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Sample records for carotid body type

  1. Chemotransduction in the Carotid Body: K+ Current Modulated by Po2 in Type I Chemoreceptor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Barneo, Jose; Lopez-Lopez, Jose R.; Urena, Juan; Gonzalez, Constancio

    1988-07-01

    The ionic currents of carotid body type I cells and their possible involvement in the detection of oxygen tension (Po2) in arterial blood are unknown. The electrical properties of these cells were studied with the whole-cell patch clamp technique, and the hypothesis that ionic conductances can be altered by changes in Po2 was tested. The results show that type I cells have voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium channels. Sodium and calcium currents were unaffected by a decrease in Po2 from 150 to 10 millimeters of mercury, whereas, with the same experimental protocol, potassium currents were reversibly reduced by 25 to 50 percent. The effect of hypoxia was independent of internal adenosine triphosphate and calcium. Thus, ionic conductances, and particularly the O2-sensitive potassium current, play a key role in the transduction mechanism of arterial chemoreceptors.

  2. Myocardial hypertrophy induces carotid body hyperplasia.

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    Sivridis, Efthimios; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki; Pitsiava, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The carotid bodies tend to enlarge after long-standing cardiopulmonary disease. Our objective was to investigate whether cardiac hypertrophy is associated with carotid body hyperplasia. Fifteen autopsy cases with combined left and right ventricular hypertrophy were examined and compared with two control groups (16 cases). The study involved a meticulous dissection of carotid bifurcations, thin serial sections, and morphometric analysis of carotid body volume and cell types (progenitor, dark, light, and sustentacular). There was a significant increase in sustentacular cells in all individuals with cardiac hypertrophy, which was not drug-induced, and accompanied by a similar increase in carotid body volume. Dark or light cell accumulation was detected focally and only in three instances. It appears that the generalized sustentacular cell hyperplasia is the result of long-standing hypoxia, while a superimposed focal prominence of dark or light cells may be proliferative or metaplastic in nature and attributed to short-term hypoxia.

  3. CaV3.2 T-type Ca²⁺ channels in H₂S-mediated hypoxic response of the carotid body.

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    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Fox, Aaron P; Kumar, Ganesh K; Nanduri, Jayasri; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2015-01-15

    Arterial blood O2 levels are detected by specialized sensory organs called carotid bodies. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are important for carotid body O2 sensing. Given that T-type VGCCs contribute to nociceptive sensation, we hypothesized that they participate in carotid body O2 sensing. The rat carotid body expresses high levels of mRNA encoding the α1H-subunit, and α1H protein is localized to glomus cells, the primary O2-sensing cells in the chemoreceptor tissue, suggesting that CaV3.2 is the major T-type VGCC isoform expressed in the carotid body. Mibefradil and TTA-A2, selective blockers of the T-type VGCC, markedly attenuated elevation of hypoxia-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, secretion of catecholamines from glomus cells, and sensory excitation of the rat carotid body. Similar results were obtained in the carotid body and glomus cells from CaV3.2 knockout (Cacna1h(-/-)) mice. Since cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE)-derived H2S is a critical mediator of the carotid body response to hypoxia, the role of T-type VGCCs in H2S-mediated O2 sensing was examined. Like hypoxia, NaHS, a H2S donor, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and augmented carotid body sensory nerve activity in wild-type mice, and these effects were markedly attenuated in Cacna1h(-/-) mice. In wild-type mice, TTA-A2 markedly attenuated glomus cell and carotid body sensory nerve responses to hypoxia, and these effects were absent in CSE knockout mice. These results demonstrate that CaV3.2 T-type VGCCs contribute to the H2S-mediated carotid body response to hypoxia.

  4. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels in H2S-mediated hypoxic response of the carotid body

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    Makarenko, Vladislav V.; Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Fox, Aaron P.; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Nanduri, Jayasri

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood O2 levels are detected by specialized sensory organs called carotid bodies. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are important for carotid body O2 sensing. Given that T-type VGCCs contribute to nociceptive sensation, we hypothesized that they participate in carotid body O2 sensing. The rat carotid body expresses high levels of mRNA encoding the α1H-subunit, and α1H protein is localized to glomus cells, the primary O2-sensing cells in the chemoreceptor tissue, suggesting that CaV3.2 is the major T-type VGCC isoform expressed in the carotid body. Mibefradil and TTA-A2, selective blockers of the T-type VGCC, markedly attenuated elevation of hypoxia-evoked intracellular Ca2+ concentration, secretion of catecholamines from glomus cells, and sensory excitation of the rat carotid body. Similar results were obtained in the carotid body and glomus cells from CaV3.2 knockout (Cacna1h−/−) mice. Since cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE)-derived H2S is a critical mediator of the carotid body response to hypoxia, the role of T-type VGCCs in H2S-mediated O2 sensing was examined. Like hypoxia, NaHS, a H2S donor, increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration and augmented carotid body sensory nerve activity in wild-type mice, and these effects were markedly attenuated in Cacna1h−/− mice. In wild-type mice, TTA-A2 markedly attenuated glomus cell and carotid body sensory nerve responses to hypoxia, and these effects were absent in CSE knockout mice. These results demonstrate that CaV3.2 T-type VGCCs contribute to the H2S-mediated carotid body response to hypoxia. PMID:25377087

  5. Radical resection of a Shamblin type III carotid body tumour without cerebro-neurological deficit: Improved technique with preoperative embolization and carotid stenting.

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    Ong, H S; Fan, X D; Ji, T

    2014-12-01

    The surgical resection of a large unfavourable Shamblin type III carotid body tumour (CBT) can be very challenging technically, with many potential significant complications. Preoperative embolization aids in shrinking the lesion, reducing intraoperative blood loss, and improving visualization of the surgical field. Preoperative internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting aids in reinforcing the arterial wall, thereby providing a better dissection plane. A woman presented to our institution with a large right-sided CBT. Failure of the preoperative temporary balloon occlusion (TBO) test emphasized the importance of intraoperative preservation of the ipsilateral ICA. A combination of both preoperative embolization and carotid stenting allowed a less hazardous radical resection of the CBT. An almost bloodless surgical field permitted meticulous dissection, hence reducing the risk of intraoperative vascular and nerve injury. Embolization and carotid stenting prior to surgical resection should be considered in cases with bilateral CBT or a skull base orientated high CBT, and for those with intracranial extension and patients who have failed the TBO test.

  6. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels mediate the augmented calcium influx in carotid body glomus cells by chronic intermittent hypoxia.

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    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Ahmmed, Gias U; Peng, Ying-Jie; Khan, Shakil A; Nanduri, Jayasri; Kumar, Ganesh K; Fox, Aaron P; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of sleep apnea. A heightened carotid body activity and the resulting chemosensory reflex mediate increased sympathetic nerve activity by CIH. However, the mechanisms underlying heightened carotid body activity by CIH are not known. An elevation of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in glomus cells, the primary oxygen-sensing cells, is an essential step for carotid body activation by hypoxia. In the present study, we examined the effects of CIH on the glomus cell [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia and assessed the underlying mechanisms. Glomus cells were harvested from adult rats or wild-type mice treated with 10 days of either room air (control) or CIH (alternating cycles of 15 s of hypoxia and 5 min of room air; 9 episodes/h; 8 h/day). CIH-treated glomus cells exhibited an enhanced [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia, and this effect was absent in the presence of 2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-[5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)oxo]-pyridin-2-yl]ethyl)acetamide (TTA-A2), a specific inhibitor of T-type Ca(2+) channels, and in voltage-gated calcium channel, type 3.2 (CaV3.2), null glomus cells. CaV3.2 knockout mice exhibited an absence of CIH-induced hypersensitivity of the carotid body. CIH increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in glomus cells. A ROS scavenger prevented the exaggerated TTA-A2-sensitive [Ca(2+)]i response to hypoxia. CIH had no effect on CaV3.2 mRNA levels. CIH augmented Ca(2+) currents and increased CaV3.2 protein in plasma membrane fractions of human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably expressing CaV3.2, and either a ROS scavenger or brefeldin-A, an inhibitor of protein trafficking, prevented these effects. These findings suggest that CIH leads to an augmented Ca(2+) influx via ROS-dependent facilitation of CaV3.2 protein trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  7. Sympathetic innervation of the carotid bifurcation in the rabbit and cat: blood vessels, carotid body and carotid sinus. A fluorescence and electron microscopic study.

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    Knoche, H; Kienecker, E W

    1977-10-21

    Two postganglionic branches of the superior cervical ganglion enter the area of the carotid bifurcation in the rabbit and the cat. The common and external carotid arteries receive a rich adrenergic nerve supply, which can be demonstrated by fluorophores of biogenic amines appearing after formaldehyde treatment. The internal carotid artery is only sparsely innervated; however, it shows a dense sympathetic supply at the site of pressor receptors. Following removal of the superior cervical ganglion, a total loss of fluorescent adrenergic nerves occurs and degeneration of nerve endings possessing dense core vesicles is conspicuous. These nerve terminals are situated mainly subendothelially in the carotid body sinusoids; they only rarely terminate on type I cells.

  8. Respiratory neuroplasticity following carotid body denervation Central and peripheral adaptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R. Hodges; Hubert V. Forster

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the role of the carotid bodies in ventilatory control has been understated, but the current view suggests that the carotid bodies (1) provide a tonic, facilitory input to the respiratory network, (2) serve as the major site of peripheral O2 chemoreception and minor contributor to CO2/H+ chemoreception, and (3) are required for ventilatory adaptation to high altitude. Each of these roles has been demonstrated in studies of ventilation in mammals after carotid body denervation. Following carotid body denervation, many of the compromised ventilatory "functions" show a time-dependent recovery plasticity that varies in the degree of recovery and time required for recovery. Respiratory plasticity following carotid body denervation is also dependent on species, with contributions from peripheral and central sites/mechanisms driving the respiratory plasticity. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the data pointing to peripheral and central mechanisms of plasticity following carotid body denervation. We speculate that after carotid body denervation there are altered excitatory and/or inhibitory neuromodulator mechanisms that contribute to the initial respiratory depression and the subsequent respiratory plasticity, and further suggest that the continued exploration of central effects of carotid body denervation might provide useful information regarding the capacity of the respiratory network for plasticity following neurologic injury in humans.

  9. The CamKKβ Inhibitor STO609 Causes Artefacts in Calcium Imaging and Selectively Inhibits BKCa in Mouse Carotid Body Type I Cells.

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    Jurcsisn, Jennifer G; Pye, Richard L; Ali, Jon; Barr, Barbara L; Wyatt, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been reported that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may be critical for hypoxic chemotransduction in carotid body type I cells. This study sought to determine the importance of the regulatory upstream kinase of AMPK, CamKKβ, in the acute response to hypoxia in isolated mouse type I cells.Initial data indicated several previously unreported artefacts associated with using the CamKKβ inhibitor STO609 and Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Most importantly Fura-2 and X-Rhod1 imaging revealed that STO609 quenched emission fluorescence even in the absence of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](I)). Furthermore, STO609 (100 μM) rapidly inhibited outward macroscopic currents and this inhibition was abolished in the presence of the selective BK(Ca) inhibitor paxilline.Taken together these data suggest that ST0609 should be used with caution during Ca(2+) imaging studies as it can directly interact with Ca(2+) binding dyes. The rapid inhibitory effect of STO609 on BK(Ca) was unexpected as the majority of studies using this compound required an incubation of approximately 10 min to inhibit the kinase. Furthermore, as AMPK activation inhibits BK(Ca), inhibiting AMPK's upstream kinases would, if anything, be predicted to have the opposite effect on BK(Ca). Future work will determine if the inhibition of BK(Ca) is via CamKKβ or via an off target action of STO609 on the channel itself.

  10. Carotid body tumors: radioguided surgical approach

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    Gossetti Bruno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid body tumours (CBTs are very rare lesions which should be treated as soon as possible even when benign since small tumour size permits easier removal and lower incidence of perioperative complications and recurrence. Malignant forms are rare and they can be identified by lymph node invasion and metastases in distant locations. The need of reliable and effective diagnostic modalities for both primary CBTs and its metastases or recurrence is evident. The present study reviews our experience and attempt to define the role of colour coded ultrasound (CCU and Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS with Indium-111-DTPA-pentetretide (Octreoscan® using both planar and single photon emission tomography (SPECT technique in the diagnosis and follow-up of these uncommon lesions within a multidisciplinary approach. Methods From 1997 to 2008, 12 patients suffering from 16 CBTs (4 bilateral were investigated by CCU and SRS-SPECT before and after surgery. All tumours were grouped according to Shamblin's classification in order to assess the technical difficulties and morbidity of surgical resection on the ground of their size and relationship with the carotid arteries. Intraoperative radiocaptation by Octreoscan® was also carried out in all cases to evaluate the radicality of surgery. All perioperative scans were evaluated by the same nuclear medicine physician. Results Preoperatively CCU showed CBTs (four were not palpable with a sensitivity of 100%. Radioisotope imaging identified the CBTs as chemodectomas in 15 cases while no radioisotopic uptake was detected in 1 vagus nerve neurinoma. No evidence of metastasis or multicentricity were seen by total body radioisotopic scans. Combined data from CCU and SRS-SPECT allowed to determine tumour size in order to select 7 larger tumours which were submitted to selective preoperative embolization. Intraoperatively Octreoscan demonstrated microscopic tumour leftovers promptly removed in 1

  11. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of the carotid body tumors.

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    Matticari, S; Credi, G; Pratesi, C; Bertini, D

    1995-06-01

    Resection of carotid body tumors can be difficult to perform because of its site, vascularity, arterial adherence and local cranial nerve involvement. Advances in vascular surgical technique have reduced the risks of perioperative complications such as carotid injury, stroke and death. From January 1980 to May 1994 20 patients (22 carotid body tumors) were examined. All patients except one were evaluated with a preoperative angiography. No preoperative embolization was performed. Thirteen patients underwent ultrasonography, nine a CT scan of the neck, 5 magnetic resonance scanning and two magnetic resonance angiography. One old patient refused operation. The authors report their experience on 21 carotid body tumor resections (14 Shamblin group I and 7 group II paragangliomas). Surgical technique is based on subadventitial resection (18 excisions) and 3 resections were performed from the medial surface of the carotid bifurcation which had been partially absorbed into the mass. In the last 15 operations intraoperative Somatosensorial Evoked Potential (SEP) monitoring has been used. Only two patient required arterial repair because intimal dissection and another patient needed vagus nerve section. The ligation of external carotid artery and internal carotid resection with graft replacement were never necessary in these patients. No early or late deaths occurred and no recurrences were detected at follow-up.

  12. Efficacy of Surgical Therapy for Carotid Body Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-shan Lian; Chang-wei Liu; Heng Guan; Yue-hong Zheng; Xing-ming Chen; Yong-jun Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of surgical therapy for carotid body tumors.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted,covering the diagnosis,surgical procedure,post-operative complications,and prognosis of 120 cases of carotid body tumors in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1949 to May,2011.Results Surgical excision was successfully performed in 111 cases with 117 tumors.In all those cases,50 underwent simple tumor resection,42 underwent resection of tumors and ligation of the external carotid arteries,7 underwent co-resection of tumors and common carotid arteries,internal carotid arteries,as well as external arteries without vascular reconstruction,and the other 12 cases experienced tumor resection and vascular reconstruction as internal carotid arteries were involved.After operation,3 cases developed cerebral infarction,30 cases showed cranial nerve palsy,including 15 cases of hypoglossal nerve damage,10 cases of vagus paralysis,and 5 cases of Horner's syndrome.Conclusion It is essential to make a proper surgical strategy,which can reduce postoperative complications.

  13. Ultrastructure of the carotid body of the goat.

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    Abdel-Magied, E M; Taha, A A

    1995-09-01

    The carotid body of the goat was found to be a small oval or rounded parenchymatous organ. It was characterized by its profound vascularity. Delicate septa divided the parenchyma into small feebly defined lobules. Electron microscopy revealed that the parenchyma comprised type I cells, type II cells, nerve endings, axons and fenestrated dilated capillaries. Type I cells were characterized with electron dense-cored vesicles. They showed variations in size and concentration of the dense-cored vesicles and number of mitochondria. The possibility that these variations are reflections of different stages of activity is discussed. Type II cells were less numerous than type I cells, relatively small and devoid of dense-cored vesicles. They usually surrounded small groups of type I cells and associated nerve endings and axons. Presumptive afferent nerve endings characterized with many clear vesicles, occasional large granular vesicles and varying numbers of slender mitochondria, lay apposed to type I cells. Nerve endings of this kind showed afferent and efferent synaptic junctions with type I cells. Presumptive sympathetic efferent endings were occasionally seen within the lobules but never lay apposed to type I cells or afferent nerve ending.

  14. Carotid body, insulin and metabolic diseases: unravelling the links

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    Silvia V Conde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The carotid bodies (CB are peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in arterial blood O2, CO2 and pH levels. Hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis activate the CB, which respond by increasing the action potential frequency in their sensory nerve, the carotid sinus nerve (CSN. CSN activity is integrated in the brain stem to induce a panoply of cardiorespiratory reflexes aimed, primarily, to normalize the altered blood gases, via hyperventilation, and to regulate blood pressure and cardiac performance, via sympathetic nervous system (SNS activation. Besides its role in the cardiorespiratory control the CB has been proposed as a metabolic sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis and, more recently, in the regulation of whole body insulin sensitivity. Hypercaloric diets cause CB overactivation in rats, which seems to be at the origin of the development of insulin resistance and hypertension, core features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Consistent with this notion, CB sensory denervation prevents metabolic and hemodynamic alterations in hypercaloric feed animal. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is another chronic disorder characterized by increased CB activity and intimately related with several metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. In this manuscript we review in a concise manner the putative pathways linking CB chemoreceptors deregulation with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension. Also, the link between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH and insulin resistance is discussed. Then, a final section is devoted to debate strategies to reduce CB activity and its use for prevention and therapeutics of metabolic diseases with an emphasis on new exciting research in the modulation of bioelectronic signals, likely to be central in the future.

  15. Gasotransmitter regulation of ion channels: a key step in O2 sensing by the carotid body.

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    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Carotid bodies detect hypoxia in arterial blood, translating this stimulus into physiological responses via the CNS. It is long established that ion channels are critical to this process. More recent evidence indicates that gasotransmitters exert powerful influences on O2 sensing by the carotid body. Here, we review current understanding of hypoxia-dependent production of gasotransmitters, how they regulate ion channels in the carotid body, and how this impacts carotid body function.

  16. Diagnosis of carotid body tumor by digital subtraction angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚跃勇; 邹利光; 孙清荣; 徐健; 周政; 谭颖徽

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make a further understanding of the features of the carotid body tumor (CBT) by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) so as to explore the clinical value of DSA diagnosis and interventional therapy for CBT. Methods: DSA data from 12 cases of CBT were analyzed retrospectively. A consensus interpretation of the DSA appearances in all of the patients was reached after dynamic observation by 2 experienced radiologists in a double-blind manner. Results: Definite diagnosis in all cases could be made by DSA. The DSA features of the CBT included bigger bifurcation angles of the internal and external carotid arteries, displacement of internal and external carotid arteries, CBT supplied by external carotid arteries in most cases and the significant increase of tumor blood vessels in bifurcation. Invasion of internal or external carotid arteries was found in 6 cases. Smaller stained area of the tumor and significantly reduced intraoperative bleeding were found after embolization of the supplying arteria in 2 cases. Conclusion: DSA is the effective method for the diagnosis and preoperative assessment of CBT. Preoperative embolization of CBT may contribute to the reduced intraoperative bleeding.

  17. Simultaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma and carotid body paraganglioma in a woman

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    Han, Eun Ji; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, In Uk; Chung, Yong An; Maeng, Lee So [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Simultaneous occurrence of carotid body tumor and pheochromocytoma is rare. Most pheochromocytomas have grown on adrenal medulla, but some of the pheochromocytoma patients have multifocal paragangliomas arising from extraaderenal tissues. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas occur as sporadic tumors or they can be associated with several hereditary syndromes such as (1) multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), (2) Von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) and (3) neurofibromatosis type 1 as an unusual genetic cause of pheochromocytomas. Genetic testing is recommended for patients with an apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma under the age of 20 years with a family history or features suggestive of hereditary pheochromocytoma or for patients with sympathetic paragangliomas. For individuals who do not meet these criteria, genetic testing is optional. Discovery of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma in a patient should lead to a careful search to rule out multifocal lesions and/or hereditary syndromes. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma is made by biochemical testing, and imaging is done to localize the tumor for surgical planning. F 18 FDG PET has proved to be an effective tool in the localization of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

  18. The histology of the carotid bodies in highlanders from Ladakh

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    Khan, Q.; Heath, D.; Smith, P.; Norboo, T.

    1988-12-01

    A histological study was made of the carotid bodies in a boy and three adult male highlanders born and residing between altitudes of 3300 m to 4200 m in Ladakh. The carotid bodies were enlarged in two of the men, and in all four subjects showed increased numbers and enlargement of the dark variants of the chief cells of the glomic tissue. In these dark cells the cytoplasm was voluminous, formed streamers and contained many intracytoplasmic vesicles of which some had mused to form larger vesicles that appeared to have discharged from the cell surface. Immunohistochemical studies showed that these cells contained considerable amounts of the peptide met-enkephalin. It is thus considered that prominence of dark cells containing this peptide is characteristic of sustained exposure of the carotid bodies to hypobaric hypoxia. In the middle-aged highlander there was a prominence of sustentacular cells which encroached upon the cores of chief cells and this may be associated with the characteristic loss of hypoxic ventilatory response in the highlander.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide activates the carotid body chemoreceptors in cat, rabbit and rat ex vivo preparations.

