WorldWideScience

Sample records for carp ctenopharyngodon idellus

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Ermeng Yu; Jun Xie; Guangjun Wang; Deguang Yu; Wangbao Gong; Zhifei Li; Haiying Wang; Yun Xia; Nan Wei

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass c...

  2. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  3. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  4. Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV.

  5. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  6. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  7. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion.

  8. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  9. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus,from two different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jiajia; YU Yuhe; ZHANG Tanglin; GAO Lei

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host.External and internal conditions of the host,including its habitat,affect the intestinal bacterial community.Similarly,the intestinal bacterial community can,in turn,influence the host,particularly with respect to disease resistance.We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake.We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes,from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified.Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination,we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish,except for DF-7,and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities(Mantel one-tailed test,R=0.157,P=0.175).Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond.A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  10. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city.

  11. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city. PMID:26432269

  12. Purification and characterization of a gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase from the skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiu-Lin; Ge, Shang-Ying; Cai, Zhi-Xing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-02-15

    A gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase (gMMP) from grass carp skeletal muscle was purified by 30-70% ammonium sulphate fractionation and a combination of chromatographic steps including ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200, and affinity on gelatin-sepharose. The molecular weight of the proteinase as estimated by SDS-PAGE was 70 kDa under non-reducing conditions. The enzyme revealed high activity from 30 to 50 °C, and the gelatin hydrolysing activity was investigated at a slightly alkaline pH range using gelatin as substrate. Metalloproteinase inhibitor EDTA completely suppressed the gelatinolytic activity, while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was essential for the gelatinolytic activity. Further, peptide mass fingerprinting obtained four fragments with 45 amino acid residues, which were highly identical to MMP-2 from fish species. The gMMP could effectively hydrolyse type I collagen even at 4 °C, suggesting its involvement in the texture softening of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:24128525

  13. Active Comparison of Digestive Enzymes in Digestive carpio, Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Grass Bighead Carp Aristichthys Tracts in Common Carp Cyprinus Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus and mobilis%鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼消化道消化酶种类和活性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕冰; 孙中武; 肖晓文; 尹洪滨

    2011-01-01

    The types of digestive enzymes were analyzed in digestive tracts of common carp Cyprinus carpio silver carp Hypophthalmichthys rnolitrix, bigheand carp A ristichthys mobilis, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the relative activities of the digestive enzymes were determined in the fishes by colorimetry and titration.The results showed that the order of the protease activity was arranged as common carp 〉silver carp 〉 bighead carp 〉 grass carp, and that for amylase activity as grass carp 〉 bighead carp 〉common carp 〉silver carp. The digestive enzyme expression in these fishes was found to be paralleled to the histology structure of digestive tracts. The maximal digestive enzymic activity was observed in the 2/5 parts in anterior end of the digestive tract (G1, G2), where was found to be the main place for digestion in those stomachless fishes, followed by the following 1/5 part of digestive tract (G3). The minimal digestive enzymic activity was occurred in the last 2/5 parts (G4, G5) of the intestines. The findings provide a theoretical basis for the nutritional physiology, the development of feedstuff and the management for germplasm in these fisheries.%采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳方法研究了鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼亲鱼消化道消化酶的种类;用比色法及滴定法分别测其消化酶相对活性。结果表明:鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼4种鱼消化道的蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性与食性有明显的相关性。其中,蛋白酶活性依次为鲤〉鲢〉鳙〉草鱼;淀粉酶活性依次为草鱼〉鲤〉鳙〉鲢。脂肪酶活性与食性的关系不明显。四种鱼消化酶的表达与消化道的组织结构特征相一致,消化道前2/5部位(G1、G2)的消化酶活性最高,是无胃鱼消化道的主要消化场所。消化道中央部位(G3)的消化酶活性次之,能将未消化完全的食糜进一步消化,而消化道后段(

  14. Effects of prebiotic mannanoligosaccharide on biochemical properties of serum from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus%甘露寡糖对草鱼血清生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希; 吴志新; 刘佳佳; 彭小云; 袁娟; 朱旭; 于艳梅

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of prebiotic mannanoligosaccharides(MOS) on the biochemical properties of serum from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, were investigated. The experimental fish were divided into four groups,with triplicates per treatment. The control group(AO) was fed basal diet,three treatments (A1.A2 and A3 ) fed the diets containing 1,2,3 g/kg MOS,respectively. Samples were collected at different time points,such as at 0 d,14 d,28 d and 56 d. It was found that when feeding with 2.0 g/kg and 3. 0 g/kg MOS, the blood glucose content and the levels of total cholesterol (CHO) in serum of grass carp were lower than those fed the basal diet (P0. 05) from 14 to 56 d. Compared to Ao grap Moreover,2. 0 g/ kg MOS was the most effective diet to increase the weight of grass carp as fonnd in this study.%以体重100 g左右的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)为实验对象,在基础饲料(A0组)中分别添加浓度为1.0 g/kg(A1组)、2.0 g/kg(A2组)、3.0 g/kg(A3组)、4.0 g/kg(A4组)的甘露寡糖(Mannoseoligosaccharides,MOS),分别于0、14、28、56 d取样,测定甘露寡糖对草鱼生化特性的影响.结果表明:饲料中添加2.0~3.0 g/kg的甘露寡糖在实验的第28~56 d,草鱼血清中血糖的含量、总胆固醇含量显著降低,第14d起甘油三酯的含量均显著低于对照组,56 d时血清总蛋白含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05);在14~28 d,添加2.0~4.0 g/kg甘露寡糖,草鱼血清碱性磷酸酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).添加量为2.0 g/kg时,草鱼的增重率最大.各试验组血清中谷草转氨酶、谷丙转氨酶活性有所下降,但未见显著性差异(P>0.05).

  15. 投喂低聚木糖对草鱼肠道菌群的影响%Effects of dietary xylo-oligosaccharide on intestinal microflora of grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊娟; 吴志新; 张朋; 曲艺; 付思思; 刘佳佳; 陈孝煊

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal microflora of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) feeding with xylo-oligosaccharide for 56 days by concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% respectively was investigated in this paper. Numbers of E. coli, Aeromonas and Bifidobacterium were analyzed before feeding and after 14, 28, 42, 56 days. The results showed that there was a certain influence on the intestinal microflora of grass carp after fed with different concentrations of xylo-oligosaccharides. The quantity of E.coli in the intestine of grass carps was smallest on the 28th day, and compared with the control group, 0.4% group significantly different (P<0.05) has the highest decreasing magnitudes. The quantity of Aeromonas reduced but there was no significant difference with control. The quantity of Bifidobacterium increased and there was significant difference (P<0.05) between control and 0.4% group on 14th day. Therefore,feedstuffs with xylo-oligosaccharide, which were conducive to maintain a healthy state of intestinal microflora, group with 0.4% has the best effect.%投喂添加0.1%、0.2%、0.4%和0.6%低聚木糖的基础饲料56 d,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群进行了研究.分别在投喂前(0 d)和投喂后的第14、28、42和56天取样,对草鱼肠道大肠杆菌(E.coli)、气单胞菌(Aeromonas)和双歧杆菌(Bifidobacterium)数量进行了分析.结果表明:基础饲料中添加不同浓度的低聚木糖对草鱼肠道菌群有一定影响,大肠杆菌数量在28 d达最低值,其中0.4%组减少的幅度最大,与对照组比较显著减少(P<0.05);气单胞菌数量均有减少但与对照组比较差异并不显著;双歧杆菌数量均有增加,其中0.4%组在第14天时差异显著(P<0.05).因此,饲料中添加0.4%低聚木糖效果最佳,有利于草鱼肠道菌群保持健康的状态.

  16. Functional properties and quality control of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat%草鱼肉蛋白酶解物功能特性及质量控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 尤娟; 罗永康

    2011-01-01

    采用Neutrase对草鱼鱼肉蛋白进行了酶解,得到了水解度(DH)为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物(NH),并分析了pH与水解度对酶解产物功能特性的影响.结果表明,酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性在pH为4时达到最低,而后随pH的增大而增加.在pH为3~8的范围内随水解度的增加,酶解产物的溶解性增加,起泡性降低.pH为4时,水解度为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物的热稳定性之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05),且随水解度升高而增大.在pH为3-5的范围内酶解产物的乳化性随水解度升高而降低.酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性间存在相关性(P<0.05).%Functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Neutrase(NH) at 4.72% , 9.80% and 13.32% of degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The solubilities,emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were the lowest at pH4.With the DH rising,the solubilities of hydrolysates increased,but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3~8.The NH displayed a lower heat stability with the DH rising at pH4 (P <0.05).As the DH rise,the emulsion activity index decreased in the pH range of 3 ~ 5. And there were significant relationship between solubility, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity( P <0.05 ).

  17. PREPARATION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY AGAINST IGM, IGZ AND IGD IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN TISSUES%草鱼IgM、IgD和IgZ的抗体制备与组织表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严伟; 肖凡书; 聂品

    2012-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish in aquaculture industry of China. However, grass carp breeding is plagued by a number of diseases, mostly caused by viruses and bacteria, so the understanding of its immune system is essential for its aquaculture. In this paper, the expression, purification, and polyclonal antibody preparation of the IgM, IgZ and IgD gene were described. The expression primers were designed based on the reported open reading frame (ORF) of IgM, IgZ and IgD gene from grass carp, and incorporated with Kpnl and HindⅢ restriction sites. PCR cycling conditions were as follows: 95℃ for 5min; 95℃ for 45s, 56℃ for 1min, 72℃ for 1min for 30 cycles; 72℃ for 6min. The IgM, IgZ and IgD gene were cloned into pET-32a expression plasmid at the KpnⅠ and HindⅢ restriction sites, and the recombinant plasmids were verified by sequencing. The re-combinant plasmids were transformated into Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) strain. Sodium dodecyl sul-fate-polyacrylamide gel elactrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that recombinant protein were satisfactorily expressed by optimizing the concentration and induction time of Isopropy1_β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). All recombinant proteins were expressed as inclusion bodies in agreement with the expected molecular weight, and were purified successfully by using affinity chromatography in the denatured condition. The purified proteins were then injected into Japanese white rabbits in order to obtain polyclonal antisera. Western blot analysis showed that the purified IgM, IgZ and IgD recombinant proteins were recognized by the rabbit antisera, respectively. By using the rabbit antisera of IgM and IgZ, Western blotting showed that IgM and IgZ expressed in intestine, head kidney, trunk kidney, skin, spleen, brain, gill and blood.%根据已报道的草鱼免疫球蛋白IgM、IgZ和IgD的序列设计表达引物进行PCR扩增,将扩增片

  18. Antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) meat%草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解物抗氧化性及功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 罗永康; 尤娟

    2011-01-01

    为全面了解水解度(DH)、蛋白酶种类对草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解产物抗氧化性和功能特性的影响,采用木瓜蛋白酶及Alcalase 2.4L在各自最适条件下进行酶解,制备水解度为10%和20%的酶解产物,对其功能特性进行分析.结果显示:随着水解度升高酶解产物的亚铁离子螯合能力增强,但还原力和清除DPPH自由基的能力下降(P<0.05).相同水解度下与Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物相比,木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物具有较强的清除DPPH自由基能力和还原力(P<0.05).2种蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性均在pH4时达到最低,而后随pH升高而增大.相同pH下随着水解度的升高酶解产物的溶解性增强,乳化性下降.相同pH及水解度下木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性和起泡性小于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物,但乳化性优于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物.酶解产物的抗氧化性及功能特性受水解度及蛋白酶种类的影响.%Antioxidant activity and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4L(HA) and Papain (HP) with different ( 10%, 20%) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated.With the DH rising,the metal chelating activity increased while the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased of both HA and HP(P<0.05).At the same DH test,HP possessed a better DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power than HA did (P<0.05).The solubilities, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were lowest at pH 4.When the DH increased, the solubilities of hydrolysates increased, but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3-8.And HP displayed higher emulsion activity index but lower solubility and foaming capacity than HA did.The result revealed that the antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp meat were determined by the DH and types of the enzymes.

  19. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR QUINOCETONE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%喹烯酮在草鱼体内生理药动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宁; 刘永涛; 杨秋红; 艾晓辉

    2015-01-01

    为了预测喹烯酮在草鱼体内药物残留, 建立其在草鱼体内生理药动学模型.通过搜集大量文献获得鱼的生理解剖参数, 采用已有的喹烯酮试验数据拟合得到药物特异性参数.基于 acslXtreme 生理药动学软件,进行模型假设、血流图设计、质量平衡方程的建立和模型拟合.喹烯酮为小分子药物, 其分布服从血流限速型, 在肝脏代谢, 从肾脏消除.喹烯酮通过口服进入肠道, 然后经肝脏代谢进入血液循环, 因此设定 5 个房室, 即肝、肾、肌肉、肠和其他组织.经过一系列的计算和调试, 最终建立喹烯酮在草体内5室生理药动模型, 成功拟合连续饲喂药物 60d之后的药物残留消除曲线, 其中肝脏中的预测结果比肾脏和肌肉高, 与实测数据一致.因此, 喹烯酮在鱼体内生理药动模型具有一定的应用价值, 将是药物残留检测的新亮点.%An effective physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model can be used to analogize and extrapolate the in vivo drug concentrations in different administrations and environments, as well as in different species of animals, hence it has become more and more popular in the drug residual prediction in aquatic animals. In order to predict drug residues of quinocetone in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), we established the PB-PK model of quinocetone in this study. We obtained the physiological and anatomical parameters of fish from literatures, and estimated the drug-specific parameters of quinocetone by fitting the existing data. We used the physiological pharmacokinetic soft-ware, asclXtreme, to make the model assumptions, to design the blood flow chart, to generate the mass balance equa-tions and to complete the model fitting. Quinocetone was a small molecule drug, and itsin vivo disposition was blood flow-limited. It was metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidney. Quinocetone entered the intestine through oral administration and

  20. Effects of different stunning methods on the flesh quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Li, Dapeng; Hong, Hui; Zhang, Yuemei; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    The effects of stunning methods (percussion (T1), stunning at -22 °C in a freezer (T2), and immersion in ice slurry (T3)) on the flesh quality of grass carp fillets were evaluated in terms of K-value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), electrical conductivity (EC), total viable counts (TVC), biogenic amines, and sensory scores during storage. Moreover, fillets were analyzed periodically for pH, hardness, acid phosphatase activity, and the content of glycogen, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and lactate. Significantly slower ATP depletion, slower reduction in pH, slower lactate formation, and higher initial glycogen level were observed in T3 compared to T1 and T2 (Pbiogenic amines, and lower sensory scores. Significantly lower TVC (P<0.05) was exhibited in T3, which indicated that stunning in ice slurry could improve the quality and prolong the shelf life of grass carp. PMID:26868557

  1. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of the unc45 myosin chaperone b(unc45b)gene of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Guo, Ting; Pan, Wen-Qian; Gan, Tian; Wei, Jing; Wang, Jun-Peng; Leng, Xiang-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin

    2016-06-01

    Unc45 myosin chaperone b(unc45b)gene is a molecular chaperone that mediates the folding, assembly and accumulation of thick-filament myosin in the formation of sarcomere, which plays an important role in the development of striated muscle and the stability of sarcomere. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of unc45b gene of grass carp was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and the characteristics of the unc45b protein predicted from gene sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The differential expression pattern in tissues was also detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the full-length of unc45b gene of grass carp is 3163 bp, which contains a 60 bp 5'UTR, a 298 bp 3'UTR, and a 2865 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 934 amino acid peptide. The deduced unc45b protein exhibits a homology of 92, 86, 86 % with the protein of zebrafish (Danio rerio), channel catfish (Ietalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) respectively, and the protein contains UCS myosin head binding domain and TPR peptide repeat domain. The protein is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein with a molecular mass and isoeletronic point of 103,699.8 and 7.39 Da. The structural elements of the protein includes α-helixes and loops, and the unc45b gene highly expresses in skeletal muscle and heart in grass carp. This study laid a foundation for further research in explaining the myofibril accumulation in crisped grass carp. PMID:27334505

  2. Effect of replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on growth, hematology, antioxidant enzymes activity and expression for juvenile grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qingmei; Wen, Xiaobo; Han, Chunyan; Li, Haobo; Xie, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth and health of grass carp. Four isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 16.64, 32.73 and 48.94% of CSM, respectively, as replacements of 0, 35, 68 and 100% of SBM were fed to fish (initial body weight 7.14 ± 0.75 g/fish) in triplicate aquaria twice daily. The results indicated that fish fed diet containing 16.64% CSM as a replacement of 35% of SBM was not affected in wei...

  3. 草鱼线粒体型超氧化物歧化酶的生化遗传特性%Genetic and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜勤; 罗琛

    2004-01-01

    , population genetics, and identification of different strains in the same species. However, the biochemical and genetic features of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase have not been well characterized in fishes. In this study, we investigated the genetic phenotypes and biochemical features of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (fm-SOD) with polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Our data revealed three isoforms of fm-SOD which were named fm-SOD 1, fm-SOD 2 and fm-SOD 3 according to their positions from the positive pole to the negative pole. The combination of three isoforms of fm-SOD constitute three distinct biochemical phenotypes. Phenotype 1 was only associated with the fastest migratory isoform fm-SOD 1 and phenotype 3 with the slowest migratory isoform fm-SOD 3, while phenotype 2 was associated with all three isoforms. In the wild group of grass carp, all three phenotypes were observed, whereas in the mito-gynogenetic group, only phenotypes 1and 3 were observed. The ratio of the three phenotypes in the wild group was consistent with the 1: 2: 1 ratio ofMendelian inheritance for 2 alleles of a single locus in the autosomal chromosomes. These results suggested that: (1) the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene in grass carp resided in chromosomes instead of mitochondrial DNA; (2) mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was encoded by a single locus; (3) there were at least two variant alleles in grass carp and (4) the fm-SOD is composed of two subunits. In addition, the fm-SOD was sensitive to the mixture of 15% ethanol and 25 % chloroform but resistant to H2O2, indicating that the fm-SOD in grass carp is Mn-SOD [ Acta Zoologica Sinica 50(3): 389-394, 2004].

  4. Effect of dietary cottonseed meal on growth performance, physiological response, and gossypol accumulation in pre-adult grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haokun; Yan, Quangen; Han, Dong; Jin, Junyan; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Xie, Shouqi

    2016-09-01

    Cottonseed meal (CM) was used at up to 36.95% content in the diet (replacing 60% of dietary fish meal protein) without any negative eff ects on growth performance of pre-adult grass carp (initial body weight, 761 g) under outdoor conditions. A culture trial was conducted in net cages installed in a large concrete pond. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing a gradient of CM concentrations (0, 12.2%, 24.4%, 36.6%, 48.8%, 54.8%, and 61.0%) as replacement for dietary fish meal protein (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100%) were formulated. Dietary non-resistant starch (from maize) was inverse to dietary CM. Growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed the diets containing CM replacing 0-40% fishmeal protein were not aff ected after the 6-week feeding trial. Accumulation of hepatopancreatic total gossypol in the hepatopancreas was significantly correlated with free gossypol content in the diets (HTG=88.6+1.5×DFG, R 2=0.89, P<0.05). Intestinal α-amylase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activities rose along with increasing dietary CM level. The structure of the mid-intestinal tissues and the ultrastructure of the enterocyte microvilli were normal when dietary CM was <36.6% (60% protein replacement). Increasing dietary CM content increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels but decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin ( P<0.05).

  5. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2014-01-01

    采用RT-PCR方法,以青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼肌肉提取总 RNA 为模板,运用 GenBank中BLAST 同源性搜索,寻找亲缘关系相近的鱼类基因序列,采用Primer5设计简并引物,进行 H2A N-端序列扩增,通过胶回收和连接,然后转化到载体中进行克隆测序,分别获得青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因序列,长为364 bp ,分析发现均属于不稳定蛋白质,等电点为10.48~11.02,平均亲水性为0.179~0.264。序列同源性比对结果显示,青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼同狭孔金线鲃和斑马鱼基因H2A编码蛋白质同源性极高,达到85%以上,与其他物种同源性较低,其中狭孔金线鲃与青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼的亲缘关系比斑马鱼更近,分子系统学分析也支持这一结果。青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼H2A衍生抗菌肽与庸鲽 Hipposin抗菌肽同源性极高,不仅存在碱性氨基酸,还存在酸性氨基酸。组蛋白 H2A N-端可衍生 Hipposin类抗菌肽,均为阳离子α螺旋结构抗菌肽。%Antimicrobial peptide derived from Histone H2A ,one of the chromosome structure protein ,is a cationic antimicrobial peptide showing a potential to substitute antibiotics .The characterization of histone H2A and the derivative antibacterial peptides are important for understanding of the mechanism and antibacterial difference among peptides derived from different H 2A genes in different fish .In this study , RT‐PCR was used to amply the H2A cDNA with the total RNA as the template in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus , grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus , silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp A ristichthys nobilis .The homologous H2A gene sequences were selected in the BLAST in GenBank ,and aligned in software Mega5 . The universal primers were designed in software Primer5 to amplify H2A genes collected and linked with a T‐vector ,and transferred into the

  6. 脆化草鱼与氹仔草鱼的肠道细菌群落PCR-DGGE指纹图谱及多样性分析%Fingertprinting and Diversity of the Intestinal Bacterial Community of Crisp Grass Carp and Dang-zai Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) with PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁二蒙; 余德光; 毕香梅; 谢骏; 王广军; 龚望宝; 王海英; 李志斐

    2012-01-01

    确定地理来源是水产品跟踪和追溯的一个重要指标,基于鱼类肠道细菌16S核糖体rRNA基因(16S rDNA)构建的PCR-DGGE指纹图谱可标示鱼类来源.本研究采用PCR-DGGE技术构建了中山脆化草鱼和茂名氹仔草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道内容物和肠道壁群落的PCR-DGGE指纹图谱.肠道内容物DGGE图谱显示,脆化草鱼和氹仔草鱼分别有17条和15条可鉴别的条带;脆化草鱼特异条带代表3种未培养细菌GU301246.1、FJ675051.1和GU293197.1,氹仔草鱼特异条带代表未培养细菌AY578409.1和GU301246.1.脆化草鱼的肠道壁前肠与中肠、中肠与后肠、前肠与后肠的DGGE图谱相似性依次为50.5%、54.3%和33.2%,氹仔草鱼的肠道壁前肠与中肠中肠与后肠、前肠与后肠的DGGE图相似性分别为36.1%、47.7%和15.4%.脆化草鱼的前肠、中肠和后肠的DGGE图谱的相似性远大于氹仔草鱼.脆化草鱼和氹仔草鱼的肠道群落PCR-DGGE指纹图谱有助于这2种草鱼产品的跟踪和销售.%The determination of geographical origin is a demand of the traceability system of import-export food products, and 16S ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) PCR-DGGE fingerprinting based on fish intestinal microbia has been considered to trace the fish sources. For this purpose, PCR-DGGE technology were used to detect the variation in bacterial community structures in the intestinal contents and intestinal wall of Crisp grass carp (CGC)(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) from Zhongshan and Dang-zai grass carp (DGC)(C. idellus) from Maoming district. The V3 region of bacterial 16S rDNA from fish was amplified by PCR and was analyzed by DGGE. It's demonstrated in the DGGE profiles of intestinal contents that there were 17 bands in the CGC and 15 bands in the DGC, 11 bands co-exiting in both CGC and DGC. The results of molecular identification of specific bands showed that specific bacteria of CGC included uncultured bacteria GU301246.1, FJ675051.1 and GU293197

  7. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activity in Juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%饲料蛋白质和能量水平对草鱼幼鱼生长和消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋湘辉; 刘刚; 金广海; 李敬伟; 解涵; 宋文华; 闫有利

    2013-01-01

    在水温24~29℃下,将675尾规格整齐、健康、体质量为(35.59士0.44)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)随机分为9个处理,每处理3个重复,放养于水泥池中的网箱(100cm×50cm×100cm)内,投喂以鱼粉和豆粕为蛋白源,豆油作为脂肪源配制的3个蛋白水平(24%、28%、32%),每一蛋白水平设3个脂肪水平(4%、6%、8%),共计9种饲料.饲料蛋能比(P/E)在15.81~22.46 mg·kJ-1之间.92d的饲养表明:D4组(蛋白质含量为28.02%,脂肪为4.30%)草鱼的特定生长率最高,显著高于其他各组(P<0.05).随着饲料中蛋白含量的增加,草鱼全肠中蛋白酶的活力逐渐升高,之后又降低,以D4组饲料的蛋白酶活性最高,显著高于D1、D8和D9(P<0.05).本实验表明,该生长阶段的草鱼所需最适蛋白水平为28.02%,能量为14307kJ·kg-1,P/E约为19.58mg·kJ-1.%Six hundred and seventy five grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) juveniles (body weight 35.59 t 0.44g) were randomly divided into nine groups with triplication,stocked into net cages displaced in an indoor tank and fed one of the nine diets containing three protein levels (24%,28% and 32%,fishmeal and soybean meal as dietary protein) and three lipid levels (4%,6% and 8%,soybean oil as dietary lipid) for 92 days to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of grass carp.The results showed that specific growth rate was found significantly higher in the fish fed the diet D4 (containing 28.02% protein,and 4.30% fat) than that in the fish fed the other diets (P< 0.05).There was significantly higher proteinase activity in the fish fed the diet D4 than those in the fish fed diets D1,D8 and D9 (P< 0.05).It is recommended that the optimal ratio of protein level to energy (P/E) be 28.02/19.58,optimal dietary proten level 28.02% and optimal energy 14307 kJ· kg-1,for grass carp juveniles.

  8. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning, Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expre-ssion of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用.本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS).该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2 263 bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF) 1 575 bp、5'非编码区(UTR) 118 bp和3' UTR 570 bp.其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59 kD,等电点为7.02.在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3' UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3' UTR AC重复序列相似.序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%.同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357.此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH 结合位点.根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群.采用实时荧光定量PCR (Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征.结果显示,草鱼CAT mRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低.本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础.%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp {Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The gene CA T (GenBank Accession No. FJ560431) was 2 263 base-pairs (bp), including a complete protein coding region (ORF) of 1

  9. 金丝桃素、绿原酸和硬葡聚糖对草鱼幼鱼生长及免疫功能的影响%The effects of Hypercin, Chlorogenic acid and Scleroglucan on growth performance and immune function in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文华; 胡宗云; 富丽静; 张涛; 李赫; 劐已福向; 张健

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus juveniles with body weight of 110±5g reared in a net cage of 1.0m×0.5m×1.0m were fed the basal diets supplemented with different levels ofhypericin (0%, 0.066%, and 0.132%), chlorogenic acid (0%, 0.04%, and 0.08%) and scleroglucan (0%, 0.2%, and 0.4%) at water temperature of 25±2℃ for 35 days to evaluate the effects of the additives on growth performance and immune ftmction of the grass carp juveniles. The results showed that there were no significant differences in weight gain rate and specific growth rate in the juveniles in all experiments (P〉0.05).However, the juveniles fed the diet containing 0.08% chlorogenic acid had significantly higher final body weight and hepatosomatic index than the juveniles fed the control diet did (P〈0.05). All of the additives significantly enhanced the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), the peak value in the fish fed the diet supplemented with 0.08% chlorogenic acid, and no significant differences in AKP activity among all treatments. There was significantly higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in 0.132% hypericin group than that in the control, whereas there was no significant difference in SOD between the treatments and the control groups. The grass carp juveniles fed the diet supplemented with 0.2% scleroglucan had significantly higher lysozyme activity. The three additives were not found to affect significantly the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum.%在水温(25±2)℃下,分别在基础饲料中添加不同剂量的硬葡聚糖(0.2%,G1组;0.4%,G2组)绿原酸(0.04%,G3组;0.08%,G4组)和金丝桃素(0.066%,G5组;0.132%,G6组),连续投喂放在1.0m×0.5m×1.0m网箱内、体质量110±5g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)幼鱼35d,以未添加者为对照组,探讨三种添加剂对草鱼幼鱼生长和免疫功能的影响。结果表明,三种添

  10. 草鱼ghrelin基因的分子克隆与组织分布及其摄食调控作用分析%Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and food intake regulatory effects of ghrelin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 李家乐; 沈玉帮; 傅建军; 王荣泉; 宣云峰

    2012-01-01

    ghrelin是一种在脊椎动物摄食调节过程中起重要作用的脑肠肽,具有明显的摄食促进作用.实验利用同源克隆技术获得了草鱼ghrelin基因的cDNA序列和DNA序列,其中cDNA序列全长506 bp,包括90 bp的5 '端非编码区(5’-untranslated region,5'UTR),312 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),以及104 bp的3’端非编码区(3’-untranslated region,3'UTR).开放阅读框编码的103个氨基酸的ghrelin前体肽,经剪切加工后形成含有19个氨基酸的成熟肽.氨基酸序列分析结果显示,草鱼ghrelin与硬骨鱼类ghrelin相似度最高,而与其他脊椎动物相似度较低,同时草鱼ghrelin成熟肽N端的“活性中心”(active core)为鲤科鱼类中常见的GTSF形式.与大多数硬骨鱼类的ghrelin基因结构相同,草鱼ghrelin基因也包括4个外显子和3个内含子.荧光定量PCR检测到ghrelin mRNA大量分布于草鱼的前肠和脾,脑、肾、肝、肌肉、皮和鳔等组织也有ghrelin mRNA分布.草鱼脑和肠中的ghrelin表达水平在摄食后下降,随着饥饿时间的延长表达水平逐步升高,最后维持在较高水平,表明ghrelin作为摄食启动信号对草鱼的摄食活动起到了促进作用.%Ghrelin is one of vital brain-gut peptides involved in feeding regulation in vertebrates, and is well known for its appetite-stimulating capacity. Nucleotide sequences of ghrelin gene were identified both at DNA and cDNA levels, using homology-based cloning techniques from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The 506 bp full-length ghrelin cDNA consists of a 90 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 312 bp open reading frame and a 104 bp 3'-untranslated region. The 103-amino acid prepropeptide encoded by open reading frame turns into a mature peptide with 19 amino acids after posttranslational modification, putative amino acid sequence analysis among vertebrates indicated that grass carp ghrelin showed the highest sequence homology with teleosts, and lower homology

  11. 草鱼胰岛素样生长因子1受体基因cDNA全序列的克隆及功能%cDNA cloning and function of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene (Igf-Ir) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春雪; 蒋霞云; 陈杰; 邹曙明

    2014-01-01

    本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增法(RACE)克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)IGF-IR基因全长cDNA序列,并对该基因在草鱼不同时期胚胎和成鱼不同组织中的表达进行了分析。序列分析表明,草鱼IGF-IR基因cDNA序列全长5741 bp,包括5′端非翻译区822 bp,3′端非翻译区581 bp,开放阅读框4338 bp,共编码1445个氨基酸。序列比对结果显示,草鱼 IGF-IR 可能属于 a 型,该基因编码的氨基酸序列与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)IGF-IRa、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)IGF-IRa和人类(Homo sapiens)IGF-IR的相似性分别为95%、93%和66%,具有较高的同源性,表明该基因在长期进化中具有较高的保守性。RT-PCR结果表明,该基因从16 hpf(hours post fertilization)胚胎期到出苗期都有表达,在成鱼大部分组织中均有表达。原位杂交结果显示,草鱼IGF-IR mRNA在不同时期胚胎组织中广泛存在,其中在脑部、脊索和尾部等生长旺盛组织的细胞中表达量较高。本研究为进一步探索草鱼IGF-IR基因在生长发育信号通路中的作用和育种提供了基础资料。%The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is an important component of the insulin-like growth fac-tor system, which plays a key role in embryonic growth, formation of the nervous system, skeletal muscle development, and also appears to contribute to the establishment and progression of tumors. Despite its importance, little is known about the tissue distribution and expression pattern of IGF-IR during embryonic development in most commercially important cultured fish species. We isolated a 5 741 bp IGF-IR full-length cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopha ryngodon idellus). The IGF-IR cDNA included an 822 bp complete 5′untranslated region (5′UTR), a 581 bp 3′UTR, and a 4 338 bp open reading frame (ORF) region which encoded a 1 445 amino acid protein. The mature peptide contained seven structural domains including two Recep-L-domains, one Furin-like domain, three FN3

  12. Comparison in Nitrogen Content Between Ctenopharyngodon idellus Dominated Fish Ponds Different in Polyculture Model%主养草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)池塘3种混养模式下氮含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉婷; 杨学芬; 王琴; 陈洁; 施培松; 熊邦喜

    2012-01-01

    对主养草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)池塘3种混养模式(模式Ⅰ,草鱼、鲢、鳙、鲫分别为250、35、40、15尾;模式Ⅱ,草鱼、鲢、鳙、匙吻鲟、鲫分别为250、35、20、20、15尾;模式Ⅲ,草鱼、鲢、鲫分别为250、35、15尾)水体和底泥中氮含量进行比较分析.结果表明,模式Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ水体TN含量均值分别为1.251、1.001和1.228 mg·L-1,NH+4-N含量均值分别为0.391、0.345和0.319 mg·L-1,NO-3-N含量由高到低为模式Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ,NO-2-N含量由高到低为模式Ⅱ、Ⅰ和Ⅲ.模式Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ底泥TN含量均值分别为0.793、0.910和0.963 mg·g-1,NH+4-N含量均值分别为0.005、0.006和0.004 mg· g-1.模式Ⅱ水体TN含量显著低于模式Ⅰ和Ⅲ(P<0.05),底泥中氮营养盐的转化也优于其他2种模式,可见模式Ⅱ最有利于水体中氮营养盐的转化和利用.%Nitrogen contents in the waters and sedin onts collected from three fish ponds dominated with grass carp bu slightly different in polyculture model ( Model I , containing 250 grass carps, 35 silver carps, 40 bighead carps, and 15 crucian carps; Model II, 250 grass carps, 25 silver carps, 20 bighead carps, 20 paddlefishes, and 15 crucian carps; Model III, 250 grass carps, 35 silver carps and 15 crucian carps) were analyzed for comparison. Results show that in waters that the mean total nitrogen content of Model I , Model II , Model III was 1.251, 1. 001 and 1. 228 mg ? L-1, respectively; and the mean ammonium nitrogen content, 0. 391, 0. 345 and 0. 319 mg ? L-1, respectively; the content of nitrate showed a decreasing order of Model I > Model II > Model III , and the content of nitrite followed a different order, () Model II > Model I > Model III. And in sediments, the mean total nitrogen content of Model I , Model II and Model III was 0. 793, 0. 910 and 0. 963 mg ? g-1, respectively; and the mean ammonium nitrogen content, 0.005, 0. 006 and 0. 004 mg ? g-1, respectively. TN in water was

  13. Purification and characterization of α2-macroglobulin from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α2巨球蛋白的分离纯化与若干特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤玲; 陆承平

    2004-01-01

    α2-Macroglobulin was purified from grass carp plasma by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000,gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The three steps of the procedure resulted in the purification of grass carp plasma α2 M. The purified product was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under natural conditions and the proteins showed a single band. Meanwhile, it was analyzed by SDS, PAGE under reducing conditions and the proteins showed double bands with molecular weight of about 95 kD and 80 kD. This result demonstrated that grass carp α2M was composed of two distinct subunits. Most properties of grass carp α2M were similar to that of human α2M. Grass carp α2M treated with trypsin produced the fast form of the molecule more mobile in PAGE, but the untreated grass carpR2M had the property of electrophoretically slow-form. α2M was a nonspecific proteinase inhibitors of blood plasma. Inhibition of activity of Aeromonase hydrophilas extracellular proteinase (AhECPase) showed that grass carp α2M could inhibit the proteinases secreted from invading bacteria. Double immudiffusion of α2M demonstrated no cross-antigenicity between grass carp' s and human α2M

  14. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed.

