has been done in vivo using test organisms. Using in vitro (e.g., cell lines) and in silico (e.g., computer models) methods decrease test organism requirements and increase screening speed and efficiency. These methods, however, would be greatly improved by better understanding how individual fish species metabolize selected compounds.We combined cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool to facilitate the identification of new control c