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    Jiao, Yingfu; Li, Qian; Sun, Biying; Zhang, Guohua; Rong, Weifang

    2015-03-01

    We and others previously reported experimental evidence suggesting an important role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oxygen sensing in murine carotid body chemoreceptors. More recent data implicated abnormal H2S-mediated chemoreceptor signaling in pathological conditions such as chronic heart failure and hypertension. However, the idea of H2S as a mediator of oxygen-sensing in chemoreceptors has been challenged. In particular, it was shown that exogenous H2S inhibited the release of neurotransmitters (ACh and ATP) from the cat carotid body, raising the possibility that there exists significant species difference in H2S-mediated signaling in chemoreceptors. This study was designed specifically to determine the effect of H2S on chemoreceptors in different species. We conducted multiunit extracellular recordings of the sinus nerve in the ex vivo carotid body preparation taken from the rat, the cat and the rabbit. As observed in the mouse carotid body, H2S donors (NaHS or Na2S) evoked qualitatively similar excitatory responses of the afferent sinus nerves of the species studied here. The excitatory effects of the H2S donors were concentration-dependent and reversible. The sinus nerve responses to H2S donors were prevented by blockade of the transmission between type I cells and the afferent terminals, as was the response to hypoxia. These results demonstrate that exogenous H2S exerts qualitatively similar excitatory effects on chemoreceptor afferents of different species. The role of endogenous H2S-mediated signaling in carotid body function in different species awaits further investigation.

  20. Cerebral foreign body reaction after carotid aneurysm stenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anastasia Orlova; Nome, Terje; Bakke, Søren Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Flow diverter stents are new important tools in the treatment of large, giant, or wide-necked aneurysms. Their delivery and positioning may be difficult due to vessel tortuosity. Common adverse events include intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke, which usually occurs within the same day......, or the next few days after the procedure. We present a case where we encountered an unusual intracerebral complication several months after endovascular treatment of a large left internal carotid artery aneurysm, and where brain biopsy revealed foreign body reaction to hydrophilic polymer fragments distally...

  1. [Surgical treatment of tumors of the carotid body with reconstruction of the internal carotid artery].

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    Reparaz, L; Magallón, P; Riera, L; Capilla, M T; Merino, M J; Martínez, I; Hernández, A; Sáez, L; Alamo, O; Jiménez Cossío, J A

    1990-01-01

    The experience about treatment in infiltrating tumors of Carotid Corpus, III Degree (Shamblin), is presented. Different methods of carotid reconstruction, and biologic and evolutive characteristics are emphasized, discussing preoperatory study and surgical technics.

  2. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

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    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  3. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

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    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  4. Effects of angiotensin II on leptin and downstream leptin signaling in the carotid body during acute intermittent hypoxia.

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    Moreau, J M; Messenger, S A; Ciriello, J

    2015-12-03

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is known to promote leptin production and secretion. Although ANG II type 1 receptors (AT1Rs) and leptin are expressed within the carotid body, it is not known whether AT1R and leptin are co-expressed in the same glomus cells nor if these peptides are affected within the carotid body by intermittent hypoxia (IH). This study was done to investigate whether ANG II modulated leptin signaling in the carotid body during IH. Rats were treated with captopril (Capt) or the AT1R blocker losartan (Los) in the drinking water for 3days prior to being exposed to IH (8h) or normoxia (8h). IH induced increases in plasma ANG II and leptin compared to normoxic controls. Capt treatment abolished the plasma leptin changes to IH, whereas Los treatment had no effect on the IH induced increase in plasma leptin. Additionally, carotid body glomus cells containing both leptin and the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb) were found to co-express AT1R protein, and IH increased the expression of only AT1R protein within the carotid body in both Capt- and non-Capt-treated animals. On the other hand, Los treatment did not modify AT1R protein expression to IH. Additionally, Capt and Los treatment eliminated the elevated carotid body leptin protein expression, and the changes in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription three protein, the short form of the leptin receptor (OB-R100), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, and phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression induced by IH. However, Capt elevated the expression of OB-Rb protein, whereas Los abolished the changes in OB-Rb protein to IH. These findings, taken together with the previous observation that ANG II modifies carotid body chemosensitivity, suggest that the increased circulating levels of ANG II and leptin induced by IH act at the carotid body to alter leptin signaling within the carotid body which in turn may influence chemoreceptor function.

  5. The von Hippel-Lindau Chuvash mutation in mice causes carotid-body hyperplasia and enhanced ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia.

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    Slingo, Mary E; Turner, Philip J; Christian, Helen C; Buckler, Keith J; Robbins, Peter A

    2014-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors coordinates diverse cellular and systemic responses to hypoxia. Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive disorder in humans in which there is impaired oxygen-dependent degradation of HIF, resulting in long-term systemic elevation of HIF levels at normal oxygen tensions. CP patients demonstrate the characteristic features of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia, namely, an elevated baseline ventilation and enhanced acute hypoxic ventilatory response (AHVR). We investigated the ventilatory and carotid-body phenotype of a mouse model of CP, using whole-body plethysmography, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. In keeping with studies in humans, CP mice had elevated ventilation in euoxia and a significantly exaggerated AHVR when exposed to 10% oxygen, with or without the addition of 3% carbon dioxide. Carotid-body immunohistochemistry demonstrated marked hyperplasia of the oxygen-sensing type I cells, and the cells themselves appeared enlarged with more prominent nuclei. This hypertrophy was confirmed by electron microscopy, which also revealed that the type I cells contained an increased number of mitochondria, enlarged dense-cored vesicles, and markedly expanded rough endoplasmic reticulum. The morphological and ultrastructural changes seen in the CP mouse carotid body are strikingly similar to those observed in animals exposed to chronic hypoxia. Our study demonstrates that the HIF pathway plays a major role, not only in regulating both euoxic ventilatory control and the sensitivity of the response to hypoxia, but also in determining the morphology of the carotid body.

  6. Management of three carotid body tumors and review of the topic

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    Torres-Morientes LM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Carotid paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from the carotid body paraganglia. They grow slowly and only big tumours come to cause neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiological findings, and curative treatment is radical surgery. Supported by clinical reports we review the ethiology, clinical presentation and treatments options, along with possible complications. Case reports: We present three cases of carotid paragangliomas. The first case is a 61yo man referred from another center after the incidental finding of a left carotid paraganglioma on a radiological test. The second case is a 57yo patient with a long lasting right lateral neck tumor. In both cases the lesions were resected with the pathological diagnosis of carotid glomus. The third case is a 80yo patient with a large left carotid paraganglioma in whom observation was decided. Discussion: Carotid paragangliomas are a rare benign disease originated in the carotid body. They are included in the cervico-facial paragangliomas. The most frequent presentation is a painless slow-growing mass. The treatment of choice is a radical surgery after embolization. Conclusions: Carotid paragangliomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical tumors; imaging assessment is essential. Preoperative embolization to decrease the potential for intraoperative bleeding is imperative in the surgical management of paragangliomas.

  7. Role of carotid body for neuronal protection in experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage

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    Mehmet Dumlu Aydın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carotid bodies are known as main arterialchemoregulatory units. Despite well known that carotidbodies have an important role in cerebral circulation andblood pH regulation, their roles has not been investigatedin subarachnoid haemorrhage. We investigated whetherthere is neuroprotective effect of neuron density of carotidbodies on the brain in subarachnoid haemorrhage.Methods: Twenty hybrid rabbits were studied. Four ofthem were used as reference group (n=4 and the remainingwas obliged to subarachnoid haemorrhage by injectingautologous blood into their cisterna magna (n=16and sacrificed after one month. All carotid bodies andbrains examined histopathologically using by stereologicmethods. The relationship between the neuronal densityof carotid body and degenerated neuron density of thehippocampus were compared statistically.Results: Five rabbits with subarachnoid haemorrhagedead during the follow-up time (n=5. The average neuronaldensity of carotid body was 4500±500 cells/mm3and of hippocampus 170.000±17.000 cell/mm3 in normalrabbit family. The degenerated neuron density ofthe hippocampus was 20.000±3.000 cells/mm3 in rabbitswith have high neuron density of carotid body and was65.000±8.000 cells/mm3 in rabbits with low neuron densityof carotid body. The differences between the neuronaldensity of carotid body and the degenerated neuron numbersof the hippocampus were significant.Conclusion: The neuron density of carotid body mayplay an important role on the protection of brain in subarachnoidhaemorrhage.Key words: Subarachnoid haemorrhage, carotid body,hippocampus, neurodegeneration, cerebral ischemia

  8. Carotid body tumor imitator: An interesting case of Castleman′s disease

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    Hakeem J Shakir

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We present a unique case of a tumor initially and incorrectly diagnosed as a carotid body tumor. However, after comprehensive treatment with endovascular and surgical modalities and subsequent pathologic examination, the diagnosis of this rare entity was made.

  9. Carotid body oxygen sensing and adaptation to hypoxia.

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    López-Barneo, José; Macías, David; Platero-Luengo, Aida; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Pardal, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the principal arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. Our understanding of CB function and its role in disease mechanisms has progressed considerably in the last decades, particularly in recent years. The sensory elements of the CB are the neuron-like glomus cells, which contain numerous transmitters and form synapses with afferent sensory fibers. The activation of glomus cells under hypoxia mainly depends on the modulation of O2-sensitive K(+) channels which leads to cell depolarization and the opening of Ca(2+) channels. This model of sensory transduction operates in all mammalian species studied thus far, including man. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of ion channel function by changes in the O2 level are as yet unknown. The CB plays a fundamental role in acclimatization to sustained hypoxia. Mice with CB atrophy or patients who have undergone CB resection due to surgical treatments show a marked intolerance to even mild hypoxia. CB growth under hypoxia is supported by the existence of a resident population of neural crest-derived stem cells of glia-like phenotype. These stem cells are not highly affected by exposure to low O2 tension; however, there are abundant synapse-like contacts between the glomus cells and stem cells (chemoproliferative synapses), which may be needed to trigger progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation under hypoxia. CB hypo- or hyper-activation may also contribute to the pathogenesis of several prevalent human diseases.

  10. Reference gene validation for qPCR in rat carotid body during postnatal development

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    Carroll John L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carotid bodies are the main arterial oxygen chemoreceptors in mammals. Afferent neural output from the carotid bodies to brainstem respiratory and cardiovascular nuclei provides tonic input and mediates important protective responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. It is widely accepted that the selection of reference genes for mRNA normalization in quantitative real-time PCR must be validated for a given tissue and set of conditions. This is particularly important for studies in carotid body during early postnatal maturation as the arterial oxygen tension undergoes major changes from fetal to postnatal life, which may affect reference gene expression. In order to determine the most stable and suitable reference genes for the study of rat carotid body during development, six commonly used reference genes, β-actin, RPII (RNA polymerase II, PPIA (peptidyl-proyl-isomerase A, TBP (TATA-box binding protein, GAPDH, and 18s rRNA, were evaluated in two age groups (P0-1 and P14-16 under three environmental oxygen conditions (normoxia, chronic hypoxia and chronic hyperoxia using the three most commonly used software programs, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Findings The three programs produced similar results but the reference gene rankings were not identical between programs or experimental conditions. Overall, 18s rRNA was the least stable reference gene for carotid body and, when hyperoxia and/or hypoxia conditions were included, actin was similarly unstable. Conclusions Reference or housekeeping gene expression for qPCR studies of carotid body during postnatal development may vary with developmental stage and environmental conditions. Selection of the best reference gene or combination of reference genes for carotid body development studies should take environmental conditions into account. Two commonly used reference genes, 18s rRNA and actin, may be unsuitable for studies of carotid body maturation, especially if the study

  11. A simple technique to achieve bloodless excision of carotid body tumors.

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    Spinelli, Francesco; Massara, Mafalda; La Spada, Michele; Stilo, Francesco; Barillà, David; De Caridi, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    We describe a technique for Shamblin II-III carotid body tumor (CBT) resection to reduce bleeding and neurologic complications during surgery. The technique was based on the fact that CBTs are supplied almost exclusively from the external carotid artery. Therefore, we carefully isolated the origin of the external carotid artery and its distal branches outside the tumor and temporarily clamped all of these vessels after heparin administration. This allowed a safe and bloodless resection as the tumor was dissected from the internal carotid artery in the usual subadventitial plane. The internal carotid artery was never clamped, and respect of peripheral nerves was warranted in the clean and bloodless field. From 2007 to 2010, we treated 11 patients with a CBT: six had a Shamblin II and five had a Shamblin III lesion. Neither perioperative neurologic events nor recurrences occurred after a mean follow-up of 42 months.

  12. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

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    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  13. The carotid body of the spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetic rat

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    Clarke J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The carotid bodies from adult spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetic rats (strain BB/S were perfusion-fixed at normal arterial blood pressure with 3% phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde and compared with the organs from control rats (strain BB/Sc prepared in the same way. Serial 5-µm sections were cut, stained, and using an interactive image analysis system, were analysed to determine the volumes of the carotid body and its vascular and extravascular compartments. There was no evidence of systemic arterial disease in the carotid stem arteries in either group of animals, and the microvasculature of the organs appeared normal by light microscopy. The volume of the carotid body was unchanged 3 months after the onset of diabetes but was increased at 6 months. The total vascular volume of the organ was unchanged, but the volume of the small vessels (5-12 µm was increased. In the control group the small vessels comprised 5% of the total volume of the carotid body, or about 44% of the vascular compartment. The percentage of small vessels increased at 3 months in the diabetic group, but had returned to normal at 6 months. The extravascular volume followed the same pattern as the total carotid body volume and so did not change appreciably when expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the organ. The increase in size of the carotid body in diabetic rats is due, therefore, to an augmented extravascular volume. In one diabetic specimen the carotid sinus nerve showed signs of diabetic neuropathy, axonal swelling and intramyelinic oedema. The clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Revisiting cAMP signaling in the carotid body

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    Ana Rita eNunes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic carotid body (CB activation is now recognized as being essential in the development of hypertension and promoting insulin resistance; thus, it is imperative to characterize the chemotransduction mechanisms of this organ in order to modulate its activity and improve patient outcomes. For several years, and although controversial, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP was considered an important player in initiating the activation of the CB. However, its relevance was partially displaced in the 90s by the emerging role of the mitochondria and molecules such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and O2-sensitive K+ channels. Neurotransmitters/neuromodulators binding to metabotropic receptors are essential to chemotransmission in the CB, and cAMP is central to this process. cAMP also contributes to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels, and is intimately related to the cellular energetic status (AMP/ATP ratio. Furthermore, cAMP signaling is a target of multiple current pharmacological agents used in clinical practice. This review provides an outline on 1 the classical view of the cAMP-signaling pathway in the CB that originally supported its role in the O2/CO2 sensing mechanism, 2 present recent evidence on CB cAMP neuromodulation and 3 discuss how CB activity is affected by current clinical therapies that modify cAMP-signaling, namely dopaminergic drugs, caffeine (modulation of A2A/A2B receptors and roflumilast (PDE4 inhibitors. cAMP is key to any process that involves metabotropic receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in CB disease states are likely to involve this classical second messenger. Research examining the potential modification of cAMP levels and/or interactions with molecules associated with CB hyperactivity is currently in its beginning and this review will open doors for future explorations.

  15. Chronic hyperoxia alters the expression of neurotrophic factors in the carotid body of neonatal rats.

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    Dmitrieff, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Julia T; Dunmire, Kyle B; Bavis, Ryan W

    2011-02-15

    Chronic exposure to hyperoxia alters the postnatal development and innervation of the rat carotid body. We hypothesized that this plasticity is related to changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors or related proteins. Rats were reared in 60% O(2) from 24 to 36h prior to birth until studied at 3d of age (P3). Protein levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly reduced (-70%) in the P3 carotid body, while protein levels for its receptor, tyrosine kinase B, and for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were unchanged. Transcript levels in the carotid body were downregulated for the GDNF receptor Ret (-34%) and the neuropeptide Vgf (-67%), upregulated for Cbln1 (+205%), and unchanged for Fgf2; protein levels were not quantified for these genes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Vgf and Cbln1 proteins are expressed within the carotid body glomus cells. These data suggest that BDNF, and perhaps other neurotrophic factors, contribute to abnormal carotid body function following perinatal hyperoxia.

  16. Evidence for a carotid body homolog in the lizard Tupinambis merianae.

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    Reichert, Michelle N; Brink, Deidre L; Milsom, William K

    2015-01-15

    The homolog to the mammalian carotid body has not yet been identified in lizards. Observational studies and evolutionary history provide indirect evidence for the existence of a chemoreceptor population at the first major bifurcation of the common carotid artery in lizards, but a chemoreceptive role for this area has not yet been definitively demonstrated. We explored this possibility by measuring changes in cardiorespiratory variables in response to focal arterial injections of the hypoxia mimic sodium cyanide (NaCN) into the carotid artery of 12 unanesthetized specimens of Tupinambis merianae. These injections elicited increases in heart rate (f(H); 101±35% increase) and respiratory rate (f(R); 620±119% increase), but not mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). These responses were eliminated by vagal denervation. Similar responses were elicited by injections of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) but not norepinephrine. Heart rate and respiratory rate increases in response to NaCN could be blocked or reduced by antagonists to ACh (atropine) and/or 5-HT (methysergide). Finally, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate the presence of putative chemoreceptive cells immunopositive for the cholinergic cell marker vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT) and 5-HT on internal lattice-like structures at the carotid bifurcation. These results provide evidence in lizards for the existence of dispersed chemoreceptor cells at the first carotid bifurcation in the central cardiovascular area that have similar properties to known carotid body homologs, adding to the picture of chemoreceptor evolution in vertebrates.

  17. Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after carotid body tumor embolization and excision

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    Rangel, Carlos M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after embolization and surgical resection of carotid body paraganglioma.Methods: Case report Results: One adult female patient presented with persistent unilateral visual loss after embolization with Embosphere and Contour microparticles of carotid body tumor. Fluorescein angiography revealed intraluminal microspheres in the central retinal artery ramifications. OCT revealed intraretinal spherical, hyporeflective particles with posterior shadowing. Conclusions: Central retinal artery occlusion should be assessed as a possible complication after surgical repair of head and neck paragangliomas.

  18. Inherent variations in CO-H2S-mediated carotid body O2 sensing mediate hypertension and pulmonary edema.

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    Peng, Ying-Jie; Makarenko, Vladislav V; Nanduri, Jayasri; Vasavda, Chirag; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Yuan, Guoxiang; Gadalla, Moataz M; Kumar, Ganesh K; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2014-01-21

    Oxygen (O2) sensing by the carotid body and its chemosensory reflex is critical for homeostatic regulation of breathing and blood pressure. Humans and animals exhibit substantial interindividual variation in this chemosensory reflex response, with profound effects on cardiorespiratory functions. However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here, we report that inherent variations in carotid body O2 sensing by carbon monoxide (CO)-sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling contribute to reflex variation in three genetically distinct rat strains. Compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, Brown-Norway (BN) rats exhibit impaired carotid body O2 sensing and develop pulmonary edema as a consequence of poor ventilatory adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Spontaneous Hypertensive (SH) rat carotid bodies display inherent hypersensitivity to hypoxia and develop hypertension. BN rat carotid bodies have naturally higher CO and lower H2S levels than SD rat, whereas SH carotid bodies have reduced CO and greater H2S generation. Higher CO levels in BN rats were associated with higher substrate affinity of the enzyme heme oxygenase 2, whereas SH rats present lower substrate affinity and, thus, reduced CO generation. Reducing CO levels in BN rat carotid bodies increased H2S generation, restoring O2 sensing and preventing hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema. Increasing CO levels in SH carotid bodies reduced H2S generation, preventing hypersensitivity to hypoxia and controlling hypertension in SH rats.

  19. Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans

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    Fernando De Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body or glomus caroticum is a chemosensory organ bilaterally located between the external and internal carotid arteries. Although known by anatomists since the report included by Von Haller and Taube in the mid XVIIIth century, its detailed study started the first quarter of the XXth. The Austro-German physiologist Heinrich E. Hering studied the cardio-respiratory reflexes searched for the anatomical basis of this reflex in the carotid sinus, while the Ghent School leaded by the physio-pharmacologists Jean-François Heymans and his son Corneille focussed in the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region. In 1925, Fernando De Castro, one of the youngest and more brilliant disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal at the Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biológicas (Madrid, Spain, profited from some original novelties in histological procedures to study the fine structure and innervation of the carotid body. De Castro unravelled them in a series of scientific papers published between 1926 and 1929, which became the basis to consider the carotid body as a sensory receptor (or chemoreceptor to detect the chemical changes in the composition of the blood. Indeed, this was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors. Impressed by the novelty and implications of the work of De Castro, Corneille Heymans invited the Spanish neurologist to visit Ghent on two occasions (1929 and 1932, where both performed experiences together. Shortly after, Heymans visited De Castro at the Instituto Cajal (Madrid. From 1932-33, Corneille Heymans focused all his attention on the carotid body his physiological demonstration of De Castro’s hypothesis regarding chemoreceptors was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1938, just when Spain was immersed in its catastrophic Civil War.