  15. 饲料中氧化鱼油对草鱼生长及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Dietary Oxidizes Fish Oil on Growth and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤; 萧培珍

    2015-01-01

    A 72-day experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized fish oil on growth and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) . Soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil as lipid sources, five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets were formulated with 6%soybean oil (6S group), 6% fish oil (6F group), 2% oxidized fish oil+4% soybean oil (2OF group), 4%oxidized fish oil+2% soybean oil (4OF group) and 6% oxidized fish oil (6OF group), respectively. A total of 350 grass carp with the average body weight of (74.82±1.49) g were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The results showed as follows:compared with 6S group, the spe-cific gain rate ( SGR) of grass carp in 6F, 2OF, 4OF and 6OF groups was decreased by 5.81% to 11.50%, the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) was increased by 8.64% to 17.28%, and the differences were significant ( P<0.05) . The content of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA) was positively correlated ( power function) with the SGR of grass carp. On the contrary, the dietary acid value ( AV) , peroxide value ( POV) and malon-dialdehyde ( MDA) content were negatively correlated ( power function) with SGR of grass carp, and posi-tively correlated ( power function) with FCR. It meant that, a little AV, POV or MDA content in diets could decrease the growth of grass carp, and reduce the utilization rate of protein and the content of muscle PUFA, and disturb the lipid metabolism. With the further increase of dietary AV, POV and MDA content, the influ-ence of dietary AV, POV and MDA content on growth rate and feed efficiency were stabled in the high level. Results indicate that, on one hand the fish oil provides the diatary unsaturated fatty acids, on the other hand the side effects of the oxidized product for growth of grass carp also significantly show. The key to improve the ef-ficiency of grass carp utilize the lipids is to keep suitable

  16. Effects of Dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%饲料中添加龙须菜对草鱼生长性能、血清生化指标及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 刘永坚; 李雅婷; 陈先权; 曾帅霖; 田丽霞

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth performance, serum biochemical indices and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) , juvenile fish at the average body weight of (15.94±0.10) g were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing graded levels of Gracilaria lemaneiformis [ 0 ( control group ) , 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively ] for 8 weeks. Each diet fed four water tanks and each tank had 30 fish. The results showed as follows:1) there were no significant differences in weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth ratio ( SGR) , survival rate ( SR) and feed efficiency ( FE) of fish fed diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis ( P>0.05) . 2) Hepato-somatic index ( HSI) of fish in experimental groups was higher than that in control group, and the differences were significant except 5% supplementation group ( P0.05), however, there were significant differences in the contents of ash and crude lipid in whole body, crude lipid in liver and moisture in muscle ( P0.05). 5) Fatty acid composition in muscle of grass carp was affected by diets with different proportions of Gracilaria lemane-iformis. Diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis could significantly affect the contents of fatty acids except C14∶1, C20∶0 and C20∶2 in muscle ( P0.05)。2)各试验组的肝体指数( HSI)均高于对照组,对照组与除5%添加组外的其他试验组的差异均达到显著水平( P0.05),而饲料中不同添加比例龙须菜对全鱼粗灰分与粗脂肪、肝脏粗脂肪及肌肉水分含量有显著影响(P0.05)。5)饲料中龙须菜添加比例影响了草鱼肌肉脂肪酸的组成,除C14∶1、C20∶0、C20∶2外,其他肌肉脂肪酸的含量均受到饲料中龙须菜的添加比例的显著影响(P<0.05),其中肌肉多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)含量及n-3/n-6 PUFA均在3%添加组获得最高值。1%、2%

  17. 半胱胺对草鱼下丘脑-脑垂体组织共孵育中生长激素分泌的影响%Effect of cysteamine hydrochloride on growth hormone secretion from hypothalamus-pituitary tissue in juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖东; 林浩然

    2003-01-01

    Effects of cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH), a somatostatin-inhibiting agent, on growth hormone (GH) secretion from pituitary fragments (PF) or hypothalamus-pituitary fragments (HPF) of juvenile grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) under static incubation conditions were investigated. Different concentrations of CSH (0.1,1 and 10 mmol/L) had no influence on GH release from PF after 1 h and 6 h incubation, but were effective in stimulating GH release from HPF in a dose-dependent manner after 1 h and 6 h incubation. Prolonged treatment of HPF with CSH decreased the magnitude of enhancement of GH levels. CSH and neuropeptides {I. E. , human GH-releasing hormone (hGHRH, 100 nmol/L), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog [LHRH-A, (D-Trp6, Pro9) -LHRH, 100 nmol/L]} , or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue [sGnRH-A, (D-Ala6, Pro9) -LHRH, 100 nmol/L],alone and in combination stimulated GH release from HPF after 1 h static incubation. There was an additive, but not a synergistic effect of CSH and neuropeptides on GH release. These results demonstrate that CSH significantly stimulates GH secretion from HPF, not PF of grass carp under static incubation conditions, suggesting a hypothalamic pathway mediating the action of CSH.%采用静态孵育和放射免疫测定技术,研究了生长抑素抑制剂半胱胺盐酸盐对草鱼脑垂体组织单独孵育或下丘脑-脑垂体组织共孵育中生长激素分泌的影响.结果表明:脑垂体组织单独孵育时,半胱胺盐酸盐(0.1、1和10 mmol/L)对基础生长激素分泌无影响;而下丘脑-脑垂体组织共孵育时,半胱胺盐酸盐(0.1、1和10mmol/L)对基础生长激素分泌有明显影响,且是剂量依存的.神经肽Hghrh、sGnRH-A和LHRH-A对CSH影响的下丘脑-脑垂体组织共孵育中生长激素分泌均无协同作用.我们认为,半胱胺盐酸盐可在下丘脑水平调节生长激素释放,半胱胺盐酸盐调节草鱼离体生长激素分泌是由下丘脑途径介导的.

  18. Identification of Compound Chinese Herbal Immunostimulants Enhancing the Immunity of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus)%增强草鱼免疫功能的复方中草药免疫增强剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 张其中; 朱成科; 陈霞; 李春涛; 王志坚; 罗芬

    2012-01-01

    选取920尾草鱼,平均体质量为(62.15±9.78)g,随机分成4个组,每组230尾鱼,其中1个对照组(投喂基础饲料),3个试验组(投喂含中草药免疫增强剂的饲料:基础饲料中分别添加20 g/kg中草药免疫增强剂1(T1),2(T2)和3(T3)).每组分别在第0,7,14,21和28 d采样测定免疫指标,饲养30 d后进行人工感染试验.结果表明各试验组较对照组在吞噬细胞吞噬活力、血清溶菌活力、血清抗菌活力、血清超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活力和血清过氧化物酶( POD)活力方面均显著升高(P<0.05).T1组、T2组和T3组抗多子小瓜虫感染的免疫保护率分别为0,100%±0.00%和42.50%±6.61%.T1组、T2组和T3组对注射嗜水气单胞菌的免疫保护率分别为15.37%±8.36%,78.43%±8.77%和63.06%±3.37%.研究表明在基础饲料中添加2%复方2可显著提高草鱼的免疫功能和抗病力(p<0.05),在3种试验复方中效果最佳,在生产中有应用价值.%Nine hundred and twenty healthy grass carp at the average weight of 62.15±9. 78 g are randomly chosen and divided into four groups (230 carp in each group). Of the four groups of grass carp, one group serves as contrast group (which are fed with the basic fodder) and the other 3 trial groups (groups T1, T2 and T3), which are fed with basal diets supplemented with 20 g/kg of the compound immunostim-ulant 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The carp in control group are fed with just basal diet (without compound immunostimulants). Each group is randomly sampled at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to detect the periphery blood immune parameters. Challenge experiment is carried out on the thirtieth day. The results are as follows: The activity in phagocyte phagocytic, serum lysozyme, serum antibacterial, SOD, and POD in serum is all significantly (p<0. 05) enhanced in the group T1, group T2, and group T3 when compared with the control group. When grass carp are injected with live Aeromonas hydrophila, the relative

  19. Effect of different levels of earthworms and vermicompost on the flesh quality of grass carp,ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同水平的蚯蚓和蚯蚓粪对草鱼肌肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程静; 茅沈丽; 梁日深; 邹青; 曾运丁; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of earthworms and vermicompost on the flesh quality of grass carp, grass carp with the average body weight (54.03+0.15) g were fed for 100 days by adding 5%,7.5%,10% earthworms or 2%, 4%, 6% vermicompost in basal diets.The results showed that: adding earthworms and vermicompost could significantly improve the content of crude protein in flesh (P0.05); in the aspect of muscle total amino acids content,almost all test groups were better than the control group except the group added with 2%vermicompost with no difference compared with the control group(P>0.05), while the test group added with 7.5% earthworm worked the best; in the aspect of essential amino acids content,the EAA content of adding 7.5% earthworms test group was significantly higher than that of the control group, while the other groups had just a high trend; in the aspect of flavor amino acid concentration in muscle, all the test groups had no difference with the control group; the evaluation results of amino acid nutritional value showed that,diets added with appropriate earthworms and vermicompost can increase EAAI, EAAI was the highest while adding with 7.5% earth-worms.In summary,diets added with a certain concentration of earthworms and vermicompost had a trend of improving the flesh quality of grass carp, while adding 7.5% earthworms worked the best.%实验在基础饲料中添加不同浓度的蚯蚓(5%、7.5%、10%)和蚯蚓粪(2%、4%、6%),饲养平均体重(54.03±0.15)g的草鱼100 d,研究蚯蚓和蚯蚓粪对草鱼肌肉品质的影响.结果表明:添加蚯蚓和蚯蚓粪可显著提高肌肉中粗蛋白的含量(P<0.05),以添加7.5%~10%蚯蚓和6%蚯蚓粪效果最好,对水分、粗脂肪和粗灰分均无显著影响(P>0.05);在肌肉氨基酸总量方面,除去2%蚯蚓粪组与对照组相比差异不显著外,其余实验组均显著高于对照组,并以添加7.5%蚯蚓实验组氨基酸总量最高;在肌

  20. 草鱼肝脏GPT酶的动力学特征及对Nic的敏感性研究%Study on the kinetics characteristics of GPT from Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and its sensitivity to Niclosamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进英; 王新石; 李文新

    2011-01-01

    The supernatant fluid of liver homogenate of Grass carp was used as enzyme solution.L25 (56)orthogonal matrix and spectrophotometric method was adopted to determine the optimal reaction system of the enzyme solution and its sensitivity to Niclosamide.The results is enzyme concentration 0.1 mg/mL、 α-ketoglutaric acid concentration 3 μmol/ml、pH value of the reaction system 8.5、reaction temperature 50℃、 reaction time 70min.It showed that the effect of enzyme concentration anda-ketoglutaric acid concentration to the activity of GPT is extremely significant(p<0.01)and the effect of temperature and time is significant(p<0.05).Under the optimal conditions, the inhibition ratio of GPT activity were 23.08、26.56、26.40、31.13and 35.95% respectively after be treated with series concentrations of Nic( 0.25、0.5、1.0、2.0 and 4.0 mg/L )by lh in vitro.There was a significant liner regression between the concentration of Nic and GPT inhibition ratio(R2= 0.9479).Preliminary presumption showed that GPT in the liver of Grass carp is one target of biochemical toxicity which was caused by Nic.%以草鱼肝脏匀浆上清液为GPT酶液,用L25(56)正交和分光光度法,测试其催化反应的最适条件及对Nic的敏感性.试验表明:在酶液浓度0.1 mg/mL、α-酮戊二酸3μmol/mL、反应体系pH8.5、反应温度50℃及反应时间70 min时,GPT转氨基速率达到最大值,其中酶浓度和底物对其活力影响均达到极显著水平(p<0.01),pH值和温度对其活力影响达到显著水平(p<0.05);在GPT反应最适条件下测得,0.25、0.5、1.0、2.0及4.0 mg/L的Nic与GPT共存1 h,其活性抑制率分别为23.08、26.56、26.40、31.13及35.95%,Nic浓度与GPT活性抑制呈良好的线性关系(R2=0.9479).初步推定草鱼肝脏GPT是Nic致其死亡的生化靶点.

  1. Cloning and Tissue Expression Analysis ofPAX7 Gene in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼PAX7基因的克隆、序列分析及组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘甜; 冷向军; 郭婷; 胡静; 魏静; 李小勤

    2014-01-01

    Paired box gene 7(PAX7)is crucially important to the cellular renewal, differentiation and apoptosis, especially in neural crest development, gastrulation, and muscle self-renewal. ThePAX7 domains sequence is conserved among several species, such as zebrafish, apteronotidae, and rainbow trout, and the conserved sequence zebrafish was used to design degenerate primers for reverse-transcription PCR(RT-PCR). A partial sequence ofPAX7 from grass carp was obtained for a 645 bp segment encoding a 214 amino acid peptide, containing a paired box domain with 128 amino acids. The deduced protein showed homology to zebrafish(Danio rerio), apteronotidae(Sternopygus macrurus), Japanese Medaka(Oryzias latipes), gilthead bream(Sparus aurata), rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon(Salmo salar), Arctic charr(Salvelinus alpinus), human(Homo sapiens), wild yak(Bos grunniens mutus), brown rat(Rattus norvegicus), and mouse(Mus musculus)with 90%-97% identities. Analysis of the PAX7 phylogenetic tree revealed that the grass carp joined with zebrafish, and there was a confluence of Japanese medaka, Arctic charr, Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, apteronotidae and gilthead bream. The other branch was consisted of mouse, brown rat, wild yak and human. These results conformed to the traditional species classification evolution status. The expression in tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR, which indicated that the highest level ofPAX7 gene expression was found in muscle, a lower expression level was found in foregut and skin, and the lowest detectable level was found in heart, brain, kidney and liver. The results are in agreement with the function of the gene.%配对盒基因7(Paired box 7 gene,PAX7)在神经嵴发育及原肠胚形成、肌肉自主更新与再生中扮演着重要角色,对细胞更新、分化、凋亡等起着十分重要的调控作用。参照GenBank中斑马鱼、线鳍电鳗和虹鳟等物种PAX7序列的保守区域设计简并引

  2. Effects of Freshwater Mussels Hyriopsis cumingii on Plankton Community Structure in an Intensive Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus Pond%河蚌对草鱼混养精养池塘中浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗林; 郑曙明; 王广军; 赵峥

    2015-01-01

    Twenty thousand 1 year old freshwater mussel H yriopsis cumingii was stocked into 2 grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (with body weight of 50 g) ponds of each 0 .8 hm2 and water depth of 1 .8 m at stocking density of 12 000 per pond polycultured with silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with body weight of 24—100 g at stocking density of 500 individuals per pond and bighead carp A ristichthys no-bilis with body weight of 150 g at stocking density of 100 individuals per pond ,2 same size and stocking ponds without freshwater mussel as control ponds .The species and biomass of phytoplankton were deter-mined in the ponds in a 24 day interval to look insight on effects of freshwater mussel on phytoplankton community structure .The results showed that there were the phytoplankton of 94 species ,48 genera ,6 phyla in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,while 91 species ,42 genera ,6 phyla were observed in the con-trol ponds ,with the dominant species accounting for 47 .8% in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,and 41.8% in the control ponds ,with Cyclotella and Synedra in Bacillariophyta ,besides Chlorella ,Scenedes-mus and Closterium in Chlorophyta .The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton was found from 1.24 to 1 .41 in the fish mussel polyculture ponds and from 1 .26 to 1 .36 in the control ponds .The density of the phytoplankton were varied from 539 .23 × 104ind/L to 1289 .53 × 104ind/L in the fish-mussel polycul-ture ponds and from 669 .57 × 104 ind/L to 1608 .50 × 104 ind/L in the control ponds ,with the biomass of 6 .68—12 .47 mg/L in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds and 8 .40—18 .62 mg/L in the control ponds .The growth and reproduction of phytoplankton was to some extent restrained in the fish mussel plyculture ponds ,indicating that fish- mussel polyculture can change phytoplankton community structure ,and en-hance the ability to automatically adjust the water ,and more conducive to aquaculture .%试验池塘4口 ,每口面积0 .8 hm2

  3. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  4. The growth of Ctenopharyngodon idellus in Bositeng Lake in Xinjiang%博斯腾湖草鱼生长特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋; 马燕武; 谢春刚; 祁峰; 李红

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with growth characteristics of Ctenopharyngodon idellus based on the 33 specimens collected in Bositeng Lake in August 2014.The ages and growth characteristics of Ctenopharyngodon idellus were determined by scale reading.The body weight increasesallometrically with the body length .The length -weight relationship can be described by the following equations: W =0.0444SL 2.8322.Growth could be described by von Bertalanffy equation with the growth param -eters: SL8 =103.7664 cm, k =0.1385 /y, t0 =-0.0542 y, and weight growth parameters : W8 =22.7674 kg, k =0.1385 /y, t0 =0.0027 y, =9.5875.The inflexion point of age for body weight growth and the corresponding body length and body weight is at 7.5 years, 67.3 cm and 6.6 kg.Constrained by the lack of food supply , the growth rate of Ctenopha-ryngodon idellus has significantly declined comparing with that of 1979 and 2000.In consequence, the recoverable resource of aquatic macrophyte should be as one important objective of the proliferation of Ctenopharyngodon idellus.The concrete measures include reduce Ctenopharyngodon idellus releasing, lowing the fishable size to 3 kg and increase the fishing inten -sity and quantity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus.%根据2014年8月采集的33尾标本对博斯腾湖草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的生长特征进行研究。以鳞片为年龄和生长退算材料,研究结果显示:博斯腾湖草鱼体重与体长表现为异速生长,关系式为 W =0.0444SL2.8322。用退算体长拟合的 von Bertalanffy 生长参数为: SL8=103.7664 cm, k =0.1385/y, t0=-0.0542 y。体重生长参数为: W8=22.7674 kg, k =0.1385/y, t0=0.0027 y。生长特征指数为3.16;生长拐点年龄为7.5龄,拐点时体长和体重分别为67.3 cm 和6.6 kg。与1979年和2000年种群相比,受饵料供给不足的制约,博斯腾湖草鱼生长速度明显下降。草鱼增殖管理措施的制定应以恢复沉

  5. Molecular cloning and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class I genes from grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chun; XU Guangxian; LIN Changyou; HU Tuanjun; YAN Ruoqian; George F GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the molecular sequences,allelic polymorphism and the tertiary structure of grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus) MHC class I,and to further study their relationship with disease resistances,grass carp MHC class I gene (Ctid-MHC I) was cloned from a cDNA library and the allelic polymorphism in the population was investigated.The results showed that most of the variations exist in the peptide-binding domain (PBD) and high polymorphism was identified in the Ctid-MHC I allelic genes from 12 individuals.Based on the genetic distance,Ctid-MHC class I can be classified into 6 types (from Ctid-MHC I-UA to Ctid-MHC I-UF) which were subdivided into 9 lineages (from A to I).Comparison of the Ctid-MHC I among animals and humans showed that the key amino acids of the peptide binding sites are conserved.Analysis of the tertiary structure of the PBD between Grass carp and human crystallographic data of HLA-A2,the variation with insertion or deletion was found in eight regions (A~H).The phylogenetic tree of MHC class I indicates the evolution of MHC class I among grass carp,fish,amphibian,birds,higher vertebrates and humans.

  6. Cloning, mRNA expression and bioinformatic analysis of full length type I collagen alpha 1 cDNA from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼Ⅰ型胶原蛋白α1基因cDNA全序列克隆、组织分布及其生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邦辉; 郁二蒙; 王广军; 余德光; 谢骏; 王海英; 龚望宝

    2012-01-01

    Type I collagen, as a number of collagen family, is the most abundant collagen and major components of the extracellular matrices of all metazoan life, and plays crucial roles in differentiation, formation of collagen fibers and tissue remodeling after injury, etc. Type I collagen alpha 1(COL1A1) cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was isolated through the RT-PCR and RACE approaches. The cDNA was 5 772-bp in length, including a 4 347-bp CDS (coding sequence) and encoded a polypeptide of 1 449 aa. The homology of COL1Al amino acid with relative species (zebrafish, goldfish, etc.) was as high as 93% with zebra fish and goldfish. The protein peptide molecular weight was 137.2 ku and theoretical pI was 5.44 using ProtParam software on line. The protein peptides of COL1A1 possessed 6 a-helixes, 12 β-sheets, others of ruleless coil regions, and 18 regions of triple helical repeats, 22 low complexity regions, 17 function domains. There were two calcium-binding sites and one zinc-binding site in the COL1A1 protein peptide. COL1A1 mRNA was determined in all the tested 8 tissues (muscle, intestine, hepatopancreas, gill, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) of grass carp by semi- quantitative RT-PCR, and the mRNAs expression in gill, kidney, skin and fin significantly higher than other tissues (P<0.05). The structure and bioinformat-ics characteristics of the COL1A1 from grass carp may help to further understand the function of COL1A1 gene in the repair process of damaged tissue in the grass carp.%利用PCR和RACE方法首次克隆了编码草鱼肌肉Ⅰ型胶原蛋白的α1基因(COL1A1)的cDNA全长序列,为5772 bp,其开放阅读框为4 347 bp,编码1448个氨基酸.BLAST同源性分析结果显示,草鱼COL1Al基因的氨基酸序列与斑马鱼、金鱼同源性较高,分别为93.90%和93.60%,呈现出较高的保守性.系统进化树分析表明,该基因与斑马鱼、金鱼处于同一支,亲缘性最近.生物信息学分析显示,草鱼COL1Al蛋白

  7. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  8. Effect of different herbages on fish growth and economic efficiency in pond mainly culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%投喂不同饲草的草鱼主养池塘中鱼类的生长和效益比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽婷; 肖光明; 王晓清; 王子奥; 康银; 王璐明; 胡亚洲

    2013-01-01

    A 150-day feeding trail was conducted in land-based fish ponds in the experimental base in Dongting Huanglong Company,Yueyang,Hunan to compare fish yield and economic efficiency in ponds mainly culturing grass carp fed with grass cultivar Guimu No.1,dwarf elephant grass and ramie,respectively.The results showed that the growth rate(GR),specific growth rate (SGR) of grass carp feeding Guimu No.1 were significantly higher than those of grass fish feeding dwarf elephant grass or ramie (P <0.05),and the GR,SGR of grass carp feeding ramie were significantly higher than these of grass fish feeding dwarf elephant grass (P <0.05).The GR,SGR of silver carp and black carp showed no significant difference in all test ponds (P >0.05),but GR,SGR of bighead carp in ponds fed with dwarf elephant grass were higher than those fed with the other two grasses (P <0.05).The survival of silver carp in pond fed with Guimu No.1 was significantly higher than other ponds (P <0.05),but survival of grass carp,bighead carp and black carp showed no significant difference in all ponds (P >0.05).The pond fed with Guimu No.1 had the highest fish yield and economic benefits,which were 934.25 g/m2,26 967.75 yuan/hm2 respectively.The results above showed that grass carp pond fed with Guimu No.1 had the highest economic benefits with fishes growing well.%在湖南省岳阳洞庭黄龙水产养殖股份有限公司生态养殖基地的鱼池中,分别投喂桂牧l号草、美国矮象草、苎麻3种饲草,研究草鱼主养池塘中鱼类的生长及效益.150 d的养殖试验结果表明:桂牧1号草组的草鱼增重率、特定增长率均显著高于美国矮象草组、苎麻组(P<0.05),其中苎麻组的草鱼增重率、特定增长率又显著高于美国矮象草组(P<0.05);各试验组中,鲢鱼和青鱼的增重率、特定增长率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),但美国矮象草组中的鳙鱼增重率、特定增长率显著高于其他2组(P<0.05);桂牧1

  9. Molecular genetic investigations on Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955, a parasite of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Szilvia; Bányai, Krisztián; Forró, Barbara; Lengyel, György; Székely, Csaba; Varga, Ádám; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes. PMID:27342092

  10. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF CHLOROGENIC ACID ON THE GROWTH, NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE INDEX AND THE MEAT QUALITY OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%绿原酸对草鱼鱼种生长、非特异性免疫和肉质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃顺; 冷向军; 李小勤; 刘波; 柴仙琦; 李忠铭; 郑小淼

    2014-01-01

    为考察绿原酸对草鱼鱼种生长、非特异性免疫指标和肌肉品质的影响,在基础饲料中分别添加0.00%(对照组)、0.01%、0.02%、0.04%、0.06%、0.08%绿原酸,饲养平均体重(3.19±0.03) g的草鱼鱼种。经60d 饲养,各组草鱼增重率分别为283.1%、305.7%、307.3%、329.6%、308.3%、303.0%,饲料系数分别为1.45、1.33、1.33、1.26、1.30、1.36;与对照组相比,添加0.04%绿原酸显著提高草鱼鱼种增重率,降低了饲料系数(P0.05)。对肌肉成分的分析表明,各组水分、粗脂肪含量无显著差异(P>0.05),但添加0.04%绿原酸可显著提高肌肉粗蛋白、缬氨酸、异亮氨酸、组氨酸、必需氨基酸和总氨基酸含量(P0.05). In terms of the muscle composition and the meat quality, there were no significant differences in muscle moisture and crude lipid contents among different diet groups. The muscle protein, Val, Ile, His, essential amino acids and total amino acids significantly increased (P<0.05) with the addition of 0.04% chlorogenic acid. Hydroxyproline and the collagen content of muscle increased (P<0.05) with the addition of 0.02% chlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the results above showed that the growth, non-specific immunity ability and the meat quality of juvenile grass carp could be improved with the addition of chlorogenic acid in diets. Therefore, the recommended level of chlorogenic acid in juvenile grass carp diet should be 0.04%.

  12. Effects of Feeding Broad Bean and Dehulling Broad Bean Diets on Growth Performance, Muscle Quality and Blood Physiological-Biochemical Indices of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛盼; 胡毅; 郇志利; 黄云; 余建波; 肖调义

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响。试验选取初始体重为(860±40) g的草鱼450尾,随机分为3组,分别为对照组、蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组,每组设置3个重复,每个重复放养50尾草鱼。对照饲料参考草鱼商品饲料配方配制,蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料分别用蚕豆和去皮蚕豆部分替代对照饲料中的豆粕、菜籽粕及棉籽粕,蚕豆和去皮蚕豆的用量均为80%。试验期为20周。结果表明:与对照组相比,蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组草鱼的增重率和饲料系数无显著变化(P>0.05),但脏体指数和肝体指数显著降低(P0 . 05 ) , but the viscerosomtic index and hepato-somatic index were significantly reduced ( P <0 . 05 ) . Feeding BB and DBB diets significantly increased the number of red blood cells and white blood cells, the contents of serum glucose, total cholesterol and urea nitro-gen and the activity of serum glutamic-oxal(o)acetic transaminase (P<0. 05), but significantly reduced the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group, the muscle moisture content and water loss rate in BB and DBB groups were significantly decreased ( P<0 . 05 ) , but the crude lipid content was significantly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) , the myofibril length and muscular fiber diameter were signifi-cantly raised ( P<0 . 05 ) , and the contents of delicious amino acids and essential amino acids were significant-ly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) . The results indicate that feeding BB and DBB diets have no negative effects on the growth performance, but all can change the muscle quality of grass carp, and there is no necessary association between the change of muscle quality and broad bean skin.

  13. 草鱼胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白IGFBP-1基因的全长cDNA克隆及表达%cDNA cloning and expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein gene IGFBP-1 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶洋; 邹曙明

    2011-01-01

    克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白1(IGFBP-1)基因的全长cDNA,并对草鱼不同时期的胚胎和成鱼不同组织进行了RT-PCR分析,以探索草鱼IGFBP-1基因的生物学功能.结果显示:(1)草鱼IGFBP-1基因cDNA全长为1 135bp,包含一个789 bp阅读框,编码262个氨基酸残基;草鱼与鲤、斑马鱼、沟鲶、大鳞大麻哈鱼、虹鳟、五条(蛳)、小鼠和人的IGFBP-1氨基酸序列相似度分别为94%、93%、69%、60%、58%、56%、40%和38%;草鱼IGFBP-1蛋白的N端和C端序列负责与胰岛素样生长因子(IGF)结合,其保守性较高.(2)RT-PCR分析结果表明,草鱼胚胎期IGFBP-1 mRNA的表达水平很低,在受精后4 hrs和8 hrs胚胎未能检测到转录本,受精12 hrs后,仅能检测到微量表达;草鱼IGFBP-1mRNA在肝脏、肾脏、肠和心脏组织中具有表达活性.鉴于IGFBP-1基因在IGF信号通路中的重要作用,又是一个低氧诱导基因,上述结果可为进一步探索IGFBP-1基因的功能奠定基础.%In this study, the complete cDNA of a insulin-like growth factor binding gene IGFBP-1 was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. And mRNA transcripts during embryogenesis and in adult tissues were studied by RT-PCR. The results showed that: ( 1 )The complete cDNA of C. idellus IGFBP-1 is 1 135 bp and its ORF includes 789 bp which coding 262 aminoacid residue. The deduced amino acid analysis showed that the sequence similarities between C. idellus and Cyprinus carpio , Danio rerio , Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Seriola quinqueradiata,Mus musculus and Homo sapiens are 94%, 93%, 69%, 60%, 58%, 56%, 40% and 38%, respectively.Its functional N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which are involved in binding with IGF ligand, are very conservative. (2) RT-PCR results demonstrated that IGFBP-1 gene had a iow expression in embryos at different stages in C. idellus

  14. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  15. Growth Performance and Production of Organically Cultured Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) Under Mid-Hill Conditions of Meghalaya; North Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Majhi, Sullip K.; Das, Anup; Mandal(1), Binoy K.

    2006-01-01

    The aquatic fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana) can be easily grown organically in North Eastern India due to favorable climatic conditions. This fern was fed to the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) as a step towards producing organic fish. In the study, Azolla was found to be a preferred feed by the grass carp and mean daily growth increment was recorded. The statistically paired t-test indicated that the final weight gain of grass carp in Azolla fed ponds were significantly higher (t...

  16. Characterization of interleukin-1β as a proinflammatory cytokine in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yun-Xuan; Song, Xue-Hong; Wu, Kang; Hu, Bo; Sun, Bing-Yao; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Fu, Jian-Gui

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a well-characterized cytokine that plays key roles in cellular responses to infection, inflammation, and immunological challenges in mammals. In this study, we identified and analyzed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ortholog of IL-1β (gcIL-1β), examined its expression patterns in various tissues in both healthy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated specimens, and evaluated its proinflammatory activities. The gcIL-1β gene consists of seven exons and six introns. The full-length cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 813 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a characteristic IL-1 signature but lacks the typical IL-1β converting enzyme cleavage site that is conserved in mammals. In the phylogenetic tree, IL-1βs from grass carp and other members of the Cyprinidae family clustered into a single group. Expression pattern analysis revealed that gcIL-1β is constitutively expressed in all 11 tissues examined, and LPS stimulation leads to significant up-regulation in muscle, liver, intestine, skin, trunk kidney, head kidney, and gill. Recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) was generated prokaryotically as a fusion protein of Trx-rgcIL-1β. An anti-rgcIL-1β polyclonal antibody (rgcIL-1β pAb) was raised in mice against the purified Trx-rgcIL-1β. Western blot analysis confirmed that rgcIL-1β pAb reacted specifically with gcIL-1β in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that intestinal mRNA expression levels of endogenous IL-1β, IL-1R2, and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated following Trx-rgcIL-1β exposure. The inhibitory activities of rgcIL-1β pAb against the inflammatory response were confirmed in a model of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal inflammation. Our immunohistochemical study revealed that the degree and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration are fully consistent with the observed mRNA expression patterns of these key inflammatory genes

  17. 铜对草鱼及花鲢的毒性预测:基于生物配体模型%Predicting Copper Toxicity to Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus Based on Biotic Ligand Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万宾; 陈莎; 吴敏; 赵婧

    2014-01-01

    A series of 96 h copper acute toxicity experiments were conducted with Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix under different concentrations of DOC [ρ(DOC) 0. 05,0. 5,1,2,4 mg·L-1]. Higher DOC resulted in a reduction of toxicity, which was in line with the concepts of the biotic ligand model ( BLM) . It was concluded that the mean absolute deviation ( MAD) of LC50 with Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix was 591. 2, 157. 14 μg·L-1 and 728. 18, 91. 24 μg·L-1 , respectively, by the prediction of copper BLM developed for Fathead minnow and Rainbow trout. Based on speciation analysis of biotic ligand model, it was shown that LA50 values of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were 10. 960 and 3. 978 nmol·g-1 , respectively. Then the MAD values became 280. 52 and 92. 25 μg·L -1 for Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix using the normalized LA50 . Finally by searching toxicity data in literature, the MAD values on Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were 252. 37 and 50. 26 μg·L-1 , successively. This result verified that the toxicity prediction based on biotic ligand model was practical.%试验配置不同胡敏酸浓度( DOC浓度为0.05、0.5、1、2、4 mg·L-1)下,分别对草鱼及花鲢进行铜的一系列96 h生物急性毒性试验,结果表明 DOC 浓度与 LC50呈正相关关系,此与生物配体模型描述一致.利用两鱼种( Fathead minnow、Rainbow trout)的生物配体模型预测草鱼及花鲢的LC50,得出平均绝对偏差分别为591.2、157.14μg·L-1及728.18、91.24μg·L-1.在生物配体模型( biotic ligand model, BLM)铜形态分布平台下,得到草鱼及花鲢的 LA50(以湿重计)依次为10.960 nmol·g-1和3.978 nmol·g-1.通过校正草鱼及花鲢的LA50,得出平均绝对偏差依次为280.52μg·L-1和92.25μg·L-1,预测性能显著提高.基于所确立的 LA50,通过搜集草鱼及花鲢的毒性数据,预测其 LC50,

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  19. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  20. Manganese deficiency or excess caused the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier, as regulated by NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling, in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Tang, Ren-Jun; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune components and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) under dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency or excess were investigated. Fish were fed the diets containing graded levels of Mn [3.65-27.86 mg Mn kg(-1) diet] for 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that Mn deficiency significantly decreased the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, up-regulated tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 8 and the signalling factor nuclear factor-κB p65, and down-regulated interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor of signalling factors κB-α and target of rapamycin mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI). However, Mn deficiency did not change the C3 content in the PI, whereas it decreased the C3 contents in the MI and DI. Additionally, Mn depletion also resulted in significantly low mRNA levels for tight junction proteins (claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-15, occludin and zonula occludens-1), antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, GPx and CAT) and NF-E2-related factor-2 in the intestines of fish. Excessive Mn exhibited toxic effects similar to Mn deficiency, where optimal Mn contents reversed those indicators. In conclusion, Mn deficiency or excess causes the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier relating to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling in grass carp. Furthermore, quadratic regression analysis at 95% maximum response of lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities in the distal intestine of young grass carp revealed the optimum dietary Mn levels to be 8.90 and 8.99 mg kg(-1) diet, respectively.

  1. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  2. Bioinformatics analysis of organizational and expressional characterizations of the IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhiwei; Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play crucial roles in the immune response of defense against viral infection and bacteria invasion. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized the IFNs, their regulatory factors (Interferon Regulatory Factors, IRFs) and receptors (Cytokine Receptor Family B, CRFBs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp IFNs can be classified into type I IFN (IFN-I) and type II IFN (IFN-II) like other teleosts. IFN-I consist of two groups with two (group I) or four (group II) cysteines in the mature peptide and can be further divided into three subgroups (IFN-a, -c and -d), containing four members: IFN1, IFN2, IFN3, IFN4 in grass carp. IFN-II contain two members, IFNγ2 with the similarity to mammalian IFNγ and a cyprinid specific IFNγ1 (IFNγ-rel) molecule. mRNA expression analyses of IFNs discovered that IFN1 and IFN-II were sustainably expressed in many tissues, while other IFN members were transiently expressed in specific tissues and time points. In the immune response, IFN transcriptions are primarily regulated through multiple IRFs after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. IRF family possess thirteen members in grass carp, which can be further divided into four subfamilies (IRF-1, -3, -4 and -5 subfamily), each of them plays different roles in the innate and adaptive immunity via various signaling pathways to interact with IFNs (mainly IFN-I). IFNs have to bind receptors (CRFBs) to perform their functions. CRFBs as IFN receptors contain six members in grass carp. The structure and expression characterizations of IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. These results might provide basic data for the further functional research of IFN system, and deeply understand fish immune mechanisms against virus infection. PMID:27012995

  3. 木糖-草鱼肽美拉德反应产物的抗氧化性%Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products derived from xylose and ctenopharyngodon idellus peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵谋明; 刘洋; 张佳男; 吴长平; 苏国万

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative deterioration of oil and protein is a common problem in the food industry, which led to trending studies of safe antioxidants with strong antioxidant activity. Ctenopharyngodon Idellus is a commercial fish, which is rich in proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and is widely distributed in fresh-water throughout China,. In recent years, the Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was prepared as condiment or nourishment, however, further studies are limited. In this study, Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was hydrolyzed by three proteases (papain, PTN6.0, and Alcalase2.4 L), and the hydrolysate was isolated at two fractions of molecular weight above and below 5 kD by ultrafiltration. The fraction below 5 kD (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide) was heated with or without xylose at 100℃for different times (30 min to 240 min). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, UV absorption, and volatile components of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and thermal degradation products (TDPs) with different reaction times were evaluated, respectively. This study focuses on the effects of Maillard reaction on the antioxidant activity and the volatile components from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide and its derivatives. The correlation between reaction products, volatile components, and their antioxidant activity were also analyzed. Results revealed that the browning intensity and UV absorption of the intermediate products of MRPs were much higher than those of TDPs. Antioxidant activity of MRPs increased with increasing heat time, while TDPs had no obvious change. In addition, MRPs showed better antioxidant activity. Reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of MRPs for 240 min was 17.77 and 3.32 times than those untreated. 51 kinds of volatile compounds were separated and identified from MRPs; among them, pyrazines, furans, pyrroles, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols had relatively high concentration. Whereas, aldehydes were the largest content of volatile

  4. Effects of endosulfan on activities of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzyme of Ctenopharyngodon idellus%硫丹对草鱼乙酰胆碱酯酶及抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武焕阳; OSCAR Ortegon; 许莉佳; 靳涛; 彭开琴; 丁诗华; 李云

    2011-01-01

    The effects of endosulfan exposure on the induction of oxidative stress and the alteration of AChE activities were studied in liver, muscle and brain samples from Ctenophatyngodon idellus. The results showed that the AChE activities of brain in Ctenopharyngodon idellus was stimulated after 24 h exposure. However, The activities of AChE were restrained when the exposure time and concentration was increased, and the inhibition rate was 41.8% and 56.2% in higher concentration groups after 120 h exposure, it showed a good linear correlation between the inhibition rate and the exposure time. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver and muscle of Ctenopharyngodon idellus were significantly affected after 24 h exposure, showing a slow decrease after induction, then the SOD activities was significantly lower than the controls level, while the GSH-Px activities with no significant differences between the controls. The LPO level was rising when the antioxidant enzymes are affected in the same time, the MDA contents were increased, and reached the highest value after 96 h exposure. In conclusion, endosulfan impacts AChE and antioxidant enzyme activities on Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the adverse effects are sensitive parameters to use as the biomarker to assess the chemical pollutants on the biological effects of aquatic animals.%研究了硫丹暴露对草鱼肝脏、肌肉抗氧化酶及脑乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的影响.结果表明,硫丹24 h暴露可诱导草鱼脑AChE活性,当暴露时间延长或质量浓度升高时,AChE活性表现为受抑制,120h较高质量浓度组抑制率为41.8%和56.2%,抑制率与暴露时间呈良好的线性相关.硫丹暴露24 h后,草鱼肝脏及肌肉SOD、GSH-Px活性受到显著影响,表现出先诱导后缓慢降低的趋势,120 h后SOD活性显著低于对照组水平,GSH-Px活性与对照组无显著差异.在抗氧化酶受到影响的同时,鱼体脂质过氧化LPO程度不断上升,组织MDA含量逐渐增大,96 h达到

  5. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain(MyHC)from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武英; 符贵红; 宾石玉; 蒙涛; 周瑞雪; 成嘉; 赵发兰; 张红芳; 张建社

    2010-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain(MyHC)is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle.We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp,including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%–76%homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish,walleye pollack,white croaker,chum salmon,and carp.The putative sequenc...

  6. 汞暴露对草鱼氧化损伤及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of mercury on oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占才; 牛景彦; 郭彦玲; 孔祥会

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Hg 2+on oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) .The experimental fish were divided into control and treatment groups .The control group fish was raised in cultivated water , while the treatment group fish was exposed to 0.5 mg· L-1 Hg2+for 24 hours first, and then transferred in cultivated water .Afterwards, they were sampled at 0 (24 h Hg2+exposure), 5, 12, 21 d to test the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathion and peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as glutathione ( GSH) and malondialdehyde ( MDA) contents in their gill , hepatopancreas , spleen and kid-ney.It was shown that compared with the control group , the SOD, GPx activities (0, 5 d), CAT activity (0, 5, 12 d) and GSH (5 d), MDA (5, 12, 21 d) contents in gill in treatment group increased significantly (P0.05).While, the GSH content (0 d) was lowered significantly(P<0.01),and the GSH (12 d) and MDA(0 d) contents were elevated remarkably (P<0.05).The SOD (0, 5,12 d), GPx(0 d) activities and GSH (12 d), MDA (0 d) contents in kidney in treatment group were increased significantly (P<0.05).Nevertheless,CAT (0,5,12 d) activity and GSH(0,5 d) content were decreased remarkably ( P<0.05 ) .This test indicated that for grass carp , the SOD and CAT activities of organ tissues were recovered to the normal level .In hepatopancreas , GSH content exceeded the control group level ( P<0.01 ) , and MDA content was significantly lower than that of control group ( P<0.05 ) , but the GPx activity and MDA content in gill seemed unable to recover to the level of control group in the experimental period .%将草鱼分为对照组和处理组,对照组试验期内置于正常养殖用水中饲养,处理组先暴露在Hg2+浓度为0.5 mg· L-1水体中,24 h后置于正常养殖用水中进行恢复饲养。各组分别于恢复饲养0(即Hg2+暴露24 h)、5、12、21 d取样,测定鳃、肝胰脏、

  7. Safety Concentration Assessment and Acute Toxicity of Tetrachloroethylene to Ctenopharyngodon Idellus%四氯乙烯对草鱼的急性毒性及其安全浓度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史济月; 王桂燕; 王洋; 王国清; 张换东; 周启星

    2007-01-01

    采用环境毒理学方法中的半静水实验考察了四氯乙烯对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的24、48、72、96h的半数致死浓度(LC50).其目的在于评价水环境中四氯乙烯对鱼类的影响,为制定渔业水质标准提供参考数据.结果表明四氯乙烯对草鱼的毒性为高毒,四氯乙烯对草鱼24、48、72、96h的LC50及其95%的置信区间分别为43.28(41.43~45.21)、40.98(39.34~42.69)、39.60(38.20~41.06)、37.71(36.66~38.79)mg/L,其安全浓度为0.377 mg/L.

  8. Study on the adaptation changes of intestinal microbiota in Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed on different diets%草鱼肠道微生物对食物改变适应性变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝耀彤; 吴山功; 王桂堂; 邹红; 李文祥

    2015-01-01

    对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)先饲喂人工饲料再饲喂苏丹草,运用PCR-DGGE的方法,比较了食物改变引起的草鱼肠道微生物菌群结构的变化过程。结果显示,饲喂同种饲料的草鱼后肠与前、中肠样品间菌群结构存在显著差异(TH0-F0=-2.268, P<0.05; TH0-M0=-2.470, P<0.05),饲喂不同种食物的相同肠段样品间菌群结构也存在着显著差异( P<0.05)。微生物多样性指数显示,后肠样品Shannon指数H′一般不低于4.25,而前、中肠样品H′均未超过4.25。对后肠样品进一步研究发现,食物改变11 d之后,后肠微生物菌群基本达到稳定。结果表明,草鱼肠道不同部位内容物菌群结构不同,后肠样品具有更高的微生物多样性,并且食物的改变会对草鱼肠道微生物菌群产生快速而显著的影响。%PCR-DGGE fingerprinting was used to reveal the adaptation process of intestinal microbiota in Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed on artificial diet and Sudan grass .DGGE profiles of foregut , midgut and hindgut samples were compared and the results showed that the bacterial communities from hindgut contents were significant differences with those from foregut and midgut contents in C.idellus fed the same diet (TH0-F0 =-2.268, P<0.05; TH0-M0 =-2.470, P<0.05).More-over, the bacterial communities of artificial feed and Sudan grass samples from the same intestinal segment (P<0.05) al-so exhibited significant differences .In addition , Shannon index ( H′) of hindgut samples was almost no less than 4.25 , while H′of foregut and midgut samples was generally no more than 4.25 .The DGGE analysis of 27 hindgut samples indi-cated that intestinal microbiota reached to stabilization at 11 days later from feeding on sundan grass instead of artificial feed.In conclusion , microbiotas in different intestinal segments were different in C.idellus and food transformation also has a

  9. Effect of cypermethrin on histology of four tissues of Ctenopharyngodon idellus%氯氰菊酯暴露对草鱼4种器官组织结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫加清; 张耀光; 周传江; 金丽; 黄林; 蒲德永

    2011-01-01

    Acute toxic effect of cypermethrin on Ctenopharyngodon idellus and the alteration in histopathology of gill, liver, kidney and spleen were studied. The 48 h-LC5o and 96 h-LC50 of cypermethrin on C. idellus were 55.21 μg/L and 25.00 μ.g/L. Epithelial hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, degeneration of the epithelial cells at the base of the secondary lamellae, necrosis, desquamation, fusion, shortening and curling of secondary lamellae were observed in gill tissues exposed to cypermethrin. Hepatic lesions in fish exposed to cypermethrin were characterized by hypertrophy of hepatocytes,vacuolar degeneration, nuclear pycnosis, focal necrosis, congestion and cloudy degeneration of hepatocyte. Tubular degenerations, congestion, cloudy degeneration, hypertrophy of nucleus in the tubular epithelial cells, glomerular atrophy were observed in the kidney tissues of fish after exposure. The spleen lesions included erythrophagia in mononuclear cells,an increased abundance of melano-macrophage aggregates, and swollen erythrocyte. The tolerance of gill, kidney, liver and spleen to the cypermethrin increased in order. The pathological damage was dose and time dependent, and reinforced progressively with the increased amour or the length of dealing time.%通过氯氰菊酯对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)幼鱼(9.30±0.48)g的急性毒性实验及对鳃、肝、肾、脾的组织学研究,探讨了随着氯氰菊酯浓度的增加以及暴露时间的延长草鱼组织结构损伤的变化趋势.结果显示:氯氰菊酯对草鱼种的48 h-LC50和96 h-LC50分别为55.21μg/L和25.00μg/L.其组织病理学损伤表现为鳃小片萎缩、卷曲、坏死、脱落和融合,上皮细胞增生、空泡化,上皮组织变厚;肝细胞肥大,空泡化,结构不清晰,细胞核固缩,肝组织局部坏死;肾小管退化变性,上皮细胞核肥大,肾小球萎缩,肾间组织充血;脾脏中红细胞肥大,黑色素巨噬细胞集聚,有吞噬红细胞现象.四种组织对氯氰菊

  10. Lipolytic enzymes involving lipolysis in Teleost: Synteny, structure, tissue distribution, and expression in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Ji, Hong; Li, Xue-Xian; Shi, Xiao-Chen; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the sequential hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Three enzymes are known to participate in TAGs hydrolysis, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and monoglyceride lipase (MGL), and each is present in mammals as only one isoform. Here we show that the genome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and other teleosts codes for one ATGL, two HSLs, and one MGL isoforms. Two isoforms of HSL gene, HSLa and HSLb, derived from paralogous genes that could be originated from teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) event. The genes encoding for fish ATGL and MGL were conserved and contained nine and seven coding exons, respectively. However, two isoforms of HSL gene had a remarkable variation in gene structure, such as HSLa gene contained ten and HSLb contained thirteen exons. All three enzymes, including two isoforms of HSL, were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the abundance of each gene mRNA showed the tissue-dependent expression patterns. During fasting, only ATGL and HSLa showed a significant increase in adipose tissue and adipocyte, indicating that ATGL and HSLa may be the main rate-limiting enzymes controlling the hydrolysis of TAGs in fasting-induced lipolysis. Different expression of HSLa and HSLb suggests that they might serve different roles in fasting-induced lipolysis. These results provide evidence about the conservation and divergence of genes of fish lipolytic enzymes. PMID:27131420

  11. Attractive effects of different light intensities on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同光照强度对鲢、草鱼的诱集效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦孝辉; 王从锋; 刘德富; 熊锋; 汪玲珑

    2015-01-01

    为研究船闸中灯光诱驱鱼技术,观察了不同强度光源对鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、草鱼(Ctenopha-ryngodon idellus)的诱集效果。结果表明,与对照组(无光源)相比,有光组的草鱼在暗区的平均相对时间聚集率[R(t)]均明显升高。随着光源强度的增加,各组中暗区的 R(t)变大,鱼的群体重心位置与光源的距离也随之变大,草鱼总体上表现出一定的负趋光性。所有组次中,鲢在2组弱光源下表现出对光照强度没有明显的选择性(P >0.05),与对照组相比无明显的诱集或驱赶效果,而在强光源条件下表现出远离光源的特性。因此,可利用草鱼的负趋光性,在闸室下游部分布置灯光将其驱赶至上游,而利用光源诱集或驱赶鲢的方案不可行。%We studied the attractive effects of the light source located in lock model on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyng-odon idellus at different light intensities. The results show that the mean relative time aggregation rate[R(t)]in the dark area with light source was higher than the control group(no source). R(t)in the dark area in all light-source groups increased with increasing light intensity,and so did the distance between central location of fish group and location of light source. As for the H. molitrix,there was no obvious aggregation phenomenon(P > 0. 05)in all groups. Therefore,negative phototaxis of C. idellus could be used in driving the fish to the upstream by arranging light in the downstream of the chamber,but use of light trapping or driving H. molitrix are not fea-sible.

  12. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of cathepsin D from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhong-dian; Zhang, Jiao; Ji, Xiang-shan; Zhou, Fen-na; Fu, Yong; Chen, Weiyun; Zeng, Yong-qing; Li, Tong-ming; Wang, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase which participates in various degradation functions within the cell. In this current study, we cloned and characterized the complete cDNA of grass carp cathepsin D through 5'- and 3'-RACE. The cathepsin D contained a 56 bp 5' terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), a 1197 bp open reading frame encoding 398 amino acids, and a 394 bp 3'-UTR. Grass carp cathepsin D shared high similarity with those from other species, and showed the highest amino acid identity of 91% to Danio rerio. Unlike many other organisms, the grass carp cathepsin D contains only one N-glycosylation site closest to the N-terminal. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Cathepsin D expressed in all twelve tissues (bladder, brain, liver, heart, gill, muscle, fin, eye, intestines, spleen, gonad and head kidney). The relative expression levels of Cathepsin D in gonad and liver were 26.58 and 24.95 times as much as those in fin, respectively. The expression level of Cathepsin D in muscle approximately 16-fold higher, in intestines and spleen were 12-fold higher. The cathepsin D expression showed an upward trend during embryonic development. After challenged with Aeromonas hydrophil, the expression of grass carp cathepsin D gene showed significant changes in the four test tissues (liver, head kidney, spleen and intestines). The fact that the bacterial infection can obviously improve the cathepsin D expression in immune-related organs, may suggest that cathepsin D plays an important role in the innate immune response of grass carp.

  13. Cloning and expression of Calreticulin full length cDNA in tissues of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼钙网蛋白的克隆与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭威; 王海英; 吴锐全; 谢骏; 郁二蒙; 吴垠; 余德光; 王广军; 龚望宝

    2012-01-01

    钙网蛋白是一种高度保守的分子伴侣蛋白,作为内质网主要的钙结合蛋白,广泛存在于真核生物细胞中,在病毒、寄生虫感染以及温度、氧气胁迫等情况下对细胞起保护作用.本试验中采用RACE方法首次克隆获得草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus钙网蛋白cDNA全序列,其全长为1389 bp,开放阅读框为1263bp,编码为421个氨基酸.将获得的草鱼钙网蛋白编码氨基酸序列与其它物种分别进行同源性比较,发现草鱼与斑马鱼Danio rerio、虹鳟Oncorhynchus mykiss的同源性较高,分别为86.26%、76.78%,而与人Homo sapiens、小家鼠Mus musculus的同源性为69.67%、69.19%.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,钙网蛋白在草鱼的肌肉、肠道、皮肤、肝胰脏、肾脏、脾脏、鳃和鳍中均有表达,其中在肝胰脏、鳍条中的表达量最高,除与皮肤中的表达量无显著差异外(P>0.05),均显著高于其它5个器官组织(P<0.05).%Calreticulin (CRT) as a highly conserved molecular chaperone protein extensively exists in eukaryotic cells, and CRT on the surface of the cell can protect cells in temperature, and oxygen stresses, pathogens and parasitic infections. The full length cDNA of calreticulin was cloned from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by race and per methods to ecvaluate the expression in different tissues . The gene was founf to consist of 1 389 bp with an open reading frame of 1 263 bp, encoding 421 amino acids. The amino acid sequence analysis showed that the grass carp Calreticulin had higher homology with zebra fish (86. 26% ) , and rainbow trout (76. 78% ) , and had 69.67% amino acid identity to murine and 69.19% to human CRTs. Tissue expression studies showed that CRT gene was all detected but expression was different in the tested tissues including muscle, skin, intestine, hepato-pancreas, kidney, spleen, gills and rays, but the expression in the hepatopancreas liver and fins was found maximum, significantly higher

  14. 直接进样电喷雾串联质谱法测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂%Determination of Phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus Muscle by Direct-injection Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友谊; 张虹; 戴志远

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon idellus muscle by direct-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with modified Bligh Dyer method and the crude extracts were taken directly into the electrospray ionization source by syringe pump. Under the precursor ion scan and neutral loss scan) intrasource separation and identification of six classes of phospholipids including phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositoU phosphatidyl serine, phos-phatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid were achieved. The intensity of quasi-molecular ion of the phospholipids and concentration showed good linear relation in a certain range. The recoveries (67.1% -96.6%) and precision meet the requirements for analyzing biological samples. This method has been applied to analyze the molecular species and content of four class phospholipids from Cteno-pharyngodon idellus muscle. The method is simple, fast accurate, and reproducibility with excellent stability, and suitable to analyze phospholipids from various biological samples for lipidomics research.%建立了直接进样电喷雾串联质谱测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂的方法.以Bligh Dyer法提取总脂质,采用流动注射泵直接进样的方式将样品导人电喷雾离子源,利用串联三重四级杆质谱的母离子扫描和中性丢失扫描功能,通过扫描磷脂的特征性子离子或中性质量丢失实现对磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂酰肌醇、磷脂酰丝氨酸、磷脂酰甘油和磷脂酸六类磷脂的源内分离和鉴定.结果显示,在-定的浓度范围内,磷脂的浓度与磷脂直接进样电喷雾电离后形成准分子离子的响应值呈现良好的线性关系,回收率(67.1%~96.6%)和精密度可以满足生物样品分析的要求.采用本方法测定了草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂

  15. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  16. Natural recruitment contributes to high densities of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844) in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Milardi, Marco; Lanzoni, Mattia; Kiljunen, Mikko; Torniainen, Jyrki; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introductions of grass carp, well known for their potentially negative ecosystem effects, have been performed in several countries around the world. As the species was considered unable to reproduce naturally under non-native environmental conditions, little attention was initially given to its invasive potential. We studied an area in northern-Italy where, contrary to expectations, introductions that were performed in the early 80s still exert a considerable pressure on aquatic macr...

  17. Characterization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) IL-17D: molecular cloning, functional implication and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Linyong; Qin, Lei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Wei, He; Zhou, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Although the roles of IL-17 family members during inflammation have been extensively studied in mammals, their knowledge in lower vertebrates is limited. In particular, the biological activities of fish IL-17 and their functional roles are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned grass carp IL-17D (gcIL-17D) and found that its putative protein possessed the conserved features of IL-17 family members. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gcIL-17D was preferentially expressed in the mucosal tissues, including skin, gill and intestine. Subsequently, the involvement of gcIL-17D in inflammatory response was demonstrated by examining the expression profiles of gcIL-17D in head kidney and head kidney leukocytes following in vivo bacterial infection and in vitro LPS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, recombinant gcIL-17D (rgcIL-17D) was prepared in grass carp kidney cells and was able to promote the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and CXCL-8) in grass carp primary head kidney cells, revealing gcIL-17D can function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, rgcIL-17D appeared to activate NF-κB signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of IκBα and up-regulated CXCL-8 mRNA expression possibly through NF-κB pathway. Our data shed new light on the functional role of teleost IL-17D in inflammatory response. PMID:24120974

  18. Effect of waterborne zinc exposure on lipid deposition and metabolism in hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Mai, Kang-Sen; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Huang, Chao; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of waterborne zinc (control, 0.85, 2.20, 3.10 mg/l, respectively) exposure on lipid deposition and metabolism in the hepatopancreas and muscle of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The lipid content, Zn accumulation, and the activities and expression levels of several enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were determined in hepatopancreas and muscle. Waterborne Zn exposure reduced growth performance and increased Zn accumulation in both tested tissues. In hepatopancreas, Zn exposure increased lipid content, the activities of lipogenic enzymes, such as 6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS, as well as the mRNA expression level of G6PD, 6PGD, ICDH, FAS and SREBP-1. But the activity of CPT I and the mRNA expression of HSL, CPT Iα1a, CPT Iα2a and PPARα were down-regulated by Zn exposure. In contrast, in muscle, waterborne Zn exposure decreased lipid deposition, activities of 6GPD, ICDH and ME, as well as the mRNA expression level of G6PD, ICDH, ME, FAS and SREBP-1. However, the activity of CPT I as well as the mRNA expression level of PPARα, HSL, CPT Iα2a, CPT Iα1b and CPT Iβ were up-regulated by Zn exposure. Our results indicate that waterborne Zn increases lipid content by up-regulating lipogenesis and down-regulating lipolysis in hepatopancreas. But, in muscle, waterborne Zn reduces lipid accumulation by up-regulating lipolysis and down-regulating lipogenesis. Differential patterns of lipid deposition, enzymatic activities and genes' expression indicate the tissue-specific regulatory mechanism in fish. PMID:26820140

  19. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-02-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes (IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon (IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  20. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on complement system and complement c3 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus%盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体系统及补体 c3作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耀宗; 周霞; 韩冰; 黄涛; 黄利挂; 李学刚

    2016-01-01

    为了探究盐酸小檗碱(berberine hydrochloride )对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)补体 c3的作用机理,用含0、0.06%、0.12%、0.24%盐酸小檗碱饲料投喂草鱼,在第7 d、14 d 检测血清中补体 c3含量,在第14 d 检测肝脏中补体 c3 mRNA 表达量及急性感染嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)后存活情况。并进一步对盐酸小檗碱体内药代动力学和补体消耗试验进行了研究。结果显示;摄食盐酸小檗碱的草鱼血清中补体 c3含量和肝脏补体 c3 mRNA 表达量均显著性增加(P <0.05/P <0.05),草鱼的存活率与对照组相比也有显著性提高(P <0.01)。补体消耗试验结果显示,当盐酸小檗碱在血清中浓度小于5 mg/L 时与对照组相比补体消耗不显著,当盐酸小檗碱浓度大于5 mg/L 时,补体消耗达到显著性差异(P <0.05),表明此时盐酸小檗碱与补体 c3直接结合,激活补体。药代动力学实验发现,灌服盐酸小檗碱后,出现双峰现象,两峰值分别是0.243 mg/L 和0.117 mg/L,此浓度远远低于与补体 c3直接结合量最低量(5 mg/L)。结果表明,盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体 c3的作用机理可能是通过上调补体 c3mRNA 的表达增加补体 c3数量,而非通过直接结合补体 c3来改变其活性。%To explore the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the complement c 3 of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the level of complement c3 in serum were studied for 7 day and 14 day, the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver and resistance against acute Aeromonas hydrophila infection in C.idellus were evaluated after 14 days of feeding with berberine hydrochloride at the rate of 0, 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.24%, respectively.The pharmacokinetics in vivo and complement consumption test in vitro of berberine hydrochloride were further studied .The results showed that the complement c3 levels in serum and the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver of

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF MYLOPHARYNGODON PICEUS AND CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS BY PCR -RFLP ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA Cyt b GENE%利用线粒体 DNA Cytb 基因 PCR-RFLP 分析方法鉴别青鱼和草鱼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 郝大奎; 付佩胜

    2014-01-01

    建立了一种以线粒体细胞色素 b(Cyt b)基因为标靶,应用 PCR -RFLP 技术进行草鱼和青鱼种质鉴定的分析方法。设计一对引物 QYCYT -S 和 QYCTY -A 分别对青鱼和草鱼的 Cyt b 基因进行了 PCR 扩增,并选用 BglⅠ和 EcoRⅡ两种限制性内切酶对扩增产物进行酶切分析。结果表明,草鱼和青鱼都可以扩增出1111 bp 的条带,两种酶切检验发现,草鱼扩增产物能被 BglⅠ切成247 bp 和864 bp 两个片段,而青鱼的 PCR 产物能被 EcoRⅡ切成140 bp 和971 bp 两个片段,这表明,mtDNA Cyt b 基因 BglⅠ和EcoRⅡ的酶切位点都可作为鉴定青鱼和草鱼的有效分子标记。利用 PCR -RFLP 分析 mtDNA Cyt b 基因的方法操作简单,是一种快速鉴别草鱼和青鱼的可靠方法。%A method to distinguish Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus was developed based on the PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)Cytb gene.A pair of PCR primers QYCYT-S and QYCYT-A was employed to amplify a fragment of mtDNA Cytb gene in Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.BglⅠand EcoR II restriction enzyme digestion analysis was further conducted against the PCR products.The results showed that a 1 1 1 1 bp long amplification fragment can be successfully abtained from both species.Restriction analysis showed that the amplification fragment from Mylopharyngodon piceus can be only restricted by Bgl I into two bands with the length of 247 bp and 864 bp,while the amplification fragment from Ctenopharyngodon idellus can be only restricted by EcoRⅡ into two bands with the length of 140 bp and 971 bp.The result suggests that the Bgl Ⅰand EcoR Ⅱ sensitive,restriction sites of mtDNA Cytb gene can be used as effective molecular identification markers between the two spicies of Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.This study demonstrated that the PCR -RFLP analysis of mtDNA Cytb gene is a rapid method to accurately

  2. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  3. Methionine hydroxy analogue enhanced fish immunity via modulation of NF-κB, TOR, MLCK, MAPKs and Nrf2 signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei-Yu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Our study investigated the effect of dietary methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) on growth and immunity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 630 grass carp (259.70 ± 0.47 g) were fed graded levels of MHA (0, 2.4, 4.4, 6.4, 8.5 and 10.5 g/kg diet) and one dl-methionine (DLM) group (6.4 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results indicated that optimal MHA increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents and up-regulated mRNA levels of liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2, hepcidin (head kidney), β-defensin-1 in the immune organs (P skin hemorrhage and lesion, LZ and ACP activities, IgM content, against malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and ROS in the head kidney of young grass carp were 5.07, 5.21, 5.76, 5.90, 5.88, 5.80, 6.22, 5.68 and 6.85 g/kg diet, respectively. PMID:27422756

  4. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  5. EM复合菌剂与水蕹菜对草鱼养殖池的净化效果研究%Purification of Water from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus Culture Pound by Ecological Microorganisms and Ipomoea Aquatic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康银; 王晓清; 肖光明; 杨虎城; 曾丹

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the water quality, the water from Ctenopharyngodon idellus culture pond was treated with Ecological Microorganisms ( EM), Ipomoea aquatica, alone or in combination.The effects of water purification were investigated.Results showed that the treatment performance is the best among the different meth-ods, when the water was purified by Ipomoea aquatic, and the performance can be enhanced when Ipomoea aquatic was combined with EM.The removal rates of ammonia nitrogen ( AN) , nitrite ( NIT) and total phosphorus ( TP) in water are 86.21%, 50% and 77.78%, respectively, after 15 days treating of Ipomoea aquatic.The removal rates of TN and TP treated by Ipomoea aquatica are much higher than those of EM.The removal rates of AN, NIT, TP treated by EM are much higher than the blank group.Meanwhile, the two methods can increase the content of dissolved oxygen and stabilize the pH value.%为改善草鱼养殖池塘水质,研究了EM复合菌剂与水蕹菜对草鱼养殖池的净化效果.结果表明:净化处理30 d后,水蕹菜处理组对草鱼养殖池的净化处理效果最好,且与EM菌剂联合使用有增强的效果,对氨氮、亚硝酸盐、总磷的去除率分别为86 .21%,50%,77 .78%,且氨氮和总磷的去除率显著高于EM菌剂处理组和对照组;EM菌处理组的氨氮、亚硝酸盐、总磷的去除率分别为36.08%,50%和54.29%,显著高于对照组.且两处理组均能提升草鱼养殖水体的溶氧量,并且能稳定pH值.

  6. Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

    2012-05-01

    The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp.