  20. Endogenous H2S is required for hypoxic sensing by carotid body glomus cells.

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    Makarenko, Vladislav V; Nanduri, Jayasri; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Fox, Aaron P; Gadalla, Moataz M; Kumar, Ganesh K; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2012-11-01

    H(2)S generated by the enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) has been implicated in O(2) sensing by the carotid body. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether glomus cells, the primary site of hypoxic sensing in the carotid body, generate H(2)S in an O(2)-sensitive manner and whether endogenous H(2)S is required for O(2) sensing by glomus cells. Experiments were performed on glomus cells harvested from anesthetized adult rats as well as age and sex-matched CSE(+/+) and CSE(-/-) mice. Physiological levels of hypoxia (Po(2) ∼30 mmHg) increased H(2)S levels in glomus cells, and dl-propargylglycine (PAG), a CSE inhibitor, prevented this response in a dose-dependent manner. Catecholamine (CA) secretion from glomus cells was monitored by carbon-fiber amperometry. Hypoxia increased CA secretion from rat and mouse glomus cells, and this response was markedly attenuated by PAG and in cells from CSE(-/-) mice. CA secretion evoked by 40 mM KCl, however, was unaffected by PAG or CSE deletion. Exogenous application of a H(2)S donor (50 μM NaHS) increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in glomus cells, with a time course and magnitude that are similar to that produced by hypoxia. [Ca(2+)](i) responses to NaHS and hypoxia were markedly attenuated in the presence of Ca(2+)-free medium or cadmium chloride, a pan voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker, or nifedipine, an L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, suggesting that both hypoxia and H(2)S share common Ca(2+)-activating mechanisms. These results demonstrate that H(2)S generated by CSE is a physiologic mediator of the glomus cell's response to hypoxia.

  1. Anaesthetic challenges in carotid body tumour resection: a case report and review of literature

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    Anuradha Malliwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotid body tumour (CBT is an extremely rare, non-chromaffin paraganglioma arising from chemoreceptor cells at the carotid bifurcation. Reported incidence is 1-2 per 100,000. Surgical excision of the tumour, the definitive treatment, poses several anaesthetic challenges and a high incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality (20-40%. Very few cases have been reported so far. We report the anaesthetic management of a case of CBT excision with a review of recent literature on the same. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3897-3900

  2. Surgical treatment of carotid body tumor: case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Luo; Chao Zhang; Ya-Chan Ning; Yong-Quan Gu; Jian-Xin Li; Zhong-Gao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (CBT) are rare chemical receptor tumors. We report nine cases of CBT who were diagnosed at our center during 2004 to 2008 with a literature review. Of these nine patients, eight underwent complete resection, one received palliative resection due to the malignant nature of the tumor, and the other one refused surgery. No perioperative mortality and stroke occurred. During a mean follow up of 2.2 years, no deaths related to CBT occurred. Surgical treatment for CBT is relatively safe. The surgeon should be careful to maintain the integrity of carotid artery, and prevent cerebral ischemia and cranial nerve injuries in order to improve outcome.

  3. Duplex ultrasound: A diagnostic tool for carotid stenosis management in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Yogan Kisten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of developing cardiac events and stroke, and prevention of diabetes mellitus is therefore desirable. Marked geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diabetes caused by urbanisation, demographic and epidemiological transitions has rendered this one of the major non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Duplex ultrasound (DUS plays an important role in primary health care in early detection of carotid atherosclerotic disease and the degree of carotid stenosis present. It is a reliable, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ultrasound in carotid stenosis management in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of carotid stenosis in a selected T2DM population using DUS and to correlate these findings with other predisposing atherosclerotic risk factors.Methods: The study setting was at an academic hospital in the Western Cape using carotid DUS reports of 103 diabetic subjects ≥ 35 years old. Predisposing risk factors were correlated with degree of carotid stenosis present. Data were analysed using the Fischer exact test, Chisquare and Student t-test.Results: Carotid DUS reports of 63 out of 103 T2DM patients revealed no evidence of a carotid stenosis, thereby lowering the risk profile. Forty patients were identified as having carotidstenosis; 22 symptomatic patients had a > 70% carotid stenosis which warranted surgicalintervention. A greater prevalence of stenosis in the Caucasian group, in both the male (p =0.0411 and female (p = 0.0458 cohorts, was noted. The overall trend suggested a relationship between T2DM and lifestyle, and a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0063 between smoking and carotid stenosis was observed.Conclusion: T2DM and predisposing atherosclerotic risk factors significantly increased thepossibility of carotid stenosis development.

  4. Tasting Arterial Blood: What do the Carotid Chemoreceptors Sense?

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    Nanduri R. Prabakhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The carotid bodies are sensory organs that detect the chemical composition of the arterial blood. The carotid body sensory activity increases in response to arterial hypoxemia and the ensuing chemoreflex regulates vital homeostatic functions. Recent studies suggest that the carotid bodies might also sense arterial blood glucose and circulating insulin levels. This review focuses on how the carotid bodies sense O2, glucose and insulin and some potential implications of these sensory functions on physiological regulation and in pathophysiological conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that carbon monoxide (CO-regulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S, stemming from hypoxia, depolarizes type I cells by inhibiting certain K+ channels, facilitates voltage-gated Ca2+ influx leading to sensory excitation of the carotid body. Elevated CO and decreased H2S renders the carotid bodies insensitive to hypoxia resulting in attenuated ventilatory adaptations to high altitude hypoxia, whereas reduced CO and high H2S result in hypersensitivity of the carotid bodies to hypoxia and hypertension. Acute hypoglycemia augments the carotid body responses to hypoxia but that a prolonged lack of glucose in the carotid bodies can lead to a failure to sense hypoxia. Emerging evidence also indicates that carotid bodies might sense insulin directly independent of its effect on glucose, linking the carotid bodies to the pathophysiological consequences of the metabolic syndrome. How glucose and insulin interact with the CO-H2S signalling is an area of ongoing study.KEY WORDS: Glomus cells, K+ channels, Carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hypoglycemia, diabetes.

  5. ANALYSIS OF EFFECT AND COMPLICATION ON SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CAROTID BODY TUMORS IN 46 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月宏; 刘暴; 李拥军; 刘昌伟; 管珩

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To describe the effects of surgical treatment and complications in 46 patients with carotid body tumor (CBT). Method. Retrospective study on surgical treatment and complications was carried out in 46 cases of CBT which were surgically treated with different kind of procedures. Result. All procedures performed successfully except that the CBT was not excised in 4 cases. No operative mortality was observed. There were 2 postoperative hemiplegia, 4 hypoglossal nerve impairment,2 glossopharyngeal nerve impairment, 1 vagus nerve impairment, and 1 accessory nerve impairment. One patient presented postoperative cranial nerve impairment in glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerves. Two patients developed local recurrence during the long-term follow-up. Conclusion. Complete surgical excision was possible in each patient if the diagnosis had been correctly made through selective preoperative angiography, vessel ultrasound Doppler and other examinations.Reasonable surgical procedure and Matas training were necessary to the successful surgical treatment and thus decrease the complicative incidence rate of carotid chemodectomas.

  6. Color Doppler Ultrasound in Diagnosis and Assessment of Carotid Body Tumors: Comparison with Computed Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhan-Qiang; He, Wen; Wu, Dong-Fang; Lin, Mei-Ying; Jiang, Hua-Tang

    2016-09-01

    A carotid body tumor (CBT) is a rare, non-chromaffin paraganglioma, and its diagnosis mainly depends on imaging modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the diagnosis and assessment of CBT based on computed tomography (CT). We retrospectively reviewed the CDU and CT features of 49 consecutive CBTs and 23 schwannomas from 67 patients and compared these findings with surgical resection specimens. The mean size of CBT lesions on ultrasound scans and CT angiography (CTA) was 3.24 cm ± 0.82 cm (range, 1.6-5.2 cm) and 3.84 cm ± 1.08 cm (range, 1.8-6.8 cm), respectively, which had statistically significant difference (t = 9.815, p = 0.000). The vascularity of CBT lesions was richer than that of schwannoma lesions (p CDU in identifying Shamblin type I CBT lesions, while CTA technique was superior for CDU, identifying Shamblin type II and III CBT lesions. Accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of CDU in diagnosing CBTs were 87.5% (63 of 72), 82.6% (19 of 23) and 89.8% (44 of 49), respectively. Both accuracy and sensitivity of CTA in diagnosing CBTs were 100%. CDU can be useful for assessment of Shamblin's type and intra-lesional blood flow of CBTs before its metastases, while CT imaging can reveal the relationship between lesions and adjacent arteries, as well as the involvement of the skull base. CDU combined with CT imaging can be used as an optimal detection modality for the assessment and management of CBT.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during the early postnatal period adversely affects the structure and function of the developing rat carotid body.

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    Master, Zankhana R; Porzionato, Andrea; Kesavan, Kalpashri; Mason, Ariel; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Shirahata, Machiko; Gauda, Estelle B

    2016-09-01

    The carotid body (CB) substantially influences breathing in premature infants by affecting the frequency of apnea and periodic breathing. In adult animals, inflammation alters the structure and chemosensitivity of the CB, yet it is not known if this pertains to neonates. We hypothesized that early postnatal inflammation leads to morphological and functional changes in the developing rat CB, which persists for 1 wk after the initial provoking insult. To test our hypothesis, we exposed rat pups at postnatal day 2 (P2) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) or saline (SAL) intraperitoneally. At P9-10 (1 wk after treatment), LPS-exposed animals had significantly more spontaneous intermittent hypoxic (IH) events, attenuated ventilatory responses to changes in oxygen tension (measured by whole body plethysmography), and attenuated hypoxic chemosensitivity of the carotid sinus nerve (measured in vitro), compared with SAL-exposed controls. These functional changes were associated with the following: 1) increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels; 2) decreased volume of supportive type II cells; and 3) elevated dopamine levels (a major inhibitory neuromodulator) within the CB. These findings suggest that early postnatal inflammation in newborn rats adversely affects the structure and function of the CB and is associated with increased frequency of intermittent desaturations, similar to the phenomenon observed in premature infants. Furthermore, this is the first newborn model of spontaneous intermittent desaturations that may be used to understand the mechanisms contributing to IH events in newborns.

  8. Hemodynamic and ventilatory response to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid body-denervated rats

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    João Paulo J. Sabino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chemoreceptors play an important role in the autonomic modulation of circulatory and ventilatory responses to changes in arterial O2 and/or CO2. However, studies evaluating hemodynamic responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in rats have shown inconsistent results. Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body-denervated rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ligature of carotid body arteries (or sham-operation and received catheters into the left femoral artery and vein. After two days, each animal was placed into a plethysmographic chamber and, after baseline measurements of respiratory parameters and arterial pressure, each animal was subjected to three levels of hypoxia (15, 10 and 6% O2 and hypercapnia (10% CO2. RESULTS: The results indicated that 15% O2 decreased the mean arterial pressure and increased the heart rate (HR in both intact (n = 8 and carotid body-denervated (n = 7 rats. In contrast, 10% O2did not change the mean arterial pressure but still increased the HR in intact rats, and it decreased the mean arterial pressure and increased the heart rate in carotid body-denervated rats. Furthermore, 6% O2 increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased the HR in intact rats, but it decreased the mean arterial pressure and did not change the HR in carotid body-denervated rats. The 3 levels of hypoxia increased pulmonary ventilation in both groups, with attenuated responses in carotid body-denervated rats. Hypercapnia with 10% CO2 increased the mean arterial pressure and decreased HR similarly in both groups. Hypercapnia also increased pulmonary ventilation in both groups to the same extent. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses varied according to the level of hypoxia. Nevertheless, the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia did not depend on the

  9. GabaB receptors activation in the NTS blocks the glycemic responses induced by carotid body receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Mónica; Montero, Sergio; Cadenas, José Luis; Lara, José Jesús; Tejeda-Chávez, Héctor Rafael; Alvarez-Buylla, Ramón; de Alvarez-Buylla, Elena Roces

    2008-08-18

    The carotid body receptors participate in glucose regulation sensing glucose levels in blood entering the cephalic circulation. The carotid body receptors information, is initially processed within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and elicits changes in circulating glucose and brain glucose uptake. Previous work has shown that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in NTS modulates respiratory reflexes, but the role of GABA within NTS in glucose regulation remains unknown. Here we show that GABA(B) receptor agonist (baclofen) or antagonists (phaclofen and CGP55845A) locally injected into NTS modified arterial glucose levels and brain glucose retention. Control injections outside NTS did not elicit these responses. In contrast, GABA(A) agonist and antagonist (muscimol or bicuculline) produced no significant changes in blood glucose levels. When these GABAergic drugs were applied before carotid body receptors stimulation, again, only GABA(B) agonist or antagonist significantly affected glycemic responses; baclofen microinjection significantly reduced the hyperglycemic response and brain glucose retention observed after carotid body receptors stimulation, while phaclofen produced the opposite effect, increasing significantly hyperglycemia and brain glucose retention. These results indicate that activation of GABA(B), but not GABA(A), receptors in the NTS modulates the glycemic responses after anoxic stimulation of the carotid body receptors, and suggest the presence of a tonic inhibitory mechanism in the NTS to avoid hyperglycemia.

  10. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma masquerading as a carotid body tumour with a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula

    2012-01-31

    Carotid body tumours (CBT) are the most common tumours at the carotid bifurcation. Widening of the bifurcation is usually demonstrated on conventional angiography. This sign may also be produced by a schwannoma of the cervical sympathetic plexus. A 45-year-old patient presented with a neck mass. Investigations included contrast-enhanced CT, MRI and magnetic resonance arteriography with contrast enhancement. Radiologically, the mass was considered to be a CBT due to vascular enhancement and splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries. Intraoperatively, it was determined to be a cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma (CSCS). The patient had a postoperative complication of first-bite syndrome (FBS).Although rare, CSCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis for tumours at the carotid bifurcation. Damage to the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland can result in severe postoperative pain characterised by FBS and should be considered in all patients undergoing surgery involving the parapharyngeal space.

  11. Giant malignant carotid body tumor in a 40 years old woman: a case report from Gondar University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalu, Ashenafi; Anderson, Bernard; Tesfaye, Wegahta

    2013-10-01

    The Carotid Body Tumor (CBT) should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with an anterior lateral neck mass (mass in the region of carotid artery bifurcation) even though it is a rare neoplasm. Physical findings that support the diagnosis include pulsation without expansile palpation and the ability to move the mass from side to side but not vertically. The diagnosis is supported further by radiological procedures that may include US, CT, MRI and arteriography. Once the diagnosis is made, surgery is the principal treatment and the only curative modality but has inherent risks for hemorrhage and stroke for which the patient should be informed. Radiation therapy has been shown to be an alternative to surgery in certain patients and an adjunct to surgery in others. The internal carotid artery may need to be resected in order to remove the tumor. The surgeon needs to be prepared to employ intraoperative stump pressure manometry, to use intravascular shunts and be familiar with the several diagnostic and reconstructive vascular techniques relevant to this area, any of which may be needed to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion thereby reducing the risk of stroke and death that may attend simple ligation of the internal carotid artery. Regional anesthesia has proven benefit in carotid endarterectomy surgery. This technique may have a role in CBT surgery. In this paper we present an encounter with a giant malignant carotid body tumor and a brief review of CBTs in the English literature.

  12. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients

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    Ding, Ya-Hui; Wei, Tie-Ming; Qian, Lin-Yan; Ma, Yuan; Lao, Di-Bo; Yao, Bin; Pang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we investigated the distribution of vitamin D and its association with carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CP) in Chinese type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We performed a cross-sectional study in 210 T2D and 94 age- and gender-matched nondiabetic patients during winter months, by determining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic controls. We carried out measurements of B-mode ultrasonography of carotid arteries in each T2D patient. The 25(OH)D concentration was 26.25 nmol/L among the T2D patients. About 93.3% T2D patients suffered from hypovitaminosis D. First, we found a clear inverse correlation between the 25(OH)D concentration and CP (P confounding factors, we also observed a positive correlation between low levels of 25(OH)D in T2D patients with CP, when the following parameters were measured: old age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.533, P = 0.013); smoking (OR = 3.872, P = 0.001); and high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (OR = 2.776, P = 0.009). Thus, we concluded that high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D exists in Chinese T2D patients. Further, we found a significant association between low concentration of serum 25(OH)D and the existence of high body mass index, and high circulating LDL to be substantially positive predictors of patients with CP in T2D. PMID:28353575

  13. Experimental Study on Heterograft of Glomus Ccl ls of Carotid Body for Hemioarkinsonian Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学兵; 孙圣刚; 童萼塘

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To observe the effects of heterograft of glomus cells of carotid body on hemiparkinsonian rat models, rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of the right dopamin ergic neurons of substantia nigra received intrastriatal glomus cells heterograft. Apomorphine-induced rotation was monitored for 30 rmin at various time points after grafting. The striata were cut and ex-amined for dopamine content by HPLC and for immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons (TH+ ) at the end of the experiments. The results showed that apomorphine-induced rotational behavior was significantly reduced for 12 weeks and the dopamine contents were signifi cantly elevated after grafting (P<0.01), and TH+ cells survived better. The present study demon strates that intrastriatal heterograft of glomus cells within carotid body in rats with 6-OHDA-elicited lesions could reduce apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and elevate the dopamine contents and numbers of TH+ cell surviving within striatum, and can serve as a new and effective alternative for Parkinson disease.

  14. Synchronous malignant vagal paraganglioma with contralateral carotid body paraganglioma treated by radiation therapy

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    Devlina Chakarvarty

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are rare tumors and very few cases of malignant vagal paraganglioma with synchronous carotid body paraganglioma have been reported. We report a case of a 20-year old male who presented with slow growing bilateral neck masses of eight years duration. He had symptoms of dysphagia to solids, occasional mouth breathing and hoarseness of voice. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC performed where he lived showed a sinus histiocytosis and he was administered anti-tubercular treatment for six months without any improvement in his symptoms. His physical examination revealed pulsatile, soft to firm, non-tender swellings over the anterolateral neck confined to the upper-mid jugulo-diagastric region on both sides. Direct laryngoscopy examination revealed a bulge on the posterior pharyngeal wall and another over the right lateral pharyngeal wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 99mTc-labeled octreotide scan and angiography diagnosed the swellings as carotid body paraganglioma, stage III on the right side with left-sided vagal malignant paraganglioma. Surgery was ruled out as a high morbidity with additional risk to life was expected due to the highly vascular nature of the tumor. The patient was treated with radiation therapy by image guided radiation to a dose of 5040cGy in 28 fractions. At a follow-up at 16 months, the tumors have regressed bilaterally and the patient can take solids with ease.

  15. Risk Factors for the Progression of Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

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    Sang Ouk Chin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIntima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid arteries is known to have a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to identify risk factors affecting the progression of carotid IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsPatients with newly diagnosed T2DM with carotid IMT measurements were enrolled, and their clinical data and carotid IMT results at baseline and 2 years later were compared.ResultsOf the 171 patients, 67.2% of males and 50.8% of females had abnormal baseline IMT of the left common carotid artery. At baseline, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and smoking in male participants, and fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in females were significantly higher in patients with abnormal IMT than in those with normal IMT. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels in males and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels in females at the 2-year follow-up were significantly different between the nonprogression and the progression groups. Reduction of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk score after 2 years was generally higher in the nonprogression group than the progression group.ConclusionLDL-C levels in males and HDL-C levels in females at the 2-year follow-up were significantly different between participants with and without progression of carotid IMT. Furthermore, a reduction in the UKPDS 10-year CHD risk score appeared to delay the advancement of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the importance of establishing the therapeutic goal of lipid profiles should be emphasized to prevent the progression of carotid IMT in newly diagnosed T2DM patients.

  16. A comparison of ultrasound measurements to assess carotid atherosclerosis development in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

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    Zinman Bernard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjects with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk of vascular complications. The use of carotid ultrasound remains an attractive, non-invasive method to monitor atherosclerotic disease progression and/or response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, with intima-media thickness routinely used as the gold standard to detect pathology. However, alternative measurements, such as plaque area or volume, may represent a potentially more powerful approach. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the traditional intima-media thickness measurement against the novel total plaque volume measurement in analyzing carotid atherosclerosis development in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods The case-control study included 49 Oji-Cree adults with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, aged 21–69, and 49 sex- and age-matched normoglycemic subjects. At baseline, metabolic variables were measured, including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein ratio, plasma triglycerides, plasma glucose, and serum insulin. Carotid ultrasound measurements, 7 years later, assessed carotid arterial intima-media thickness and total plaque volume. Results At baseline, the two groups were well matched for smoking habits, hypertension, body mass index, and waist circumference. Differences were noted in baseline measurements of total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein (P = 0.0006, plasma triglycerides (P P P = 0.037, but not intima-media thickness measurements, were higher in subjects with diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance compared to the normoglycemic controls. Correlation between intima-media thickness and total plaque volume was moderate. Based on our study findings, to achieve power levels >0.70 when comparing intima-media thickness measurements for diabetics versus non-diabetics, thousands of study subjects are required. For comparing total plaque volume measurements, only hundreds of

  17. Volatile Anaesthetic Depression of the Carotid Body Chemoreflex-Mediated Ventilatory Response to Hypoxia: Directions for Future Research

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    J. J. Pandit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In assessing whether volatile anaesthetics directly depress the carotid body response to hypoxia it is necessary to combine in meta-analysis studies of when it is “functionally isolated” (e.g., recordings are made from its afferent nerve. Key articles were retrieved (full papers in English and subjected to quantitative analysis to yield an aggregate estimate of effect. Results from articles that did not use such methodology were assessed separately from this quantitative approach, to see what could be learned also from a nonquantitative overview. Just 7 articles met the inclusion criteria for hypoxia and just 6 articles for hypercapnia. Within these articles, the anaesthetic (mean dose 0.75, standard deviation (SD 0.40 minimum alveolar concentration, MAC statistically significantly depressed carotid body hypoxic response by 24% (P=0.041, but a similar dose (mean 0.81 (0.42 MAC did not affect the hypercapnic response. The articles not included in the quantitative analysis (31 articles, assessed qualitatively, also indicated that anaesthetics depress carotid body function. This conclusion helps direct future research on the anaesthetic effects on putative cellular/molecular processes that underlie the transduction of hypoxia in the carotid body.

  18. The Carotid Body Does Not Mediate the Acute Ventilatory Effects of Leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, E; Ribeiro, M J; Gallego-Martin, T; Yubero, S; Rigual, R; Masa, J F; Obeso, A; Conde, S V; Gonzalez, C

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced mostly in adipose tissue and playing a key role in the control of feeding and energy expenditure aiming to maintain a balance between food intake and metabolic activity. In recent years, it has been described that leptin might also contributes to control ventilation as the administration of the hormone reverses the hypoxia and hypercapnia commonly encountered in ob/ob mice which show absence of the functional hormone. In addition, it has been shown that the carotid body (CB) of the rat expresses leptin as well as the functional leptin-B receptor. Therefore, the possibility exists that the ventilatory effects of leptin are mediated by the CB chemoreceptors. In the experiments described below we confirm the stimulatory effect of leptin on ventilation, finding additionally that the CB does not mediate the instant to instant control of ventilation.

  19. Assessment of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Microalbuminuria by High-Frequency Ultrasonography

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    Yu-Hong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate carotid atherosclerosis in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with microalbuminuria (MA by high-frequency ultrasonography. Two hundred and fifty patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into two groups according to urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER: normoalbuminuria group (130 cases and microalbuminuria group (120 cases. The intimal-medial thickness (IMT and the atherosclerotic plaques of carotid artery were observed in both groups by high-frequency ultrasound. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c, and lipid profiles were measured. The values of IMT of microalbuminuria group were significantly higher than those of normoalbuminuria group (P<0.05. In univariate analysis, IMT was positively and significantly associated with age (r=0.265, P<0.05, waist circumference (r=0.263, P<0.05, body mass index (r=0.285, P<0.05, systolic blood pressure (r=0.276, P<0.05, UAER (r=0.359, P<0.05, HbA1c (r=0.462, P<0.05 and, duration of diabetes (r=0.370, P<0.05. In multivariate linear regression analysis, UAER and HbA1c were independent predictors of IMT (P<0.05 for all. In the two groups, the rate of soft plaques was higher than that of dense plaques and calcified plaques. In conclusion, there is a significant association between microalbuminuria and IMT which is regarded as the early sign of carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients.

  20. Tetrodotoxin as a Tool to Elucidate Sensory Transduction Mechanisms: The Case for the Arterial Chemoreceptors of the Carotid Body

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    Constancio Gonzalez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies (CBs are secondary sensory receptors in which the sensing elements, chemoreceptor cells, are activated by decreases in arterial PO2 (hypoxic hypoxia. Upon activation, chemoreceptor cells (also known as Type I and glomus cells increase their rate of release of neurotransmitters that drive the sensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN which ends in the brain stem where reflex responses are coordinated. When challenged with hypoxic hypoxia, the physiopathologically most relevant stimulus to the CBs, they are activated and initiate ventilatory and cardiocirculatory reflexes. Reflex increase in minute volume ventilation promotes CO2 removal from alveoli and a decrease in alveolar PCO2 ensues. Reduced alveolar PCO2 makes possible alveolar and arterial PO2 to increase minimizing the intensity of hypoxia. The ventilatory effect, in conjunction the cardiocirculatory components of the CB chemoreflex, tend to maintain an adequate supply of oxygen to the tissues. The CB has been the focus of attention since the discovery of its nature as a sensory organ by de Castro (1928 and the discovery of its function as the origin of ventilatory reflexes by Heymans group (1930. A great deal of effort has been focused on the study of the mechanisms involved in O2 detection. This review is devoted to this topic, mechanisms of oxygen sensing. Starting from a summary of the main theories evolving through the years, we will emphasize the nature and significance of the findings obtained with veratridine and tetrodotoxin (TTX in the genesis of current models of O2-sensing.

  1. Influence of age, body mass index, and blood pressure on the carotid intima-media thickness in normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzikova, Natasa; Labrova, Ruzena; Fiser, Bohumil; Maderova, Eva; Novakova, Zuzana; Zavodna, Eva; Semrad, Borivoj

    2006-10-01

    We investigated whether body mass index and blood pressure have an additive influence on the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). In 27 patients treated for hypertension (47.2+/-8.7 years) and 23 normotensive subjects (44.1+/-8.1 years), 24-h recording of blood pressure was performed. The carotid IMT was determined by ultrasonography and baroreflex sensitivity by a spectral method from 5-min recordings of blood pressure. Significant differences between hypertensive and normotensive subjects were observed for carotid IMT (0.60+/-0.08 vs. 0.51+/-0.07 mm; pmass index (pinfluenced by either age or body mass index. Baroreflex sensitivity decreased with age (pinfluence of age and body mass index on the development of carotid IMT is essential only in normotensive subjects. In hypertensive subjects the influence of blood pressure predominates, as documented by a comparison of the carotid IMT between hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

  2. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body: mechanisms and role in adaptation to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barneo, José; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gao, Lin; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Pardal, Ricardo; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia

    2016-04-15

    Oxygen (O2) is fundamental for cell and whole-body homeostasis. Our understanding of the adaptive processes that take place in response to a lack of O2(hypoxia) has progressed significantly in recent years. The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the acute cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation) triggered by hypoxia. The CB is composed of clusters of cells (glomeruli) in close contact with blood vessels and nerve fibers. Glomus cells, the O2-sensitive elements in the CB, are neuron-like cells that contain O2-sensitive K(+)channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia. This leads to cell depolarization, Ca(2+)entry, and the release of transmitters to activate sensory fibers terminating at the respiratory center. The mechanism whereby O2modulates K(+)channels has remained elusive, although several appealing hypotheses have been postulated. Recent data suggest that mitochondria complex I signaling to membrane K(+)channels plays a fundamental role in acute O2sensing. CB activation during exposure to low Po2is also necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxia. CB growth during sustained hypoxia depends on the activation of a resident population of stem cells, which are also activated by transmitters released from the O2-sensitive glomus cells. These advances should foster further studies on the role of CB dysfunction in the pathogenesis of highly prevalent human diseases.

  3. Stenting of Variant Left Carotid Artery Using Brachial Artery Approach in a Patient with Unusual Type of Bovine Aortic Arch

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    Emre Gürel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine aortic arch is the most frequently encountered variation in human aortic arch branching. A 63-year-old Asian male presented with symptomatic severe stenosis of left carotid artery originating from the brachiocephalic trunk. Selective engagement to the left carotid artery was unsuccessful using transfemoral approach. We reported on a successful left carotid artery stenting case using right brachial artery approach in a bovine aortic arch. This paper is worthy of reporting in terms of guiding physicians for interventional procedures in these types of challenging cases.

  4. Effects on the rabbit carotid body of stimulation by almitrine, natural high altitude, and experimental normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Heath, D; Fitch, R; Hurst, G; Moore, D; Weitzenblum, E

    1986-06-01

    Rabbits were given intraperitoneal injections of almitrine in ascending doses for 5 weeks. They were compared with a control group and with a group of rabbits which had been exposed from birth to the natural hypobaric hypoxia found at Cerro de Pasco (433 m) in the Peruvian Andes. A further group of animals was placed in an experimental normobaric chamber for either 3 or 6 months to subject them to the same degree of hypoxia as that occurring in Cerro. The carotid bodies of the rabbits in all these groups were processed for light and electron microscopy, and examined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The carotid bodies in the group given almitrine showed no changes in their size or in the population of their glomic cells when compared with controls. In contrast, the carotid bodies of Peruvian rabbits were greatly enlarged with a disproportionate increase in the population of the light variant of chief cell. Rabbits from the hypoxic chamber also had enlarged carotid bodies but those killed after 3 months showed an increase in the dark variant of chief cell, whereas after 6 months this cell was reduced in number. There was also intense cytoplasmic vacuolation. Election microscopy confirmed these changes and revealed that dark cells had larger, more pleomorphic granules than the light variant. Vacuolation of the granules in light cells was most pronounced in Peruvian rabbits, but was uncommon in animals exposed to hypoxia for 3 months. We suggest that the dark cell responds to the early stages of hypoxia but later matures into the light variant of chief cell.

  5. The use of dual source CT in diagnosis of carotid body tumors%双源CT在颈动脉体瘤诊治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹罡; 郭婷; 周长圣; 张森林; 孟昭业; 杨震; 董震; 徐金科; 毛钊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of dual source CT in diagnosis and treatment of carotid body tumors.Methods Between Sep, 2007 and April 2010, a total of 5 patients who were planed to be diagnosed as carotid body underwent dual source CT.The relationship of the tumour and the near vessels, and the character of the tumor were identified by analysis of clinical signs and imaging results.The risk factors and feasibility of operations were evaluated before done.The tumors were resected.Results The clear edge mass of soft tissue was shown in all 5 patients in dual source CT images at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery.The minors presented obviously enhanced high-density after contrast media administration.The tumors have plenty blood supply.4 patients with small tumor in only one side show especially “cup-sign”.One female patient with bilateral tumors didn't have“ cup-sign” and significant narrow blood vessel, however the tumors were much bigger.5 patients were all diagnosed by dual source CT.The tumonrs were resected and reserved common carotid artery and internal carotid artery.Couclusion Dual source CT is convenience, non-trauma.Its information can be composited.It can offer overall image information of the blood vessel disease such as CBT, which is very important for diagnosis, typing, evaluation the risk of the operation of CBT.So, dual source CT can be the first choice in the diagnosis of carotid body tumor.%目的 评价双源CT(dual source CT,DSCT)在颈动脉体瘤(carotid body tumor,CBT)诊断、治疗中的价值.方法 2007年9月至2010年4月对临床拟诊CBT的5例行颈部双源CT检查,根据临床体征及影像学检查确定肿瘤的性质及其与颈总、颈内、颈外动脉的关系,评估手术的风险及可行性.结果 5例DSCT检查结果均显示颈总动脉分叉处界线清晰的软组织实性肿块.增强扫描后病灶均呈明显强化,瘤体血供丰富.4例单侧瘤体较小CBT呈现典型的"高脚杯"征.1例双

  6. Local intra-arterial thrombolysis in the carotid territory: does recanalization depend on the thromboembolus type?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Wilhelm, K.; Flacke, S.; Schild, H.H. [Department of Radiology/Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Hartmann, A.; Pohl, C.; Klockgether, T. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Omran, H. [Department of Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Little is known about whether recanalization of carotid territory occlusions by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) depends on the type of the occluding thromboembolus. We retrospectively analysed the records of 62 patients with thromboembolic occlusions of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation or the middle cerebral artery who were undergoing LIT with urokinase within 6 h of symptom onset. We determined the influence of thromboembolus type (according to the TOAST criteria), thromboembolus location, leptomeningeal collaterals, time interval from onset of symptoms to onset of thrombolysis, and patient's age on recanalization. The thromboembolus type was atherosclerotic in six patients, cardioembolic in 29, of other determined etiology in four, and of undetermined etiology in 23 patients. Thirty-three (53%) thromboembolic occlusions were recanalized. The thromboembolus location but not the TOAST stroke type nor other parameters affected recanalization. In the TOAST group of patients with cardioembolic occlusions recanalization occurred significantly less frequently when transoesophageal echocardiography showed cardiac thrombus. The present study underlines the thromboembolus location as being the most important parameter affecting recanalization. The fact that thromboembolic occlusions originating from cardiac thrombi had a lower likelihood of being resolved by thrombolysis indicates the thromboembolus type as another parameter affecting recanalization. (orig.)

  7. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Carotid Body Chemosensory Potentiation and Hypertension Are Critically Dependent on Peroxynitrite Formation

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    Esteban A. Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the development of carotid body (CB chemosensory potentiation and systemic hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea. We tested whether peroxynitrite (ONOO−, a highly reactive nitrogen species, is involved in the enhanced CB oxygen chemosensitivity and the hypertension during CIH. Accordingly, we studied effects of Ebselen, an ONOO− scavenger, on 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (3-NT-ir in the CB, the CB chemosensory discharge, and arterial blood pressure (BP in rats exposed to CIH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (5% O2, 12 times/h, 8 h/day for 7 days. Ebselen (10 mg/kg/day was administrated using osmotic minipumps and BP measured with radiotelemetry. Compared to the sham animals, CIH-treated rats showed increased 3-NT-ir within the CB, enhanced CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia, increased BP response to acute hypoxia, and hypertension. Rats treated with Ebselen and exposed to CIH displayed a significant reduction in 3-NT-ir levels (60.8 ± 14.9 versus 22.9 ± 4.2 a.u., reduced CB chemosensory response to 5% O2 (266.5 ± 13.4 versus 168.6 ± 16.8 Hz, and decreased mean BP (116.9 ± 13.2 versus 82.1 ± 5.1 mmHg. Our results suggest that CIH-induced CB chemosensory potentiation and hypertension are critically dependent on ONOO− formation.

  9. Association between fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香; 田浩明; 刘瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of fasting and postpiandial triglyceride with carotid intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients in southeast China.Methods A total of 78 type 2 diabetic patients from southeast China were recruited. All the subjects underwent a standardized mixed-meal test (SMMT) and an oral glucose tolerance test. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by color doppler ultrasound examination.Results Postprandial triglyceride (PTG) after SMMT increased significantly in type 2 diabetic patients. The carotid IMT in patients with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was sinificantly greater than that in patients with postprandial normal-triglyceridemia (0.90 mm vs 0.81 mm, P0.05).Conclusion The results suggest that postprandial hypertriglyeridemia may be an independent risk factor of early atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Cumulative Effects of Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Chronic Kidney Disease on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Chuang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in relation to the cumulative atherosclerosis risk factors using ultrasonography. Methods. The presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD was documented in 106 Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with 0, 1, and ≥2 additional atherosclerosis risk factors were assigned into groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=17, 49, and 40, resp.. Using ultrasound, the carotid arteries were assessed for the presence of carotid plaque, plaque score, intima-media thickness (IMT, and carotid arterial stiffness. Results. With the adjustment for age and gender, the presence of plaque and plaque score were significantly higher in groups with more atherosclerosis risk factors (P 60 years old (odds ratio = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26–6.0 and the presence of hypertension (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.11–5.58, dyslipidemia (odds ratio = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.05–5.51, and CKD (odds ratio = 7.80; 95% CI: 1.46–41.72 could independently predict higher plaque score (P<0.05. Conclusions. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and CKD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes have cumulative effects on the burden of carotid plaque.

  11. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.

  12. ASSOCIATION OF POSTPRANDIAL HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA AND CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DM

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    Suresh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dyslipidemia that accompanies type 2 diabetes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis. Several studies have proved that in type 2 diabetes, elevated triglyceride levels may be a better predictor of Ischemic heart disease (IHD than elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Although triglyceride levels are generally increased in the postprandial periods, the association between postprandial triglyceride levels and atherosclerosis has not been investigated in diabetic patients. The carotid intima media thickness (CIMT is increased in patients with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia despite normal fasting triglyceride levels. So to investigate the role of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in early atherosclerosis there is a need to correlate between postprandial triglyceride levels and carotid intima media thickness values. METHODS: This is a comparative study in which 50 patients of Diabetes mellitus type 2 >1 year duration of age 35-75 years were included. Carotid artery Doppler was done by B-mode ultrasound using a 7.5 MHZ transducer with annular array ultrasound imaging system. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast and blood samples were taken again 4 hrs after the meal. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: The study population (Type 2 diabetics is divided into 3 groups based on fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels. NORMO-NORMAL (NN GROUP: This group consists of subjects with normal fasting triglyceride level (≤150 mgs/dl and normal postprandial triglyceride levels (≤200 mgs/dl. NORMO-HYPER (NH GROUP: This group consists of subjects with normal fasting triglyceride level (≤150 mgs/dl and elevated postprandial triglyceride levels (>200 mgs/dl. HYPER – HYPER (HH GROUP: This group consists of subjects with elevated fasting triglyceride level (>150mgs/dl and elevated postprandial triglyceride levels (>200 mgs/dl. CONCLUSION: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, despite normal fasting triglyceride levels

  13. 颈动脉体瘤的影像学诊断%Imaging diagnosis of carotid body tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨分析颈动脉体瘤的影像学特征。方法收集2009年至2016年经上级医院手术病理证实的5例颈动脉体瘤的影像学资料,其中4例在我院行CT检查,后将原始图像上传至工作站进行MPR、VR等后处理;1例行MR检查。通过查阅文献资料,回顾性分析颈动脉体瘤的CT、MR影像特征及CT后处理技术在颈动脉体瘤中的应用价值。结果5例颈动脉体瘤,均为单侧,男2例,女3例,年龄28~45岁,5例均位于颈总动脉分叉处,使颈内外动脉分叉角增大;4例行CT检查,病变边缘光滑,椭圆形;增强扫描明显强化,以动脉期显著,与邻近动脉密度几近相似,2例病变表面见增粗迂曲的血管影;1例行MR检查,病变较大,边界清晰,边缘见分叶, T1WI病变内见"椒盐"征,增强T1WI显示病变明显强化。结论颈动脉体瘤CT及MR具有特征性表现,CT后处理技术及MR多方位扫描可以清晰显示病变部位及病变与邻近血管的位置关系,从而指导临床手术。%Objective To analyze the Imaging features of carotid body tumor. Methods 5 cases of carotid body tumor imaging data by pathology were collected, 4 cases of CT examination and Volume Rendering(VR) and multi planar reconstruction(MPR), 1case of MR examination. the imaging features and CT post-processing technique in the application value of carotid body tumor were analyzed retrospectively. Results 5 cases was all single, 2 cases were male, 3 cases were female,age 28 to 45 years old, 5 cases were all located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery, usually caused the internal and external carotid arteries shifted,and the angle between the two arteries became enlarged; 4 cases of CT examination,defined margin and marked enhancement, significantly to arterial phase, and the adjacent arteries density was almost similar, 2 cases of lesions in surface showed circuitous vessels. 1case of MR examination, lesions was bigger, well

  14. Myocardial ischemia, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease and their interrelationship in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael K; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Dahl, Jordi;

    2009-01-01

    for the first time and age-matched nondiabetic reference subjects (n = 40) were screened for myocardial ischemia, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease by means of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, carotid artery ultrasonography, and peripheral ankle and toe systolic blood pressure measurements. RESULTS......: In the T2DM patients, the prevalence of myocardial ischemia, carotid, and peripheral arterial disease was 30%, 42%, and 15%, respectively, almost three times higher than in the reference subjects (P = 0.007, P = 0.001, and P = 0.09, respectively). T2DM patients with myocardial ischemia, carotid...

  15. Lower body positive pressure application with an antigravity suit in acute carotid occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Karine; Lukaszewicz, Anne Claire; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Payen, Didier

    2010-04-01

    The challenge in acute stroke is still to reperfuse as early as possible the ischemic territory. Since fibrinolytic therapies have a limited window with potential risk of bleeding, having a nonpharmacologic mean to recruit vessels in area surrounding necrosis might be useful. We propose here to use antigravity suit inflated at "venous" pressure levels to shift blood towards thoracic and brain territories. We report two cases of spectacular clinical recovery after acute carotid occlusion.

  16. Lower Body Positive Pressure Application with an Antigravity Suit in Acute Carotid Occlusion

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    Karine Berthet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in acute stroke is still to reperfuse as early as possible the ischemic territory. Since fibrinolytic therapies have a limited window with potential risk of bleeding, having a nonpharmacologic mean to recruit vessels in area surrounding necrosis might be useful. We propose here to use antigravity suit inflated at “venous” pressure levels to shift blood towards thoracic and brain territories. We report two cases of spectacular clinical recovery after acute carotid occlusion.

  17. Analysis of IGF-1, Lp-PLA2, hs-CRP, Hcy levels in type 2 diabetes patients complicated with carotid atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Lun Ye; Zhuo-Zhang Luo; Wei-Ming Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the levels of IGF-1, Lp-PLA2, hs-CRP, Hcy in type 2 diabetes patients complicated with carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: 90 cases of type 2 diabetes patients complicated with carotid atherosclerosis in our hospital from May 2013 to August 2014 were enrolled in observation group and further divided into mild stenosis group, moderate stenosis group, severe stenosis group according to the judgment of color ultrasonography on carotid artery carotid artery stenosis, divided into mild sclerosis group, moderate sclerosis group, severe sclerosis group according to carotid artery plaque score. At the same time type 2 diabetic patients without complications in our hospital were enrolled in the control group. Then serums IGF-1, Lp-PLA2, hs-CRP, Hcy levels were assayed. Results: serum IGF-1, Lp-PLA2, hs-CRP, Hcy levels of observation group were higher than those of control group; as carotid artery stenosis and sclerosis degree got greater, serum IGF-1, Lp-PLA2, hs-CRP, Hcy levels were higher. Conclusion:serum IGF-1, Lp-PLA2, hs-CRP, Hcy levels in type 2 diabetes patients complicated with carotid atherosclerosis abnormally increased and it can reflect the degree of carotid stenosis and sclerosis.