  7. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  8. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills, the optimal dietary PL level for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) was estimated to be 3.62%, 4.30%, 3.91% and 3.86%, respectively. PMID:26584756

  9. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  10. Impact of exogenous lipase supplementation on growth, intestinal function, mucosal immune and physical barrier, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zeng, Yun-Yun; Xu, Shu-De; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenous lipase supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal growth and function, immune response and physical barrier function, and related signaling molecules mRNA expression of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 450 grass carp (255.02 ± 0.34 g) were fed five diets for 60 days. There were 5 dietary treatments that included a normal protein and lipid diet containing 30% crude protein (CP) with 5% ether extract (EE), and the low-protein and high-lipid diets (28% CP, 6% EE) supplemented with graded levels of exogenous lipase supplementation activity at 0, 1193, 2560 and 3730 U/kg diet. The results indicated that compared with a normal protein and lipid diet (30% CP, 5% EE), a low-protein and high-lipid diet (28% CP, 6% EE) (un-supplemented lipase) improved lysozyme activities and complement component 3 contents in the distal intestine (DI), interleukin 10 mRNA expression in the proximal intestine (PI), and glutathione S-transferases activity and glutathione content in the intestine of young grass carp. In addition, in low-protein and high-lipid diets, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) contents (P < 0.05), up-regulated the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and hepcidin) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and signaling molecules inhibitor protein-κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR) (P < 0.05), down-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), and signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ) (P < 0.05) in the intestine of young grass carp. Moreover, optimal exogenous lipase supplementation significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde

  11. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC₅₀) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC₅₀ were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L⁻¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L⁻¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L⁻¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened.

  12. First records of introduced carps (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the natural habitats of Mirim and Patos Lagoon estuary, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Garcia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record in the wild of occurrence of four carp species (bighead Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845, common Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758, silver Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844 in the Mirim Lagoon and Patos Lagoon estuary. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that during periods of elevated rainfall and freshwater discharge, exotic species could be easily transported from overflowed ponds and lakes into the Mirim-Patos Lagoon and then estuarine area.Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de quatro espécies de carpas (cabeça-grande Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845, comum Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758, prateada Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844, e capim Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844 em ambientes naturais da Lagoa Mirim e do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos. Os resultados reforçam a hipótese de que durante períodos de excesso de chuvas e elevada descarga continental, espécies exóticas poderiam ser facilmente transportadas de tanques de cultivos e lagos transbordados para a Lagoa Mirim e a região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos.

  13. 提取条件对草鱼鱼油特性的影响及其脂肪酸组成分析%Effect of extraction conditions on oil qulity and fatty acids composition of fish oil extracted from Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳新; 苏阳; 郝婷婷; 祈岩; 冯叙桥

    2013-01-01

    The optimal extraction conditions and their effect on oil quality and fatty acid composition of fish oil extracted from the liver and fat( 1:1 )of Ctenopharyngodon idellus by using diluted alkaline hydrolysis method was investigated.The results indicated that the extraction ratio,iodic value,acid value,peroxide value and soap stock content were significantly affected by extraction conditions.The optimal extraction conditions determined by extraction ratio,iodic value,acid value,peroxide value and saponified matter content were that the volume ratio of the minced liver and fat of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and water was 1:1 ,the immersion time in water bath at 45℃ was 5min,the pH of the sample solution was adjusted to 10.0 with NaOH solution(1:1,W/V),and the sample solution was precipitated in 10mL 4% NaCl solution for 5min at 60℃, then the fish oil was obtained after centrifugation.The yield of fish oil extracted from Ctenopharyngodon idellus by the optimal extraction conditions was 84.81% ±0.56%.The results of the analysis of the prepared fish oil showed that it comprised of 22 kinds of fatty acid,i.e.l6:0,18:In-9,20:5n-3(DHA)and 22:6n-3(EPA) ,and saturated fatty acids accounted for about 30%, which stearic acid was maximum for 18.5% .unsaturated fatty acids accounted for about 60% , which oleic acid was maximum for 18.6% ,and EPA accounted for 0.7% ,DHA accounted for 0.5%.%以草鱼的肝脏和脂肪(1:1)混合物为原料,采用稀碱水解法制备草鱼鱼油,研究草鱼鱼油提取条件对其特性的影响,并分析其脂肪酸的组成.结果表明,提取条件对鱼油的提取率、碘价、酸价、过氧化值和含皂量影响很大,以它们为指标得出的最佳工艺条件为:经绞肉机绞碎后的肝脏和脂肪糜与水1∶1混合后,在45℃下水浴5min,用NaOH溶液(1:1,W/V)调至pH10.0,加入鱼糜质量分数10%的4% NaCl溶液,在60℃下盐析5min,离心分离鱼糜后,取上清液得到鱼油,在该

  14. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  15. Molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP) in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R-H; Chang, Z-G; Sun, J; Yang, F; Nie, G-X; Ji, H

    2016-10-01

    TRIP (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Factor (TRAF)-Interacting Protein), a member of the TNF superfamily, plays a crucial role in the modulation of inflammation in vertebrates. However, no information about TRIP is available in teleosts. In this study, the full-length cDNA of TRIP, containing a 5'UTR of 112 bp, an ORF of 1359 bp, and a 3'UTR of 29 bp before the poly (A) tail, was cloned from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The TRIP gene encoded a protein of 452 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 51.06 KD and a predicted theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.11. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that TRIP mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined in grass carp, with the highest expression in the kidney, followed by the intestine and thymus. However, lower levels of expression were also detected in fat, spleen, liver, gonad and heart. Subcellular localization and two-hybrid analysis revealed that TRIP was located in the nucleus and that it interacted with TRAF1 and TRAF2 in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, similar to TNF-α, IL-10 and TRIP mRNA expression was upregulated in the spleen of fish fed high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets, suggesting that TRIP might be associated with the response to excessive energy intake. The mRNA relative expression of TRIP was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after hepatocyte of C. idella was treated with 2 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 h, while the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TRIP might play important roles in immune defense and has the potential to be used as a anti-inflammation target in grass carp. PMID:27546552

  16. Fish abundance differences and relations to primary production in two variants of pond stocking with common carp(Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Rich. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen K. Kalchev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A fish pond experiment was conducted in two ponds which were stocked with 0 aged common carp and bighead carp larvae in numeric abundance ratio 3:1 (variant 1 while in other two ponds the ratio was 1:3 in favor of bighead carp (variant 2. To each of the two stocking variants we added one and the same number of 0 aged grass carps and 1+ or 2+ common carps. The experiment lasted 4 months (May to September and was repeated in two consecutive years (2007, 2008. The second year variant 2 was conducted in three ponds. The fish ponds belonged to the experimental facilities of the Institute for Fishery and Aquaculture, Bulgaria. The plankton primary production and other related variables were measured approximately fortnightly and continuously throughout the experiment duration. At the end of experiment number and yield of fishes were measured and survival rates were calculated. Survival rate of bighead carp and yield of common carp and bighead carp of variant 1 were significantly higher than those of variant 2. The yield of bighead carp larvae did not, while that of common carp, grass carp and total fish yield correlated significantly and positively with plankton primary production. The yield of accidentally fallen into ponds of crucian carps (Carassius carassiusLin. correlated strongly negatively with 1+/2+ common carps, which was indication for the strong food completion between them.

  17. Dietary pantothenic acid deficiency and excess depress the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical functions by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (253.44 ± 0.69 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of PA (PA1, PA15, PA30, PA45, PA60 and PA75 diets) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that compared with PA deficiency (PA1 diet) and excess (PA75 diet) groups, optimal PA supplementation increased (P TOR) mRNA expression levels in some intestinal segments; (2) reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b in the intestine; (3) Claudin 12, Claudin 15a and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. In conclusion, optimum PA promoted growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of signaling molecules NF-κB P65, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK in grass carp intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG and intestinal lysozyme activity, the optimal PA levels in grass carp (253.44-745.25 g) were estimated to be 37.73 mg/kg and 41.38 mg/kg diet, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced Chinese herbal medicines against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a widespread ciliated ectoparasite and results in severe economic loss in the aquaculture industry. Since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat I. multi...

  19. Dietary choline regulates antibacterial activity, inflammatory response and barrier function in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of choline (197-1795 mg/kg) on antibacterial properties, inflammatory status and barrier function in the gills of grass carp. The results showed that optimal dietary choline supplementation significantly improved lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 (C3) content, and the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin mRNA levels in the gills of fish (P C3 content and AHR activity, the dietary choline requirements for young grass carp (266.5-787.1 g) were estimated to be 1191.0 and 1555.0 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26988287

  20. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29 ± 0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune

  1. The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-κB P65, IκBα and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively.

  2. Exogenous phospholipids supplementation improves growth and modulates immune response and physical barrier referring to NF-κB, TOR, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling factors in the intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activity and immune response and intestinal physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Results indicated that 3.29% PL increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) content (P intestine, suggesting that optimum PL could improve fish intestinal immunity. In addition, 3.29% PL increased the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), the content of glutathione (P intestine, indicating that the optimum PL could improve fish intestinal physical barrier. Finally, based on the PWG, C3 content in the DI, ACP activity in the DI, intestinal PC content and intestinal ASA activity, the optimal dietary PL levels for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) were estimated to be 3.46%, 3.79%, 3.93%, 3.72%, and 4.12%, respectively.

  3. 饲料中添加芽孢杆菌对草鱼表观消化率及消化酶活性的影响%Dietary supplement of Bacillus spp.affected apparent digestibility, digestive enzyme activity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲艺; 吴志新; 杨丽; 彭小云; 袁娟; 毕鹏; 刘红; 陈孝煊

    2012-01-01

    在草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)饲料中分别添加0(Ⅰ组)、1×108(Ⅱ组)、3×108(Ⅲ组)、5×108cfu/g(Ⅳ组)芽孢杆菌(Bacillus spp.)持续投喂草鱼,收集粪便测定草鱼对各营养物质的表观消化率和消化酶活性.结果表明:投喂30 d后,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪表观消化率和Ⅳ组粗蛋白、粗脂肪表观消化率均显著高于Ⅰ组(对照组),其中Ⅱ组的表观消化率最高,且芽孢杆菌添加量与营养物质表观消化率最符合一元二次曲线方程.Ⅱ组中肠和Ⅱ、Ⅲ组肝胰脏蛋白酶活性均显著提高;Ⅱ组的前肠和后肠淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组;Ⅱ、Ⅲ组后肠脂肪酶活性均显著高于对照组.投喂60 d后,消化酶活性也有相似的结果.双因子方差分析表明:芽孢杆菌的添加量对中肠、后肠和肝胰脏蛋白酶活性,前肠、中肠和后肠淀粉酶活性,中肠和后肠脂肪酶活性均有显著影响;投喂时间对肝胰脏蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性有显著影响.%Ctenopharyngodon idellus were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0 (I), 1 X 108 (II)>3×108(III)>5×108 cfu/g(IV) Bacillus spp. Respectively for 30 days. Feces was collected to detect apparent digestibility of feed nutrients. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude lipid in I group was significantly lower than the other treatment groups (P<0. 05). Quadratic curve e-quation was the best to fit the relationship between dosages of Bacillus spp. And apparent digestibility of nutrients. Protease activity of the mid-gut in II group and the hepatopancreas in II,III groups increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). Amylase activity of the fore-gut and hind-gut in II,III group increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). Lipase activity of the hind-gut in II,III group increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). After feeding for 60 days, the similar results appeared. Two-way analysis of

  4. Optimization of dry-salting technology for grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by response surface method%响应面分析法优化草鱼的干腌工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟; 朱凯悦; 武晋先; 李苗苗; 张进杰

    2013-01-01

    Using the content of sodium chloride and salt -soluble protein in grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) muscle and the protein content in brine as indexes,the effect of different salting conditions (time, temperature and concentration of brine) on the quality of grass carp muscle were studied by single factor tests and response surface method. A multiple regression model was set up between the result of sensory evaluation and determined indexes in different dry-salting condition. The result showed that as follows: positive correlation between dry-salting factors such as time, temperature and concentration of brine and the content of sodium chloride in grass carp muscle as well as the protein content in brine. The dry-salting time and temperature affected the content of salt-soluble protein in grass carp meat. The model set up by response surface method showed regression equation fit well with experimental data, and the content of sodium chloride extremely significantly affects the sensory evaluation,followed by fermentation temperature and time. When the dry-salting time 6d,temperatue 9.3℃ and the concentration of sodium chloride added to 11.70%,Grass carp dried was best with the sensory evaluation. The result was basically corresponding to model prediction.%优化了草鱼干腌工艺条件,为腊鱼生产提供理论依据.以腌制后鱼肉盐溶性蛋白含量、氯化钠含量、盐卤蛋白质含量为指标,通过单因素实验及响应面分析法,研究不同腌制条件(时间、温度、加盐量)对终产品-腊鱼品质的影响,并建立感官评定结果与测定指标的数学模型,以优化干腌工艺条件.结果表明,鱼肉中氯化钠的含量及盐卤中蛋白质含量与腌制时间、温度和加盐量呈正相关;腌制时间、温度对鱼肉盐溶性蛋白含量有一定影响.采用响应面分析法建立感官评定与腌制条件的数学模型,曲面回归方程拟合性好.对感官评定结果的影响:加盐量>腌制温

  5. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, Nrf2, Keap1 and apoptosis-related genes in the fish gill.

  6. 糖对草鱼肝脂代谢关键基因转录水平的调控研究%Effects of Carbohydrates on Transcription of Five Key Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君君; 卢荣华; 常志光; 秦超彬; 杨峰; 聂国兴

    2015-01-01

    在目前集约化水产养殖模式下,草鱼肝脂质代谢紊乱问题比较严重,已引起人们的高度关注。为获知糖对草鱼肝脂代谢的影响及作用机理,本研究分别从活体和细胞水平上分析了糖对肝脂代谢5个关键基因转录水平变化的影响。采用实时荧光定量 PCR(qRT‐PCR)技术,检测了在低糖(糖含量24%)和高糖(糖含量42%)投喂条件下草鱼肝脏中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶的转录水平变化,H·E染色观察肝脏组织形态学变化;并检测了在不同浓度葡萄糖作用下,草鱼肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶和脂蛋白脂酶基因的表达变化。结果显示,肝组织中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶在高糖组中的表达量显著高于对照组和低糖组(P <0.05),过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α在高糖和低糖条件下变化不明显(P>0.05);H · E染色观察发现在高糖条件下草鱼肝组织出现了大量的脂肪蓄积;在其肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶、脂蛋白脂酶的mRNA表达量随葡萄糖浓度增加均呈先升后降趋势,分别在葡萄糖浓度为10 mmol/L和20 mmol/L时达到最高值(P <0.05)。研究结果表明,葡萄糖可能通过调节固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶和脂蛋白脂酶等基因的表达进而调节体内糖向脂的转化过程。研究结果为丰富鱼类糖代谢调控机理提供研究资料,并有望为提高鱼类饲料糖的利用效率提供理论依据。%In current intensive aquaculture ,the hepatopancreatic lipid metabolic disorderis are serious in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ,and has caused the attention of people .The transcriptional effects of carbohydrates on the five key genes involved in lipid metabolism in

  7. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P peptides [liver expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP) 2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, β-defensin] and anti-inflammatory cytokines-related factors, interleukin (IL) 4/13A, IL-4/13B (only in head kidney), IL-10, IL-11, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, TGF-β2, inhibitor of κBα and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (P copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P skin immunity and structural integrity other indicators model are similar under infection of A. hydrophila. Finally, the vitamin C requirement for the growth performance (PWG) of young grass carp was estimated to be 92.8 mg/kg diet. Meanwhile, the vitamin C requirement for against skin lesion morbidity of young grass carp was estimated to be 122.9 mg/kg diet. In addition, based on the biochemical indices [immune indices (LA activity in the head kidney and C4 content in the spleen) and antioxidant indices (MDA content in the head kidney and ROS content in the spleen)] the vitamin C requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 131.2, 137.5, 135.8 and 129.8 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26944716

  8. Detection of EST -SSRs markers in Ctenopharyngodon idellus and its association with growth traits%草鱼EST - SSRs标记的筛选及其与生长性状相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王解香; 白俊杰; 于凌云

    2012-01-01

    利用草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)EST( expressed sequence tags)数据库开发的18个EST - SSR标记,对草鱼群体进行基因型与生长性状关联分析和群体遗传多样性分析,结果表明:关联分析得到6个微卫星位点(13118、13305、24017、25085、35939和40698)与体重,体长和体高显著或极显著相关(P <0.05或P<0.01).对其进行多重比较获得有利基因型分别为13118位点的BB、13305位点的AD、24017位点的AC、25085位点的BE、35939位点的BB和40698位点的BB.将6个微卫星位点上的EST序列与GenBank数据库进行BLAST比对,其中24017序列与鲤鱼自然杀伤细胞增强因子(NCEF)同源性水平高达86%,25085序列与草鱼反应元件结合蛋白(CREB)的基因同源性水平达到80%.应用这18个微卫星位点对草鱼养殖群体进行遗传多样性分析,共检测到82个等位基因,平均等位基因4.556个,每个位点检测到的等位基因数为2~9个,群体的平均观测杂合度为0.452 9,平均期望杂合度和平均多态信息含量分别为0.457 1和0.401 7,表明该群体遗传多样性处于低水平.%Eighteen pairs of EST - SSRs primers selected from EST base of Ctenopharyngodon idella were employed to examine the associations between their genotypes and growth traits and detect the genetic diversity of the cultured C. Idella populations from. Microsatellite loci of 13118, 13305, 24017, 25085, 35939 and 40698 were significantly associated with body weight, body length. And body height ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01) . The most favorable genotypes for growth traits were AA at 13118, AD at 13305, AC at 24017, BE at 25085, BB at 35939 and BB at 40698. The homology identity of the 6 correlative ESTs was determined by GenBank of NCBI blast programmer on the amino acid levels. It was found that 2 ESTs with significant similarity to the known functional sequences in GenBank. 24017 was highly homologous to the known natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) with an identity

  9. What you should know about carp: its origin, varieties, physical appearance, feeding habits

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the different varieties of carp, their origin, physical appearance and feeding habits. The species discussed are grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

  10. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five α-helixes, eight β-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  11. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  12. 硫丹对罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus×O.niloticus)和草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的急性毒性研究%Study on Acute Toxicity of Endosulfan to Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus ×O.niloticus) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯常亮; 甘居利; 林钦; 陈洁文; 汪敏

    2011-01-01

    为控制虫害农业上大量使用硫丹,因此硫丹可通过多种途径进入水环境中.养殖环境和水产品中已发现硫丹残留,这给养殖环境和食品安全造成潜在威胁.通过半静态试验方法测定了罗非鱼和草鱼的半致死浓度,并估算了其在水环境中的安全浓度.结果表明,罗非鱼和草鱼的半致死浓度分别为1.97(1.26 -2.87) μg·L-1和2.33(1.66 - 3.32) μg· L-1,安全浓度分别为0.20和0.23 μg· L-1.为进一步验证这2种鱼对硫丹的抗性,将罗非鱼和草鱼在最低剂量组(0.7 μg·L-1)中暴露60d,发现这2种鱼个体状态良好.因此,初步证明这两种鱼在水中的安全浓度比目前国家规定的标准值要高.但是关于硫丹对这2种鱼的内分泌干扰、生殖和生长等方面的影响还需作进一步的研究.

  13. Study on Toxicity Effect of Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos on Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idllus )%阿维菌素·毒死蜱对草鱼的毒性效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常健; 骆鹰; 杨锦兀; 陈龙; 蒋琼凤

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨阿维菌素、毒死蜱2种药物对草鱼的毒性效应及相互关系.[方法]以健康活泼的草鱼为试验对象,用阿维菌素、毒死蜱分别对其进行单一药物的急性毒性和2种药物组合和联合毒性试验.[结果]阿维菌素、毒死蜱、2种药物混合对草鱼24、48、72、96h的LC分别为:阿维菌素0.54、0.49、0.17、0.10 mg/L;毒死蜱0.29、0.21、0.12、0.05 mg/L;阿维菌素与毒死蜱混合药1.22、1.08、0.99、0.86 mg/L;其对草鱼的安全浓度(SC)分别为:0.010、0.005、0.086 mg/L.药物的毒性大小依次为:毒死蜱>阿维菌素>混合药.[结论]阿维菌素和毒死蜱混合药的不同浓度对草鱼的生长有显著影响,浓度越高毒性作用越大,低毒性强度的阿维菌素对毒死蜱具缓解作用.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the toxicity effect of Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos on grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idllus) and their interrelations. [ Method ] Taking healthy and active gass carp as the object, the acute toxicity test of single pesticide and the joint toxicity test of two pesticides on grass carp were carried out. [ Result ] The LC50 of Abamectin and Chlorpyrifos and the mixture of two pesticides against grass carp at 24,48,72 and 96 h were as follows, Abamectin :0. 54,0.49,0. 17 and 0. 10 mg/L; Chlorpyrifos :0. 29,0. 21,0. 12 and 0.05 mg/L; the mixture of two pesticides:l.22,1.08,0.99 and0. 86 mg/L. The safe concentration (SC) of Abamectin,Chlorpyrifos and the mixture of two pesticides were 0.010,0. 005 and 0. 086 mg/L,respectively. The toxicity of the pesticides in sequence was Chlorpyrifos > Abamectin > the mixture of two pesticides. [ Conclusion] Different concentrations of Abamectin,Chlorpyrifos and the mixture of two pesticides had remarkable effect on the growth of grass carp,the higher the concentration was,the greater the toxicity effect was. Abamectin at low toxicity intensity had antagonistic effects on Chlorpyrifos.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE-DECOMPOSING BACTERIA IN THE INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA (VAL.)%草鱼肠道纤维素降解细菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王微微; 吴山功; 邹红; 郑英珍; 程莹寅; 王桂堂

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota in the animal digestive tracts plays an important role in the nutrition and metabolism of their host. Many cellulose-ingesting animals need the microorganisms in their digestive tracts for degrading cellulose and therefore providing the energy. For example, cellulose-decomposing bacterial population has been frequently found in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an herbivore fish species. However, knowledge about this type of bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the species of the cellulose-decomposing microbiota in the content and mucosa in the intestine of grass carp. We isolated and cultured the cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut, mid-gut and hindgut of the intestine using the medium with carboxymethycellulose (1%) as its sole carbon source. Entero-bacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR fingerprint was utilized to identify different genotypes of the iso-lated bacteria. The cellulose-degrading activity of each strain was indicated by the ratio of the diameter of the clear zone to the diameter of the colony. We identified the genotypes of these bacteria by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Forty strains of cellulose-decomposing bacteria from intestinal content and mucosa of grass carp were identified. Two geno-types of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria were discovered in the content of foregut and hindgut, and in the mucosa of midgut and hindgut. Only one genotype of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria was discovered in the mucosa of foregut and midgut. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the majority of the cellulolytic bacteria was Aeromonas which accounted for 85%of the total bacterial isolates. Enterobacter accounted for 7.5%and the“uncultured bacterium”accounted for 5%. The ability of degrading cellulose varied remarkably among different bacterial strains. High enzy-matic activity was observed in some isolates of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. The bacterial isolates with a

  15. 草鱼hsp70和hsp90对温度急性变化的响应%Effect of rapid temperature change on expression of hsp70 and hsp90 in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鑫; 董云伟; 王芳; 董双林

    2013-01-01

    Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most important cultured fishes in China. During transportation in summer,massive mortality often occurs. As molecular chaperones,Hsps assist cells in their recovery from stress and promote cytoprotection. Limited reports described the expression of Hsps in grass carp at high temperatures, and the relationship between oxygen consumption, expression of heat shock protein and mortality needs to be investigated based on the oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT) to further elucidate the thermal adaptation of this species to high temperature in view of integrated biology. In the present study,the expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 after rapid temperature increase were studied. Grass carps were acclimated at 20 t and then exposed to designated temperatures(20,22,24, 26,28,30,32,34 ℃) for 3 h heat shock. After 2 h-recovery at 20℃, liver, muscle and gill of tested fish were sampled and hsp70 and hsp90 were determined using semi-quantitive real-time PCR. Expression of hsps increased with temperature increase until 32℃ in muscle and gill, and then decreased at 34 ℃. In liver, expression of hsps kept increasing in all temperature treatments. These results indicated that hsp70 and hsp90 were sensitive to temperature increase in grass carp. Analyzed heat shock proteins data with previous results of oxygen consumption and lethal temperatures of grass carp, the physiological adaptations of grass carp could be explained by oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT), which pointed out that the imbalance between oxygen demand and tissue oxygen supply ability was the primary factor which limited organisms' thermal tolerance and the ability of aerobic metabolism greatly limited the survival of organism beyond critical temperatures. With temperature increase, the maximum value of oxygen consumption in grass carp occurred at 28 ℃, and then the oxygen consumption decreased when

  16. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity at a 95% maximum, the dietary Phe requirement of young grass carp (256-629 g) was estimated to be 8.31 g kg(-1), corresponding to 2.75 g 100 g(-1) protein.

  17. Cinética de deterioração apresentada por filés de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella embalados a vácuo sob diferentes condições de refrigeração Kinetics of deterioration presented bt vacuum packaged grass carp (Ctenopharryngodon idella fillets under different refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Prentice

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da oferta de produtos pesqueiros e, as práticas de aquicultura poderão incrementar o consumo destes produtos, desde que a exigência cada vez maior dos consumidores por alimentos de melhor qualidade, frescos e naturais, seja levada em consideração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um estudo tecnológico visando à obtenção de um alimento minimamente processado à base de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, estudando os fatores que influenciam na qualidade dos filés de carpa sob embalagem com atmosfera modificada a vácuo, armazenadas a temperatura de refrigeração. Em resumo, o processamento mínimo aplicado às amostras, aliado à embalagem a vácuo permitiu aumentar a vida-útil dos filés de carpa-capim.The offer of fishery products and the Aquaculture practices will can increase consume if the exigency for fresh and high quality products would be attend. The objective of this work was obtain a MPR product with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, studying the factors that was important in the quality and in the deterioration of the products with modified atmosphere packaging at vacuum, stored at refrigeration temperature. In short, the MPR practices applied in the products and the vacuum packaging, allowed to increase the storage time of the grass carp fillets.

  18. The effects of Ficus carica polysaccharide on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Guo, Jian Lin; Ye, Jin Yun; Zhang, Yi Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P<0.05) up regulated IL-1β and TNF-α gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P<0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp.

  19. Effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella%镁对草鱼生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪福保; 罗莉; 文华; 高开进; 陈任孝; 郭玉阳; 朱根廷

    2011-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Purified casein-gelatin-based diets (containing 76. 9 mg mg/kg) supplemented with six levels of Mg (0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg, respectively) were fed to juvenile grass carps (initial weight: 10. 68 ±0. 14 g). The results showed that: the highest specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention ( PR), weight/length (W/L) and lowest feed conversion rate (FCR) were observed for fish fed the diet containing 692. 0 mg mg/kg ( P < 0. 05 ). The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved the liver function of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), but the liver function was mildly impaired, and the spleen index was significantly improved in fish fed the high-Mg diets ( i. e. 1200 and 2400 mg mg/kg supplemented). With the increase of dietary magnesium, liver aspartate alanine transaminase ( GOT and GPT) showed a downward trend, while the GOT/GPT ratio was first increased and then decreased. But the liver glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was in the opposite trend. The GOT/GPT ratio reached the maximum at 692.0 mg/kg magnesiun level (P < 0. 05 ), while GDH activity reached the minimum. The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved liver malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and promoted hepatic glycogen deposition ( P < 0. 05 ). High-Mg diets ( = 1200 mg/kg supplemented) significantly reduced blood glucose levels of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), and the other groups showed no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ).%在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的纯化日粮(镁含量76.9 mg/kg)中添加不同水平的镁(0、150、300、600、1200和2400 mg/kg),研究镁对体重为(10.68±0.14)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响,时间为10周.结果显示:日粮中适

  20. 草鱼加热过程中肌肉蛋白质的热变性%Denaturation of muscle protein in Ctenopharyngodon idelhus during heat processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕燕; 邱澄宇; 李来好; 林洪; 陈培基; 郝淑贤; 杨贤庆

    2005-01-01

    The variations of muscle tissus, peroxidase and Ca22+ -ATPase activities and Vp (pasteurization value) were investigated with the fresh samples of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) heated at different temperatures, thus revealing the mechanism of denaturation of muscle protein by heating. The experimental results showed the great difference in muscle tissue structure before and after the samples heated. In the initial stage of heating the water loss accounted for 50% of the total. When the samples were separately heated at 75, 85, and 95℃, fk values (dehydration curve slope) were 5, 4.1 and 1.7, respectively, while Vp reaching 40 minutes were 22, 8 and 5 min, respectively. As to the time for deactivation of peroxidase in the heated samples at the various temperatures, it varied from 38, 10 and to less than 6 min, respectively and the deactivation rates of Ca2+ -ATPase in 1 min were 50%, 88% and 100%, respectively. Consequently, the higher temperature the sample was heated, the faster rate of thermocon ductivity, the lower rate of water loss, and the faster rate of peroxidase deactivation it was. Also, the Vp for the least requirement of pasteurization ( Vp≥40min) was obtained.

  1. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  2. 网箱养殖患病草鱼细菌分离鉴定与回复感染研究%A Preliminary Study of Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Net Cage-Cultured Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Retrieved Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀荣; 曾燕玲; 魏志琴

    2012-01-01

    In the present experiment, the traditional microbiology method was used to isolate the endophyt-ic bacteria from Lateolabrax japonicus of net cage culture in the Wujiang River. A total of 7 strains were isolated. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplificated by PCR. and 600 bp fragments were obtained. These 600 bp fragments were successfully sequenced and entered into the NCBI (http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov /). Alignment analysis was made by BLAST tool to analyse the homology. The results showed that the 7 stains were Serratia proteamaculans (homology of 95%) . Staphylococcus saprophyticus (homology of 99%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (homology of 97%) , Providencia alcalifaciens (homology of 99%) , Aeromonas hydrophila (homology of 99%) , Aeromonas salmonicida (homology of 97%) , and Acinetobacter (homology of 97%). The bacteria were used for retrieved infection of the healthy C. idellus. S. proteamaculans, S saprophyticus, P. fluorescens, P. alcalifaciens and A. hydro phila were shown to have comparatively large hazard to grass carp, while A. salmonicida, and Acinetobacter induced no obvious infection.%利用常用细菌分离纯化方法从患病草鱼中分离出7株菌株,分别编号为Ⅰ~Ⅶ;对7株菌株的16 S rRNA 基因序列进行PCR扩增,均得到长约600 bp的片段;将扩增结果进行测序,测序结果输入到美国国立生物技术信息中心(NCBI,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/),用BLAST工具对序列进行同源性比对分析.结果表明:Ⅰ为沙雷氏菌,同源性达95%; Ⅱ为腐生葡萄球菌,同源性达99%;Ⅲ为荧光假单孢菌,同源性达97%;Ⅳ为产碱普罗威登斯菌,同源性达99%;Ⅴ为嗜水气单孢菌,同源性达99%; Ⅵ为杀鲑气单孢菌,同源性达97%;Ⅶ为不动菌属,同源性达97%.将Ⅰ~Ⅶ号菌株回复感染健康草鱼,结果沙雷氏菌、腐生葡萄球菌、荧光假单孢菌、产碱普罗威登斯菌和嗜水气单孢菌对草鱼的危害较大,而杀鲑气单孢菌和不

  3. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  4. Changes of biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) during chilled storage and effect on biogenic amines during thermal processing%草鱼冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月美; 包玉龙; 罗永康; 王航

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in biogenic amines and other quality indicators during chilled storage(4 ℃) and effect of thermal processing on biogenic amines (85 ℃,15 min) of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by observing the drip loss,sensory assessment,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),total viable counts and content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine,2-phenylethyl-amine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine).The correlation was analyzed between biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp.The resuhs showed that drip loss,TVB-N and total viable counts increased with storage time,which accorded with the changes of sensory scores.The preservation life of grass carp at 4 ℃ was 9 days.During the storage,putrescine and cadaverine changed most significantly that putrescine content reached (17.12 ± 4.40) mg·kg-1 and cadaverine content reached (237.47 ±3.96) mg·kg-1 at 15th day.Besides,cadaverine and putrescine had good correlation with drip loss,sensory assessment,TVB-N and total viable counts.After thermal processing,contents of putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and spermine decreased slightly,saying that thermal processing could not remove the biogenic amines of grass carp effectively.%文章研究了草鱼(Ctenpharyngodon idellus)冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响.将经过前处理的草鱼鱼片于4℃条件下贮藏,对其感官品质、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、菌落总数、汁液流失率以及生物胺等指标进行测定,另外经过85℃、15 min的热处理后对草鱼鱼片的生物胺进行测定,探求其变化规律及草鱼的生物胺与其品质指标的相关性.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,草鱼的汁液流失率、TVB-N、菌落总数均呈现明显的上升趋势,与感官分值的变化趋势相符,草鱼的感官接受极限为9d.草鱼鱼片在冷藏加工过程中变化最显著的生物胺是腐胺和尸胺,第15

  5. 高锰酸钾与敌百虫对草鱼幼鱼的联合毒性%Joint Toxicity of Potassium Permanganate and Trichlorphon to Juvenile Grass Carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温茹淑; 刘炳佳; 方展强

    2012-01-01

    采用静水实验法考察了高锰酸钾与敌百虫对草鱼幼鱼的联合毒性效应.结果显示,高锰酸钾与敌百虫的联合毒性在24、48、72和96 h时均表现为拮抗作用,且随着时间的延长,拮抗作用逐渐减弱.组织病理学的结果表明,暴露于高锰酸钾和敌百虫混合溶液中的草鱼幼鱼的肝脏、肾脏和鳃均发生了各种类型的病变.

  6. 复合益生菌对草鱼养殖水体水质和菌群结构的影响%Effects of complex probiotics on water quality and microbial communities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳佳; 彭丽莎; 张小平; 孙健栋; 傅罗琴; 王一冰; 胡彩虹; 李卫芬

    2013-01-01

    为研究草鱼养殖水体中添加复合益生菌水质调节剂对水体水质和菌群的调节作用,实验采用氮磷等指标监测水质,采用454焦磷酸盐测序方法分析菌群结构,结果显示,处理组的氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮和总氮浓度一直低于对照组,但差异不显著;处理组硝酸盐氮浓度低于对照组,且在18d下降了56.59%;处理组的总无机氮含量低于对照组,且在15d下降了28.75%.处理组正磷酸盐和总磷浓度略低于对照组,无显著差异.15 d水样的454焦磷酸盐测序结果与对照组相比,处理组菌群多样性更高,厚壁菌门和变形菌门分别减少了91.21%和21.75%,拟杆菌、放线菌和蓝细菌分别增加了288%、435%和848%.在变形菌门中,α-变形杆菌和β-变形杆菌分别比对照组提高了318%和18%,γ-变形杆菌比对照组降低了78.82%.研究表明,该复合益生菌具有一定水质调控功能,且能显著改变菌群结构.