  18. Vitamin D, carotid intima-media thickness and bone structure in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winckler, Karoline; Tarnow, Lise; Lundby-Christensen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    with osteoporosis. A 25(OH)D level was not associated with carotid IMT or arterial stiffness (P>0.3) or bone health (P>0.6) after adjustment for CVD risk factors. In conclusion, 25(OH)D status was not associated with carotid IMT, arterial stiffness or bone health in this cohort of patients with T2D. To explore...

  19. A Short-Term Fasting in Neonates Induces Breathing Instability and Epigenetic Modification in the Carotid Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Machiko; Tang, Wan-Yee; Kostuk, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The respiratory control system is not fully developed in newborn, and data suggest that adequate nutrition is important for the development of the respiratory control system. Infants need to be fed every 2-4 h to maintain appropriate energy levels, but a skip of feeding can occur due to social economical reasons or mild sickness of infants. Here, we asked questions if a short-term fasting (1) alters carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity and integrated function of the respiratory control system; (2) causes epigenetic modification within the respiratory control system. Mouse pups (fasting time was longer. The hypoxic response of the carotid sinus nerve activity appeared to be depressed after fasting. Moreover, fasting increased global 5mC and 5-hmC content in DNA isolated from the CB but not DNA in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Methylation specific PCR (MSPCR) revealed that fasting increased methylation of leptin and socs3 genes. The results suggest fasting inhibits CB activity leading to hypoventilation, and low glucose does not compensate the low CB activity. Epigenetic effect on CB function/activity may be related to the prolonged effect of fasting on ventilation.

  20. Paraganglioma of the carotid body: Report of 26 patients and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainine Rim

    2015-03-01

    Results: The present study included 6 men and 20 women. Bilateral involvement of the carotid glomus was noted in 2 cases and tympano-jugular location was associated in 2 other cases. Ultrasound of the neck, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance (MR tomography were performed in 13, 17 and 10 cases, respectively. 2 patients have had preoperative embolization and 22 patients, in total, were operated. External radiation was an exclusive therapeutic option in 2 patients and adjuvant to incomplete surgery in one patient. Only one case of malignant paraganglioma was noted that evolution was, in fact, rapidly fatal.

  1. Internal carotid artery dissection in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS type IV, also known as vascular EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1/100,000 to 1/250,000. In EDS type IV, vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a preference for large- and medium-sized arteries. Dissections of the vertebral and carotid arteries in their extra- and intra-cranial segments are typical. The authors report the case of a patient with EDS type IV for whom the diagnosis was established based on clinical signs and who developed internal carotid artery dissection at the age of 44 years. In the absence of a specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical interventions should focus on symptomatic relief, prophylactic measures, and genetic counseling. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated, and a conservative approach to vascular complications is usually recommended.

  2. Assessment of Carotid Arterial Wall Elasticity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Microalbuminuria by Real-Time Ultrasound Elastography

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    Yu-Hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate carotid arterial wall elasticity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with microalbuminuria by real-time ultrasound elastography. Two hundred and ten T2DM patients were divided into two groups according to levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE: T2DM without microalbuminuria (T2DM1 group, 120 and T2DM with microalbuminuria (T2DM2 group, 90. The right common carotid arteries were examined by real-time ultrasound elastography. The strain ratio (SR, blood to arterial wall strain ratio was calculated by dividing the strain value of the blood by that of the carotid arterial wall. The correlation between SR and general data was analyzed. The mean SR value ± SD of T2DM2 group was significantly higher than that of T2DM1 group (P<0.05. SR was positively and significantly correlated with UAE, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure (r=0.456,0.435,0.235, P<0.05 for all. The mean value ± SD of UAE, HbA1c, 2hPG, BMI, and TC of T2DM2 group was significantly higher than that of T2DM1 group (P<0.05 for all. In conclusion, there is an association between microalbuminuria and carotid arterial wall elasticity in T2DM patients.

  3. Carotid Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Carotid Ultrasound Also known as carotid duplex. Carotid ultrasound is a painless imaging test that uses high- ... of your carotid arteries. This test uses an ultrasound machine, which includes a computer, a screen, and ...

  4. In the carotid body, galanin is a signal for neurogenesis in young, and for neurodegeneration in the old and in drug-addicted subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMazzatenta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body is a highly specialized chemoreceptive structure for the detection of and reaction to hypoxia, through induction of an increase in hypoxia inducible factor. As tissue hypoxia increases with ageing and can have dramatic effects in respiratory depression induced by drug addiction, we investigated the carotid body in young and old healthy subjects in comparison with drug-addicted subjects, including the expression of the neurotransmitter galanin. Galanin expression was recently reported for neuronal-like cells of the human carotid body, and it is implicated in several functions in neurons. In particular, this includes the regulation of differentiation of neural stem cells, and participation in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Using immunohistochemistry detection, we demonstrate that galanin expression in the human carotid body in healthy older subjects and drug-addicted subjects is significantly reduced in comparison with healthy young subjects. This demonstrates not only the effects of normal ageing and senescence, but also in the drug-addicted subjects, this is due to a disorganization of the chemo-sensory region. With both ageing and drug addiction, this results in a physiological reduction in neuronal-like cells, coupled with interlobular and intralobular increases in connective tissue fibers. Consequently, in both ageing and drug addiction, this reduction of neuronal-like cells and the regeneration suggest that the carotid body is losing its sensory capabilities, with the transmission of chemoreceptive signals dramatically and vitally reduced. The level of galanin expression thus provides a signal for neurogenesis in young subjects, and for neurodegeneration in older and drug-addicted subjects.

  5. In the carotid body, galanin is a signal for neurogenesis in young, and for neurodegeneration in the old and in drug-addicted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Marconi, Guya D.; Zara, Susi; Cataldi, Amelia; Porzionato, Andrea; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body is a highly specialized chemoreceptive structure for the detection of and reaction to hypoxia, through induction of an increase in hypoxia inducible factor. As tissue hypoxia increases with aging and can have dramatic effects in respiratory depression induced by drug addiction, we investigated the carotid body in young and old healthy subjects in comparison with drug-addicted subjects, including the expression of the neurotransmitter galanin. Galanin expression was recently reported for neuronal-like cells of the human carotid body, and it is implicated in several functions in neurons. In particular, this includes the regulation of differentiation of neural stem cells, and participation in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Using immunohistochemistry detection, we demonstrate that galanin expression in the human carotid body in healthy older subjects and drug-addicted subjects is significantly reduced in comparison with healthy young subjects. This demonstrates not only the effects of normal aging and senescence, but also in the drug-addicted subjects, this appears to be due to a disorganization of the chemo-sensory region. With both aging and drug addiction, this results in a physiological reduction in neuronal-like cells, coupled with interlobular and intralobular increases in connective tissue fibers. Consequently, in both aging and drug addiction, this reduction of neuronal-like cells and the regeneration suggest that the carotid body is losing its sensory capabilities, with the transmission of chemoreceptive signals dramatically and vitally reduced. The level of galanin expression would thus provide a signal for neurogenesis in young subjects, and for neurodegeneration in older and drug-addicted subjects. PMID:25400591

  6. Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Miklós Káplár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL activates complement system and has been suggested to play a role in vascular complications in diabetics. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT detects subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association of MBL and IMT in type 2 diabetic (T2DM patients. Methods. Serum MBL levels and cIMT were measured in a total of 103 diabetics and in 98 age-matched healthy controls. Results. There was no significant difference in MBL level in T2DM versus controls. As expected, IMT was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in controls (P=0.001. In T2DM, the lowest cIMT was seen in patients with normal MBL level (500–1000 while cIMT continuously increased with both high MBL and absolute MBL deficiency states. This was especially significant in high MBL versus normal MBL T2DM patients (P=0.002. According to multiple regression analysis the main predictors of IMT in T2DM are age (P<0.003, ApoA level (P=0.023, and the MBL (P=0.036. Conclusions. Our results suggest a dual role of MBL as a risk factor for cIMT in T2DM. MBL may also be used as a marker of macrovascular disease, as both low and high levels indicate the susceptibility for atherosclerosis in T2DM.

  7. Lower fractional anisotropy at the anterior body of the normal-appearing corpus callosum in multiple sclerosis versus symptomatic carotid occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin; Cai, Youquan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Jiang, Weijian; Ma, Ning [Capital University of Medical Sciences, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Huang, Dehui [PLA General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Beijing (China); Wong, Edward Hochung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-09-15

    Not uncommonly, differentiating multiple sclerosis (MS) from ischemic cerebral vascular disease is difficult based on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aim to determine whether preferential occult injury in the normal-appearing corpus callosum (NACC) is more severe in patients with MS than symptomatic carotid occlusion by comparing fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Eighteen patients (eight men, ten women; mean age, 38.6 years) with MS and 32 patients (24 men, eight women; mean age, 64.0 years) with symptomatic unilateral internal carotid occlusion were included. DTI (1.5 T) were performed at corpus callosum which were normal-appearing on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI. Mean FA was obtained from the genu, anterior body, posterior body, and splenium of NACC. Independent-sample t test statistical analysis was performed. The FA values in various regions of NACC were lower in the MS patients than symptomatic carotid occlusion patients, which was statistically different at the anterior body (0.67{+-}0.12 vs 0.74{+-}0.06, P=0.009), but not at genu, posterior body, and splenium (0.63{+-}0.09 vs 0.67{+-}0.07, P=0.13; 0.68{+-}0.09 vs 0.73{+-}0.05, P=0.07; 0.72{+-}0.09 vs 0.76{+-}0.05, P=0.13). MS patients have lower FA in the anterior body of NACC compared to patients with symptomatic carotid occlusion. It suggests that DTI has potential ability to differentiate these two conditions due to the more severe preferential occult injury at the anterior body of NACC in MS. (orig.)

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Guo, Kaifeng; Lu, Junxi; Zhao, Fangya; Yu, Haoyong; Han, Junfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of incident CVD events both in patients without diabetes and in those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, no published data are available regarding the association between NAFLD and C-IMT in T1DM. A total of 722 patients (371 men) with T1DM were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measures were detection of NAFLD, C-IMT and classical risk factors. The mean age of the subjects was 46.2 years, and 51.1% were male. The prevalence of NAFLD was 15.9%. NAFLD patients had a markedly greater C-IMT (0.81 ± 0.25 vs. 0.69 ± 0.18 mm; p < 0.001) and frequency of carotid plaque (28.9% vs. 16.9%; p < 0.05) than those without fatty liver. Moreover, the differences in C-IMT remained after adjusting for potential confounders. A stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that age (standardized β, 0.326; p < 0.001), NAFLD (standardized β, 0.151, p < 0.001), and hsCRP (standardized β, 0.115, p = 0.008) were independently associated with C-IMT in all subjects. Our data show NAFLD is associated with elevated C-IMT in T1DM independent of conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27226159

  9. Study on the correlation between serum Angptl2 level and carotid plaque nature in Type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Ji La; Hai-Mei Liu; Qian Yang; Xiao-Jing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the correlation between serum Angptl2 level and carotid plaque nature in Type 2 diabetes.Methods:118 cases of Type 2 diabetes patients hospitalized in our hospital from August 2012 to December 2015 were the subjects of observation group, were accompanied with different degree of carotid plaque through B ultrasound and CT coronary arterial angiography examination, and were divided into unstable plaque group (n=56) and stable plaque group (n=62) according to the degree of plaque, and 97 cases of patients with Type 2 diabetes alone (not complicated with carotid plaque) who received blood glucose regulation treatment in our hospital during the same period were the control group. Serum Angptl2 levels and the values of carotid plaque nature-related indexes of all groups were detected, and the correlation between the two was further analyzed.Results: Serum Angptl2 level of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group, and serum Angptl2 level of unstable plaque group was higher than that of stable plaque group; serum Fbg, HbA1c and bigET-1 values of observation group were higher than those of control group while DBIL and RHI values were lower than those of control group; serum cystatin c and visfatin values of observation group were higher than those of control group while ApoA1 and MPO values were lower than those of control group; serum ACA, MIF, sCD40L, PAPP-A, CXCR16, t-HCY and D-dimer values of observation group were higher than those of control group; serum Angptl2 level was directly proportional to Fng, HbA1c, bigET-1, cystatin c, ApoA1, visfatin, ACA, MIF, sCD40L, PAPP-A, CXCR16, t-HCY and D-dimer levels, and inversely proportional to DBIL, RHI and MPO values.Conclusion:Angptl2 level is significantly abnormal in Type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque, has direct correlation with plaque nature-related indexes, and is the reliable index to judge patients’ condition and predict the outcome.

  10. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  11. Carotid intima-media thickness in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Almdal, Thomas P; Carstensen, Bendix

    2010-01-01

    importance in order to make accurate power calculations and analyses of results, no reproducibility studies have been performed in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the variability of the measurement of carotid IMT in individuals with and without T2D. METHODS: We used B......-mode ultrasound and a computerized software programme (MIA vascular tools) for analysis of carotid IMT. Measurement of carotid IMT in the far wall of the common carotid artery (CCA) was done for 30 patients with T2D and 30 persons without T2D. The examinations were done by two different sonographers and two.......12 to 0.10 mm for persons without T2D. This means, that a second scanning of the same person with 95% probability would be within this interval of the first scanning. Comparisons between readers assessing the same scanning (reader variability) resulted in LoA from -0.05 to 0.07 mm and -0.04 to 0.05 mm...

  12. 颈动脉体瘤与SDH基因突变的研究进展%Research advances in SDH gene mutation in carotid body tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁荣涛; 郑家伟; 李宁毅

    2009-01-01

    颈动脉体瘤(carotid body tumor,CBT)又称副神经节瘤,其存在线粒体SDH基因的突变,包括SDHD、SDHC及SDHB基因的突变.SDH基因突变多发生于家族性CBT中,散发性CBT中少见.对CBT与SDH基因突变的研究,将为CBT的发病机制、基因诊断、遗传咨询和治疗提供新的思路.%Carotid body tumor (CBT), also referred to as paraganglioma, has mitoehondrial suecinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutation, including SDHD, SDHC and SDHB gene mutation. SDH gene mutation mainly occurred in familial CBT patients, seldom in sporadic cases. Researches in the relationship between CBT and SDH gene would provide a new approach for tumor genesis, gene diagnosis, genetic consulting and therapy of CBT.

  13. Effect of Short term intensive multitherapy on Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-xin; PAN Qi; WANG Xiao-xia; LI Hui; ZHANG Li-na; CHI Jia-min; WANG Yao

    2008-01-01

    Background Controlling plasma glucose levels, blood pressure and lipid levels is proven to reduce the risk of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This has prompted intensive multitherapy targeted at several macrovascular risk factors.Carotid intima-media thickness(cIMT)is a reliable measure of early atherosclerosis. We sought to determine whether a 6-month intensive mutiltherapy program resulted in better goal attainment than usual care and its effect on the development of cIMT among patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The study randomly assigned 220 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus to intensive or traditional therapy groups. The clinical parameters, such as fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood pressure, body weight and insulin were assessed at the baseline and after the 6-month therapy. cIMT of the patients wasalso obtained. Results The average levels of fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol (TC)and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)in the intensive group were significantly lower than those in the control group at the end of 6-month treatment. By 6 months, a higher proportion of patients in the intensive therapy group than in the control group attained goals for fasting plasma glucose(FPG), TC, LDL-C and hemoglobin A1c.With intensive multherapy the level of carotid intima-media thickness in the intensive therapy group was lower than that in the control group((0.88±0.26)mm vs(0.96±0.22)mm, P<0.01).Conclusions The evidence from this clinical trial demonstrates that intensive glucose. lipid and blood pressure control in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes is associated with diabetic macrovascular benefits. Intensive multitherapy allows more patients to achieve aims of control and may reduce macrovascular complications and delay disease progression.

  14. Changes in carotid body and nTS neuronal excitability following neonatal sustained and chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C A; Wilson, C G; MacFarlane, P M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether pre-treatment with neonatal sustained hypoxia (SH) prior to chronic intermittent hypoxia (SH+CIH) would modify in vitro carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity and the excitability of neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). Sustained hypoxia followed by CIH exposure simulates an oxygen paradigm experienced by extremely premature infants who developed persistent apnea. Rat pups were treated with 5 days of SH (11% O2) from postnatal age 1 (P1) followed by 10 days of subsequent chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, 5% O2/5 min, 8 h/day, between P6 and P15) as described previously (Mayer et al., Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 187(2): 167-75, 2013). At the end of SH+CIH exposure (P16), basal firing frequency was enhanced, and the hypoxic sensory response of single unit CB chemoafferents was attenuated. Further, basal firing frequency and the amplitude of evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (ESPC's) of nTS neurons was augmented compared to age-matched rats raised in normoxia. These effects were unique to SH+CIH exposure as neither SH or CIH alone elicited any comparable effect on chemoafferent activity or nTS function. These data indicated that pre-treatment with neonatal SH prior to CIH exposure uniquely modified mechanisms of peripheral (CB) and central (nTS) neural function in a way that would be expected to disturb the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia.

  15. Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-α isoforms and redox state by carotid body neural activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Khan, Shakil; Nanduri, Jayasri; Makarenko, Vladislav V; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Vasavda, Chirag; Kumar, Ganesh K; Semenza, Gregg L; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies reported that chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) results in an imbalanced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) isoforms and oxidative stress in rodents, which may be due either to the direct effect of CIH or indirectly via hitherto uncharacterized mechanism(s). As neural activity is a potent regulator of gene transcription, we hypothesized that carotid body (CB) neural activity contributes to CIH-induced HIF-α isoform expression and oxidative stress in the chemoreflex pathway. Experiments were performed on adult rats exposed to CIH for 10 days. Rats exposed to CIH exhibited: increased HIF-1α and decreased HIF-2α expression; increased NADPH oxidase 2 and decreased superoxide dismutase 2 expression; and oxidative stress in the nucleus tractus solitarius and rostral ventrolateral medulla as well as in the adrenal medulla (AM), a major end organ of the sympathetic nervous system. Selective ablation of the CB abolished these effects. In the AM, sympathetic activation by the CB chemoreflex mediates CIH-induced HIF-α isoform imbalance via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) influx, and the resultant activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and calpain proteases. Rats exposed to CIH presented with hypertension, elevated sympathetic activity and increased circulating catecholamines. Selective ablation of either the CB (afferent pathway) or sympathetic innervation to the AM (efferent pathway) abolished these effects. These observations uncover CB neural activity-dependent regulation of HIF-α isoforms and the redox state by CIH in the central and peripheral nervous systems associated with the chemoreflex.

  16. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati......AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS...

  17. Association Between IL-18 and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Type II Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Haomiao; Wei, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Background We specifically designed this study to determine the relationship between levels of IL-8 and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods A total of 149 diabetic patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy and 72 matched controls were recruited in this study. A wide range of parameters were measured: IL-18 (by ELISA), urinary albumin excretion rates (UAER), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, by pulse wave velocity [PWV]). All the diabetic patients were treated by alprostadil. Results ELISA indicated that the level of IL-18 in the patient group was significantly higher compared with that in the control group. The level of IL-18 apparently increased in the higher cIMT group in T2DM patients. Serum IL-18 levels were positively correlated with cIMT in patients with T2DM, the level of IL-18 was negatively correlated with cIMT, and IL-18 levels were positively correlated to age. Moreover, IMT was positively correlated with hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and IL-18 levels were significantly associated with cIMT (all P<0.05). Conclusions IL-18 levels were positively correlated with atherosclerotic burden in patients with T2DM and it may be considered as a significant therapeutic target. PMID:28125566

  18. The association of carotid intima media thickness with retinol binding protein-4 and total and high molecular weight adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri Masoumeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether carotid intima media thickness (CIMT is associated with serum level of retinol- binding protein-4 (RBP4 and total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM without clinical symptom of atherosclerotic disease. Method 101 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 53.63 ± 8.42 years and 42 body mass index (BMI matched control (mean age 50.1 ± 8.4 were recruited. The CIMT was assessed by using B-mode ultrasonography, while serum levels of RBP4 and total and HMW adiponectin were measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Linear regression analysis was performed with CIMT as dependent variable and adipokines and cardio metabolic risk factors as independent variables. Result The CIMT was higher in diabetic group compared to control group (p Age (B = 0.44 P Conclusion In conclusion, the present study showed that serum levels of RBP4 or total and HMW adiponectin were not potential predictors of CIMT in type 2 diabetic patients who exposed to this risk factor at least for nine years.