  7. Farelo de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants em substituição ao milho (Zea mays L. em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228 Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Manihot esculenta crants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição do milho pelo farelo de mandioca em rações para alevinos de Carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de Carpa-capim, com peso vivo inicial de 2,51+ 0,05 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, cada bloco correspondendo a uma caixa de fibrocimento com 1.000 L de capacidade, com seis tanques-rede (120 L em seu interior. Cada tanque-rede com cinco alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiam em rações (32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível com diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de mandioca (0.00; 5.99; 11.98; 17.97; 23.95; 29.94, correspondendo a substituição de 0.0%; 20.0%; 40.0%; 60.0%; 80.0% e 100.0% do milho na ração. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de inclusão do farelo de mandioca sobre o peso final, comprimento final, conversão alimentar, fator de condição e sobrevivência dos alevinos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos médios da água foram 22,92oC, 24,54oC, 6,38 mg/L, 7,47; 0,16 mS/cm, respectivamente para temperatura matutina, temperatura vespertina, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade. Conclui-se que e farelo de varredura de mandioca pode substituir o milho em até 100% nas rações para alevinos de carpa-capimThe experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate different substitution levels of corn by cassava meal in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets. It was used 120 fingerlings with initial live weigh of 2.51+0.05 g, distributed in 24 net ponds at a randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications, each block corresponding to a fiber-ciment 1000 L tank with six net ponds (120 L inside. Each net ponds with five fingerlings was considered an experimental unit. The treatments consisted in rations (32% crude protein and 3000 kcal

  8. Substituição do milho Zea mays por milheto Pennisetum americanum em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365 Replacement of corn Zea mays by millet Pennisetum americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento com duração de 45 dias foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho Zea mays (0,00%; 33,00%; 66,67% e 100,00% pelo milheto Pennisetum americanum, em rações sobre o desempenho de alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 112 alevinos de carpa-capim (0,75 g, distribuídos em 16 tanques-rede (160 L, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Cada bloco correspondeu a uma caixa de fibrocimento (1.000 L com 4 tanques-rede, onde cada um deles contendo 7 alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram peso final médio, ganho de peso, comprimento final médio, conversão alimentar aparente, fator de condição e taxa de sobrevivência. Não foram observados efeitos da utilização do milheto sobre os parâmetros de desempenho produtivo analisados (p > 0,01. Os valores médios de temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica e oxigênio dissolvido durante o período experimental foram de 24,5 ± 1,39ºC; 7,51 ± 0,32; 0,16 ± 0,01 µS/cm e 6,04 ± 1,28 mg/L, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o milheto pode ser incluído na ração para alevinos de C. idella em até 33,7%, substituindo totalmente o milho sem afetar o desempenho dos animaisThe present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the replacement of corn Zea. Mays (0.00%; 33.00%; 66.67% e 100.00% by millet P. americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets, during a 45 days period. One hundred and twelve carp grass fingerlings (0.75 g were used, distributed in 16 net ponds (160 L, in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. Each block corresponded to one fiber cement tank (1000 L with four net ponds. Each net pond containing seven grass carp fingerlings was considered one experimental unit. The variables evaluated were: mean weight, mean weight gain, mean length, outward feed conversion, condition

  9. 复合芽孢杆菌对草鱼与鲢鳙混养的鱼种池水质的净化作用%Mixture of Bacillus Has Purification Effect on The Water in The Grass Carp with Silver Carp and Aristichthys nobilis Fish Fry Collection Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利丹; 王海; 李景胜; 韩立忠; 杨建光

    2015-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus juveniles with total length of 3 cm were polycultured with bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis juveniles and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix at a initial density of 3100 grass carp juveniles, 1100 bighead carp juve-niles, and 1100 silver carp juveniles in a 0.53 hm2 test pond where a mixture of Bacillus was administrated once every 15 d and at a ini-tial density of 2900 grass carp juveniles, 1500 bighead carp juveniles, and 1500 silver carp juveniles in a 0.667 hm2 control pond where no mixture of Bacillus was administrated. Water quality indicators were monitored in the test and control ponds 3 d after administrat ion of the Bacillus mixture. It was found that the water quality indicators was shown to be 18% lower COD, 6% lower ammonia nitro-gen level, and 41% lower unionized ammonia level in the test pond than in the control pond. However, higher Secchi disk transparency (28%)and dissolved oxygen level were observed in the test pond compared with those in the control pond, indicating that the mixture of Bacillus has purification effect on the water in an aquaculture pond.%试验池面积0.53hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养全长3cm 草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 0.31万尾、鳙Aristichthys nobilis 0.11万尾、白鲢 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix 0.11万尾,每15d 泼洒复合芽孢杆菌 Bacillus;对照池面积0.667hm2,池深2.5m,每0.067hm2放养草鱼0.29万尾、鳙0.15万尾、白鲢0.15万尾,不泼洒复合芽孢杆菌。在泼洒复合芽孢杆菌3d 后,检测试验池和对照池水质,研究复合芽孢杆菌对水质净化的作用。结果表明:试验池塘全年 COD、氨氮和非离子氨水平分别比对照池低6%、18%和41%,而透明度(28%)和溶解氧则增加。复合芽孢杆菌对养鱼池塘水质具有明显的净化作用。

  10. 鄱阳湖湖口水域四大家鱼幼鱼出现的时间过程%TIME COURSE OF THE JUVENILE MAJOR CHINESE CARPS IN THE HUKOU WATERS OF POYANG LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂林; 吴志强; 刘引兰

    2011-01-01

    The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the four major Chinese carps,and the main species for freshwater fishery and aquaculture in China. They are migratory fishes between rivers and lakes. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. It is the main habitat for spawning of the four major Chinese carps. As one of the two large lakes maintaining a connection with the mainstream of the Yangtze River,Poyang Lake could be an invaluable feeding ground of the juvenile four major Chinese carps. So far, their migratory mechanism between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake was still unclear. Time course of the juvenile four major Chinese carps in the Hukou waters of Poyang Lake was investigated from 2007 to 2008. Their peaks appeared in July and August respectively.The peak period of black carp, grass carp and silver carp ranged from middle of July to late August, and the peak of bighead carp appeared in July. The dominant standard length of black carp and bighead carp ranged from 5.00 to 9.00 cm respectively,and that of grass carp and silver carp were mostly ranged from 5.00 to 14. 99 cm respectively. The dominant species of the juvenile four major Chinese carps collected in the Hukou waters of Poyang Lake was silver carp,and bighead carp was rare. Moreover, the relationships between water level of Poyang Lake (Hukou Station) and their respective daily number were significant positive.The result provided basic data for the research on the migration of the juvenile four major Chinese carps from the Yangtze River to Poyang Lake. Therefore, to protect their resources and increase the knowledge about their migration between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake,a continued scrutiny seems well justified.%作为长江仅存的两个通江湖泊之一,鄱阳湖在长江四大家鱼幼鱼的肥育方面有着重要

  11. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  12. Generation of Biotechnology-Derived Flavobacterium columnare Ghosts by PhiX174 Gene E-Mediated Inactivation and the Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Infection in Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial pathogen causing high mortality rates for many freshwater fish species. Fish vaccination with a safe and effective vaccine is a potential approach for prevention and control of fish disease. Here, in order to produce bacterial ghost vaccine, a specific Flavobacterium lysis plasmid pBV-E-cat was constructed by cloning PhiX174 lysis gene E and the cat gene with the promoter of F. columnare into the prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. The plasmid was successfully electroporated into the strain F. columnare G4cpN22 after curing of its endogenous plasmid. F. columnare G4cpN22 ghosts (FCGs were generated for the first time by gene E-mediated lysis, and the vaccine potential of FCG was investigated in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by intraperitoneal route. Fish immunized with FCG showed significantly higher serum agglutination titers and bactericidal activity than fish immunized with FKC or PBS. Most importantly, after challenge with the parent strain G4, the relative percent survival (RPS of fish in FCG group (70.9% was significantly higher than FKC group (41.9%. These results showed that FCG could confer immune protection against F. columnare infection. As a nonliving whole cell envelope preparation, FCG may provide an ideal alternative to pathogen-based vaccines against columnaris in aquaculture.

  13. 主养草鱼池塘三种混养模式下鱼类肠道菌群PCR-DGGE比较%Comparative on Fish Intestinal Microbiota from Three Polyculture Patterns in Mainly Cultural Grass Carp Pond by PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴; 熊邦喜; 朱玉婷; 施培松; 余育和

    2012-01-01

    消化道微生物在宿主生长、营养和健康等方面起到重要的作用.本实验采用基于PCR扩增的变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)技术比较研究了主养草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)池塘三种不同混养模式下的鱼类肠道菌群差异.结果表明,三种混养模式下同种鱼的生长率出现显著性差异(P<0.05),而肠道细菌16SrDNA V3区特征片段PCR-DGGE指纹分析显示草鱼的肠道菌群相似性较高(>42.2%);投喂配合饲料的草鱼与摄食浮游生物的鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis和匙吻鲟(Polyodon spathula)肠道菌群结构相差最大(<19%),鲢和鳙肠道菌群相似性较高(>41.6%),除模式Ⅱ鳙的肠道和匙吻鲟的胃菌群具有较高的相似性(>50.3%)外,匙吻鲟的消化道菌群和鲢鳙的相似性低.实验共回收测序了14条特定DGGE条带中的DNA片段,并进行系统进化分析,结果显示,这14条条带分别归属于4个细菌类群:变形细菌门(Proteobacteria),拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes),厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)和梭杆菌门(Fusobacteria).研究结果为鱼类混养模式的优化,饲料研发和鱼病防治提供了基础参考资料.%The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the growth, nutrition and well being of the host, and it would be necessary to know the microflora structure in the gastrointestinal tract and the influence factors. The present study used 16S Rdna polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology to investigate the intestinal microbiota diversity of fanned fishes from three polyculture patterns with grass caxp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as a major component. The results showed that there was significant differences among special growth rate of the same species from the different polyculture patterns after four months' cultivation and data analysis (P 42.2%) of grass carp intestinal bacteria in different polyculture patterns. The intestinal

  14. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes) exposed to chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur Mandeep; Jindal Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations...

  15. 艾佐迈对草鱼生长、肠道消化酶活性和血清非特异性免疫的影响%Effects of azomite on growth performance, intestinal digestive enzyme activities and serum nonspecific immune of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘满仔; 冷向军; 李小勤; 肖昌武; 陈道仁

    2011-01-01

    在基础饲料中分别添加0%、0.2%、0.3%和0.4%艾佐迈(azomite),饲养平均体质量为(64.20±1.68)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)8周,研究其对草鱼生长性能、肠道消化酶活性和血清非特异性免疫的影响.结果表明:饲料中添加艾佐迈可在不同程度上改善草鱼生长性能,其中添加0.2%艾佐迈使增质量率提高16.65%(P=0.08),饲料系数降低12.90%(P<0.05);添加0.2%和0.4%艾佐迈可显著提高草鱼的肥满度(P<0.05);艾佐迈对草鱼肌肉水分、灰分、粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量均无影响(P>0.05);添加0.2%~0.4%艾佐迈可在不同程度上提高草鱼前肠蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性及血清超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)和碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,AKP)活性.其中0.2%艾佐迈添加组可显著提高血清SOD活性(P<0.05);饲料中添加0.2%、0.3%艾佐迈时草鱼肝胰脏谷草转氨酶(glutamic-oxalaceric transaminase,GOT)和谷丙转氨酶(glutamic-pyruvic transaminase,GPT)活性无影响(P>0.05),但添加0.4%艾佐迈组显著降低了肝胰脏GOT、GPT活性.上述结果表明:饲料中添加艾佐迈可提高草鱼的生长性能和血清非特异性免疫力;草鱼饲料中艾佐迈添加量建议为0.2%.%An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of azomite supplementation on growth performance, intestinal digestive enzyme activities and serum nonspecific immune of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Four diets adding respectively 0% (control group), 0. 2%, 0.3%, 0.4%azomite were fed to grass carp with initial body mass of ( 64. 20 ± 1.68) g for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance of grass carp was increased in different degrees by supplemental azomite in diets, in which mass gain rate was increased by 16. 65% (P=O. 08) and feed conversion rate (FCR) was decreased by 12.90% (P<O.05) by supplementation of 0. 2% azomite in diet, compared with control group. Condition factors (CF) of

  16. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling. PMID:26775963

  17. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling.

  18. Ctenopharyngodon idella NF-κB subunit p65 modulates the transcription of IκBα in CIK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhou; Zhu, Youlin; Xu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiangqin; Hou, Qunhao; Xu, Qun; Sun, Zhicheng; Mi, Yichuan; Hu, Chengyu

    2016-07-01

    NF-κB is an important transcription factor for regulating the multiple inflammatory and immune related gene transcription. It can bind with the nuclear factor κB site within the promoter of target genes to regulate their transcriptions. p65, the all-important subunit of NF-κB, is ubiquitously expressed in cells. In the present study, we cloned and identified the p65 subunit from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (named Cip65) by homologous cloning and RACE technique. The full length of Cip65 cDNA is 2481 bp along with 9 bp 5' UTR, 639 bp 3' UTR and the largest open reading frame (1833 bp) encoding a polypeptide of 610 amino acids with a well conserved Rel-homology domain (RHD) in N-terminal and a putative transcription activation domain (TAD) in C-terminal. Cip65 gathers with other teleost p65 proteins to form a fish-specific clade clearly distinct from those of mammalian and amphibian counterparts on the phylogenetic tree. In CIK (C. idellus kidney) cells, the expression of Cip65 was significantly up-regulated under the stimulation with Poly I:C. As one member of the NF-κB inhibitor protein (IκB) family, IκBα can dominate the activity of NF-κB by interacting with it. To study the molecular mechanisms of negative feedback loop of NF-κB signaling in fish, we cloned grass carp IκBα (CiIκBα) promoter sequence. CiIκBα promoter is 414 bp in length containing two RelA binding sites and a putative atypical TATA-box. Meanwhile, Cip65 and its mutant proteins including C-terminus deletion mutant of Cip65 (Cip65-ΔC) and N-terminus deletion mutant of Cip65 (Cip65-ΔN) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind resin. In vitro, Cip65 rather than Cip65-ΔC and Cip65-ΔN showed high affinity with CiIκBα promoter sequence by gel mobility shift assays. In vivo, the cotransfection of pcDNA3.1-Cip65 (or pcDNA3.1-Cip65-ΔC, pcDNA3.1-Cip65-ΔN respectively) with pGL3-CiIκBα and pRL-TK renilla

  19. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  20. 真空包装草鱼片低温贮藏后微观结构及理化性质的变化%Microstructure, chemical and physical changes of vacuum-packed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets stored in low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Amanda Yakhin; 张娟; 王远亮; 李宗军

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microstructure,chemical and physical changes of vacuum-packed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillet stored in low temperature (- 18,0,4,10 ℃) during 15 d of storage.The chemical changes were demonstrated by significant increase of K-value during storage.Chilling temperature,higher temperature and longer storage time gave bigger spaces between the muscle fibers,while freezing temperature gave the biggest gapping due to ice crystallization between muscle fibers.Water holding capacity(WHC) was decreased significantly after storage with frozen fish having the smallest WHC.0 and 4 ℃ storage had higher WHC than 10 C storage.L*,a* and b* value were higher at higher temperature storage and longer storage time,indicating that the fish were lighter,more reddish and yellowish at the end of storage.Only fish stored in frozen temperature ( - 18 ℃) were considered still fresh until 15 d,but had poor texture quality.%为研究真空包装草鱼片在低温条件下的变化,将真空包装草鱼片分别于-18、0、4、10℃贮藏15 d,以贮藏期间K值(ATP分解指数)的变化来评价其化学变化.结果表明:在0、4、10℃下贮藏15 d后,草鱼肌纤维间的空隙变大,由于鱼肉内水的结晶,在-18℃下肌纤维间的空隙达到最大(约100 μm);随着贮藏时间的延长,鱼片的持水能力显著下降,-18℃下贮藏鱼片的持水能力最低,0、4℃贮藏鱼片的持水能力高于10℃贮藏鱼片;于较高温度(0、4、10℃)贮藏后,鱼肉的亮度值(L*)、红绿值(a*)和黄蓝值(b*)均较高,在-18℃低温贮藏后鱼肉的亮度值增加;随贮藏时间的延长,鱼片颜色(色差仪分析结果)趋向于红色值和黄色值增大;在-18℃贮藏15d后,鱼片仍然新鲜,但质构变差.

  1. 十溴二苯乙烷对草鱼幼鱼肝脏和肌肉组织氧化应激效应的影响%Oxidative Stress Effects of Decabromodiphenylethane on the Liver and Muscle Tissues of Juvenile Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩倩; 张丽娟; 胡国成; 于云江; 甘炼; 崔科; 黄楚珊

    2016-01-01

    十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)是目前在全球范围内广泛使用的新型溴代阻燃剂,其环境风险已引起广泛关注,但目前仍缺乏针对水生生物的毒性研究数据.作者通过饲料中添加十溴二苯乙烷暴露的方式对草鱼幼鱼进行长期暴露实验,研究500、1 000和3 000mg·kg-1三个饲料添加剂量暴露组和1个对照组长期暴露对草鱼幼鱼肝脏和肌肉组织中氧化应激酶(SOD、CAT和GSH-PX)活性和抗氧化物质(GSH)含量的影响.结果显示:暴露8周后,随着DBDPE暴露水平的升高,草鱼幼鱼肝脏组织中氧化应激酶(SOD、CAT和GSH-PX)和抗氧化物质(GSH)均表现出低浓度诱导及高浓度抑制的效应.500和1 000 mg·kg-1剂量组草鱼幼鱼肝脏组织中SOD、CAT和GSH-PX活性和GSH含量均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),且均在500mg·kg-1剂量组达到最高.3 000 mg·kg-1剂量组SOD、CAT和GSH-PX活性和GSH含量低于500和1 000mg·kg-1暴露组,但与对照组无显著性差异(P>0.05).草鱼幼鱼肌肉组织中氧化应激酶活性变化甚微,3个浓度剂量组肌肉组织中SOD、CAT活性和GSH含量以及500mg·kg-1剂量组GSH-PX活性与对照组均无显著性差异(P>0.05).研究成果表明DBDPE暴露影响草鱼幼鱼肝脏组织的抗氧化防御系统,可以诱导草鱼幼鱼产生氧化应激效应.

  2. 草鱼幼鱼实用日粮中添加紫花苜蓿草粉效果评价%EVALUATION OF DRY CLOVER MEAL AS A FEED PROTEIN RESOURCE IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP.CTENOPHARYNGODON INELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华林; 钟鸣; 冯健; 罗波; 赵海祥

    2011-01-01

    实验旨在评估苜蓿草粉作为草鱼饲料的潜在蛋白原料的可能性.360尾草鱼幼鱼[(8.72±0.34)朗分成6个实验组,每个实验组3个平行组,每组20尾鱼,养殖于250 L循环水族箱中.试验日粮1、2、3、4、5添加2.5%、5%、10%、15%和20%苜蓿草粉,分别占日粮总蛋白的1.75%、3.50%、7.0%、10.5%和14%.对照组日粮以大豆粕、花生粕、棉籽粕和菜籽粕作为对照蛋白源.所有日粮为等蛋白质(粗蛋白28.5%)和等能量(15.92 mJ/kg).实验期为56d,实验各组鱼在整个试验期间,没有出现死亡.2.5%和5%苜蓿草粉日粮组(试验日粮1、2)鱼较对照组鱼生长性能与饲料效益有所提高,10%组(试验日粮3)与对照组无显著性差异,但15%和20%日粮组(试验日粮4、5)鱼较对照组鱼显著性下降(P<0.05).结果表明,苜蓿草粉在草鱼日粮中适宜添加量为7.8%.最多可以添加到10%.%In order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, the research interest has been directed towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of dried clover (Medicago sativa L.) meal as an alternative protein source for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. A 56d feeding trial was carried out on 6 triplicate groups of 20 fish (8.72±0.34) g in 250 L aquaria connected to a re-circulating system. Five test diets were formulated to contain clover meal at levels of 2.5%,5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the diets or 1.75%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 10.5% and 14.0% of the total plant dietary protein (Diet 1, 2,3, 4 and 5) respectively and one diet acting as a control which included soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources. All diets were isonitrogenous (28.5% crude protein) and isoenergetic (15.92 M J/kg).No mortality was observed during the whole test period. Fish in diets with 2.5% and 5% dry clover meal (Diet I and 2

  3. L-肉碱强化卤虫对草鱼、鳙鱼和鲤鱼开口苗中长链脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of L-carnitine enriched Artemia on medium and long chain fatty acids composition in first feeding larvae of grass carp,bighead carp and common carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella,Aristichysn obilis,Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉珂; 蔺丽丽; 宋丹; 裴怀全; 朱成成; 张东鸣

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究L-肉碱强化卤虫对草鱼、鳙鱼和鲤鱼开口苗中长链脂肪酸组成的影响。【方法】用0(对照,CK),1,100,1 000 mg/L的L-肉碱分别强化卤虫无节幼体(Artemia sp.)12 h,投喂3种鱼开口苗21 d,测定鱼开口苗体内的脂肪酸含量,分析中长链脂肪酸(C14-C24)的组成。【结果】草鱼和鳙鱼开口苗的1和100 mg/L处理组的C18∶2n-6、C18∶3n-3、C20∶4n-6、DHA和EPA含量较对照组显著增加(P<0.05);3种鱼开口苗的1 mg/L处理组的C14-C24脂肪酸总含量、饱和脂肪酸和单不饱和脂肪酸含量较其他3组大多显著降低(P<0.05);草鱼和鳙鱼开口苗的100 mg/L处理组的多不饱和脂肪酸、n-3+n-6族脂肪酸以及DHA+EPA含量较对照组显著升高(P<0.05);L-肉碱强化的卤虫对鲤鱼开口苗多不饱和脂肪酸、n-3+n-6族脂肪酸及DHA+EPA含量没有显著影响(P>0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,以100 mg/L L-肉碱强化卤虫无节幼体投喂鱼开口苗,可显著改善草鱼和鳙鱼开口苗的中长链脂肪酸组成,但对鲤鱼开口苗中长链脂肪酸组成的影响较小。%【Objective】Effects of L-carnitine enriched Artemia on medium and long chain fatty acids composition in first feeding larvae of three freshwater fish were studied.【Method】The experimental larvae were reared in a 50 L tank with stocking density of 40 fish/L at(25±1) ℃ for 21days.The newly hatched Artemia nauplii,enriched with 4 levels(0,1,100,1000 mg/L)of L-carnitine at(25±1) ℃ for 12 h,were used as starter food for rearing larvae.The medium and long chain fatty acids composition(C14-C24)in the experimental larvae were determined by GC and evaluated.【Result】Linoleic acid,linolenic acid,arachidonic acid,EPA and DHA content were significantly(P〈0.05)improved by feeding 1and 100 mg/L L-carnitine enriched nauplii than the control group in the first feeding larvae of grass carp

  4. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  5. 草鱼PRL基因多态性与幼鱼生长性状和肌肉成分的关联分析%Polymorphisms of thePRL gene and their associations with growth traits and flesh components in juvenile grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅建军; 张猛; 沈玉帮; 陈勇; 徐晓雁; 李家乐

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the associations between the polymorphisms of thePRL (prolactin) gene and the growth traits and flesh components of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. Six variable sites with mutation rates exceeding 30% were detected in 10 individuals by sequencing the full length of thePRL gene. These included five single-nucleotide polymorphic loci and one insert mutation (–/CACTCACTA), designated2551G>A,2639G/C,3247A>G,5197T>G, 5897G>A, and3391–/+, respectively. The polymorphisms at the variable sites were examined in 192 juvenileC. idella using allele-specific PCR and genotyping. The associations between the polymorphisms at these loci and the growth traits and flesh components of the fish were analyzed with general linear models. The polymorphisms at three loci (2639G>C,3391–>+, and5197T>G) and one locus (2639G>C) were significantly associated with growth traits and the flesh protein content (P+ were significantly higher than those of individuals with the wild-type genotype (– –)(PC (GC) and5197T>G (TG and GG) were significantly lower than those of individuals with the wild-type genotypes at2639G>C (GG) and5197T>G (TT) (PC had significantly higher flesh protein content than individuals with the other genotypes (GG and GC) (P+ were generally higher than those of individuals with the wild-type genotype (– –). The fat and pro-tein contents of individuals that contained the mutant genotype CC at2639G>C were generally higher than those of individuals with the other genotypes (GG or GC), and the protein contents were significantly different (PA、2639G>C、3247A>G、5197T>G、5897G>A 和3391–>+。利用AS-PCR(allele-specific PCR)和基因分型技术对192尾4月龄草鱼的PRL基因变异位点进行检测;基于一般线性模型对变异位点多态性与草鱼生长性状和肌肉成分进行相关性分析。研究发现,2639G>C、3391–>+和5197T>G对体长和体重具有显著影响(PC对肌肉粗蛋白含量具有显著影响(P+的突变

  6. Molecular markers in Chinese carps and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample consisting of 2 Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp females, 2 Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp males, and 10 interspecific hybrids was analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach. The 10 hybrids were the only surviving specimens of a crossbreeding experiment. The cytological approach, involving the measurement of the largest axis of the erythrocytes, revealed that the parental species were diploid, whereas, among the hybrids, eight individuals were triploid, and two were diploid. Two of the triploid individuals were analyzed cytogenetically and showed 2n = 3X = 72 chromosomes. Using the biochemical and molecular approaches, it was possible to confirm that one of the C. idella specimens was the true mother of the hybrids. Those data also allowed to rule out both males from parenthood. The molecular analyses also indicated the absence of gynogenetic individuals among the hybrids. We discuss the use of a multidisciplinary approach as an efficient tool in the monitoring of aquaculture programs.

  7. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  8. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  9. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  10. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  11. Porovnání přežití, růstu a celkové efektivity chovu u juvenilních ryb amura bílého (Ctenopharyngodon idella) v průběhu přezimování v rybnících a RAS.

    OpenAIRE

    PECHER, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The study compared survival and growth rate in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles in pond and recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) during winter time. The juveniles of grass carp were stocked to 5 tanks and three ponds during 2013 and 2014. In the RAS, the fish were fed by dry pellets and rearing was in constant temperature. In the pond, the temperature and feeding were only natural. In the RAS, the survival rate was significantly higher 97.79 % 0.52 % compared to 10.94 % 11.42 ...

  12. 草鱼呼肠孤病毒JX-0902株的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of grass carp reovirus strain JX-0902

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永奎; 王庆; 曾伟伟; 石存斌; 张超; 陈道印; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    We identified a new strain of reovirus in grass carp from Nanchang city, Jiangxi Province. We collected diseased yearling grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus exhibiting typical hemorrhage symptoms from Nanchang city and observed large numbers of viral cells in ultra-thin sections of the spleen and kidney. The virus had a non-enveloped structure with a diameter of approximately 70 nm, very similar to the characteristics of the grass carp reovirus (GCRV). We isolated samples of the vims by homogenizing the tissue, centrifuging the homogenate, then conducting sterilizing filtration. We were able to replicate the hemorrhaging by artificially infecting grass carp with the purified sample. Artificial infection of grass carp kidney cell line (CIK) revealed no obvious cyto-pathic effects (CPE) after six passages. However, observations under the electron microscope revealed that the virus was propagated in the cytoplasm, and had the same shape as the virus observed in the tissue sections. The newly isolated virus (temporarily named GCRV JX-0902) consisted of 11 segments of dsRNA, a typical characteristic of aquareovirus. There were significant differences in the genome banding pattern of GCRV873 and JX-0902, but no difference between HZ08 and JX-0902. We designed PCR primers based on sequence segment 6 (GQ896337) of GCRV in GenBank to amplify specific bands using JX-0902 cDNA as the template. The amino acid sequence of JX-0902 S6 had 98% and 99% identity with GCRV-HZ08 and GDI08, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the new isolate is a member of the genus of aquareovirus.%收集江西南昌地区患典型草鱼出血病的病鱼组织,进行超薄切片电镜观察,结果显示,在脾、肾样品中发现大量病毒颗粒,病毒无囊膜,近球形,直径约70 nm,形态与已报道的草鱼呼肠孤病毒(grass carp reovirus,GCRV)相似.取病鱼肌肉、内脏研磨,组织液经离心、过滤除菌后进行鱼体人工感染试验和细胞感染实验,结果发现,人

  13. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  14. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Pconserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  15. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  16. Relationship between digestive tract structure and feeding habits in common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp%鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼消化道结构与食性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕冰; 孙中武; 毛天强; 尹洪滨; 王鲁杰

    2011-01-01

    本文通过组织解剖与切片法测量了鲤、草、鲢、鳙的相关生物学参数,系统观察了四种鱼的消化道肌肉层、肠绒毛以及粘液细胞的显微结构及分布特点,探究其与食性的相互关系.结果显示:鲤比肠长1.0,环行肌较纵行肌发达,肠绒毛丰富,粘液细胞均匀分布在整个消化道中;草鱼比肠长2.13,消化道组织结构均一,肌肉壁中纵行肌所占比例高,粘液细胞体积小,分散于整个消化道中,肠绒毛极发达;鲢比肠长8.49,环行肌极发达,粘液细胞集中于消化道前段,肠绒毛由前至后逐渐呈短粗状;鳙比肠长4.58,环行肌极为发达,粘液细胞数量多且均匀地分布于消化道前、中段,肠绒毛较为稀疏短粗,粘液细胞较少.这四种鱼消化道的组织结构特征与各自食性密切相关.%Microstructures of musculi, villus intestinalis, and mucous cells were measured and observed in digestive tracts of common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon ideallus,silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis by paraffin section,and H E and AB staining methods to evaluate the relationship between digestive tract and feeding habits.Results showed that a ratio of intestine length to body length was found to be 1.0 in common carp whose circular smooth muscle was more developed than the longitudinal muscle. There were large quantity of villi in the common carp intestine in which the mucous cells were uniformly distributed. Grass carp had the ratio of intestine length to body length=2.13, and the more developed longitudinal muscle than circular smooth muscle. There were relatively small mucous cells and uniform distribution in the whole digestive tiact with developed villus intestinalis in grass carp. The ratio of intestine length to body length was found to be 8.49 in silver carp which had very developed circular smooth muscle. The mucous cells of silver carp were shown to be mainly distributed in

  17. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier & Valenciennes exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated structural modifications in the branchial architecture of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, chronically exposed to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Static renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine the LC50 of chlorpyrifos to the fish. Physicochemical analysis of water was done using standard methods. To assess the effect of chronic toxicity, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (1.44 μg/L and 2.41 μg/L of chlorpyrifos for 15, 30 and 60 days, after which gills were examined by SEM, which revealed changes in gill ultrastructure. Branchial alterations included distorted secondary lamellae in the form of curling and shortening, erosion in a few primary filaments and a wrinkled and denuded epithelial surface. Excessive mucosal openings (mucoid hyperplasia on the surface were observed in the gills of fish exposed to both concentrations of chlorpyrifos. Alteration in the microridge pattern of pavement cells and cracks on the gill rakers were also observed, and the intensity of the damage was found to be directly related to the toxicant concentration and exposure period. The present study revealed that the assessment of surface morphology can serve as a novel bioindicator of pollution, disease and toxicity.

  18. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  19. Establishment of a model of grass carp hepatocyte steatosis and analysis of lipid metabolism gene expression%草鱼肝细胞脂变模型的建立及脂代谢基因表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢荣华; 梁旭方; 孙君君; 杨峰; 王敏; 李玺洋; 白小丽

    2015-01-01

    为了筛选草鱼肝细胞脂肪变性的最佳诱导剂及浓度,并初步分析脂肪乳剂(lipid emulsions, LE)引起草鱼肝细胞脂肪变性的作用机理,以草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)正常肝细胞为研究对象,建立草鱼脂肪变性肝细胞模型,以含10%胎牛血清的基础培养液为对照组,处理组为含20%脂肪乳剂0.5~2 mL/L和含20%、50%胎牛血清的诱导培养液,孵育草鱼肝细胞48 h 后,定量分析肝细胞内的甘油三酯(TG)含量,观察脂滴积聚情况及肝细胞超微结构的变化,检测细胞培养上清中谷丙转氨酶(alanine transaminase, ALT)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate transaminase, AST)的活性, qRT-PCR技术检测脂代谢关键基因(PPARa、PPARg、SREBP-1c、LPL、Lep和UCP2)的转录水平变化,蛋白质印迹技术检测PPARg、SREBP-1c的蛋白水平变化。结果发现,含1~2 mL/L LE的诱导液组和含20%、50%FBS的诱导液组与对照组相比TG含量均显著上升(P0.05),表明含1~2 mL/L LE的诱导液和含20% FBS的诱导液均可建立草鱼营养性脂肪肝细胞模型。在肝细胞脂变模型中, PPARγ和 LPL 等脂代谢基因的表达量显著升高(P0.05). In the model of grass carp hepatocyte steatosis, expres-sion of PPARgand LPL genes significantly increased(P<0.05), while Lep gene expression decreased sharply (P<0.05). In conclusion, our grass carp hepatocyte steatosis model was established over a short time using 1–2 mL/L LE or 20% FBS. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was closely related to the expression of lipid metabolism genes (PPARs, SREBP-1c, LPL and Lep). This study provides the foundations for developing an animal model to explore nutrient metabolism in fish liver, and also provides an alternative way to uncover the mechanism(s) un-derlying metabolic diseases involving lipids.