  19. Initial exploration of early carotid artery endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients evaluated by ultrasound radio-frequency technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Miao-shan; WANG Man-li; WU Li-sang; ZHU Wu; WU Yan-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background The early endothelial dysfunction of carotid artery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized.However,the feasibility and significance of carotid artery endothelial dysfunction detected by ultrasound radio-frequency technology has been seldom studied.Methods The 2D ultrasound images of the bilateral common carotid arteries from 112 cases of T2DM patients and 50 cases of normal subjects in our hospital were collected to measure intima-media thickness means (IMTm),end-systolic inner diameter (Ds),end-diastolic inner diameter (Dd),resistance index (RI),pulse index (PI),and the systole/diastole ratio (S/D).We also observed the variation of the intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as the elasticity indexes of the common carotid artery,such as the compliance coefficient (CC),elasticity coefficient (β),pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) through instruments with built-in ultrasound radio-frequency techniques,including quantitative intima-media thickness (QIMT) and quantitative analysis of arterial stiffness (QAS).The differences of the above-mentioned parameters between the two groups were analyzed.Results There were no statistically significant differences in IMTm,Ds,Dd,RI,PI and S/D raito of the common carotid arteries between group T2DM and the normal group (P > 0.01).The β,PWV and AIx in group T2DM were remarkably higher than those in the control group,with CC value being significantly lower than the later (P < 0.01 or 0.05).Conclusion Ultrasound radio-frequency technique offers earlier and more effective evaluation of carotid artery endothelial dysfunction in T2DM patients when compared with conventional 2D ultrasound,establishing imaging foundation for the early prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular complications in T2DM patients.

  20. Effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on [Ca2+]i responses to FCCP and acetate in carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M

    1997-09-12

    The effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on the responses of cytosolic concentrations of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) to acidic stimuli, a protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and an organic acid acetate, were examined in clusters of cultured carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits using fura-2 microfluorometry. Application of FCCP (1 microM) induced an increase in [Ca2+]i (mean +/- S.E.M., 108 +/- 14%). After withdrawal of the protonophore the increased [Ca2+]i returned slowly to a resting level. The [Ca2+]i response was attenuated by an inorganic Ca2+ channel antagonist Ni2+ (2 mM) by 81 +/- 4%, and by an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel antagonist D600 (10 microM) by 53 +/- 13%. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ eliminated the [Ca2+]i response in 71% of the tested cells (n = 17), and depressed it by 68 +/- 6% in the rest. Recovery following stimulation with FCCP in the absence of Ca2+ reversibly produced a rapid and large rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP. The magnitude of a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP (285 +/- 28%, P < 0.05) was larger than that of an increase in [Ca2+]i induced by FCCP in the presence of Ca2+ and had a correlation with the intensity of the suppression of the [Ca2+]i response by Ca2+ removal. A [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP was inhibited mostly by D600. Similarly, recovery following exposure to acetate in the absence of Ca2+ caused a rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/acetate which was sensitive to D600. The magnitude of the [Ca2+]i rise was larger than that of a change in [Ca2+]i caused by acetate in the presence of Ca2+. These results suggest that FCCP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was, in most cells, due to Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and, in some cells, due to both Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ pool. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ might modify [Ca2+]i responses to acidic stimuli, causing [Ca2+]i

  1. Comparison of Flow Impairment during Carotid Artery Stenting Using Two Types of Eccentric Filter Embolic Protection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    NII, Kouhei; TSUTSUMI, Masanori; MAEDA, Hitoshi; AIKAWA, Hiroshi; INOUE, Ritsuro; ETO, Ayumu; SAKAMOTO, Kimiya; MITSUTAKE, Takafumi; HANADA, Hayatsura; KAZEKAWA, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the angiographic findings and the clinical outcomes after carotid artery stenting (CAS) using two different, eccentric filter embolic protection devices (EPDs). Between July 2010 and August 2015, 175 CAS procedures were performed using a self-expandable closed-cell stent and a simple eccentric filter EPD (FilterWire EZ in 86 and Spider FX in 89 procedures). The angiographic findings (i.e., flow impairment and vasospasm) at the level of EPDs, neurologic events, and post-operative imaging results were compared between the FilterWire EZ and the Spider FX groups. The CAS was angiographically successful in all 175 procedures. However, the angiographs were obtained immediately after CAS-detected flow impairment in the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) in 11 (6.3%) and ICA spasms at the level of the EPD in 40 cases (22.9%). The incidence of these complications was higher with FilterWire EZ than Spider FX (ICA flow impairment of 10.5% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.03; vasospasm 30.2% vs. 15.7%, P = 0.03). There were nine neurologic events (5.1%); five patients were presented with transient ischemic attacks, three had minor strokes, and one had a major stroke. New MRI lesions were seen in 25 (29.1%) FilterWire-group and in 36 (40.4%) Spider-group patients. The neurologic events and new MRI lesions were not associated with the type of EPD used. Although the ICA flow impairment may result in neurologic events, there was no significant association between the FilterWire EZ and the Spider FX CAS with respect to the incidence of neurologic events by the prompt treatment such as catheter aspiration. PMID:27319302

  2. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Symptomatic Subjects With Advanced Vascular Atherosclerosis of the Carotid Artery (Type III and IV b Findings Using Ultrasound)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ansgar; Bojara, Waldemar; Schunk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) in symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was more successful using ultrasound technology than exercise electrocardiography (ECG). Methods Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study, the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM scores of 3,513 healthy men and 2,088 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 65 were determined. During the subsequent follow-up study, 36 subjects developed symptoms such as exertional dyspnea, atypical angina pectoris (AP) or typical AP. Four patients displayed no symptoms. The initial cardiac diagnostic testing was conducted on 31 patients using an exercise ECG, four patients were assessed using a coronary angiogram, and five further patients were assessed using a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram. An ultrasound examination of the carotid artery of 39 patients revealed a type IV b finding and in one patient, the examination revealed a type III finding. Results In 17 patients, the PROCAM score was 20%. In the final analysis, only two patients had entirely smooth coronary arteries, seven had coronary sclerosis, seven had a 30% stenosis, one had a 30-40% stenosis, one had a 40% stenosis, and 22 patients had a stenosis ≥ 50%, and in extreme cases, a left main coronary artery stenosis with three-vessel disease was shown. The exercise ECG only achieved a true positive result in four patients, and in 21 patients, the result was false negative. Conclusions Symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery (type III and type IV b findings) had a high risk for CHD. The diagnosis of CHD is better achieved by using carotid duplex than with an exercise ECG. Early treatment of the disease

  3. Carotid Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Carotid Carotid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce ... limitations of Carotid Ultrasound Imaging? What is Carotid Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  4. Correlation between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Luminal Diameter with Body Mass Index and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameeah A. Rashid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT and luminal diameter (LD with body mass index (BMI and other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study took place between June 2013 and March 2014 in the Radiology Department of Rizgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil, Iraq. Non-randomly selected subjects ≥20 years old (n = 140 were divided into BMI groups and evaluated for the following cardiovascular risk factors: gender, age, hypertension (HTN, diabetes (DM, smoking, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG levels. IMT and LD of the extracranial carotid arteries were measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Results: The mean IMT was 0.8 ± 0.3 mm, ranging from a total mean of 0.7 mm in the normal BMI group to 1.0 mm in the extremely obese group. A significant correlation was found between IMT and BMI (P = 0.04, but not between BMI and LD (P = 0.3. No significant difference in mean IMT or LD was seen between genders. Significant correlations were found between IMT and age, HTN, DM, high serum cholesterol and TG levels (P <0.001. An increase of one BMI unit caused a 0.009 mm increase in IMT and an increase of one year in age caused a 0.011 mm increase in IMT. Conclusion: Age, obesity, HTN, DM, high serum cholesterol and TG levels were found to have an impact on carotid IMT, which is a strong marker for the early development of atherosclerosis.

  5. Microsurgical anatomy of the human carotid body (glomus caroticum): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sissy-Amelie; Wöhler, Aliona; Beutner, Dirk; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-03-01

    The human glomus caroticum (GC) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relationship to neighboring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study is to present the GC with all associated roots and branches. Following microscope-assisted dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study on 46 bifurcations of the common carotid artery (CCA) into the external (ECA) and internal (ICA) carotid arteries and identified the GC in 40 (91%) of them. We found significant variations regarding the location of the GC and its syntopy: GC was associated with CCA (42%), ECA (28%) and ICA (30%) lying on the medial or lateral surface (82% or 13%, respectively) or exactly in the middle (5%) of the bifurcation. The short and long diameter of its oval form varied from 1.0 × 2.0 to 5.0 × 5.0mm. Connections with the sympathetic trunk (100%), glossopharyngeal (93%), vagus (79%) and hypoglossal nerve (90%) could be established in 29 cadavers. We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to surgeons working in this field.

  6. Effects of active and passive smoking on the development of cardiovascular disease as assessed by a carotid intima-media thickness examination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Miao; Peng, Danfeng; Sun, Xue; Yan, Jing; Luo, Yi; Tang, Shanshan; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-05-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness has been widely used as a surrogate end-point for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This study aimed to assess the effects of active and passive smoking exposure on the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seven hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for the study. A standardized questionnaire on smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and the number of years of smoking cessation was provided to the patients, and their responses were collected for analysis. The carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and the internal diameter of the common carotid artery were determined by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Compared to non-smokers, passive female smokers had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio = 3.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-9.49, P = 0.009); they also had a significantly larger common carotid artery (P = 0.041) and risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.1980-4.0505, P = 0.01). Both active and passive male smokers had a significantly greater carotid intima-media thickness than non-smokers (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005, respectively). Male active smokers had a significantly higher risk of carotid plaque (odds ratio = 2.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.4788-5.6094, P = 0.001). In conclusion, cumulative active and passive smoking exposures are significant risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our results highlight the importance of endorsing a smoke-free environment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Relationship between omentin-1 and carotid intima thickness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hend M Tawfeek

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Serum omentin-1 level is decreased in type 2 DM patients and is negatively correlated with CIMT and BMI. Hence, omentin-1 could serve as a protective marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease. Further study needed to show whether omentin-1 is considered as a risk factor for DM.

  8. EFFECT OF STATINS ALONE VERSUS STATINS PLUS EZETIMIBE ON CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES: THE SANDS TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L.; Mete, Mihriye; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Roman, Mary J.; E, Robert; Ratner, MD; Silverman, Angela; Galloway, James M.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Weir, Matthew R.; Wilson, Charlton; Stylianou, Mario; Howard, Wm. James

    2009-01-01

    Objective This secondary analysis from the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study examines the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins alone versus statins plus ezetimibe (E) on common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular event. Background It is unknown whether the addition of E to statin therapy affects subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Within an aggressive group (target LDL-C ≤70mg/dL; non-high-density lipoprotein [non-HDL]-C ≤40 yrs receiving statins plus E versus statins alone. CIMT changes in both aggressive subgroups were compared with changes in the standard subgroups (target LDL-C ≤<100mg/dL; non-HDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dL; SBP ≤130mmHg). Results Mean (95%CI) LDL-C was reduced by 31 (23, 37)mg/dL and 32 (27, 38)mg/dL in the aggressive group receiving statins plus E and statins alone, respectively, compared with changes of 1 (−3, 6) mg/dL in the standard group (p<0.0001 vs both aggressive subgroups. Within the aggressive group, mean IMT at 36mos regressed from baseline similarly in the E (−.025 [−05,.003] mm) and non-E subgroups (−.012 [−.03,.008] mm) but progressed in the standard treatment arm (0.039 [0.02, 0.06] mm), intergroup p<0.0001. Conclusions Reducing LDL-C to aggressive targets resulted in similar regression of CIMT in patients who attained equivalent LDL-C reductions from a statin alone or statin plus E. CIMT increased in those achieving standard targets. PMID:19095139

  9. Association of the ACE rs4646994 and rs4341 polymorphisms with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, S; Novák, J; Tkáčová, N; Nikolajević Starčević, J; Šantl Letonja, M; Makuc, J; Cokan Vujkovac, A; Letonja, J; Bregar, D; Zorc, M; Rojko, M; Mankoč, S; Kruzliak, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms (rs4646994 and rs4341) with markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a 4-year-long follow-up study. Five hundred and ninety-five T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. Genotyping of ACE polymorphisms was performed using KASPar assays, and ultrasound examinations were performed twice (at the enrollment and at follow-up). With regard to the progression of atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM, statistically significant differences were demonstrated in the change of the sum of carotid plaques thickness for the rs4646994 polymorphism. We did not demonstrate an association between the tested polymorphisms (rs4646994 and rs4341) and either carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) or CIMT progression in a 3.8-year period. In our study, we demonstrated that subjects with T2DM with the DD genotype of the rs4646994 [ACE insertion/deletion (I/D)] polymorphism had faster progression of atherosclerosis in comparison to subjects with other genotypes. PMID:27785395

  10. Paraganglioma de cuerpo carotídeo: reporte de un caso clínico con correlación familiar Carotid body paraganglioma: clinical case report with family correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín Toranzo Fernández

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello son neoplasias infrecuentes que se originan de un tejido paraganglionar del grupo braquiomérco que está ligado al desarrollo de los arcos branquiales. No son cromafines, ya que no secretan catecolaminas¹. De estos paragangliomas, el que se presenta con más frecuencia es el del cuerpo carotídeo, que se origina a partir de los paraganglios localizados en la adventicia de la bifurcación del cuerpo carotídeo².The head and neck paragangliomas are infrequent neoplases that originate from a paraganglionar tissue of the brachiomeric group that are linked to the development of the branchial arches; they are not cromafins since they do not secrete catecholamines¹. The most frequent one appears in the carotid body that originates from the paraganglions located in the adventitia of the carotid body's bifurcation².

  11. Association of Microalbuminuria and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehdashti Shahrokh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases, and its risk enhances in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT by carotid artery ultrasonography and assess its correlation with microalbuminuria and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was included 205 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. We recorded clinical and biochemical data such as FBS, lipid profile, and urinary albumin. Intima-media thickness of carotid arteries was measured in all patients by high frequency ultrasound. Results In simple correlation coefficients analysis, CIMT was significantly associated with total cholesterol (r = 0.197, P = 0.008, serum creatinine (r = 0.240, P = 0.001, and urinary albumin (r = 0.420, P = 0.000. Also, CIMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of chronic kidney disease (0.67 ± 0.15 mm in stage 1, 0.73 ± 0.22 mm in stage 2, and 0.82 ± 0.21 mm in stage 3 (P value = 0.024. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the duration of diabetes, weight, HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR were independently associated with CIMT (P value < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Our study shows a relationship between CIMT and renal parameters, including eGFR and albuminuria. This study confirms the importance of intensive examinations for early detection of atherosclerosis and treatment of risk factors.

  12. Difference Equation for N-body Type Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU LE-SHUN; HAN YUE-CAI; LIU BAI-FENG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the difference equation for N-body type problem is estab-fished, which can be used to find the generalized solutions by computing the critical points numerically. And its validity is testified by an example from Newtonian Three- body problem with unequal masses.

  13. Surgical treatment of carotid body tumor: a report of 36 cases%颈动脉体瘤36例手术治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德亮; 马玥莹; 刘良发; 赵辉; 王嘉陵; 武文明; 刘明波; 赵建东

    2013-01-01

    目的 总结颈动脉体瘤患者手术经验,提高患者生活质量.方法 对2004年6月至2012年6月的36例颈动脉体瘤患者的病历资料进行分析,其中男13例,女23例;年龄9~61岁,中位数42岁;肿瘤所在位置为右侧14例,左侧19例,双侧3例(其中2例为兄妹);经颈部B超、CT、MRI和DSA检查,手术的基本术式是颌下、颈侧及胸锁乳突肌上段前缘切口.结果 36例(38侧,1例双侧病变者左侧未行手术)中29侧颈动脉体瘤完全切除,其中6侧肿瘤质地坚硬并包裹颈内动脉者在宫藤夹夹闭颈总动脉后行肿瘤和颈动脉切除;9侧质地坚硬肿瘤残留.术中出血80 ml以内17侧,100~550ml 18侧,800 ml、1000 ml和1500 ml各1侧;15侧血管栓塞中位出血量200 ml,23侧血管未栓塞中位出血量60 ml.术后神经功能障碍共10例(26.3%),含8例术前神经损伤术后神经麻痹无改善或加重者,新增术后神经损伤2例.1例恶性颈动脉体瘤术后2年随访时仍带瘤生存,其余病例经10个月至6年随访除9例失访者外均存活,肿瘤未增大.结论 颈动脉体瘤首选手术切除,其质地较软者一般可完整分离切除肿瘤、保留颈内动脉,而质地坚硬且包裹颈内动脉手术时血管破裂可能性极大,术前应行DSA,确认脑血管交通支存在时,结扎颈外动脉后,置宫藤夹逐渐夹闭颈总动脉,待建立良好代偿后行肿瘤及颈动脉切除,可避免颅内并发症.%Objective To study surgical methods and techniques to reduce complications in carotid body tumors (CBT).Methods A total of 36 patients with CBT treated by the same surgeon between 2004and 2012 was reviewed.Clinical presentation,imaging,surgery techniques,postoperative complications and outcomes as well as follow-up evaluations were analyzed.Results Of 36 patients,13 males and 23 females,with a median age of 42 years (range 9-61 years).Nineteen patients had a CBT on the left side,14 on the right side and 3 on both sides.All patients (36

  14. A sharp Rogers–Shephard type inequality for Orlicz-difference body of planar convex bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hailin Jin; Shufeng Yuan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we prove a sharp Rogers–Shephard type inequality for the Orlicz-difference body of planar convex bodies, which extend the works of Bianchini and Colesanti (Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 138(7) (2008) 2575–2582).

  15. Type-D personality and body image in men: the role of exercise status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 'Distressed' or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.

  16. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphism (rs2010963 and Its Receptor, Kinase Insert Domain-Containing Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2071559, and Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan Merlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene (rs2010963 and its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR gene polymorphism (rs2071559, and markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients and Methods. 595 T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque characteristics (presence and structure were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Genotyping of VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559 was performed using KASPar assays. Results. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559 were not statistically significantly different between diabetic patients and controls. In our study, we demonstrated an association between the rs2071559 of KDR and either CIMT or the sum of plaque thickness in subjects with T2DM. We did not, however, demonstrate any association between the tested polymorphism of VEGF (rs2010963 and either CIMT, the sum of plaque thickness, the number of involved segments, hsCRP, the presence of carotid plaques, or the presence of unstable carotid plaques. Conclusions. In the present study, we demonstrated minor effect of the rs2071559 of KDR on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM.

  17. Effect of a Mediterranean diet on endothelial progenitor cells and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: Follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Gicchino, Maurizio; Caputo, Mariangela; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Background We assessed the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet on circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design This was a parallel, two-arm, single-centre trial. Methods Two hundred and fifteen men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet ( n = 108) or a low-fat diet ( n = 107). The primary outcome measures were changes in the EPC count and the CIMT of the common carotid artery after the treatment period defined as the end of trial (EOT). Results At the EOT, both the CD34(+)KDR(+) and CD34(+)KDR(+)CD133(+) counts had increased with the Mediterranean diet compared with the low-fat diet ( p Mediterranean diet. Compared with the low-fat diet, the rate of regression in the CIMT was higher in the Mediterranean diet group (51 vs. 26%), whereas the rate of progression was lower (25 vs. 50%) ( p = 0.032 for both). Changes in the CIMT were inversely correlated with the changes in EPC levels (CD34(+)KDR(+), r = -0.24, p = 0.020; CD34(+)KDR(+)CD133(+), r = -0.28, p = 0.014). At the EOT, changes in levels of HbA1c, HOMA, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater with the Mediterranean diet than with the low-fat diet. Conclusion Compared with a low-fat diet, a long-term trial with Mediterranean diet was associated with an increase in circulating EPCs levels and prevention of the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  18. Visit-to-Visit Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Variability Is an Independent Determinant of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, Akiko; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kitaoka, Kaori; Minato, Satomi; Kurata, Miki; Fukuo, Keisuke; Kazumi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies demonstrated that visit-to-visit variability in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in subjects with coronary artery disease. Whether visit-to-visit variability in LDLC levels affects subclinical atherosclerosis is unknown. This study sought to evaluate the role of visit-to-visit variability in LDLC levels on subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods We evaluated 162 type 2 diabetic patients with measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Intrapersonal mean and standard deviation (SD) of six measurements of LDLC during 12 months were calculated. Multivariate linear regressions assessed the independent correlates of carotid IMT. Results The mean and SD of LDLC were 112 ± 22 and 15 ± 10 mg/dL, respectively, and 43.2% of patients were on hypolipidemic drugs. Age (standardized β = 0.355, P index (BMI), waist circumference, duration and treatment of diabetes, means and SDs of glycemic and other lipid variables, and uses of hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive medications (R2 = 0.15). Results did not change when mean IMT was used instead of maximum IMT. After controlling for age and sex, maximum IMT was thicker in patients with the highest compared to those with other three quartiles of SD-LDLC combined (1.14 ± 0.04 (SE) vs. 1.01 ± 0.02 mm, P = 0.01). Independent determinants of SD-LDLC were mean LDLC, use of hypolipidemic drugs, fasting triglyceride and visit-to-visit variability in HbA1c. Conclusions Consistency of LDLC levels may be important to subclinical atherosclerosis in real-world patients with type 2 diabetes. It may be important for patients on lipid-lowering drugs to prevent non-compliance. PMID:28270891

  19. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  20. Tumor del cuerpo carotídeo: Presentación de un caso por ecografía y resonancia magnética Carotid body tumor: A case presentation with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabrini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El tumor de cuerpo carotídeo, que se origina en los quimiorreceptores de dicha estructura, representa hasta el 50% de los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello. En forma frecuente, constituye un hallazgo incidental (asintomático, aunque en algunos casos los pacientes pueden consultar por una masa indolora, ronquera, paresia lingual y/o disfagia. Sus características imagenológicas permiten una aproximación diagnóstica no invasiva con altos índices de sensibilidad y especificidad, por lo que su conocimiento facilita la conducta clínico-terapéutica. Se presenta un caso clínico que resulta particularmente elocuente para la práctica diaria, ya que la paciente tiene antecedentes quirúrgicos por patología tiroidea maligna, hecho que precisa una aproximación diagnóstica estricta para su correcto seguimiento.The carotid body tumor, which arises from its chief cells (glomus type 1, is the most common paraganglioma of the head and neck (up to 50%. This tumor is in most cases clinically silent and is detected incidentally at imaging study during evaluation of patients with unrelated symptoms such as painless, slowly growing lateral neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, and paresia or atrophy of the tongue. According to its appearance, precise non-invasive imaging techniques may allow the radiologist to reach the correct diagnosis and treatment. The following case report is particularly useful for daily practice; the patient has surgical history of tiroid neoplasm which requires a thorough diagnosis, in order to determine an accurate follow-up.

  1. A Novel Rabbit Carotid Body and Common Carotid Artery Model in Vivo for the Simulation of Various Intermittent and Continuous Hypoxia Modes%不同间歇低氧与持续低氧模式家兔在体颈动脉体和颈总动脉模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯靖; 崔林阳; 陈宝元; 郭美南; 曹洁; 孙蓓

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develope a novel rabbit carotid body and carotid common artery model in vivo for the simulation of various intermittent hypoxia (IH) intensities, IH durations, IH reoxygenation (ROX) durations and continuous hypoxia (CH) modes.Methods Forty-five adult New Zealand rabbits (2.5~3.0 kg) were anesthetized while spontaneous breathing kept intact.The tissue surrounding the fight earetid common artery and carotid sinus nerve (CSN) were cleared and "single" chemoreceptor bundle of the CSN was revealed.Then suction electrodes were placed and CSN afferent activity was monitored and recorded carefully.The fight common carotid artery was exposed, cannulated to distal part and its proximal part was ligated.Preparations were challenged by changing the PO2 of the gas mixture equilibrating the perfusate.Alternatively perfusion (2 mL/min) of equilibrated porfusate bubbled with normoxia or hypoxia gas mixtures formed IH/ROX cycles in carotid common artery,simulating the pattern of hypoxic episodes seen in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), or with continuously perfusing hypoxia perfusate to form CH modes.All the perfusing procedures were regulated by a customized computer-controlled set and monitored using O2 gas analyzer.After the systematic exposures, carotid body, carotid common artery part distal to cannula,and carotid bifurcation were harvested as samples.Results The frequencies and average amplitudes of CSN chemoreceptor bundles afferent activities with normoxia peffusion were (0.17±0.03) impulse/s and (46.2±4.4) μV, and with hypoxia perfusion were (0.6±0.09) impulse/s and (87.4±6.6) μV, respectively.PO2 was (139±1.5) nun Hg in normoxia perfusate and (35.2±1.3) mm Hg in hypoxia perfusate.Conclusion This new carotid body and carotid common artery model is a valuable tool to study neurological and biochemical changes in various IH and CH modes.%目的 探讨建立不同间歇低氧(IH)程度、IH时间和再氧合(ROX)时间以及持续低氧(CH)模

  2. Carotid artery stenting will replace carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Daniel J; Vlad, Tudor; Fasseas, Panayotis

    2007-09-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Carotid artery stenosis represents one of the most common etiologies of stroke. The current treatment modalities available for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis are carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS). Several clinical trials comparing CEA with medical management showed superiority of the surgical arm; however, the applicability of these results to the general population is limited by the fact that the patients and surgeons enrolled in these trials were carefully selected, and the optimal medical therapy used does not meet the current treatment standards. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a treatment alternative to CEA, as shown in randomized trials comparing the 2 treatment modalities. Recent data from large-volume CAS registries indicate that percutaneous treatment of carotid artery stenosis compares favorably to CEA. Furthermore, the CAS trial designs make these results more applicable to the community standards. These data suggest that CAS will become the treatment of choice in patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  3. Carotid and cerebrovascular disease in symptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: assessment of prevalence and plaque morphology by dual-source computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Wen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque morphology directly correlates with risk of embolism and the recently developed dual-source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA may help to detect plaques more precisely. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and morphology of carotid and cerebrovascular atherosclerotic plaques in patients with symptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM by DSCTA. Methods From July 2009 to August 2010, DSCTA was prospectively performed in 125 consecutive patients with symptomatic type 2 DM. We retrospectively analyzed plaque type, distribution, and extensive and obstructive natures were determined for each segment for all patients. Results Atherosclerotic plaques were detected in 114 (91.2% patients. Relatively more noncalcified (45% and calcified (39% plaques and less mixed (16% plaques were observed (p st to 5th segments was observed in 67 (58.8% patients and from the 6th to 10th segments in 35 (30.7% patients. The most common site of all detected plaques was the cavernous segment. Regarding stenosis, there were significantly more nonobstructive than obstructive stenosis (91% vs. 9%, p Conclusion DSCTA detected a high prevalence of plaques in patients with symptomatic type 2 DM. A relatively high proportion of plaques were noncalcified, as well as with nonobstructive stenosis. The distribution of plaques was extensive, with the cavernous portion of ICA being the most common site.

  4. Type of structure of men body engaged in baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiello Wladyslaw.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to define the features of structure of sportsmen body - members of collapsible command of Poland on baseball is in-process undertaken (n=20. Age of sportsmen was in a range 18-25 years, and training experience - 7-14 years. Five coefficients (Rohrera, Queteleta II, Manouvrier, growing-gravimetric, pelvic-humeral, and also general surface of body, are certain. Specific gravity of body is expected on the basis of measurings dermic-fatty folds by the use of prognostic equalization of Piechaczka. General fat in a percentage ratio to mass of body is expected on the formula of Brozka i Keys. 20 indexes are in general complication certain. On the basis of their setting of norms the type of structure of body of examinee is set. A comparative group was made by the students of the Warsaw polytechnic institute. The members of masculine collapsible command of Poland differ on baseball, foremost, by the high indexes of diameter of forearm, widths of elbow, surface and mass of body, diameter of shin.

  5. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7.

  6. Data on carotid intima-media thickness and lipoprotein subclasses in type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Jenkins, Alicia J; Zhang, Ying; Stoner, Julie A; Klein, Richard L; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Timothy Garvey, W; Lyons, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with increased risk of macrovascular complications. We examined longitudinal associations of serum conventional lipids and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined lipoprotein subclasses with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in adults with T1DM (n=455) enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Data on serum lipids and lipoproteins were collected at DCCT baseline (1983-89) and were correlated with common and internal carotid IMT determined by ultrasonography during the observational follow-up of the DCCT, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, at EDIC 'Year 1' (199-1996) and EDIC 'Year 6' (1998-2000). This article contains data on the associations of DCCT baseline lipoprotein profiles (NMR-based VLDL & chylomicrons, IDL/LDL and HDL subclasses and 'conventional' total, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) with carotid IMT at EDIC Years 1 and 6, stratified by gender. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of DCCT baseline lipids and lipoprotein profiles with EDIC Year 12 carotid IMT (Basu et al. in press) [1].

  7. Carotid Stump Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Toufic Dakhoul MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To highlight the case of a patient with multiple transient ischemic attacks and visual disturbances diagnosed with carotid stump syndrome and managed with endovascular approach. Case Presentation. We present the case of a carotid stump syndrome in an elderly patient found to have moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis in response to an advertisement for carotid screening. After a medical therapeutic approach and a close follow-up, transient ischemic attacks recurred. Computed tomographic angiography showed an occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and the presence of moderate stenosis in the right internal carotid artery, which was treated by endovascular stenting and balloon insertion. One month later, the patient presented with visual disturbances due to the left carotid stump and severe stenosis of the left external carotid artery that was reapproached by endovascular stenting. Conclusion. Considerations should be given to the carotid stump syndrome as a source of emboli for ischemic strokes, and vascular assessment could be used to detect and treat this syndrome.

  8. Correlation between polymorphism of platelet alloantigen genes HPA-1-5 and type 2 diabetes complication by carotid atherosclerosis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y H; Xu, S F; Zheng, J; Hong, H S; Fan, L M

    2015-05-04

    We investigated the association between the polymorphism of human platelet alloantigen genes HPA-1-HPA-5 and the complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by carotid atherosclerosis (CA) among Han people in Guiyang District, China. Ninety-nine T2DM patients were selected from the Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College and divided into a CA(+) group and a CA(-) group. A control group comprised 100 healthy people from the medical examination center of the same hospital. Genomic DNA from all the subjects was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction and target genes were amplified using sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction, followed by gene type detection of HPA. There were significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of HPA-1, -2, -3, and -5 among the three groups [CA(+), CA(-), and the control group] (P HPA-1, -2, and -3 between groups CA(+) and CA(-) and the control group (P HPA-5 between the CA(+) and CA(-) groups (P HPA-5. There may be a correlation between T2DM and polymorphism of HPA-1-3. Polymorphism of HPA- 5 is probably a risk factor for CA complicating T2DM.

  9. Kallistatin as a marker of microvascular complications in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Relation to carotid intima media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asrar, Mohamed A; Andrawes, Nevine G; Ismail, Eman A; Salem, Shaimaa Mh

    2015-12-01

    In diabetes, angiogenesis is disturbed, contributing to proliferative retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Kallistatin, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has anti-angiogenic effects. We assessed serum kallistatin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes as a potential marker for microvascular complications and its relation to carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes were divided into two groups according to the presence of microvascular complications and compared with 30 healthy controls. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), HbA1c, urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), kallistatin levels and CIMT were assessed. Kallistatin levels were significantly higher in patients with microvascular complications (9.9 ± 2.38 ng/mL) and those without complications (5.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (1.39 ± 0.55 ng/mL; pgroup (pblood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, hs-CRP, UACR and CIMT (pdiabetes and its relation with CIMT may reflect vascular dysfunction and suggest a link between micro- and macro-angiopathy.

  10. 2型糖尿病患者血清瘦素与颈动脉内膜中层厚度的相关性研究%Association of serum leptin with intima-media thickness of carotid artery in type 2 diabetes patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振华; 毕会民; 贺艳菊; 张玉国

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum leptin and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods 35 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 16 normal controls were studied. Fasting serum leptin, fasting glucose(FBG), HbAlc, C-peptide, lipide, systolic(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist circ-umference (WC) were measured in all subjects. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid artery was measured by high-resolu-tion ultrasound imaging. Results IMT of T2DM was positively correlated with leptin concentration. Conclusion Serum leptin concentra-tion is independently associated with the IMT of carotid artery, which suggest that leptin may be an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis.%目的 探讨2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者血清瘦素水平与颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)的关系.方法 选择35例2型糖尿痛患者、16例正常对照者,分别测定其血清瘦素、空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白AIc(HbAlc)、C肽、血脂、血压、体重指数(BMI)及腰围,同时使用高分辨率超声检测双侧颈动脉IMT.结果 T2DM患者血清瘦素浓度与颈动脉IMT呈显著正相关.结论 血清瘦素浓度与颈动脉IMT的增厚有关,提示瘦素可能是导致T2DM患者动脉粥样硬化中的一项危险因素.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sik Seon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.MethodsParticipants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, flow mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AI were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.ResultsThe mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001, FMD (P=0.017, and PWV (P=0.35 after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001 after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09. CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01, HbA1c (P=0.05, and gender (P<0.01.ConclusionThe CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  12. The Effect of Sitagliptin on the Regression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickening in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Sitagliptin Preventive Study of Intima-Media Thickness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakami, Naoto; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Yoshii, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Shimomura, Iichiro; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Background. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the regression of carotid IMT remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to clarify whether sitagliptin, DPP-4 inhibitor, could regress carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. This is an exploratory analysis of a randomized trial in which we investigated the effect of sitagliptin on the progression of carotid IMT in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Here, we compared the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment on the number of patients who showed regression of carotid IMT of ≥0.10 mm in a post hoc analysis. Results. The percentages of the number of the patients who showed regression of mean-IMT-CCA (28.9% in the sitagliptin group versus 16.4% in the conventional group, P = 0.022) and left max-IMT-CCA (43.0% in the sitagliptin group versus 26.2% in the conventional group, P = 0.007), but not right max-IMT-CCA, were higher in the sitagliptin treatment group compared with those in the non-DPP-4 inhibitor treatment group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, sitagliptin treatment significantly achieved higher target attainment of mean-IMT-CCA ≥0.10 mm and right and left max-IMT-CCA ≥0.10 mm compared to conventional treatment. Conclusions. Our data suggested that DPP-4 inhibitors were associated with the regression of carotid atherosclerosis in insulin-treated T2DM patients. This study has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000007396). PMID:28250768

  13. Embolização intra-arterial pré-operatória de tumor do corpo carotídeo Preoperative intraarterial embolization of carotid body tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudêncio Espinosa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de tumor de corpo carotídeo (paraganglioma em um paciente de 74 anos de idade, submetido a embolização intra-arterial com micropartículas esféricas, de polivinil acetato, com casca de polivinil álcool (PVAc + PVA, previamente à ressecção do tumor. O estudo angiográfico demonstrou massa altamente vascularizada na bifurcação carotídea esquerda, sendo a embolização pré-operatória utilizada no intuito de diminuir a vascularização e reduzir a perda sangüínea, aumentando a segurança do tratamento cirúrgico. O estudo histopatológico confirmou a presença de trombose e isquemia tecidual.The authors report a case of carotid body tumor (paraganglioma in a 74-year-old male patient, submitted to intraarterial embolization with spherical core/shield polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVAc + PVA microparticles prior to surgical excision. Angiography has demonstrated a highly vascularized mass in the left carotid bifurcation, and preoperative embolization was used in order to decrease vascularity, reduce blood loss and improve safety of surgical treatment. Microscopic study confirmed presence of thrombosis and tissue ischemia.

  14. Age determines the magnitudes of angiotensin II-induced contractions, mRNA, and protein expression of angiotensin type 1 receptors in rat carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Zoltan; Cseplo, Peter; Ivic, Ivan; Matics, Robert; Hamar, Janos; Koller, Akos

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that aging alters angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasomotor responses and expression of vascular mRNA and protein angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R). Thus, carotid arteries were isolated from the following age groups of rats: 8 days, 2-9 months, 12-20 months, and 20-30 months, and their vasomotor responses were measured in a myograph after repeated administrations of Ang II. Vascular relative AT1R mRNA level was determined by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the AT1R protein density was measured by Western blot. Contractions to the first administration of Ang II increased from 8 days to 6 months and then they decreased to 30 months. In general, second administration of Ang II elicited reduced contractions, but they also increased from 8 days until 2 months and then they decreased to 30 months. Similarly the AT1R mRNA level increased from 8 days to 12 months and then decreased to 30 months. Similarly the AT1R protein density increased from 8 days until 16 months and then they decreased to 30 months. The pattern of these changes correlated with functional vasomotor data. We conclude that aging (newborn to senescence) has substantial effects on Ang II-induced vasomotor responses and AT1R signaling suggesting the importance of genetic programs.

  15. The estimated GFR, but not the stage of diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion, is associated with the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

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    Ishida Hidenori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the relationship between the intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion (UAE in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 338 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The carotid IMT was measured using an ultrasonographic examination. Results The mean carotid IMT was 1.06 ± 0.27 mm, and 42% of the subjects showed IMT thickening (≥ 1.1 mm. Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease were frequent in the patients with IMT thickening. The carotid IMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of CKD (0.87 ± 0.19 mm in stage 1, 1.02 ± 0.26 mm in stage 2, 1.11 ± 0.26 mm in stage 3, and 1.11 ± 0.27 mm in stage 4+5. However, the IMT was not significantly different among the various stages of diabetic nephropathy. The IMT was significantly greater in the diabetic patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension. The IMT positively correlated with the age, the duration of diabetes mellitus, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities (baPWV, and negatively correlated with the eGFR. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the eGFR and the baPWV were independently associated with the carotid IMT. Conclusions Our study is the first report showing a relationship between the carotid IMT and the renal parameters including eGFR and the stages of diabetic nephropathy with a confirmed association between the IMT and diabetic macroangiopathy. Our study further confirms the importance of intensive examinations for the early detection of atherosclerosis and positive treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, as well as hyperglycaemia are necessary when a reduced eGFR is found in diabetic patients.

  16. Carotid angiography

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    Arne Torkildsen

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the history of cerebral angiography, some of the most important points concerning the percutaneous angiographic technique have been described. The value of the angiographic examination in cases of cerebral gliomas has been studied, based upon a consecutive series of 127 verified cases of hemispherical gliomas. Of 31 cases of frontal glioma, 28 could be diagnosed by the angiographic method; of 33 cases of parietal glioma, the angiograms revealed the neoplasm in 27 instances; of 39 cases of temporal glioma, the tumor could be localized in 38 cases; of 13 cases of occipital glioma, the angiographic localization of the tumor was successfull in 9 instances; of 11. cases of glioma infiltrating the corpus callosum and (or the basal ganglia, the angiographic examination was successful in only 3 cases. The angiographic examination in cases of cerebral glioma, in my experience, yields a more satisfactory result as to the localization than does the pneumography. The only exception concerns the gliomas growing in the thalamus or in the basal ganglia. These are more easily localized by means of ventriculography. As to the differential diagnosis of the gliomas, tumor vessels could, be seen both in astrocytomas and in glioblastomas. Most cases of astrocytomas were however devoid of specific tumor vessels. When present they could not be definitely distinguished from those seen in glioblastomas, but the abnormal findings were far less numerous and definitely less pronounced in astrocytomas than in glioblastomas. In most cases the astrocytomas were characterized only by displacement of blood vessels of normal appearance, while the glioblastomas frequently-presented both displacement of normal appearing blood vessels and new formed blood vessels within the neoplasm itself. The pathological blood vessels in the tumor were frequently abnormal both regarding their topographical appearance and their type. Frequent findings were arterio

  17. Another New Solvable Many-Body Model of Goldfish Type

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    Francesco Calogero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new solvable many-body problem is identified. It is characterized by nonlinear Newtonian equations of motion (''acceleration equal force'' featuring one-body and two-body velocity-dependent forces ''of goldfish type'' which determine the motion ofan arbitrary number $N$ of unit-mass point-particles in a plane. The $N$ (generally complex values $z_{n}(t$ at time $t$ ofthe $N$ coordinates of these moving particles are given by the $N$eigenvalues of a time-dependent $Nimes N$ matrix $U(t$explicitly known in terms of the $2N$ initial data $z_{n}(0$and $dot{z}_{n}(0 $. This model comes in two dif/ferentvariants, one featuring 3 arbitrary coupling constants, the other only 2; for special values of these parameters all solutions are completely periodic with the same period independent of the initial data (''isochrony''; for other special values of these parameters this property holds up to corrections vanishing exponentially as $tightarrow infty$ (''asymptotic isochrony''. Other isochronous variants of these models are also reported. Alternative formulations, obtained by changing the dependent variables from the $N$ zeros of a monic polynomial of degree $N$ to its $N$ coefficients, are also exhibited. Some mathematical findings implied by some of these results - such as Diophantine properties of the zeros of certain polynomials - are outlined, but their analysis is postponed to a separate paper.

  18. Chitinophilic zoosporic fungi in various types of water bodies

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    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough, pond, beach pool, two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for hydrochemical analysis and once a month ( 1992 - 1994 in order to determine the fungus content. The wings of dragonfly and flies, carapaces of crayfish and potato beetle and the fructification of two mushrooms were used as bait. Thirty species of chitinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodiss. Cytriomyces annulatus, Entophlyctis crenata, Obelidium megarrhizum, Rhopalophlyctis sareoptoides, Achlya colorata, A. megasperma and Dictyuchus monosporus represent new records as chitinophilic fungi. However, Entophlyctis crenata, Obelidium megarrhizum and Podochytrium chitinophilum reported for the first time from Poland.

  19. Body composition in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1

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    MARCIO SOUZA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective To evaluate the body composition and nutritional status of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 adult patients. Method A cross-sectional study of 60 NF1 patients (29 men, 31 women aged ≥ 18 years who were evaluated from September 2012 to September 2013 in a Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center. Patients underwent nutritional assessment including measurements of weight, stature, waist circumference (WC, upper-arm circumference (UAC, and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac. Body mass index (BMI, upper-arm total area (UATA, upper-arm muscle area (UAMA, upper-arm fat area (UAFA, body fat percentage (BFP, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index were also calculated. Results The mean age of the study population was 34.48±10.33 years. The prevalence of short stature was 28.3%. Low weight was present in 10% of the sample and 31.7% of patients had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Reduced UAMA (<5th percentile was present in 43.3% and no difference was found in UAFA between the sexes. The BFP was considered high in 30% and 17 (28.3% patients had a WC above the World Health Organization cutoffs. Conclusion In this study, NF1 patients had a high prevalence of underweight, short stature, and reduced UAMA, with no difference between the sexes. Reduced UAMA was more prevalent in underweight patients; however, this was also observed in the normal and overweight patients. Further studies should investigate the distribution of body tissues in NF1 patients, including differences between men and women, and the influence of diet and nutrition on clinical features in NF1.