  20. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  1. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  2. Effects of farm and commercial inputs on carp polyculture performance: participatory trial in an experimental field station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The carp polyculture production system is the most widely used system by small-scale fish farmers in southern Brazil (States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study was to compare biotechnical and economic parameters between a farm system (FS using farm inputs (chicken manure, maize and grass and a commercial system (CS using commercial inputs (triple super phosphate, ammonium nitrate and balanced food feeding to apparent satiation. The experiment was carried out for 196 days in earthen ponds of 500 m², with three replicates per system. The stocking density was 2,000 fish ha-1, consisting of 35% grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, 30% of mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis, 20% of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis and 15% silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In both systems, a low level of total phosphorus in water (0.06 mg L-1 and in the sediment (4 mg L-1 was observed. Production was significantly increased in the CS (76 kg 500 m(-2196 days-1 than in the FS (43 kg 500 m-2 196 days-1. Costs and revenues were higher in the CS and profits were similar in the two systems. Similar profits do not mean that CS is necessarily more convenient. Advantages and drawbacks for small-scale farmers considering labor, land and availability of money are discussed.

  3. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  4. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  6. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  7. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  8. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  9. Effect of crosslinking method on biological properties of grass carp skin collagen sponges%交联方法对草鱼皮胶原蛋白海绵性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海波; 梁艳萍; 李云雁; 王敏; 方成; 汪海婴

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of crosslinking method on biological properties of grass carp skin collagen sponge was discussed. Collagen was extracted from skin of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and collagen sponge was prepared from this collagen. Then,this collagen sponge was crosslinked with different methods,such as UV, dehydrothermal, EDC/NHS and glutaraldehyde crosslinking processes. At the same time, the biological and mechanical properties of those collagen sponges, including degree of crosslinking, denaturation temperature,tensile strength and enzymatic sensitivity in vitro,were evaluated and compared. Experiment results indicated that the grass carp skin collagen was type I collagen. The degree of crosslinking of different crosslinking methods decreased in the order of glutaraldehyde (72. 0% ) > EDC/ NHS(32. 5% ) > dehydrothermal(29. 9% ) > UV( 15. 6% ). Compared with control collagen sponges,the denaturation temperature (67. 4 ℃), tensile strength ( 125. 6 kPa)and enzymatic sensitivity in vitro of collagen sponges crosslinked by glutaraldehyde were significantly improved ( P < 0. 05 ); EDC/NHS crosslinking could lead to obvious increasing in denaturation enthalpy (6. 86 J/g)and moderate improving on tensile strength (98.6 kPa) and enzymatic sensitivity for collagen sponge ( P < 0. 05). The changes of biological and mechanical properties of collagen sponges after being crosslinked by dehydrothermal and UV crosslinking processes were not notable. The results of FTIR showed that glutaraldehyde crosslinking could improve properties of collagen sponges by forming new covalent bond in triple helix structure of collagen, while EDC/NHS crosslinking do that by forming new hydrogen bonds among collagen molecules. This research shows that glutaraldehyde and EDC/NHS crosslinking could lead to obvious improvement in properties of collagen sponges but the influences on properties of collagen sponges after being crosslinked by dehydrothermal and UV crosslinking

  10. Effect of Tributyltin, Cadmium, and Their Combination on Physiological Responses in Juvenile Grass Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei-Na; Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues. Cadmium-induced stress was suggested by alterations in antioxidant responses (MDA, LPO, and T-AOC) and neurological parameters (AChE, MAO, and NOS). Cadmium also induced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and GSH activity. Compared with the responses among the Cd group, the combination of TBT and Cd not only decreased the level of GSH and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase but also increased the levels of MDA, LPO, AChE, MAO, and NOS. These results suggest that a combination of TBT and Cd could reduce the adverse effects of Cd on Grass Carp. However, the exact mechanisms for the combined effects TBT and Cd on these biomarkers require further investigation. Received September 28, 2015; accepted April 17, 2016. PMID:27484920

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yunfei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yubang; Hu, Moyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Lisen; Lv, Liqun; Li, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens. PMID:27383749

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yunfei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yubang; Hu, Moyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Lisen; Lv, Liqun; Li, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens. PMID:27383749

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; CHEN LiHua; ZHONG Shan; LI Qi; SONG ChaoJun; JIN BoQuan; ZHU ZuoYan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormon.e (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries.Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1 -7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemIstry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  16. Comparative studies on the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Li, De-Shang

    1994-06-01

    Study of the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp by means of experimental ecology showed that the filtering frequency of silver carp was slightly greater than that of bighead carp, but that the latter's suction volume was much greater than the former's so the filtering rate (filtering frequency multiplied by the suction volume) of silver carp was smaller than that of bighead carp. The filtering efficiency of silver carp for phytoplankton was greater than that of bighead carp for them. The removal rates of silver carp for phytoplankton were greater than those of bighead carp, but for zooplankton the former were smaller than the latter. For food particles about 70 μm both removal rates were almost equal. The feeding habits of the two species in natural waters is also discussed in the paper.

  17. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    OpenAIRE

    George, Amy E.; Duane C Chapman

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H . molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked ...

  18. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  19. 穿心莲对草鱼血液吞噬细胞吞噬活性的影响%INFLUENCE OF CREAT (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA)ON THE PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY OF PHAGOCYIES IN GRASS CARP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琳; 陈孝煊; 蔡雪峰

    2001-01-01

    Nomal phagocytic actvity in vitro in grass carp( C tenopharyngodon idellus ) was detemined in test tubes when the fish were fed with feed stuff enriched with the water extract of creat ( Andrographis paniculata). No signific ant difference was noticed between the tested group and the control group in the normal phagocvtic activity of their phagocytes.%利用体外试管法测定摄食穿心莲药饵的草鱼在不同时刻血液吞噬细胞的正常吞噬活性。结果表明,穿心莲水煎剂对草鱼血液吞噬细胞的吞噬活性没有显著性影响(P>0.05)。

  20. Identification and characterization of a constitutively expressed Ctenopharyngodon idella ADAR1 splicing isoform (CiADAR1a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiancheng; Huang, Keyi; Hou, Qunhao; Sun, Zhicheng; Wang, Binhua; Lin, Gang; Li, Dongming; Liu, Yong; Xu, Xiaowen; Hu, Chengyu

    2016-10-01

    As one member of ADAR family, ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1) can convert adenosine to inosine within dsRNA. There are many ADAR1 splicing isoforms in mammals, including an interferon (IFN) inducible ∼150 kD protein (ADAR1-p150) and a constitutively expressed ∼110 kD protein (ADAR1-p110). The structural diversity of ADAR1 splicing isoforms may reflect their multiple functions. ADAR1 splicing isoforms were also found in fish. In our previous study, we have cloned and identified two different grass carp ADAR1 splicing isoforms, i.e. CiADAR1 and CiADAR1-like, both of them are IFN-inducible proteins. In this paper, we identified a novel CiADAR1 splicing isoform gene (named CiADAR1a). CiADAR1a gene contains 15 exons and 14 introns. Its full-length cDNA is comprised of a 5' UTR (359 bp), a 3' UTR (229 bp) and a 2952 bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 983 amino acids with one Z-DNA binding domain, three dsRNA binding motifs and a highly conserved hydrolytic deamination domain. CiADAR1a was constitutively expressed in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells regardless of Poly I:C stimulation by Western blot assay. In normal condition, CiADAR1a was found to be present mainly in the nucleus. After treatment with Poly I:C, it gradually shifted to cytoplasm. To further investigate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of CiADAR1a, we cloned and identified its promoter sequence. The transcriptional start site of CiADAR1a is mapped within the truncated exon 2. CiADAR1a promoter is 1303 bp in length containing 4 IRF-Es. In the present study, we constructed pcDNA3.1 eukaryotic expression vectors with IRF1 and IRF3 and co-transfected them with pGL3-CiADAR1a promoter into CIK cells. The results showed that neither the over-expression of IRF1 or IRF3 nor Poly I:C stimulation significantly impacted CiADAR1a promoter activity in CIK cells. Together, according to the molecular and expression characteristics, subcellular localization and transcriptional

  1. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  2. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  3. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  4. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF CRYOPROTECTIVE MEDIUM BY MODIFYING IT WITH THE COENZYME OF VITAMIN B12 AND PLASMA OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Syrovatka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To increase the percent of the output of the alive spermatozoids of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with the use of modified cryoprotective media. Methodology. Researches are based on theoretical, experimental and laboratory methods. Implementation of them came true inaccordance with the generally accepted methodologies of cryobiology and selection. Findings. On results undertaken studies negative influence is set on the vital indexes of thawing sperm. At application of standard environment that is made with the use of ethylene glycol middle index to the percent of living unfrozen sperm goes down in 1,8 times, in comparing to native sperm and presents 51,87±4,820. To increase the percentage of live sperm output, after cryopreservation procedures we modified the "basic" kioprotektor coenzyme B12 and gibel carp plasma (Carassius auratus gibelio L.. The vitamin B12 coenzyme was used as a stimulator of vital parameters defrosted sperm. Plasma of blood the gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio L. which was subjected to low temperatures, was used as low-toxic connection that is cryoprotective characteristics. At comparison of different cryoprotectants environments preparation with the use of ethylene glycol, coferment of vitamin of В12 and plasma of blood of the Carassius auratus gibelio L., the best result was shown by an environment modified by the coferment of vitamin of В12. Application of this environment diminishes the percent of living spermatozoa in 1,3 times as compared to native sperm. The percent of living sperm in this variant of experiment presented 66,00±7,111. A cryoprotectants environment appeared ineffective plasma of blood of the European carp entered in the complement of that, the middle index of percent of living spermatozoa in this variant presented 58,67±3,721. Thus found that the use cryoprotective solution modified coenzyme B12 to get the optimal result. Originality. Conducted analysis of influence of

  6. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844, and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845 were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50 of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term: common carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1; grass carp: control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (~38% and muscle (~50% of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively. Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon

  7. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  8. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E George

    Full Text Available As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  9. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  10. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  11. Bighead carp - its maturation and ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of intraperitoneal injections of LHRH-a and domperidone (DOM), given singly or in combination at two injections, on oocyte maturation and spawning in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis.

  12. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  13. Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-04-01

    The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

  14. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  15. EFFECTS OF INFUSING TAURINE SOLUTION ON DIGENSTIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS%灌喂牛磺酸对草鱼消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙勇; 罗莉; 幺相姝; 王颖; 刁晓明

    2004-01-01

    采用灌喂方法研究牛磺酸对草鱼肠道和肝胰脏消化酶活性的影响,包括时间梯度试验和浓度梯度试验2部分.结果表明:(1)肠道蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性均在灌喂后2 h达到峰值,肝胰脏蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性分别在2 h和5h达到峰值而脂肪酶活性则随时间延长一直升高;(2)肠道蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活性分别在灌喂浓度为0.8,0.8和1.0 mg/mL时达到峰值,肝胰脏3种消化酶的活性则分别在灌喂浓度为0.2,0.6和0.8 mg/mL时达到峰值.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  17. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  18. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清江; 叶玉珍; 董新红

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  19. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  20. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2) of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gyno- genetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important signifi- cances in both biological evolution and production application.

  1. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  2. Probiotics in carp fish nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje

  3. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chi

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.

  4. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  5. Study of Four Major Chinese Carps with Inter Simple Sequence Repeat(ISSR) Markers in the Middle Reach of Ganjiang River%赣江中游四大家鱼遗传多样性的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建铭; 吴志强; 胡茂林; 曾庆祥

    2011-01-01

    利用ISSR分子标记技术对赣江中游四大家鱼的遗传多样性进行分析,青鱼(Mylopharyngodon piceus)、草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)分别扩增出47、74、55、59个位点,其中多态性位点数分别为33、50、29、30,多态性位点比例分别为70.21%、67.57%、52.73%、51.72%。青鱼的Nei's基因多样性和Shannon信息指数分别为0.2606和0.3846,草鱼为0.2391和0.3560,鲢为0.1858和0.2769,鳙为0.1908和0.2827。结果显示,赣江四大家鱼群体均存在一定的遗传变异空间,其遗传多样性相对较丰富。%The colonial genetic variations in four major chinese carps were analyzed with ISSR, which generated 47 ( black carp) , 74 ( grass carp) , 55 ( silver carp) and 59 ( bighead carp) bands. The number of polymorphie band were 33,50, 29, 30, and the pecerentage of polmoryphism were 70.21%, 67.57%, 52.73%, 51.72%. The index of Nei's gene diversity and Genetic diversity quantified by Shannon Index varied of black carp were 0. 2606 and 0. 3846, grass carp were 0. 2391 and 0. 3560, silver carp were 0. 1858 and 0. 2769, bighead carp were 0. 1908 and 0. 2827. The experiment results showed the heredity and variation space was a little larger in the four major Chinese carps in Xiajiaug reach of Ganjiang River, their colonial genetic diversity were abundant.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Squaliobarbus curriculus (♀) × Ctenopharyngodon idella (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiao-Lin; Liu, Min; Xiao, Tiao-Yi; Xu, Bao-Hong; Su, Jian-Ming

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we reported the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Squaliobarbus curriculus (♀) × Ctenopharyngodon idella (♂), which was obtained by artificial hybridization. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,616 bp, with the base composition of 31.15% A, 25.02% T, 27.66% C, and 16.17% G. It contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of these genes is the same as that found in the teleosts. All the protein initiation codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitogenome of the hybrid of S. curriculus (♀) × C. idella (♂) provides an important data set for the study in genetic mechanism.

  7. Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the extent of arsenic (As) contamination in five common species of freshwater fish (northern snakehead [Channa argus], mandrarin fish [Siniperca chuatsi], largemouth bass [Lepomis macrochirous], bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis] and grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus]) and their associated fish pond sediments collected from 18 freshwater fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The total As concentrations detected in fish muscle and sediment in freshwater ponds around the PRD were 0.05-3.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w. wt) and 8.41-22.76 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt), respectively. In addition, the As content was positively correlated (p carp and bighead carp) and (2) predatory food chain (zooplankton, mud carp and mandarin fish). Significant linear relationships were obtained between log As and δ (15)N. The slope of the regression (-0.066 and -0.078) of the log transformed As concentrations and δ (15)N values, as biomagnifications power, indicated there was no magnification or diminution of As from lower trophic levels (zooplankton) to fish in the aquaculture ponds. Consumption of largemouth bass, northern snakehead and bighead carp might impose health risks of Hong Kong residents consuming these fish to the local population, due to the fact that its cancer risk (CR) value exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels (10(-4)) stipulated by the USEPA. PMID:23247527

  8. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  9. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  10. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  11. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections.

  12. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  13. 草鱼幼鱼对缬氨酸需要量的研究%Research on Dietary Valine Requirement of Juvenile Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉; 王亚哥; 李芹; 汪福保; 陈时; 刘彪; 文华

    2010-01-01

    试验选用体重(9.5±0.3)g的草鱼幼鱼,随机分成6个组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾;以花生仁粕、酪蛋白及明胶为蛋白质源,分别饲喂缬氨酸水平为7.3~22.3 g/kg的6组等氮半精制饲料(粗蛋白质含量为32%),经70 d的生长试验研究其日粮缬氨酸的最适需求量.试验结果表明:日粮缬氨酸水平对草幼鱼的增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率、肌肉RNA/DNA比率、鱼体常规成分组成、消化酶活性、肝胰脏谷草-谷丙转氨酶和谷氨酸脱氢酶活性以及血液学指标都有显著的影响(P<0.05).随日粮缬氨酸水平的增加,增重率,特定生长率、蛋白质效率及肌肉RNA/DNA比率均呈先升后降趋势,均在16.3 g/kg组达到最大值(P<0.05).以增重率、特定生长率、肌肉RNA/DNA比率为基础对饲料缬氨酸水平进行二次回归分析,确定草鱼幼鱼日粮(32%粗蛋白质)缬氨酸适宜需要量分别为15.6、15.1及16.0 g/kg(日粮基础)或48.8、47.2及50.0 g/kg(日粮蛋白质基础).

  14. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  15. A risk analysis of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys sp.) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soes, D.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Matthews, J.; Broeckx, P.B.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Two species of bigheaded carp (silver carp and bighead carp) are known to be invasive species of special concern. To gain insight into the occurrence of the alien bigheaded carp species in the Netherlands, the possibility of them becoming invasive, the possible ecological, economical and social impa

  16. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  17. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R., Jr.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.

    2007-01-01

    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  18. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  19. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  20. Carp's Tongue Swords in Spain, France and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh O'Neill HENCKEN

    2009-01-01

    Professor Almagro in his article on the Huelva hoard has compared swords with carp's tongue points from that find to the well-known sword from Veii. In this connection some comment on carp's tongue points in Italy and their possible connection with the west may be of interest.

  1. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  2. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  3. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  4. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

    2012-10-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone

  5. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  6. In vivo measurement of protein functional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Wang, Zhicheng Zhang, Qinyi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational changes in proteins are fundamental to all biological functions. In protein science, the concept of protein flexibility is widely used to describe protein dynamics and thermodynamic properties that control protein conformational changes. In this study, we show that urea, which has strong sedative potency, can be administered to fish at high concentrations, and that protein functional changes related to anesthesia induction can be measured in vivo. Ctenopharyngodon idellus (the grass carp has two different types of N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, urea-insensitive and urea-sensitive, which are responsible for the heat endurance of fish. The urea-sensitive NMDA receptor showed high protein flexibility, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor showed less flexibility, and the protein that is responsible for ethanol anesthesia showed the lowest flexibility. The results suggest that an increase in protein flexibility underlies the fundamental biophysical mechanisms of volatile general anesthetics.

  7. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  8. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  9. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  10. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  11. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  12. Preliminary Study on Biological Control of Cyclops of Zooplankton in Drinking Water Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅; 崔福义; 林涛; 张立秋

    2004-01-01

    An ecological project called fish biomanipulation, other than the conventional fishery culture technique, was put forward in this paper for the excess propagation control of Cyclops. The control effects on Cyclops of four species of fish were investigated experimentally at stocking density of 30 g per cubic meter of water. The experimental results showed that the food habit of the fish had significant influence on the biological control of Cyclops. The propagation of Cyclops could be controlled effectively and also the water quality was improved simultaneously by stocking the filter-feeding fishes, such as silver carp and bighead carp. Whereas, herbivorous Ctenopharyngodon idellus and omnivorous Cyprinus carpio had no obvious biological effects on controlling the growth of Cyclops and restoring water quality. The results further proved that under condition of proper poly-culture density of silver carp and bighead carp, the number of Cyclops might be controlled at very low level and the eutrophication might be abated by removing the nutrients from water body.

  13. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  14. ABUNDANCE OF FOUR EXOTIC FISH SPECIES CYPRINUS CARPIO, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA, HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS IN THE URPOD BEEL OF GOALPARA DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Choudhury; Puranjit Das; Umesh C.Goswami

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infesta...

  15. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning,Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expression of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用。本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS)。该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2263bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF)1575bp、5'非编码区(UTR)118bp和3'UTR570bp。其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59kD,等电点为7.02。在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3'UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3'UTR AC重复序列相似。序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%。同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357。此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH结合位点。根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群。采用实时荧光定量PCR(Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征。结果显示,草鱼CATmRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低。本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础。%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide.The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus).The gene CAT(GenBank Accession No.FJ560431) was 2 263 base

  16. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  17. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  18. Genetic diversity and selective breeding of red common carps in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. F.; C. H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    China has a very rich genetic diversity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the red common carp plays an important role in Chinese aquaculture and genetic studies. Selective breeding, particularly crossbreeding has been applied successfully to red common carps in China, and the products of these efforts have been in commercial use since the 1970s. However, knowledge of the quantitative and molecular genetics of these carps is limited. Studies were therefore undertaken to: (1) understand the ...

  19. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  20. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Breck, J.T.; Wittmann, M.E.; Cooke, R.M.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Zhu, Z.; Johnson, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonindigenous bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix; hereafter, “Asian carps” [AC]) threaten to invade and disrupt food webs and fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes through their high consumption of plankton. To quantify the potential effects of AC

  1. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  2. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  3. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S; Chapman, Duane C.; Hoff, MIchael H.

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp, black carp, bighead carp, and silver carp are native to Asia, and in North America are referred to as Asian carps. These fishes have been popular aquaculture species for more than a thousand years. After their importation to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, all of these species have escaped confinement. There is concern about the ecological and economic damage consequences of introducing these environmental engineers into North America.

  4. Culture potential of Amblypharyngodon mola with carps in polyculture in farmers' pond of northern regions of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda, M.; Nahid, S.A.A.; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.; Roos, N.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the culture potential of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) along with carps in polyculture systems, an experiment consisted of three treatments each with five replications was conducted for 4 months in two villages of Parbatipur upazilla under Dinajpur district. In the first treatment (SS), catla, rohu, mrigal, grass carp, Thai punti, common carp and a higher density of silver carp (8 per 40m²) were stocked. In the second treatment (SM), stocking density of silver carp was reduced to ...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  6. Influence of Different Salting Methods on the Salting Rate and Physicochemical Property of Grass Carp%不同腌制方式对草鱼腌制速率和理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 吕飞; 丁玉庭

    2012-01-01

    Effects of four different salting methods ( brining B, brining with vinegar BV, dry salting D, vacuum pluse tumbling VP) on the salting rate and the physicochemical changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were studied. To achieve the same NaCl content, VP used the least time. Moisture content and Aw of grass craps treated by D and VP tended to decrease with increasing salting time (p〈0.05). Total weight change ratio tended to decrease when salted by D and VP, while, increasing when salted by B and BV (p〈0.05). When achieved the same NaCl content, different salting methods produced influence on the physicochemical properties of grass carp. The pH and formaldehyde nitrogen of D and VP treated fish tended to increase. The lowest pH and Formaldehyde nitrogen was found in samples treated by BV, while the total titratable acids increased in this samples. BV produced damage to protein as indicated by lower protein solubility and higher MFI (p〈0.05). In conclusion, the physicochemical changes of grass carp muscle during salting were governed by the applied salting method.%研究不同腌制方式(湿腌,醋腌,真空滚揉腌制,干腌)对草鱼腌制速率和理化性质的影响。干腌和真空滚揉腌制草鱼随着腌制时间增加重量不断降低,其Aw和水分含量降低速率快(P〈0.05),湿腌和醋腌草鱼重量随腌制时间的增长而增加(P〈0.05),达到相同含盐量时真空滚揉所需时间最少,不同腌制方式对草鱼理化性质产生了很大影响,醋腌草鱼pH和氨基态氮较低(p〈0.05),总酸较高(p〈0.05),湿腌对蛋白影响最小,其蛋白抽提率最高(P〈0.05),MFI最小(p〈0.05)。

  7. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish. PMID:25087497

  8. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  9. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  10. Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-12-01

    Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (Pbighead carp showed highly significant differences (Pbighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

  11. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  12. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  13. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. PMID:26289832

  14. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  15. Characterization of grass carp spleen transcriptome during GCRV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B H; Zhong, L; Liu, Q L; Xiao, T Y; Su, J M; Chen, K J; Wang, H Q; Dai, Y J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the grass carp hemorrhagic infection pathway and its key-related genes. Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) might cause hemorrhagic disease in grass carps. Healthy grass carp fingerlings (N = 60) were divided into control and infected groups. Fish in the control group were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with 0.6% fish physiological saline; the infected group received 5,000,000 50% tissue culture infective doses of GCRV 873 standard strain, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus strain, ip, in 0.5 mL. Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 was used for transcriptome sequencing, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used to detect complement factors II (C2), III (C3), and V (C5); profibrinolysin (PLG); and coagulation factor II (F2) expression. A total of 2,722,223 reads were detected in the control group, and 2,751,111 in the infected group. Among 11,023 unigenes obtained after transcriptome assembly, 10,021 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis, a collection of databases dealing with genomes and biological pathways, were performed to classify unigenes into functional categories, to understand gene function and identify regulatory pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that C2, C3, C5, PLG, and F2 expression levels were down-regulated, confirming results of pathway-enrichment analysis. This is the first application of high-throughput sequencing technology to investigate the in vivo effects of GCRV, on genes and pathways involved in the immune response to infection in grass carp. PMID:27173223

  16. Histological and immunohistochemical observations on the early development of head kidney in Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼头肾发生组织学与免疫组织化学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雪彬; 常藕琴; 石存斌; 付小哲; 王亚军; 吴淑勤

    2013-01-01

    Histogenesis of the head kidney was examined in the collected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) from 1 to 103 days post hatching(dph).Histological technology was applied to learn the change of the structure of the head kidney and the changes in the distribution of IgM (immunoglobulin M) positive cells and PAS (periodic acid schiff reaction) positive cells in head kidney.The primordium of the head kidney formed at 6 dph.And in the primordium several undifferentiated hemopoietic stem cell spread among the renal tubules which were derived from the protonephridia.Then,the immune cells increased gradually due to the hemopoietic stem cells' differentiation from 7 dph to 16 dph.Between 17 dph and 103 dph,the renal tubules degenerated gradually and the lymph and haematogenous tissues sustained by the reticulo-endothelial system(RES) became the major component of the head kidney.By 65 dph,the head kidney was histologically similar to mature fishes,formed as a lymphoid-adrenergic tissue.Cells producing IgM as lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain.A few PAS positive cells were observed by 7 dph while several IgM positive cells were occasionally first detected at 17 dph.PAS positive cells and IgM positive cells were both increased with age and finally scattered all over the head kidney.In short,the head kidney in grass carp was almost mature histologically by 65 dph;as an immune organ,the development of the head-kidney in juvenile grass carp can be divided into three stages characterized by the Ⅰ-absence of cells involved in immunity,Ⅱ-presence of cells only involved in nonspecific immunity,and Ⅲ-emergence and proliferation of cells involving in both nonspecific and specific immunity.%为研究草鱼头肾的组织发生发育,应用组织学技术,对1 ~ 103 dph(day post hatching)的草鱼头肾进行观察分析,描述了头肾的组织结构变化及免疫球蛋白M(IgM)阳性细胞及过碘酸雪夫氏(PAS)阳性细胞的

  17. 鲤耐低温候选基因CcSCD全长cDNA的克隆及功能预测%Isolation and Characterization of Full Length cDNA Sequence of A Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene Responding to Low Temperature from Common Carp(Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉梅; 徐丽华; 李世国; 唐然; 梁利群

    2012-01-01

    The gene of stearoyl-CoA Desaturase(SCD) as a rate limiting enzyme involved in desaturation of saturated fatty acids plays vital roles in maintaining membrane fluidity and is considered as a key candidate which helps to improve cold tolerance.A SCD cDNA from common carp(Cyprinus carpio)(CcSCD) brain at cooling temperature was characterized and the transcription expression profiles were examined in the common carp exposed to cold(6℃) and warm(23℃) temperatures using real time RT-PCR.A full-length CcSCD cDNA was shown to be comprised of 2618 bp,including an open reading-frame of 975 bp and deduced 324 amino acid residues.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SCD protein sequences of the common carp and grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella) were clustered together,sharing the highest level of similarity(88%).The quantified results showed that under cooling temperature,CcSCD transcripts were significantly up-regulated(P〈0.01),in comparison to transcripts of samples from normal temperature.The findings help to establish a transgene construction and to apply genetic manipulation to identify functions of CcSCD gene of fish during cold response in future.%硬酯酰辅酶A脱氢酶(Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase,SCD)是参与脂肪酸脱氢反应的限速酶和关键酶,此酶编码基因SCD对增加膜磷脂的不饱和脂肪酸成分,提高细胞膜在低温下的流动性发挥重要作用,可能是抗寒过程中的关键基因成员。本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(Rapid Amplifications of cDNAEnds,RACE)克隆了鲤(Cyprinus carpio)脑组织CcSCD基因的全长cDNA序列,采用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测该基因在低温(6℃)和常温(23℃)条件下的转录表达差异,对其蛋白编码序列的结构和功能进行了预测分析。结果显示,CcSCD基因cDNA全长2618bp,包含一个由324个氨基酸残基组成的长度为975bp的阅读框(ORF);蛋白分子进化树显示鲤的SCD和草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

  18. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario : Implications for Land Administration and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marife Ballesteros; Felino Cortez

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  19. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  20. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2013-01-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty ac...

  1. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  2. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits of hybrid bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battonyai I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bigheaded carps and especially silver carp have been considered as an effective biological control for algal blooms, thus were introduced to several countries in the last decades, including Hungary. Our aim was to explore the feeding habits of bigheaded carps in Lake Balaton (Hungary, where the stock consists mainly of hybrids (silver carp × bighead carp. We examined the relationship between filtering apparatus (gill raker morphology and size-distribution of planktonic organisms in the food. We failed to find any significant relationship between gill raker parameters and plankton composition in the filtered material. Bigheaded carps with various types of gill rakers consumed food within the same size-spectrum, independently of the rate of hybridization. However, the linkage between the proportion of different planktonic size classes in the water and in the diet of fish was detectable in case of both phytoplankton and zooplankton consumption, suggesting that the seasonally variable availability of different food items was an important factor in determining the food composition of bigheaded carps. We can deduce that bigheaded carps consume high amounts of zooplankton to meet their energy requirements, and the diet overlap among bigheaded carps and other planktivores may exert negative effects on native fish populations.

  3. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  4. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    G. STEFAN; Cristea, V.; A. MIHALACHE; Grecu, I.; I. VASILEAN; L. SFETCU; Gheorghe, D.; A. DOCAN

    2013-01-01

    The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps) being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995). An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify...

  5. Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen

    2009-05-01

    The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

  6. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    level, respiratory burst assay for radical production measurement and image analysis. The results of this study showed that previous infections gave rise to changes regarding texture quality parameters in fresh fish meat, and were a starting point for use of immune modulators such as ß-glucans. Further......-like process in common carp. In order to reach these objectives, different methods were used such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) in order to measure the expression of immunerelated genes involved in wound healing process, ELISA for specific antibody detection, cortisol assay for measurement of stress...... injection of ß-glucan showed it has a biological effect on skin as well. Once again we observed immunological changes taking place in skin of common carp, with IgM/IgZ immunoglobulin switch-like process. Finally, ß-glucan seems to work in dose-dependent manner, with elevating cortisol level when injected...

  7. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  8. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  9. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  10. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  11. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  12. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  13. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  14. CARPS An integrated proposal and data collection system

    CERN Document Server

    Brister, K

    2002-01-01

    Modern scripting languages and database tools combined provide a new framework for developing beam-line control and data management software. The CARPS system supports data collection by storing low level beam-line control commands in a database and playing these commands back to collect data sets. This system is combined with proposal and data management tools for support of both local and remote users.

  15. Genetic improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeputte, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Common carp was the first domesticated fish species and is now a major species in worldwide aquaculture. Although research has generated a considerable body of knowledge about its genetics, genetic improvement programmes are virtually non-existent in this species and only crossbreeding is used in practice. The main reasons are the inefficiency of methods usually effective in other aquaculture species (monosexing, triploidy), and the bad image of selective breeding which is difficult to implem...

  16. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  17. Bighead carp myosin stability tb heat and frozen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Radičević Tatjana; Raičević Smiljana; Niketić Vesna P.

    2002-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate thermal transitions of bighead carp muscle (Aristichthys nobilis Richardson). Three endothermic peaks were observed in DSC thermograms of fresh muscle. After addition of salt, transition temperatures shifted to lower temperatures. Preheating samples at 70°C caused virtual disappearance of all transition peaks. Low temperature storage (-18°C, for five weeks) caused changes in myosin transitions. The evidence suggests that changes ...

  18. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  19. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  20. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  1. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  2. ABUNDANCE OF FOUR EXOTIC FISH SPECIES CYPRINUS CARPIO, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA, HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS IN THE URPOD BEEL OF GOALPARA DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Choudhury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infestation in the beel was determined through field investigation and catch record from January 2011 to December 2011 in the fish landing centres of the beel. Abundance Index was calculated for the four exotic species from each catch data. A marked seasonal variation of the fish catch of native and exotic fishes was noticed. Among the four exotic species common carp recorded highest catch (4.99% of total catch and bighead recorded lowest (2.84% of total catch.

  3. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  4. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.M.; Wittmann, M.E.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Rutherford, E.S.; Zhang, H.; Mason, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called

  5. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  6. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  7. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  9. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  10. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  11. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved curcian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; LIU Yun; QIN QinBo; CHEN Song; LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; LIU JinHui; ZHANG Chun; LUO KaiKun; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in-dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im-proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo-some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication. PMID:24239097

  13. The identification of additional zebrafish DICP genes reveals haplotype variation and linkage to MHC class I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Nunez, Ivan; Wcisel, Dustin J; Litman, Ronda T; Litman, Gary W; Yoder, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Bony fish encode multiple multi-gene families of membrane receptors that are comprised of immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and are predicted to function in innate immunity. One of these families, the diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing protein (DICP) genes, maps to three chromosomal loci in zebrafish. Most DICPs possess one or two Ig ectodomains and include membrane-bound and secreted forms. Membrane-bound DICPs include putative inhibitory and activating receptors. Recombinant DICP Ig domains bind lipids with varying specificity, a characteristic shared with mammalian CD300 and TREM family members. Numerous DICP transcripts amplified from different lines of zebrafish did not match the zebrafish reference genome sequence suggesting polymorphic and haplotypic variation. The expression of DICPs in three different lines of zebrafish has been characterized employing PCR-based strategies. Certain DICPs exhibit restricted expression in adult tissues whereas others are expressed ubiquitously. Transcripts of a subset of DICPs can be detected during embryonic development suggesting roles in embryonic immunity or other developmental processes. Transcripts representing 11 previously uncharacterized DICP sequences were identified. The assignment of two of these sequences to an unplaced genomic scaffold resulted in the identification of an alternative DICP haplotype that is linked to a MHC class I Z lineage haplotype on zebrafish chromosome 3. The linkage of DICP and MHC class I genes also is observable in the genomes of the related grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) suggesting that this is a shared character with the last common Cyprinidae ancestor. PMID:26801775

  14. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  15. The influence of the structure of the common carp and grass carp population on the growth and cyprinid polyculture production indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSIDA BLLACA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment is done in cultivation plant of cyprinid fish family in Klos, Elbasan, during March 2012-May 2013. Two ponds are used to do the test, each with a surface of 0.3ha. Stocking was done with one year olds. We have applied two structures of ponds population with five species of cyprinid family, the control polyculture and the test polyculture. The analysis of data for grass carp showed that in the control polyculture the "b" intercept value was 2.9778, thus a negative allometric. In the test polyculture the value of this index was b=3.2106 (r = 0.928, thus a positive allometric. In the two polyculture variants applied in this study, the “b” values coefficient in the length-weight relation for “common carp population” resulted to be negative allometric. For the control polyculture the value “b” calculated was 2.6762 (r = 0.981, whereas in the test polyculture this index had the value 2.924 (r = 0.984. The value of this index for the bighead carp grown in control polyculture was 3.0914 (r = 0.978. This number is found in the interval between the isometric value (b = 3.0 and allometric positive values (b>3.0 up to 3.5. For the population of bighead carp grown in test polyculture the value of “b” was 3.3708 (r = 0.987, thus a positive allometric. For the population of silver carp cultivated in control polyculture the “b” value was 3.0554 (r = 0.960, whereas for the silver carp grown in the test polyculture the “b” value was 3.1037 (r = 0.974. The final medium weight of common carp in the test polyculture was 141g greater compared with the polyculture. The difference of medium weight between two variants for bighead carp was 257g, for silver carp 204g and for grass carp 149g, always in favor of the populations included in the test polyculture.

  16. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  17. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  18. Papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, W H

    1992-02-22

    Over a period of two years four ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of one variety in a mixed population of 16 were affected with papillomas of the head and body. In one fish there was a transition of these tumours into a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of the head and posterior gill space, with deep invasion of the underlying bone. One of the fish recovered completely after the sloughing of the papillomas. In view of the progressive nature of the lesions, the condition was presumed to be due to an infectious agent, but transmission electron microscopy failed to reveal any virus particles. PMID:1566540

  19. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  1. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  2. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  3. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  4. Downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Brynildson, Clifford L.

    1951-01-01

    In order to obtain more precise information concerning the downstream movement of recently transformed sea lampreys, a trapping device was operated in the Carp Lake River, Emmet County, Michigan, from October, 1948, to July, 1951.

  5. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  6. CARP: a computer code and albedo data library for use by BREESE, the MORSE albedo package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARP computer code was written to allow processing of DOT angular flux tapes to produce albedo data for use in the MORSE computer code. An albedo data library was produced containing several materials. 3 tables

  7. The dynamics of the plankton for the second summer of carp polyculture with phytoplankton consumer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biologic processes in water are strictly dependent on physical-chemical factors. By maintaining the balances of the environmental factors, it can ensures the micro and macro fauna development with direct implication on breeding and developing the fishy material.The aim of this article was to monitor and register the plankton dynamics in six rearing ponds for the polyculture of carp (Cyprinus carpio with Asian complex species: silver carp (H. molitrix, grass carp (Ct. idella and bighead carp (A. nobilis. The experiment took place in six ponds of C.C.D.P. Nucet, during a period of 120 days.At the end of the experiment one determined that the evolution of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was in a close correlation with both the variation of physical-chemical factors as well as with thetechnology of the fishy material in these ponds.

  8. Herpesviruses detected in papillomatous skin growths of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, R P; Groff, J M; Okihiro, M S; McDowell, T S

    1990-10-01

    Herpesviruses were found associated with epidermal hyperplasia of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in northern California (USA). Papillomas were found principally on the caudal regions of the fish including the fins. The growths occurred most commonly in the fall and winter among populations of captive carp. Infected epidermal cells were characterized by greatly enlarged nuclei depleted of chromatin but with thickened nuclear membranes. Numerous virions were detected in infected cells. Herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cell nucleus had a diameter of 109 nm. Virions with envelopes with a diameter of 157 nm were abundant in cytoplasmic vacuoles. The characteristics of the papillomatous growths and the viruses were consistent with descriptions of Herpesvirus cyprini known in koi carp populations in Japan and extends the range of this pathogen to koi carp to North America. PMID:2174469

  9. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  10. Identification and expression profile of Id1 in bighead carp in response to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Hao, Le; Li, Guangyu; Xiong, Qian

    2012-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin produced in algal blooms, and has potent hepatotoxicity and tumor-promoting activity. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Id1 in bighead carp. The full-length Id1 cDNA was 954bp and contained a 387bp ORF. Bighead carp Id1 shared high identity with zebrafish Id1 amino acid sequence, and phylogenetic analysis showed that teleost Id1 evolved closely. Bighead carp Id1 constitutively expressed in all tested tissues in normal. When tested at two different time points post exposure and at 3 different MCLR doses, Id1 expression increased in a time-dependent pattern, and Id1 expression in brain was very sensitive to MCLR exposure. The present study will help us to understand more about the evolution of Id1 molecule and its role in the MCLR induced cell differentiation and cancer promoting in bighead carp. PMID:22683524

  11. FEEDING AND GROWHT OF CARP YEARLINGS AT THE DIRECTIONAL FORMATION OF NATURAL FOOD BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and growth of carp yearlings in nursery ponds of the experimental farm “Nyvka” at the directional formation of natural food base have been studied. It was found that application of methods of directional formation of natural food base, including fertilization of nursery ponds with different organic fertilizers, resulted in supplying juvenile carp with natural food. The content of live feed objects (zooplankton, zoobenthos in carp gut in the experiment was 48.3?50.4% versus 32.6% in the control. Survival of carp yearlings from stocked non?grown larvae was higher in the experiment and composed 31.5 - 48.6% versus 21.0 in the control; fish productivity was 326.0 - 736.3 kg/ha and 232.1 kg/ha, respectively.

  12. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  13. Quantitative trait loci for morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yang, G; Zhou, G

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) including body weight (BW), standard length (SL), body depth (BD), body thickness (BT), head length (HL), head depth (HD), length of ventral keel (LVK), length of pectoral fin (Lpec), length of pelvic fin (Lpel), length of caudal fin (Lcau) and space between pectoral and pelvic fins (SPP) were located on the sex average microsatellite linkage map constructed using the hybrids of a female bighead and a male silver carp, on which 15 microsatellites were newly mapped. One locus was found to be responsible for BW, LV K and SPP, respectively. As many as 6 loci were found to be responsible for HD. The variances of remaining traits were partitioned by different numbers of loci varying between 2 and 5. The variance explained each locus ranged from 9.1% to 23.8% of the total. The variance explained by all loci responsible for each measurement ranged from 17.7% to 75.1%. It was noted that multiple measurements were mapped on the same locus. For example, a region bounded by Hym435 and Hym145 was found to be responsible for all the measurements analyzed. PMID:23739886

  14. SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES OF TWO-YEAR OLD CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out in three variants of experimental fish ponds in which different technologies were applied (l - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; II - fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; III - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with pellets containing 20% of protein. Carp was reared under conditions of policulture with total stock density 3250 ind. ha-1 (2500 ind•ha-1 carp 250 ind•ha-1 silver carp, 250 ind•ha-1 bighead and 250 ind•ha-1 grass carp. Average weights of fishes were from 29 to 77 g. The values of some hematological and biochemical indices of carp were estimated (hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCHC, total protein and total lipids. The mean value of concentration of hemoglobin was 111,80±18,38 gl-1 (variant I; 121,60±15,86 gl-1 (variant II and 122,00±15,61 gl-1 (variant III. Hematocrit value was 0,25±0,03 L˙L-1 0,30±0,03 L˙L-1 0,28±0,02 L˙L-1, and MCHC 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,25±0,01 L˙L-1 resp. The concentration of total protein in blood plasma of carp was 27,00±0,32 g˙L-1 (variant 1, 32,00±0,52 g˙L-1 (variant II and 34,00±1,02 g˙L-1 (variant III. The concentration oftotallipids was 10,1O±0,29 g˙L-1,11,20±1,60 g˙L-1 and 1l,20±1,60 g˙L-1 resp. The differences between means values of these indices found in carp of different variants were significant (P>0.05 only for values of total protein (table 3 in variant III where carp was fed with protein of animal origin.

  15. Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

    2011-06-01

    The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder.

  16. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  17. Invasive SIlver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Protein Hydrolysates- A Potential Source of Natural Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Malaypally, Sravanthi Priya

    2013-01-01

    Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), continue to spread over the Mississippi River causing a great concern for the river ecosystem due to their impact on native fish species. To minimize the negative effects of silver carp, many strategies were implemented including using it for animal feed, as fertilizers or simply discarding them into waste. However, these fish are high in protein content, making them excellent starting material for protein-derived by-products. One alternativ...

  18. Culture of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in polyculture with carps: experience from a field trial in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, N.; Islam, M. M.; Thilsted, S.H.; Ashrafuddin, M.; Mursheduzzaman, M.; Mohsin, D.M.; Shamsuddin, A.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out during May 1997 to January 1998 in Kishoregani district in Bangladesh to investigate the production potential of carp polyculture in combination with Amblypharyngodon mola in seasonal ponds. The preliminary results indicate that A. mola can be successfully cultured in small seasonal ponds in polyculture with carp. This practice can result in an increase in the households' consumption of small fish which have a very high content of calcium, iron and vitamin A. In addit...

  19. Effect of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola Ham.) on the growth and production of carps in polyculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kohinoor, A.H.M.; Islam, M.L; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of introduction of mola (Amblypharyngodon mala) in polyculture with rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) was studied in semi-intensive culture system in the pond complex of the Fisheries Faculty, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Mala, a small indigenous fish was found to exert a negative impact on growth and production of carps. After four months' rearing, significant difference (P

  20. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  1. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van, J.; Haenen, O. L. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (murine) macrophages. Following i.p. injection of carp with liposomes alone, but not with Trypanoplasma borreli, neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly migrated from the head kidney to the peritoneal cavity...

  2. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  3. Comparative study on muscle nutritional composition of juvenile bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) fed live feed

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, Pei-Song; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Yu-Ting; Gu, Qian-Hong; Xiong, Bang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The contents of the proximate composition of amino acids and fatty acids in the muscle of juvenile bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) that were fed with live feed for 60 days were assessed in this investigation. The moisture, crude protein, and crude ash contents of bighead carp muscle were slightly higher than those of paddlefish (P > 0.05). The crude fat content of paddlefish muscle was significantly higher than that of bighead carp (P < 0.01). Seve...

  4. Isozyme Analysis of Jin Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Var Jin)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang YANG; Jun HAO; Di BAO; Aijun LIANG; Wankun JIN; Chongwen LI; Xinghua ZHANG; Shi DONG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to carry out isozyme analysis of jin silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys mofitrix Var Jing). [Method] The isozyme of AAT, EST, cc-GPD, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and PROT of muscles and liver in two populations of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Jin silver carp (a breed through se- lective breeding) and artificially propagated population bought from Jingzhou city, Hubei Province were examined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. [Result] Eigh- teen loci were observed in two populations. Two loci of GPI and PGM in Jing sil- ver carp population and the locus of GPI in Jingzhou population were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci (maximum allele frequency-〈0.99) of Jing silver carp and Jingzhou populations were 11.11% and 5.56% respectively, expected het- erozygosity were 0.015 0 and 0.001 1 respectively. The Nei's genetic distances were 0.000 59 between two populations. The result of chi-square test of the GPI gene in two populations showed that their genetic structure has very significant dif- ference. [Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for large-scale extension of Jing silver carp.

  5. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-02-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty acid composition of farmed bighead carp varied significantly with seasons and tissues. The highest lipid content was determined in viscera while the highest EPA and DHA composition were observed in muscle compared to the other tissues. Significantly higher ΣEPA+DHA (%) was recorded in all tissues in summer (June) when compared with those of the other three seasons (p bighead carp caught in summer could better balance the n-3 PUFA needs of consumers. The byproducts of bighead carp can be utilized for the production of fish oil. PMID:25694699

  6. Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

    2013-09-01

    We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

  7. Herpesvirus-associated papillomas in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, P P; McNamara, T; Kress, Y

    1999-03-01

    From January through November 1994, 32% (7/22) of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) maintained in indoor aquariums developed proliferative cutaneous lesions that consisted of single to multiple 2-10-mm whitish to pink fleshy masses usually associated with fin rays. Although scaleless koi were more commonly affected (3/6) than were normally scaled koi (4/16), the difference in incidence rates was not significant (chi2 text, P > 0.05). Lesions typically resolved spontaneously in 1-3 wk, occasionally persisted for >3 mo, and recurred in several fish after 2-5 mo. Fish were otherwise asymptomatic. Wet mount preparations from lesions were densely cellular and consisted of hyperplastic epidermal cells of normal morphology without parasites or inflammatory cells. Histologically, biopsies were consistent with papillomas and were characterized by a marked benign epidermal hyperplasia without inclusion bodies or inflammatory infiltrate. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic herpesvirus virions. Virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful. PMID:10367660

  8. Development and sterilization of instant flavor grass carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instant food of flavor grass carp was developed by curing, drying, flavoring, packaging in vacuum, and sterilizing. The influences of high temperature and high pressure sterilization and irradiation sterilization on texture, color, contents of hydrolyzed amino acid, and microorganism counts of product were studied The quality of fish fillets that were cured by 2% (weight fraction) salt for 3 h, and then dried at 50℃ for 24 h, turned to be the best. Compared with those sterilized by high temperature and high pressure, products by irradiation possessed higher L* value and Hunter whiteness. but lower a* and b* value. The products sterilized by irradiation were preferable in hardness and chewiness After sterilization, the contents of hydrolyzed amino acid increase, but the difference is not significant, and the microorganism counts are less than 10 cfu·g-1. (authors)

  9. The effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Zataria multiflora extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen silver carp minced

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim Dezhban, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study, Evaluation the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris extracts on the stability of poly unsaturated fatty acids in frozen Silver carp minced. Treatments include: Treatment 1 - Control: frozen meat packaged in conventional Treatment 2: Frozen Silver carp minced+Thyme 300 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 3: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary 200 mg/kg in normal packaging Treatment 4: Frozen Silver carp minced+Rosemary compound (100...

  10. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  11. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  12. 主养草鱼高密度池塘溶氧收支平衡的研究%THE BUDGET OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN HIGH DENSITY PONDS MAINLY STOCKED WITH CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚望宝; 余德光; 王广军; 谢骏; 张敬旺; 李志斐; 郁二蒙; 王海英

    2013-01-01

    To increase the efficiency of dissolved oxygen (DO) management in high density ponds mainly stocked with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the present research aimed to characterize the budget of dissolved oxygen in nine fish ponds in Zhongshan, Guangdong province, China. The water depth was 1.5-2.0 m. Photosynthesis of phytoplank-ton and water respiration rate (WR) were determined by the clear and dark bottles method. The sediment respiration rate (SR) was measured by in situ respirometry. The fish respiration rate was determined by the respiratory chamber method. The mechanical aeration was calculated by predicting models. Atmosphere diffusion was estimated by the subtraction method. The results showed the gross oxygen production (GOP) of photosynthesis showed a decreasing trend as the water depth increased, and the value in the bottom was negative, which was the common oxygen debt phenomenon. There was no significant difference between the WR under the surface, middle layer and bottom (P>0.05). The GOP of photosynthesis in the surface was significantly higher than the WR (PO.05), but the GOP of photosynthesis was significantly lower than the WR both in the middle layer and in the bottom (PO.05). The photosynthesis of phytoplankton and the mechanical aeration were the main contributors to the total oxygen production in high density ponds mainly stocked with C. idella, which accounted for 44.7% and 42.3% of the total oxygen production, respectively, but the contribution of atmosphere diffusion was the lowest and accounted for 13.0%. Among the oxygen consuming factors, the WR was the largest oxygen consumer, which accounted for 45.9% of the total oxygen consumption of water column, followed by fish respiration rate which accounted for 45.0% of the total oxygen consumption, and the proportion of SR was the lowest which accounted for 9.1%.%采用原位生态学的方法测定广东省中山市9口主养草鱼高密度池塘中浮游植物光合作用产氧量、

  13. A tale of four "carp": invasion potential and ecological niche modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C DeVaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM. These "carp" represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established, and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%; invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively. Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%, but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential

  14. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  15. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada. PMID:17958610

  16. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  17. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  18. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  19. Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Hamsa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5, of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion

  20. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLANKTONIC CLADOCERAN DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FRY FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  1. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  2. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  3. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp.

  4. Evaluation of Production Potentiality of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp in Yuehai Lake and Its Verification by Enclosure Experiment%阅海湖鲢、鳙生产潜力评估和围隔试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白维东; 亢小云; 祝卫东; 杨锐; 廖春娟

    2012-01-01

    使用分区围隔,梯度养殖鲢、鳙鱼的研究方法,验证阅海湖鲢、鳙鱼的实际生产潜力,结果表明:阅海湖鲢、鳙鱼产量潜力理论估算为363.83 kg/hm2。围隔试验验证结果表明:在投放140 kg/hm2密度下鲢、鳙鱼生长良好,试验生产力236.5kg/hm2;综合考虑阅海湖实际水环境状况和试验局限,阅海湖平均鲢、鳙鱼产力定为280~300 kg/hm2较合适,低于理论估算量;全湖鲢、鳙最大生潜力为336~360 t;共需投放13 cm以上的鲢、鳙鱼种110万尾,投放比例鲢:鳙=1.4:1。%The actual productivity potentiality of silver carp and bighead carp were verified using the approaches of partitioning enclosure and gradient culture.The result shows that the theoretical evaluation of the potential yield of silver carp and bighead carp in Yuehai Lake was 363.83 kg/hm2 The result of verification of enclosure experiment shows that the growth of silver carp and bighead carp was good under the throw-in density of 140 kg/hm2 and the experimental yield was 236.5 kg/hm2.Considering the comprehensive water environment of Yuehai Lake and the limitation of the experiment,the average yield of silver carp and bighead carp in Yuehai Lake should be decided appropriately as 280~300 kg/hm2 and it is lower than that of theoretical evaluation.The highest potential output of silver carp and bighead carp of the whole lake is 336-360 ton.All together 110 million fingerling of silver carp and bighead carp longer than 13 cm should be thrown in and the throw-in proportion should be that silver carp︰bighead carp =1.4︰1.

  5. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  6. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  7. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  8. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  9. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  10. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available.

  11. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  12. A second-generation genetic linkage map for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Tong, J; Yu, X; Guo, W; Wang, X; Liu, H; Feng, X; Sun, Y; Liu, L; Fu, B

    2014-10-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. Genetic linkage maps for the species were previously reported, but map resolution remained to be improved. In this study, a second-generation genetic linkage map was constructed for bighead carp through a pseudo-testcross strategy using interspecific hybrids between bighead carp and silver carp. Of the 754 microsatellites genotyped in two interspecific mapping families (with 77 progenies for each family), 659 markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups, which were equal to the chromosome numbers of the haploid genome. The consensus map spanned 1917.3 cM covering 92.8% of the estimated bighead carp genome with an average marker interval of 2.9 cM. The length of linkage groups ranged from 52.2 to 133.5 cM with an average of 79.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group varied from 11 to 55 with an average of 27.5 per linkage group. Normality tests on interval distances of the map showed a non-normal marker distribution; however, significant correlation was found between the length of linkage group and the number of markers below the 0.01 significance level (two-tailed). The length of the female map was 1.12 times that of the male map, and the average recombination ratio of female to male was 1.10:1. Visual inspection showed that distorted markers gathered in some linkage groups and in certain regions of the male and female maps. This well-defined genetic linkage map will provide a basic framework for further genome mapping of quantitative traits, comparative mapping and marker-assisted breeding in bighead carp. PMID:25040196

  13. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  14. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. ALAM; M. A. KHAN; M. A. HUSSAIN; D. MOUMITA; A. G. MAZLAN; K. D. SIMON

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp,Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh.However,its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality.The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H.molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City,Bangladesh.Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus,Dactylogyrus vastator,Ichthyophthirius multifilis,Gyrodactylus elegans,Lernaea sp.,Apiosoma sp.,Myxobolus rohitae,Camallanus ophiocephali,and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill,skin,stomach,and intestine of host fish.The highest level of infection was observed for host skin,while lower levels were observed for host gill,stomach,and intestine.The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H.molitrix varied with the season.In particular,the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February),when fish are most susceptible to parasites.The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H.molitrix.

  15. Effects of co-cultured fish species combination and formulated feed supplement on phytoplankton community in the enclosures with inte-grated culture of freshwater pearl mussel and fishes%不同鱼类混养组合与饲喂方式对鱼蚌综合养殖水体浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金玉; 王岩; 戴杨鑫; 李由明

    2014-01-01

    利用三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)、草鱼(Ctenoparyngodon idellus)、银鲫(Carassius gibelio)、鲢(Hypopthalmic-hthys molitrix)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)构建鱼蚌综合养殖系统,通过155 d围隔(面积32 m2)实验检验两种鱼类组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙或鲢+鳙)和两种饲喂方式(投喂或不投喂配合饲料)对浮游植物群落结构的影响。采用2×2设计,设4个处理: GISB-F(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)、GISB-NF(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)、SB-F(鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)和SB-NF(鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)。每个围隔内三角帆蚌、草鱼、鲫、鲢和鳙的放养量分别为20、15、5、5和5 ind。结果表明,各处理围隔内浮游植物生物量平均值为3.7×108~6.0×108 cell·L–1。改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式对浮游植物种类组成、优势种优势度、群落多样性、生物量以及浮游植物生物量中蓝藻的比例无显著影响,但投喂配合饲料导致叶绿素 a 增加。浮游植物实验前期主要优势种为十字藻属(Crucigenia)和栅藻属(Scenedesmus)种类,后期为平裂藻属(Merismopedia)和微囊藻属(Microcyslis)种类,表明浮游植物群落演变具有明显的季节性特点以及优势种逐渐演化为蓝藻的规律。水温、氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数对浮游植物群落结构具有显著影响。各处理围隔内氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数均随时间延长而增加,说明改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式不会影响围隔内蓝藻水华发生的趋势。%A 155-day enclosure experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of co-cultured fish species combina-tion (either the combination of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, gibel carp Carassius gibelio, silver carp Hypoph-thalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis or the combination of silver carp and bighead carp) and formulated feed supplement regime (with or without feed supplement) on phytoplankton community in

  16. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES INTENSIFICATION OF GROWTH ON LYUBINSKY SCALED CARP TRIBAL FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore effect of environmental conditions, the level of development of natural food base and feeding of cultivated fodder zooplankton on tribal fingerlings Lyubinsky scaly carp growth. Methodology. The development of natural food base of nursery ponds stimulated bymaking compost from cattle at 4 t/ha and the introduction of the mother culture of Daphnia magna at 2 kg/ha. In the experimental pond in July was introduced of 60 kg/ha of zooplankton caught in the pond-cultivator which is based on daphnia magna, also in this pond Daphnia magna cultured in corf of nylon sieve, allowing fingerlings carp in July – August, was suckled by 5 kg/ha of water fleas. the growth of carp fingerlings were determined by regular check-caughting and analyzed, taking into account environmental conditions, availability of natural food and feeding characteristics. Findings. Prior to the beginning feeding carp fingerlings of average daily increments were higher by 10 % under the best of natural food base pond. In July, when feeding carp fry feed cereal, the introduction of zooplankton contributed to their highest intensity on 46,8 – 88,4 % growth, while the average daily growth rates ranged between 0,4 – 1,0 g. In August, average daily growth decreased from 0,44 – 0,57 g in the first decade to 0,17 g in the third decade. For unstable oxygen regime, which was observed when the temperature of the water and the accumulation of organic matter, the rate of growth of fingerlings decreased. Originality. First studied the growth rate of breeding fingerlings carp provided they are feeding zooplankton, as well as, the influence of environmental factors, the state of development of natural food base and feed composition on the growth of of fingerlings. Found that under favorable environmental conditions, feeding carp fingerlings on zooplankton in the amount of 2 kg/ha/day when feeding grain feed increases the absolute daily gain on 46,8 – 88,4 %, and the

  17. Study on the Technologic Optimization for Hydrolysis of Silver carp By-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu-hong; KONG Bao-hua; ZHANG Li-gang

    2005-01-01

    The hydrolysis process for Silver carp by-products was studied. Protein hydrolysate was prepared with proteolytic enzyme, Alcalase. Hydrolysis conditions were optimized by the regression model of three factors five levels quadratic rotation perpendicular regressive design. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of hydrolyzing the protein of Silver carp by-products were determined to be concentration of enzyme (E/S) 3.33%, pH 8.54, hydrolyzing temperature 58 ℃, reaction time 90 min, concentration of substrate 8%. Nitrogen recovery was more than 75%.

  18. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  19. Effect of Nitrobenzene on the Embryo Development of Bighead and Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jingjie; GUAN Qingzhi; CHEN Weixing; ZHU Lei; FAN Zhaoting

    2008-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on the mortality and abnormality rate of bighead and silver carp embryos were studied to provide reference for the evaluation of the effect of nitrobenzene to aquatic organisms and aquatic environment.The results showed that the development of bighead and silver carp embryos was delayed, the mortality and abnormality rates were raised when the embryos were treated with ≥0.010 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,and with ≥0.085 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,the mortality rates showed 100%.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  1. Mercury biomagnification in the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Liang, Peng; Shao, Ding-Ding; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2011-10-01

    This is the first study to investigate the rate of mercury (Hg) biomagnification in the aquaculture pond ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in various species of fish at different trophic levels (TLs). Species representing a gradient of trophic positions in the aquaculture pond food chains were chosen for analyzing THg and MeHg concentrations. In this study, there were two kinds of the aquaculture pond food chains: (1) omnivorous (fish feeds, zooplankton, grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus], and bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis]) and (2) predatory (zooplankton, mud carp [Cirrhina molitorella], and mandarin fish [Siniperca kneri]). Bighead carp and mandarin fish had the highest MeHg and THg concentrations, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than other species, in their respective food chains. More than 90% of the THg concentrations detected in bighead carp, mandarin fish, and mud carp were in the methylated form. In this study, %MeHg increased with TLs and MeHg concentrations, reflecting that MeHg is the dominant chemical species of Hg accumulated in higher concentrations in biota, especially biota associated with higher TLs in the food chains. The trophic magnification factors were 2.32 and 2.60 for MeHg and 1.94 and 2.03 for THg in omnivorous and predatory food chains, respectively, in PRD. Hg concentrations in fish tissue correlated to Hg levels in the ambient environment, and sediment seemed to be the major source for Hg accumulated in fish. In addition, feeding habit also affected Hg accumulation in different fish species. Four significant linear relationships were obtained between log-THg and δ(15)N and between log-MeHg and δ(15)N. The slope of the regression equations, as biomagnification power, was smaller in magnitude compared with those reported for temperate and arctic marine and freshwater ecosystems, indicating that THg and MeHg biomagnifications were lower in

  2. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  3. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  4. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  5. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits in filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Vitál

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (H. molitrix are freshwater planktivorous fish originated from Eastern Asia, which were introduced all over the world. Previous studies suggested that bighead carp with comb-like gill rakers feeds mainly on zooplankters, while silver carp with sponge-like filtering apparatus filters smaller particles and the majority of its diet is composed of phytoplankton. In Lake Balaton, however, the Asian carp stock is formed by the hybrids of these two species, whose filtering apparatus varies within the whole range from comb-like to spongious structures. Since there is no information on how hybridization affects the feeding efficiency of Asian carps, we analysed the relationship between gill raker morphology and food size-distribution in hybrid Asian carps, in Lake Balaton. Filtering apparatus of each sampled fish (n=26 was characterized by two morphological indexes, assumed to be indicative of feeding efficiency. First, the effective area of the filtering apparatus was measured relative to the respiration organ; the width of the gill raker relative to the width of the gill-filaments was determined at the centre of the gill-arch. Second, density of pores on the outer surface of the spongy gill raker areas was counted, while zero scores were given to comb-like areas. Feeding of fish was determined from the filtrate suspension collected directly from the inner surface of gill rakers. Diet items were identified, counted and classified into three phyto- (> 40 μm, 40−10 μm, 1.3 mm, 1.3−0.4 mm, < 0.4 mm size groups. Contrary to our expectations, no significant relationship was found between the gill raker morphology and phyto- and zooplantonic food size distribution in hybrid Asian carps. Thus, the Asian carp stock, consisting of hybrids with variously mixed phenotypes, consumes similar food, but seasonality has a significant impact on their diet.

  6. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  7. PCR AMPLIFICATION, SEQUENCING AND ANALYSIS OF 18S rDNA OF BALANTIDIUM CTENOPHARYNGODONI INHABITING GRASS CARP%鲩肠袋虫18S rDNA的扩增、测序与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 王崇; 汪建国; 喻达辉; 王文博; 戈贤平; 徐跑; 谢骏; 龚小宁

    2011-01-01

    研究测定了寄生于草鱼肠道的鲩肠袋虫的18S rDNA序列.鲩肠袋虫的18S rDNA基因序列包括1638个碱基.分别用3种分析方法(邻接法、最大简约法、贝叶斯法)构建了毛口亚纲的系统发育树,得到结果如下:均支持毛口亚纲为单系发生且内分前庭目、内毛目和澳大利亚枝3个类群(100%Bay、100%MP、100%NJ);均支持内毛目(100%Bay、98%MP、93%NJ)、澳大利亚枝(100%Bay、97%MP、99%NJ)的单系性和前庭目的并系性.3种构树方法都支持鲩肠袋虫与澳大利亚枝聚类(100%Bay、100%MP、100%NJ),而后与"内毛目+前庭目(部分)"构成姊妹群(100%Bay、85%MP、72%NJ);而结肠小袋纤毛虫与"澳大利亚枝+鲩肠袋虫"以及"内毛目+前庭目(部分)"分枝并列,共同构成毛口亚纲(100%Bay、100%MP、100%NJ).这暗示了肠袋虫类群在系统发育上的并系性和其分类阶元的提升.%Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni, an obligatory intestinal symbiont and possibly opportunistic parasite of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), was first discovered and named by Chen (1955). It mainly inhabits the cream-like luminal contents and spaces between mucosal folds of the hindgut. In the present study, twenty two or three-summer grass carp were bought from Wuhan Fruit-Lake Market in March 2009 and transported alive to the laboratory for further examination. All fish samples were dissected and the intestines were cut to collect the luminal contents into Petri dishes for examination. Then 0.65% saline solution was added to the contents and waited for a few minutes to allow B. ctenopharyngodoni swim free of luminal contents. The ciliates were collected with Pasteur micropipette and washed twice in distilled water. The parasite gDNA was isolated by proteinase K digestion overnight at 37℃, followed by phenol-chloroform protein extraction and ethanol precipitation. Its 18S rDNA was then sequenced, which contains 1638 base pairs. Phylogenetic trees were also constructed

  8. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    in this study to incorporate seaweed as one of the ingredients in pelleted feed and to evaluate the efficacy of the feeds on the growth of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.). The main objective of this study was mainly to produce cost effective, cheap..., and efficient feed for a better growth of carps. Since foraging carps readily accept artificial pelleted feeds under any culture conditions, Catla catla belonging to the same group was selected to study the performance of feed developed in his study...

  9. Dramatic increase of nitrite levels in hearts of anoxia-exposed crucian carp supporting a role in cardioprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2012-01-01

    anoxia-tolerance of this fish by measuring NO metabolites in normoxic, anoxic and reoxygenated crucian carp. We also cloned and sequenced crucian carp NO synthase variants and quantified their mRNA levels in several tissues in normoxia and anoxia. Despite falling levels of blood plasma nitrite, the....... We conclude that nitrite is shifted into the tissues where it acts as NO donor during anoxia, inducing cytoprotection under anoxia/reoxygenation. This can be especially important in the crucian carp heart, which maintains output in anoxia. Nitrite is currently tested as a therapeutic drug against...

  10. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  11. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  12. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleu

  13. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ont

  14. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dasgupta; D Basu; L Ravi Kumar; S Bhattacharya

    2001-09-01

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte migrated towards the animal pole, reached the micropyle and then dissolved (GVBD). By using different concentrations of insulin i.e., 0.063, 0.63, 6.3 and 12.6 M, optimum amount required was found to be 6.3 M. Induction of GVBD by insulin could be blocked by cycloheximide (Chx), a translation inhibitor, while actinomycin D (AcD) had no effect suggesting non-involvement of transcriptional activity in this process. Addition of the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) stimulated ( < 0.01) GVBD of carp oocytes and its combination with insulin showed an additive effect. Gonadotropin (GtH) caused GVBD but its effect was greatly augmented by insulin. Our results demonstrate that not only can insulin alone induce GVBD in carp oocytes, but it also augments the stimulatory effect of DHP or IGF-I or GtH on GVBD. This information will be important in hormonal manipulation during induced breeding of carp.

  15. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  16. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  17. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  18. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  19. Differential transcription of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onara, D.F.; Forlenza, M.; Gonzalez, S.F.; Rakus, K.L.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and

  20. THERMAL AND OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN CARP PONDS DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśnios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presents changes of oxygen indices in carp ponds during the summer season. The basis of the research were regular water tests conducted in two ponds: Mydlniki II intended for carp farming in the second year of fish production cycle and Bocian used for carp farming in the third (final year of breeding. The temperature of pond water in July and August was optimal for development and farming of cyprinid fish and ranged from 16.6 to 30.5 °C. The lowest value of oxygen dissolved in water (6.4 mg·dm-3 was registered in Mydlniki II pond and was higher than the oxygen optimum for carp (5 mg·dm-3. Oxygen saturation in water of fish ponds exceeded the optimum upper limit value (168% on a few dates, however, it posed no lethal threat for fish. In August in Bocian pond oxygen saturation fell within the range of optimal values, creating better conditions for fish development. In the secondary pond (Mydlniki II it was found that oxygen saturation in water on 12 dates was lower than the low optimal value (96%.

  1. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  2. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  3. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  4. Characterization of the stress response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe interrenal hyperplasia in a teleost fish, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, caused by 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Two homozygous, XX male inbred strains, “E5” and “E7”, consistently show 5-10 fold less plasma cortisol in response to net confinement compared to normal mal

  5. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BIGHEAD CARP ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS (RICHARDSON IN MONOCULTURE SYSTEM WITH AND WITHOUT SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AFZAL, A. RAB, N. AKHTAR, I. AHMED1, M. F. KHAN AND M. QAYYUM2

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis in monoculture system with and withoutsupplementary feeding indicated that supplementary feeding played an important role in better growth ofbighead carp. The average initial weight of bighead carp at the time of stocking was 11.40 ± 3.25g and finalweight of 902.00 ± 4.63g was recorded after 12 months of experiment using organic (cow dung andinorganic (urea and single super phosphate fertilizers. The average initial weight at the time of stocking ofbighead carp was 10.3 ± 1.32g and average final weight was 1170 ± 4.85g at the end of experiment usingfertilizers and supplementary feed with 20% crude protein. Significantly higher (P<0.05 weight gain of1170.0 ± 3.25g was achieved in treatment with supplementary feeding compared to 902.00 ± 4.63g withoutsupplementary feeding. Temperature range of 26-33oC (during May to July was found to be suitable forfish growth, as better weight gain and lower feed conversion ratio were recorded during this period. Lowergrowth was observed during the months of December, January and February, when average temperaturewas 7-15°C.

  6. Identification of cda gene in bighead carp and its expression in response to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Li, Huiying; Hao, Le; Li, Guangyu; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin, which can influence genes transcription and cause nucleic acid damage in different organisms. To identify MCLR induced transcriptionally changed hepatic genes in bighead carp by subtractive suppression hybridization, we obtained the cDNA fragment of cda. Then we cloned its full-length cDNA, which encodes a cytidine deaminase (CDA). 3D structure prediction showed that the 3D structure and amino acid residues related to function sites of bighead carp CDA were highly conserved. Bighead carp CDA shared high identities with other CDA sequences, and evolved closely to non-mammalian CDAs. Bighead carp expressed cda in all tested tissues under normal situation, and changed its expression profile in a time inversely dependent and dose dependent manner to MCLR, so as to protect itself from MCLR induced toxic damage. These indicated that cda might be involved in anti-MCLR response, especially in the regulation of cytidine and dexocytidine metabolism pathway. PMID:22264741

  7. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.). The work has been focused on innate immune responses during the wound healing processes and how the innate immune response develops with age and size of the fish. Newly hatched...

  8. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    1991-01-01

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  9. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 yea

  10. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  11. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  12. Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a num

  13. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  14. Electro-mechanical noise in atrial muscle fibres of the carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, S; Richter, J; Landau, E M; Lass, Y

    1977-08-15

    Steady membrane voltage fluctuations have been observed in atrial muscle fibres of the carp. These voltage fluctuations produce minute mechanical escillations, as revealed by an interference contrast microscope. The steady voltage fluctuations may be related to abnormal automaticity in the heart.

  15. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis was to,

  16. Germ cell development in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkoop, van A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of larval and juvenile gonads of a teleost fish, the common carp, with special attention to the differentiation of the primordial germ cells. The early gonadal development has received relatively little attention, hitherto, as the research on fish reproduction h

  17. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  18. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  19. STUDY ON THE GROWTH OF SILVER CARP AND BIGHEAD CARP IN DIANSHAN%淀山湖主要放流鱼种鲢和鳙生长的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 戴小杰; 郑文军; 陶洁

    2011-01-01

    Based on data of mark-release-recapture and gillnet surveys of Silver Carp (.Hypo phthalmichthys molitrix) and Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in Dianshan Lake during 2006 ~ 2008, growth of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were studied. Based on back calculation formulae of fish body length, the growth indexes of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp were calculated; the relations between weight and body length of Silver Carp and Big head Carp and fat degree of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp in Dianshan Lake were also calculated. The relations between weight and body length of Silver Carp is W=6×10-5L28371, (n =216, R2 =0.8886). The relations between weight and body length of Bighead Carp is W = 5× 10-5L2.8809, (n=55, R2=0. 9747). Fat degree of Silver Carp in summer is: K2006 =0. 001913 ± 0.000142, K2007 = 0. 002165 ± 0. 000218, K2008 - 0. 002115 ± 0. 000306, K2009 = 0. 001966 ± 0.000112. Fat degrees of Bighead Carp in summer are K2006 =0. 002129 ±0. 000239, K2007 = 0.002346±0.000262, K2008=0.002382±0. 000247, K2009=0. 002436±0. 000282. Compared with other water areas, growth speed of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp in Dianshan Lake is slower.%本文根据2006-2008年淀山湖鲢鳙标记回捕数据以及刺网调查数据,研究了淀山湖鲢鳙的生长,根据鱼类体长推算公式分别推算出鲢鳙的生长指标;并计算出淀山湖鲢鳙的体长体重关系和肥满度.体长和体重关系分别为鲢:W=6×10-5 L2.8371,(n=216,R2=0.8886);鳙:W=5×10-5L2.5609,(n=55,R2=0.9747).鲢鳙夏季肥满度分别为鲢:K2006=0.001913±0.000142、K2007 =0.002165±0.000218、K2008=0.002115±0.000306、K2008=0.001966±0.000112;鳙:K2006=0.002129±0.000239、K2007=0.002346±0.000262、K2008=0.002382±0.000247、K2008=0.002436±0.000282.与其他水域相比,淀山湖鲢和鳙生长速度较慢.

  20. Ecological impacts of filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Boros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (H. molitrix and their hybrids (collectively referred as Asian carps−AC are primarily planktivorous cyprinid fishes that have been introduced into more than 30 countries around the world, including Hungary. However, recent studies demonstrated that AC can adversely affect the water quality and native fish populations. In this study, we report on the rate of hybridization, growth parameters and feeding habits of AC, to assess their ecological impacts and life history traits in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Balaton. We found that the majority of the investigated AC (n=116 were hybrids. In general, hybrid AC with silver carp characteristics dominated the stock (90%, but 10% of individuals exhibited bighead carp phenotype and the proportion of bighead carp genes exceeded 98% in 4 individuals. However, the variance in phenotypes and the rate of hybridization did not influence significantly the feeding habits. Rather, the food composition was determined by the availability of different food resources and the concentration of suspended inorganic particles in the ambient water. Stable isotope analyses and microscopic analyses of gut contents revealed that the vast majority (>99% of the ingested and metabolised food was zooplankton (mainly Rotifers, Cladocerans and Copepods. Despite the low proportions of algae in the food, we identified 155 phytoplankton taxa in the foregut-contents, among which there were several species (e.g., Scenedesmus spp. and Microcystis spp. that survived the passage through the guts. Growth rates of AC were intermediate in Lake Balaton, while their condition factors were relatively high compared with other ecosystems. The relatively high condition factors were particularly interesting in the light of the high inorganic matter content of ingested food (43±9% in dry mass. We conclude that the presence of AC is an ecological threat to Lake Balaton, because AC can be important

  1. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  2. Centromere localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis through half-tetrad analysis in diploid gynogenetic families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuankun Zhu

    Full Text Available Gene-centromere (G-C mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N = 48, which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40. High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667 were observed in 18 (17.5% of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st. These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species.

  3. Centromere localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through half-tetrad analysis in diploid gynogenetic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2013-01-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N = 48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

  4. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficien...

  5. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF receptor 1 antagonist, on fright reaction and endocrine stress response in crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, Stine; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind;

    2008-01-01

    and stress reactions in non-mammalian vertebrates are largely unknown. Crucian carp displays the olfactory-mediated fright reaction, a stereotypic behavioral response to waterborne cues from damaged skin of conspecifics. This reaction shows several similarities to basic components of avoidance behavior...... values, as compared to vehicle treatment. This suppression of the behavioral fright reaction and the stress induced rise in plasma cortisol in crucian carp suggests that the functions of the CRFR1 are conserved by evolution....

  6. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xi; Deng; Feng-jiao; 等

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2SeO3 on it were studied at 28℃. From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  7. Study on the Action of Sodium Selenite on the Mitochondria Metabolism of Carassius auratus Hybrid Carps Liver by Microcalorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi; Liu Yi; Deng Feng-jiac; Qu Song-sheng

    2003-01-01

    By using an LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor and ampoule method, the fundamental thermogenesis curves of the metabolic process of liver mitochondria from Carassius auratus hybrid carps and the toxic effect of Na2 SeO3 on it were studied at 28 ℃.From the thermogenesis curves, the thermokinetic equations were established under different condition. The kinetics show that Na2 SeO3 has toxic action on the metabolism process of Carassius auratus hybrid carps liver mitochondria.

  8. Polyculture of gulsha (Mystus cavasius Ham.) with rajpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) in earthen ponds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anwar Hossain; A.H.M. Kohinoor; Hussain, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Culture of gulsha (Mystus cavasius) with rajpunti (Puntius gonionotus) and silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was undertaken to assess the growth and production potential of these species under polyculture system. Fingerlings of gulsha, rajpunti and silver carp were stocked at a density of 18.000, 10.000 and 4.000/ha respectively. Two treatments were tested in this experiment. Treatment-I was conducted with rice bran and mustard oil cake and treatment-II with rice bran and duck weed. ...

  9. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 oC to 15 oC did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  10. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p diet were significantly lower than the control (p diets showed significantly lower (p 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p diets was significantly higher (p diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  11. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF BIGHEAD CARP (HYPOPHTALMICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the specificity of the genetic structure, intra- and interpopulation genetic variability of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp in different fish farming zones using DNA markers (ISSR-PCR. Methodology. To investigate the specificity of the genetic structure we used a PCR (ISSR-PCR method with appropriately selected primers. Findings. As a result of the study of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp, we carried out an analysis of the genetic structure by using three microsatellite DNA loci (CTC6C, (GAG6C, (AGC6G. The investigated populations accumulated a reserve of the genotypic variability in different parts of microsatellite loci. The identified specific properties among the investigated bighead carp populations can characterize the heterozygosity degree of the stocks reared in these fish farms. The variations in the detected amplicons are sufficient for separating the individuals of breeding stocks, or, if the work is carried out with a group of brood fish, to select parent pairs for increasing the genetic diversity. The described variability of the genetic structure by specific gene sites and distribution of markers in fish stocks indicate on significant level of genetic variability that is a basis for determining the level of their adaptability in the process of artificial selection in fish farms of different forms of ownership. Originality. We detected the peculiarities of the genetic structure, the level of genetic variation of the pedigree stocks of bighead carp in different fish farming zones with the use of DNA. For the first time we obtained new data on the specificity of the genetic structure based on PCR, which contribute to the detection of the specific mechanisms of maintaining the relative stability of bighead carp genetic pool and allow controlling the specificity of their genetic structure. Practical value. The practical value of the study is to propose a method of the genetic control of bighead carp

  12. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A; Rees, Christopher B; Coulter, Alison A; Merkes, Christopher M; McCalla, Sunnie G; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza; Goforth, Reuben R; Amberg, Jon J

    2016-07-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement. PMID:27087387

  13. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  14. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness.

  15. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  16. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Stephan; Gehmlich, Katja; Lun, Alexander S; Blondelle, Jordan; Hooper, Charlotte; Dalton, Nancy D; Alvarez, Erika A; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bang, Marie-Louise; Abassi, Yama A; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Peterson, Kirk L; Chen, Ju; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein complex together with PLCβ1. In mice deficient for both MLP and CARP the chronic PKCα signalling chain at the intercalated disc is broken and they remain healthy. Our results suggest that the main role of MLP in heart lies in the direct inhibition of PKCα and that chronic uninhibited PKCα activity at the intercalated disc in the absence of functional MLP leads to heart failure. PMID:27353086

  17. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. PMID:25044130

  18. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  19. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  20. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  1. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  2. A History of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, B.; Caffrey, J.M.; Cross, T. F.; Chapman, D. V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most comprehensive and detailed summary of the history of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland to date. It charts the earliest known introductions of the species to Irish waters, the rise in popularity of recreational angling for the species from c. 1950 onwards, the work carried out to establish the species in Ireland and explains the primary causes of their more recent distribution increase. Much of the historical research material gathered on...

  3. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signaling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signaling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCα signaling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCα. In end-stage DCM, PKCα is concentrated at the intercalated disk of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein compl...

  4. MLP and CARP are linked to chronic PKCα signalling in dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gehmlich, K; S. Lange(Justus Liebig-Universität Gie\\ssen II Physikalisches Institut, Germany); Lun, AS; Blondelle, J; HOOPER, C.; Dalton, ND; Alvarez, EA; Zhang, X.; Bang, M-L; Abassi, YA; dos Remedios, CG; Peterson, KL; Chen, J.; Ehler, E.

    2016-01-01

    MLP (muscle LIM protein)-deficient mice count among the first mouse models for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), yet the exact role of MLP in cardiac signalling processes is still enigmatic. Elevated PKCasignalling activity is known to be an important contributor to heart failure. Here we show that MLP directly inhibits the activity of PKCa. In end-stage DCM, PKCa is concentrated at the intercalated disc of cardiomyocytes, where it is sequestered by the adaptor protein CARP in a multiprotein comp...

  5. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein from Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) By Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dede Saputra; Tati Nurhayati3)

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be...

  6. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  7. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    GABI DUMITRESCU; LILIANA PETCULESCU-CIOCHINA; VOIA S.; A. GROZEA; D. DRONCA; IULIANA CRETESCU; LILIANA BOCA

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus ca...

  8. Impact of Formulated Protein Diets on Growth of the Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water aquaculture in India is mainly carp-based and accounts for a considerable proportion of total aquaculture production. Feeding constitutes a major factor in fish culture since the fish obtain the maximum nutritional requirement through the food they consume. Protein forms one of the main components of fish feed and hence formulation of feeds that contain high amount of protein using cost-effective natural ingredients is very essential to achieve efficient production from fish cultu...

  9. Steroidogenic response of carp ovaries to piscine FSH and LH depends on the reproductive phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Joseph; Kobayashi, Makito; Selicharova, Irena; Sohn, Young Chang; Yoshizaki, Goro; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2012-08-01

    The gonadotropins (GTHs) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are the key regulators of reproduction. We determined the competence of heterologous recombinant GTHs at eliciting steroid secretion from carp ovaries at different reproductive stages. We collected carp ovaries at: early, mid and end vitellogenesis, when most of the oocytes still contained a germinal vesicle (GV) at a central stage, and mature ovaries with a migrating GV. Plasma estradiol (E2) levels at early vitellogenesis were high and decreased thereafter. Basal secretion levels of E2 increased with oocyte diameter and GSI value, whereas 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was detected only in females with mature follicles. Carp ovary fragments were exposed to recombinant fish GTHs belonging to different teleost orders: Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica, Anguilliformes), Manchurian trout (Brachymystax lenok, Salmoniformes), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); to mammalian GTHs (pFSH and hCG), or to carp and tilapia pituitary extract (CPE and TPE, respectively). All of the recombinant GTHs tested stimulated steroid secretion. However, the steroid secretion differed according to the type of GTH and the developmental state of the ovary. CPE increased the secretion of both E2 and DHP at almost all stages of ovarian maturity. In mature ovarian fragments, DHP secretion was higher in response to recombinant LHs (eel and tilapia) than to recombinant FSH. Early- and mid-vitellogenic ovaries showed no secretion of DHP and high secretion of E2 in response to all recombinant GTHs tested. This is in line with the hypothesis that LH regulates the final stages of maturation, when the involvement of FSH is marginal. These results may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that determine differential activation of steroid secretion and specificity in fish. PMID:22522050

  10. Influence of music on the growth of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprindae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, L.; Jeyakumar, A.; Pitchai, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of music on the growth of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by subjecting the fish to music. Weekly growth in weight was recorded and used to calculate the growth rate and specific growth rate. The difference in growth between the control and experiment groups of fishes was statistically tested for significance. It was observed that the growth of fish subjected to music was significantly higher.

  11. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC); An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije; Luke O. Uzoigwe; C.I.O.Kamalu

    2012-01-01

    Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC) was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 52...

  12. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  13. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  14. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  15. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  16. STUDY OF THE ADAPTATION PROCESS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. AFTER HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bušová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish is sensitive to exogenous and endogenous ammonia. Ammonia formed in fish as a product of metabolism of proteins may be under certain circumstances life-threatening. Ammonia autointoxication is a serious problem and can cause mass mortalities in fish farms. This study focused on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in large-capacity breeding farms. It was focused on monitoring the blood ammonia levels in fish blood in the period of metabolic attenuation and the influence of harvesting and handling of fish on the fish's ability to withstand such changes. The study results confirmed the effect of sudden changes in water temperature to values of ammonia in the blood of fish. On the contrary, there were no dramatically increased concentrations of ammonia in the blood of fish nor symptoms of autointoxication. The measured ammonia concentrations ranged between 98.3 ± 56µmol/L and 141.4 ± 31 µmol/L in the monitored period, which corresponds with the study results of other authors. This study has confirmed good technological conditions in the market production of carp after harvesting and a good level of adaptation process of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. to these changes.

  17. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  18. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L⁻¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  19. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  20. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  1. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  2. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  3. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  4. Chemical Composition in Juvenile Ctenopharyngodon idella at Different Body Length%不同体长草鱼幼鱼鱼体化学组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆达; 张玉蓉; 王文; 王倩倩; 罗毅平

    2013-01-01

    Forty specimens of juvenile Ctenopharyngodon idella with a body weight (W) in the range of 16. 2- 277. 7 g and a body length (L) in the range of 9. 4- 25. 1 cm were collected from Xiema town, Bei-bei, Chongqing in November, 2011 and divided into 4 groups based on their body length. The body chemical composition of each group was measured and the energy density was estimated to investigate the variation in these indicators with their increasing body size. The results showed that the contents, or mass fractions, of water (WAT). protein (PRO), lipid (FAT) and ash (ASH), represented by the percentages of fresh body weight, were in the range of 73. 31%-77. 21%, 13. 42%-16. 81 % , 2.21-6. 13% and 3. 27% - 4. 30%, respectively. The energy density (E) ranged from 4. 22 to 6. 10 kJ/g. PRO, FAT and E increased with increasing L, while ASH varied erratically. PRO, FAT, and E were in a significant positive correlation with L, and the regression equations were PRO = 0.099 4L+13. 7 (r2 =0.351, n = 40, P< 0.01), FAT = 0. 110L+2. 21 (r2=0.214, n = 40, p<0. 01), and E = 0. 066 9L+4. 12 (r2=0.376, n = 40, p<0.01), respectively. In contrast, PRO, FAT and E were in a significant negative correlation with WAT, and the regression equations were PRO=-0. 366WAT + 43. 1 (r2=0.369, n = 40, p<0.01), FAT=-0. 676WAT+55. 1 (r=0. 628, w = 40, p<0.01), and E=-0. 353WAT+31. 9 (r2=0. 816, n = 40, p<0.01). The above results suggest that the contents of protein, lipid and energy density of juvenile C. idella can be estimated by its L and WAT. The lower content and slow accumulation of lipid with increasing body size in this fish species may result from its herbivority.%2011年11月于重庆市北碚区歇马镇采集草鱼幼鱼40尾,体质量范围16.2~277.7 g,体长范围9.4~25.1 cm,分为4个体长组,分别测定鱼体化学组成,估算其能量密度,用于探讨草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)幼鱼鱼体化学组成随生长过程的变化规律.结果表明:草鱼幼鱼

  5. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  7. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis: implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S F; Xu, J W; Yang, Q L; Wang, C H; Chen, Q; Chapman, D C; Lu, G

    2009-05-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98.8%), lowest in the control region (89.4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94.2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. PMID:20735671

  8. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  9. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  10. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  11. Immune response and protection in gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, after vaccination with β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Wenzhi; Gu, Zemao; Zeng, Lingbing

    2016-02-01

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture operations. Currently, no effective methods are available for the control of the disease. In this study, β-propiolactone inactivated cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) vaccine was prepared, and the immune response and protection in cultured gibel carp after vaccination was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, lysozyme and superoxide dismutase activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune gene expression analysis, and determination of the relative percent survival in vaccinated gibel carp. The results of blood cell counts indicated that the numbers of the red and white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized gibel carp increased significantly at day 4 and day 7 after vaccination (p component C3 were significantly up-regulated in the immunized group. The challenge test demonstrated that the immunized group had a relative survival rate of 71.4%. These results indicate that the inactivated CyHV-2 vaccine induced both non-specific and specific anti-viral immune responses that resulted in significant protection against HVHN disease and mortality in gibel carp. PMID:26772479

  12. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  13. INFORMATIONAL CONTENT OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR ANALYSIS OF GENETIC STRUCTURE OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Borysenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of this work was the selection of microsatellite markers to study the genetic structure of populations of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis carps of fish farm JSC "Donrybkombinat" of Donetsk region. Methodology. Products of amplification were separated in 2 % agarose gel in 1×TBE buffer. Visualization was performed with help of transilluminator in UV-region of the spectrum and photographing of electrophoregrams by digital camera. Processing and analysis of gels were performed using program TotalLab v2.01. The frequency of each amplicon by particular locus was determined as a percentage from the total number of amplicons at this locus. Statistical analysis of results was carried out using programs Excel, «Biosys-1». Findings. At the results of investigations of populations silver carp and bighead carp were analyzed genotypes of individuals by using three microsatellite DNA loci: MFW 15, MFW 23, MFW 06. Originality. It has been first shown that to investigate genetic structure of Ukrainian silver and bighead carps of JSC "Donrybkombinat" the most informative microsatellite loci were MFW 15 and MFW 23. Practical value. Microsatellite loci MFW 15 and MFW 23 used in research were suitable for interspecies differentiation of Ukrainian silver and bighead carps and can be applied in population-genetic investigations of fishes.

  14. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality

  15. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  16. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  17. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  18. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  19. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  20. Food Fish Polyculture of Songpu Mirror Carp with Changfeng Silver Carp in a Pond%松浦镜鲤与长丰鲢食用鱼混养试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉桥; 徐奇友; 石连玉; 闫有利; 张玉满; 韩毓; 耿旭玉; 于清翔; 戴占贺

    2013-01-01

    2012年5~10月,在面积为0.19hm2的试验池1中放养体质量160g的松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio Songpu)117,700尾·hm-2,混养体质量160g的长丰鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)春片、乌子头和鳙(Aristichthys no-bilis)夏花鱼种。在面积为0.19hm2的试验池2中放养体质量149.5g的松浦镜鲤3,450尾·hm-2,只混养鲢和鳙夏花,采用常规饲养方法。2012年10月2日,试验池1平均每hm2产鱼21,025.5kg,其中松浦镜鲤平均全长34.3cm,体质量1425g,产量18,294.0kg;长丰鲢春片平均体质量674g,平均产量1,816.5kg,长丰鲢夏花平均全长18.6cm,体质量112.4g,平均产量592.5kg;鳙夏花平均全长达12.1cm,体质量39.9g,平均产量322.5kg。试验池2平均每hm2产鱼3,069.0kg,其中松浦镜鲤平均全长35.0cm,体质量1225g,平均产量2,766.0kg;鲢夏花平均全长达11.3cm,体质量24.9g,平均产量130.5kg;鳙夏花平均全长达11.1cm,体质量35.1g,平均产量172.5kg。试验表明,高密度养殖的松浦镜鲤产量显著高于密度低时,长丰鲢夏花的出池体质量是普通鲢的4.5倍,特殊生长率(6.27%·d-1)是普通鲢(3.5%·d-1)的1.79倍。文中还讨论了松浦镜鲤养殖池的水质和技术特点。%Songpu mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio Songpu) juveniles with initial body weight of 160g was stocked into Test Pond 1 at a rate of 17,700 individuals·hm-2, and polycultured with Changfeng silver carp(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) juveniles with initial body weight of 160g and 0.10g and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) with initial body weight of 0.16g from May to October in 2012. In Test Pond 2, however, Songpu mirror carp juveniles weighing 149.5 g was stocked at a rate of 3,450 individuals·hm-2, and polycul-tured with silver carp and bighead carp summerlings. Average fish yield of 21,025.5 kg·hm-2 was harvested in Test Pond 1 on 2 Octo-ber, 2012, including 18,294.0kg of Songpu mirror carp with final

  1. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  2. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/ and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection.

  3. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  4. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed...

  5. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  6. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH2-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process

  7. 香辣草鱼片的研制%Development of spicy grass carp fillets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 张小燕; 陈双; 黄建伟

    2012-01-01

    以鲜活草鱼为主要原料生产香辣草鱼片。方法通过单因素及正交试验的方法对香辣草鱼片的配料用量及烘制条件进行了研究。研究表明该产品配料的最佳配比为:食盐水浓度4%、辣椒粉添加量8%、十三香添加量2.4%、味精添加量3.2%、酱油添加量2.4%;鱼片的最佳烘制条件为:鱼片大小5cm×3cm×1.0cm,微波功率400w,烘制时间1min。生产出的香辣草鱼片风味独特,香辣味浓郁,对增加鱼片类休闲食品种类具有指导作用。%The fresh grass carp was taken as main material to produce spicy grass carp fillets. Through the single factor and orthogonal experiment, the processing technique and the best processing conditions of spicy grass carp fillets were discussed. The experiment results showed that the optimum for- mula was adding 4% salt water, 8% paprika, 2.4% Shisanxiang, 3.2% aginomoto and 2.4% soy sauce. The best baking condition was that fish fillets was 5cm ×3cm ×1.0 cm, baking for 1.0 min at microwave power 400W. The products were delicious in taste. This technology will have broad develop- ment prospects.

  8. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF WATER TEMPERATURE REGIME FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vodyanitskyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of temperature regime fluctuations on the development of silver carp embryos, as well as the activity of enzymatic reactions in fish eggs. Methodology. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Hydrobiology of Bila Tserkov, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, from June to July. The biological materials were silver carp eggs, embryos and larvae. The dissolved oxygen content was determined using the Winkler method at four o’clock in the morning. Alkalinity phosphatase and LDG activity were determined using a set of reagents «Alkalinity phosphatase» and «LDG» (Phyllis diagnosis, Ukraine. SDH activity was determined by Vexy. The activity of Na, K-Mg-dependent-activated ATPase was determined as growth of inorganic phosphorus in the incubation medium by Kindratova M.N. et al. Protease activity was determined using immune enzymatic method of Tyurina et al. The obtained results were processed statistically in Statistica 5.5, Epaprobit analysis was used for calculating LC/EC values (Version 1.5. Findings The results showed that a delay of embryonic stages of development occur, the number of abnormal embryos increases, and the reproduction efficiency of fish reduces with an increase in water temperature and decrease in the dissolved oxygen content in water. The temperature factor had a significant effect on the activity of key enzymes, in particular the energetic metabolism changed from aerobic to anaerobic. Originality. It was found a negative effect of abiotic factors of water medium and drastic fluctuations in water temperature and gas regime of water bodies on the course of embryogenesis of silver carp that is especially important in the conditions of climate change. Practical value. The obtained results showed that the level of optimum and unfavorable environmental factors during the change of embryonic stages in embryonic and larval fish can be established based on the

  10. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  11. Changes of blood and urine parameters and microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp exposed to diluted sewage for a short period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in blood and urine parameters of carp exposed to diluted (20%) raw sewage for a short period were investigated. Carp exposed to the sewage lost their balance within 30 minutes. When carp lost their balance, haematocrite (Ht) and plasma non-nitrogenous compounds (NPN), ammonia, Ca2+, Mg2+, S and catecholamines (CAs) increased significantly, whereas no remarkable changes were observed in urine parameters. Four hours after the exposure, marked changes were found in blood and urine parameters as follows; much higher values for Ht, plasma NPN, ammonia, glucose, lactate, Mg2+, S, Cl, Br and CAs, and for urine ammonia, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn and Br were observed. After 12 hours, some slight aftereffects were still found on blood and urine parameters. After 36 hours, both blood and urine parameters recovered to the control levels. Effects of the sewage exposure on microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp were also studied. Microflora were widely different between upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract in the control. Remarkable bacteriological changes in the tract, particularly in the lower part, were found 12 hours after the exposure. This study suggests that (i) even a short-term exposure to sewage causes considerable stress responses on carp, (ii) urinalysis and examination of gut microbes as well as blood test are effective for the diagnosis of physiological dysfunction in carp, and (iii) microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of carp are strikingly affected by the physiological conditions of fish and by microflora in environmental water. (author)

  12. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes.

  13. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  14. MOST FREQUENT CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. DISEASES IN PONDS FROM 1994. TO 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Petrinec

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish health monitoring was carried out in the period from 1994. to 1998. for 252 fresh water ponds. Findings about health status depended upon the quality of health control measures such as ichthyotechnic, ichthyosanitary and ichthyohygieni methods. Most frequently diagnosed diseases and their percentages of incidence were: carp erythrodermatytis in 5,82 %, ichthyophtiriasis in 13,51 %, trihodiniasis in 33,568 %, dactylogirosis and gyrodactilosis in 35,75 %, botriocephalosis in 14,99 % and swimbladder inflammation caused by Sphaerospora angulata in 17,77 % examined ponds.

  15. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that

  16. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  17. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  18. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  19. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  20. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  1. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  2. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  3. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  4. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine C

  5. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  6. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  7. Experimental study on the possibilities of direct transfer of caesium 137 from sediment to the carps (Cyprinus carpio L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1983-06-01

    The exchanges of caesium 137 with the Rhone river water and deposits and its direct transfer from water and deposits to the carp are studied. The sediments have a high retention capacity for radiocaesium associated with fine particles and certain clays (illite). Caesium desorption from sediment to water is always very weak (less than 5% of the initial activity of the sediments; it varies with the agitation and salinity of the water. The transfer of caesium from the water to the carps is characterized by a regular increase of activity in the fish. After 63 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached, the carp have retained only 1% of the water activity, and their concentration factor is about 4. The transfer of caesium from sediment to the fish is weak but regular. After 79 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached. Less than 1% of the sediments activity is found in the fish; the transfer factor is about 10/sup -3/. Because of the high content of caesium 137 in sediments, the activity of the carp is increased and the concentration factor, calculated in relation to the surface water, is greater than 60.

  8. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  9. Identification and expression profiles of IL-8 in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) in response to microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin and has immunotoxicity to animals, including fish. Chemokines are considered to play important roles in inflammatory response induced by MCLR. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) for the first time. The full-length IL-8 cDNA was 552 bp and contained a 297-bp open-reading frame that encoded for a 98-amino acid protein. The deduced IL-8 protein had a typical aspartic acid (D)-leucine (L)-arginine (R) and a CXC motif at the N-terminal, which were conserved in most fish species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bighead carp IL-8 protein was grouped in the teleost IL-8 lineage 2. Under normal conditions, the expression of IL-8 is constitutive and weak in all tested tissues. However, MCLR treatment could significantly increase the transcription of IL-8 in bighead carp in a temporal- and dose-dependent pattern. The present study will help us to understand more about the evolution of IL-8 and its function in the MCLR induced proinflammatory response in bighead carp. PMID:23797979

  10. Growth, oxidative stress responses, and gene transcription of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) under chronic-term exposure of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongjie; Wang, Wenqian; Li, Jiajia; Yang, Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia toxicity has become a universal problem for aquatic animals, especially fish. The purpose of the present study was to assess the chronic toxicity of ammonia to the juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). The authors measured the responses of growth performance (specific growth rate, condition factor, body weight, and body length), oxidative stress, and related gene transcription of juvenile bighead carp exposed to solutions with different concentrations of un-ionized ammonia (UIA; 0 mg L(-1) , 0.053 mg L(-1) , 0.106 mg L(-1) , 0.159 mg L(-1) , and 0.212 mg L(-1) ). The results showed that UIA had no effect on growth performance, glutathione content, or glutathione S-transferase gene transcription, but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly elevated. In addition, different concentrations of UIA produced different degrees of damage to juvenile bighead carp: compared with control, lower UIA levels significantly decreased gene transcription of catalase (CAT) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; higher UIA concentration (0.212 mg L(-1) ) significantly increased gene transcription of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD and reduced MDA levels. The data clearly demonstrate that chronic exposure of UIA at lower concentrations can result in some degree of impairment of antioxidative function, and chronic exposure at higher concentrations can enhance damage to juvenile bighead carp by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities and gene transcription. PMID:24839064

  11. Arsenic impacted the development, thyroid hormone and gene transcription of thyroid hormone receptors in bighead carp larvae (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Tang, Ming-Hu; Sun, Li; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-13

    Arsenic (As) contamination in aquatic environment adversely impacts aquatic organisms. The present study assessed the toxicity of different As species and concentrations on bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) at early life stage, a major fish in Yangtze River, China. We measured the changes in embryo and larvae survival rate, larvae aberration, concentrations of thyroid hormone thyroxine, and transcription levels of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in fish larvae after exposing to arsenite (AsIII) or arsenate (AsV) at 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, or 150 μg L(-1) for 78 h. As concentrations ≤ 150 μg L(-1) had limited effect on embryo survival rate (6-8% inhibition), but larvae survival rate decreased to 53-57% and larvae aberration rate increased to 20-24% after As exposure. Moreover, thyroxine levels elevated by 23% and 50% at 100 μg L(-1) AsIII and 150 μg L(-1) AsV. Besides, AsIII and AsV decreased the transcriptional levels of TRα by 72 and 53%, and TRβ by 91 and 81% at 150 μg L(-1) As. Our data showed that AsIII and AsV had limited effect on carp embryo survival, but they were both toxic to carp larvae, with AsIII showing more effect tha