  20. Whole body MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1

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    Meerbeeck, S.F.L. van [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: stephen.vm@rad-vanmeerbeeck.be; Verstraete, K.L. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be; Janssens, S.; Mortier, G. [Department of Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To assess the value of whole body MR imaging in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Materials and methods: 24 patients (15-59 years; mean and median 36 years; 7 males; 17 females) with genetically proven neurofibromatosis type 1 were examined with whole body MR imaging. Axial and coronal T1- and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (slice thickness 6-12 mm) were acquired on a 1.5 T MR unit (Symphony; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The images were reviewed by 2 radiologists: 1 senior, 1 junior. The criterion for a neurofibroma was a mass lesion with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2, along the course of a nerve. The location, size, general morphology and course along plexuses and nerves were evaluated. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas were defined as 'superficial' neurofibromas. The other neurofibromas were regarded as 'deep' neurofibromas. Results: There were no major problems to differentiate neurofibromas from lymph nodes, vessels or cysts. The latter three were easily recognised by their typical shape and location, whereas neurofibromas occurred in regions where no mass lesion was anatomically expected. There was no relation between age and total number of neurofibromas throughout the body. Classification according to location and number of neurofibromas: 8 patients had only superficial neurofibromas, 1 only deep and 15 both superficial and deep lesions. Twelve patients had less than 15 neurofibromas and 12 had more. Classification according to course: in 8 patients the neurofibromas occurred along plexuses or proximal part of the intercostal nerves; in 16 patients the lesions were more peripheral. Classification according to morphology: 4 patients had plexiform neurofibromas and 20 patients had multiple solitary lesions. Twelve of these 20 patients had less than 15 lesions, and 8 had more. In 2 patients multiple solitary neurofibromas occurred along the nerve in a chain configuration. In one

  1. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...

  2. Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il; Kim, Dong Ik; Jun, Pyoung; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Hwang, Geum Ju; Cheon, Young Jik; Lim, Joon Seok [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis and associated anomalies. Thirteen pateints with fourteen cases of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis collected from January 1992 to December 1997 were reviewed. Clinical diagnosis refered for cerebral angiography were cerebral infarction (n=3D3), intracranial hemorrhage (n=3D2), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n=3D1), brain tumor (n=3D3), arteriovenous malformation (n=3D3) and trigeminal neuralgia (n=3D1). Cerebral angiograms and clinical symptoms were retrospectively analyzed. The fourteen carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomsis consisted of eleven cases of persistent trigeminal artery and three cases of type I proatantal intersegmental artery. Persistent trigeminal arteries were associated with anterior communicating artery aneurysm(n=3D1), posterior fossa arteriovenous malformation(n=3D2) and persistent trigeminal artery variant(n=3D5). Type I proatantal intersegmental arteries were associated with hypoplastic vertebral arteries(n=3D2): only proximal segment in one, and proximal and distal segments in one case. Only one patient had clinical symptom related to the carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis which was trigeminal neuralgia. Knowledge of the anatomical and radiologic findings of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis and associated anomalies will aid in the accurate diagnosis of neurovascular disease and prevent possible complications during surgical and interventional procedures.=20.

  3. Lower carotid intima media thickness is predicted by higher serum bilirubin in both non-diabetic and Type 2 diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; de Vries, Rindert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Higher serum bilirubin levels may be implicated cardiovascular protection. It is unknown whether the impact of serum bilirubin on carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is different in diabetic subjects compared to non-diabetic subjects. We

  4. Effects of biphasic, basal-bolus or basal insulin analogue treatments on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Vaag, Allan; Tarnow, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    in combination with insulin detemir once daily (n=138) versus insulin detemir alone once daily (n=137), aiming at HbA1c≤7.0% (≤53 mmol/mol). OUTCOMES: Primary outcome was change in mean carotid IMT (a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease). HbA1c, insulin dose, weight, and hypoglycaemic and serious...

  5. Body Mass Index and Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

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    Snježana Kaštelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether body mass index (BMI independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR progression. Methods. The study included 176 patients with type 1 diabetes divided into three groups according to DR status: group 1 (no retinopathy; n=86, group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n=33, and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n=57. Results. A significant deterioration of HbA1c, an increase in total cholesterol, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and diabetic nephropathy with the progression of retinopathy were found. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, HbA1c, hypertension, total cholesterol, and the presence of nephropathy. In patients without nephropathy, statistical analyses showed that progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 24.03 ± 3.52, gr. 2: 25.36 ± 3.44, gr. 3: 26.93 ± 3.24; P<0.01. A positive correlation between BMI and a significant deterioration of HbA1c, an increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension was observed. Conclusion. BMI in correlation with HbA1c, cholesterol, and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy. However, additional studies are required to investigate the pathogenic role of obesity and weight loss in retinal diabetic complications particularly relating to nephropathy.

  6. Body Mass Index and Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Salopek Rabatić, Jasminka; Tomić, Martina; Gverović Antunica, Antonela; Ljubić, Spomenka; Kaštelan, Helena; Orešković, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. Methods. The study included 176 patients with type 1 diabetes divided into three groups according to DR status: group 1 (no retinopathy; n = 86), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n = 33), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n = 57). Results. A significant deterioration of HbA1c, an increase in total cholesterol, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and diabetic nephropathy with the progression of retinopathy were found. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, HbA1c, hypertension, total cholesterol, and the presence of nephropathy. In patients without nephropathy, statistical analyses showed that progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 24.03 ± 3.52, gr. 2: 25.36 ± 3.44, gr. 3: 26.93 ± 3.24; P < 0.01). A positive correlation between BMI and a significant deterioration of HbA1c, an increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension was observed. Conclusion. BMI in correlation with HbA1c, cholesterol, and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy. However, additional studies are required to investigate the pathogenic role of obesity and weight loss in retinal diabetic complications particularly relating to nephropathy. PMID:24696683

  7. Body Type and Sex of Receiver: Their Effects on Source Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Bruce K.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    This study focused on whether actual or stereotypic associations with a speaker's body type would affect his or her credibility. Effects on the source-credibility ratings submitted by a total of 165 students were investigated for three different sources' body types. A significant main effect was found for body type but not for the blocked…

  8. Changes of carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome%2型糖尿病合并阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者颈动脉内膜中层厚度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓真; 奚峰; 陈蕊华; 邹宇峰; 顾哲; 周斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) between type 2 diabetic patients with or without obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS),and the correlations between IMT and severity of OSAHS.Methods Seventy five inpatients with type 2 diabetes were consecutively enrolled from September to December,2013.Height,weight,waist circumference,hip circumference,blood pressure,blood glucose,blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured.Moreover,all patients undertook the carotid ultrasonography and polysomnography test (PSG),and were divided into two groups:42 patients with OSAHS (OD group),and 33 patients without OSAHS (DM group),according to the results of PSG.The differences of parameters between two groups were compared,and the correlations between IMT and other clinical characteristics were assessed.Results Body weight,waist circumference,fasting insulin(FINS),homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (HOMA-IR),carotid IMT,carotid resistance index (C-RI),Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS),oxygen reduction index (ODI),and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were higher (t =1.87-8.43,all P < 0.05),while lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2,t =7.38,P < 0.05) was lower in OD group compared with those in DM group.Univariate analysis showed that carotid IMT was positively associated with AHI,body weight,body mass index,waist circumference,lgFINS,lgHOMA-IR,C-RI,and ODI (r =0.24-0.70,all P < 0.05),and negatively correlated with LSaO2 (r =-0.44,P < 0.01).Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that C-RI (β =0.35,P < 0.01),AHI (β =0.28,P =0.01) and lgFINS (β =0.21,P =0.04) were independent predictors of carotid IMT,after adjusting for sex and age.Conclusions Carotid IMT is increased in patients with both type 2 diabetes and OSAHS compared with patients with diabetes alone.The severity of OSAHS is associated with the increase of carotid IMT.%目的 探讨2型糖尿病合并阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通

  9. Comparison between Carotid Stenting and Carotid Endarterectomy in Early Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Slavica; Kovačević, Miljenko; Strenja-Linić, Ines; Budiselić, Berislav; Knežević, Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a widely used method in prevention of stroke for carotid artery stenosis as an alternative to surgical treatment. Initial studies reveal higher morbidity and mortality rates for CAS than acceptable standards for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aim of this study was to compare results in a series of CAS with concurrent risk-matched group of CEA patients. The study included two groups of 50 patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. We compare...

  10. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  11. Carotid endarterectomies for relieving severe or moderate carotid stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhi-qian 吕志前; XIAO Ming-di 萧明第; Montagna Pietro; Farhat Fadi; Olivier Jegaden

    2004-01-01

    @@ Carotid artery stenosis is one of the major causes of ischemic strokes.1 To prevent or reduce the occurrences of ischemic strokes, carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) were performed on 48 patients with carotid artery stenosis from November 2000 to June 2003. Results from this study were analyzed and presented here.

  12. Effective surgical treatment of the carotid sinus sindrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOOROP, R J; SCHELTINGA, M R M; BENDER, M H M; CHARBON, J A; HUIGE, M C; MOLL, F L; BRUIJNINCKX, C M A

    2009-10-01

    Elderly patients frequently suffer from dizziness and syncope; however, an underlying disease may not always be identified. Three patients aged 69, 71 and 56, respectively, experienced spells of dizziness and syncope. Massage of the carotid sinus demonstrated the presence of a carotid sinus syndrome (CSS), an abnormal baroreflex response of the carotid sinus that leads to asystole and extreme hypotension. Conventional treatment is generally by insertion of a pacemaker. These patients, however, were referred to the vascular surgery department of our hospital for removal of adventitial layers of proximal portions of the internal carotid artery. Recovery was uneventful; all three are now free of symptoms. CSS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dizziness and syncope. Surgical denervation of the carotid artery is a valid treatment option, especially in the vasodepressive or mixed type of CSS.

  13. 一种永生化的大鼠颈动脉血管球细胞系的生化特性%The neurochemical properties of an immortalized glomus cell line from the carotid body of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光斗

    2006-01-01

    目的 神经干细胞在帕金森病的治疗中有十分巨大的潜在价值,然而,神经干细胞含有多种神经细胞成分,目前选择性分离纯化其中的多巴胺能神经元尚不完全成熟.在这里我们报告一种来自颈动脉体的克隆细胞系.方法 我们用逆转录病毒转导SV40 T抗原和Cre/lox P到大鼠颈动脉血管球细胞使其永生化,然后这些原癌基因被腺病毒转导的Cre重组酶切除.结果 克隆的血管球细胞表达高水平的酪氨酸羟化酶免疫反应性物质并且选择性地释放多巴胺.这些克隆细胞几乎不表达多巴胺转运体(DAT)而且抵抗多巴胺和MPTP介导的神经毒性.结论 克隆的血管球细胞可能为帕金森病的治疗提供一种新的方法.%Objective Embryonic stem cells (ES) are potentially useful for treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, ES cells contain a mixed population of neurons, and selective enrichment of dopaminergic components remains difficult. Here, we report that a dopaminergic clonal cell line developed from carotid body. Methods Glomus cells of the rat carotid body were conditionally immortalized by retroviral transfer of the SV40 T antigen and Cre/lox P elements. The oncogene was subsequently removed adenoviral delivery of the Cre recombinase. Results Cloned glomus cells expressed high levels of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity and selectively released dopamine in culture. Remarkably, they expressed little dopamine transporter DAT, and were resistant to dopamine- and MPTP-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusion Immortalized glomus cell line might provide an alternative way to the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  14. [Grafting of carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Iu V; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Bazylev, V V; Seleznev, M N; Savichev, D D

    2005-01-01

    Over 5-years, 167 reconstructive surgeries for stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA) were performed in 124 patients. Mean age of the patients was 63.5 years. One hundred and twenty-nine carotid endarterectomies (CEAE) in 86 patients and 38 reconstructive operations of ICA in 38 patients were performed. There were no lethal outcomes in short- and long-term postoperative period. In short-term period after prosthesis of ICA restenosis was revealed in 3% patients, after eversion CEAE in 3% patients the embolism was seen, after standard CEAE restenosis were diagnosed in 8% patients and thrombosis -- in 3%. In long-term period after grafting of ICA the strokes were seen in 3%, stenosis -- in 6% patients, after eversion endarterectomy -- in 0 and 3% patients, and after standard CEAE -- in 3 and 24% patients, respectively. It is concluded that grafting of ICA is adequate surgical method of reconstruction and stroke prevention in specific variants of carotid atherosclerosis.

  15. Fatty liver, carotid disease and gallstones: A study of age-related associations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amedeo Lonardo; Paola Loria; Silvia Lombardini; Federica Scaglioni; Stefano Ballestri; Anna Maria Verrone; Marco Bertolotti; Lucia Carulli; Dorval Ganazzi; Nicola Carulli

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate carotid intima-media thickening (IMT)and plaques, gallstone disease (GD) and fatty liver (FL)as a function of age.METHODS: In 449 subjects, FL and carotid disease were assessed ultrasonographically. In a subgroup of 65/449 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), carotid disease, GD and associated factors were determined.RESULTS: FL of unspecified etiology was more common in younger and GD in older individuals. FL subjects had an increased prevalence of IMT and a decreased prevalence of plaques and manifested carotid disease earlier. Plaques were more common in subjects with GD.Age was an independent predictor of carotid disease outcome and FL was a protective factor for plaques. In NAFLD, there was an inverse correlation between body weight and age and the latter independently predicted carotid findings.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk in patients with FL and NAFLD needs to be assessed as a function of age and body weight.

  16. A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chand Jain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index is also known as obesity index. Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. The present study has been done with the objective of finding correlation between BMI and type 2 diabetes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1638-1641

  17. The body type profile of women occupying modern pentathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiello Wladyslaw.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It was made an attempt to define the features of the body structure athletes - members of the Polish national team in modern pentathlon (n = 11. Age athletes were in the range of 18-35 years old (23,4 ± 5,2, and training experience - 6-20 years old (12,4 ± 4,4. The five factors (Rohrera, Queteleta II, Manouvrier, height-weight, pelvic and shoulder, and the total body surface were defined. The share based on body measurements of skin-fat folds using prediction equations Piechaczka is calculated. Total fat as a percentage of body weight using the formula Brożka i Keys is calculated. At all were defined 20 indicators. On the basis of the valuation of the body structure specifies a profile of the subjects were determined. A comparison group is consisted of students of Warsaw University of Technology. The members of the women's national team of Poland in modern pentathlon are characterized, above all, significant indicators of the body length of the upper and lower extremities, with a diameter of forearm, elbow width, as well as the value of the proportion of the body.

  18. Carotid Artery Stenting 2013: Thumbs up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdi, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    It has been customary for interventional cardiologists involved in carotid artery stenting, to underline non-inferiority of the percutaneous technique versus surgical carotid endarterectomy. To that end, all cause morbidity and mortality figures of both methods are compared. Surgery has, in most large randomized studies, had an edge over stenting in terms of cerebrovascular adverse events. This may have partly been due to occasional indiscriminate indication for stenting in lesions and/or vessels with unfavourable characteristics (severe target vessel tortuosity and calcification, Type III aortic arch, and so on). On one hand, the author pleads for improvement of the excellent results of endarterectomy, by subjecting all patients planned for surgery to a thorough preoperative cardiological work up, including generous invasive investigation, thus reducing the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiac death. On the other hand, we are convinced that the results of carotid stenting should then be compared to best practice surgery. The rate of neurological adverse event rate after carotid endarterectomy at our institution lies under 0.7% at 30 days postoperatively. Specifically, the goal should be that carotid stenting underbids surgical endarterectomy, also and mainly, in terms of cerebral and cerebrovascular adverse events. Cardiac morbidity and mortality as well as laryngeal nerve palsy should no more be the main arguments for the percutaneous approach. This should easily be possible if patient selection for carotid revascularisation would be approached according to morphological criteria, in analogy with the “Syntax”-score used to optimise revascularisation strategies in coronary artery disease.

  19. [Carotid chemodectoma: a clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P; Russo, F; Paganelli, C; Forlini, A; Danza, F; Gentileschi, P

    1994-01-01

    Carotid chemodectoma (CC) is a very rare neoplasia. It originates from Type 1 main cells of the carotid body and affects both sexes almost in the same proportion (mostly in the fourth and fifth decades). It can be on a familiar basis (5-10%) and in these cases it is more frequently multicentric, being sporadically found in association with other paragangliomas. CC is a slow-growing neoplasia, locally aggressive and it can give metastases to regional lymph nodes and surrounding anatomical structures. Once surgically removed, it can reoccur in a small percentage of patients. Early diagnosis is of the utmost importance and surgeon's skill is fundamental as well as awareness of the real nature of the disease. Surgical treatment of CC is difficult and demanding, for the close relation of CC to the neighbouring neurovascular structures. The authors report a case of CC radically operated on. Clinical parameters are analysed as well, and Literature is reviewed.

  20. 非酒精性脂肪肝和2型糖尿病与颈动脉病变的关系%Relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/type 2 diabetes and carotid artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 张新义; 原海琴; 张瑞方

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)和2型糖尿病(T2DM)与颈动脉病变的关系.方法 按是否有T2DM和NAFLD分为4组:对照组、NAFLD组、T2DM组、T2DM合并NAFLD组,观察各组临床及生化特征、颈动脉内-中膜厚度(IMT)以及超声分型,并对出现的颈动脉斑块形态、特点和颈动脉斑块积分进行分析.结果 T2DM合并NAFLD组的HOMA胰岛素抵抗指数高于其他三组;单纯T2DM组和NAFLD组HOMA-IR、TC、TG、LDL-C和BMI高于对照组,HDL-C低于对照组.T2DM合并NAFLD组IMT与其他三组比较,差异显著(P<0.05);T2DM组、NAFLD组IMT也大于对照组(P<0.05).颈动脉硬化超声分型各组之间构成比的比较有差异.T2DM合并NAFLD组不稳定斑块形成高于T2DM组、NAFLD组,颈动脉斑块积分也较T2DM组、NAFLD组增多.结论 NAFLD、T2DM与胰岛素抵抗、血脂异常、肥胖密切相关,易引起动脉粥样硬化,T2DM合并NAFLD与动脉粥样硬化斑块不稳定性和斑块发生程度之间有一定关联.%Objective To investigate the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease( NAFLD)/type 2 dia-betes(T2DM) and carotid artery disease. Methods Patients met the inclusion criterias were divided into control group, NAFLD group, T2DM group and T2DM concurrence with NAFLD group according to whether they had NAFLD and T2DM. The clinical and biochemical features, carotid intima-media thickness (1MT) and ultrasound types were observed and the carotid artery plaque morphology, features and carotid artery plaque scores were analyzed. Results HO-MA-IR in T2DM concurrence with NAFLD group was higher than that in other three groups. HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL-C and BMI in the NAFLD group and T2DM group were respectively higher than those in control group, while HDL-C in the two groups was lower than that in control group. There was great difference of IMT value among T2DM concurrence with NAFLD group and other three groups (P<0.05), IMT value in NAFLD group, T2DM group was

  1. 一氧化碳和硫化氢在颈动脉体缺氧反应中的调节作用%Hypoxia responses led by carotid body is regulated by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃宇; 夏建华; 石学银

    2008-01-01

    传统认为一氧化碳和硫化氢为有毒气体,但近年的研究表明在颈动脉体感受低氧的过程中,这两种气体起重要的调节作用.一氧化碳通过增加内向钾离子电流抑制窦神经;硫化氢供体硫氢化钠则呈剂量依赖性兴奋窦神经.并且一氧化碳供体能完全逆转硫化氢对窦神经的兴奋作用.因而,一氧化碳和硫化氢共同调节颈动脉体对低氧状态反应的信号转导.%Carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, both of which are well known toxic agents, are now demonstrated as critical gaseous mediators in carotid body when it responds to hypoxia. While carbon monoxide reduces sinus nerve impulses by decreasing inward potassium ion flux, sodium hydrosulfide, a donor of hydrogen sulfide, exerts an opposite effect in a dose - dependent manner.However, the exciting effect of hydrogen sulfide will be reversed completely after the donor of carbon monoxide is subjected. In this way, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide intermingle into the regulation to the hypoxic information transduetion.

  2. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Fell, G.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Van Schil, P.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; De Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verhelst, R.; DeJaegher, L.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J-F; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M-F; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L-H; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Alback, A.; Harno, H.; Ijas, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepantalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruininckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Nieholt, G. J. Lycklama A.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; De Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sorensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennoe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gimenez Gaibar, A.; Perendreu, J.; Bjorses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T-B; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Bonati, L. H.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E-W; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, N.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Bradbury, A. W.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H-C; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dolman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Beard, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Gaines, P.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Clifton, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Brown, M. M.; Jaeger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Wong, J.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.; Rogers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  3. STUDY OF TIME LAPSE IN FOREIGN BODY ASPIRATION IN RELATION TO CHEST X - RAY AND TYPE OF FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Foreign body aspiration in pediatrics is a potentially fatal accident which will continue until children explore their surroundings with their hand and mouth. Pediatric aspirations will persist until mankind exists. Not all foreign body aspirations are witnessed hence chances of delay in diagnosing an aspiration are high. Delay in diagnosis depends on site and character of foreign body aspirated. The chest x - ray findings and type of foreign body extracted vary depending on the duration the foreign body remains in airway . OBJECTIVE: To study the X - ray finding in pediatric airway aspiration and its relation to time lapse, the type and site of lodgment of foreign body extracted via bronchoscopy. The type of foreign body in relation to time lapse in aspiration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective study done in Bapuji child health institute and research center, JJM Medical College, Davangere . History and pre bronchoscopy x - Ray finding were noted for 65 children who were posted for suspicious bronchoscopy from August 2011 to September 2013. 11 children were excluded from study as they showed no foreign body on bronchoscopy. Time lapse in aspir ation and seeking medical care was noted. The bronchoscopic findings regarding site of foreign body lodgment and type of foreign body were recorded. The type of foreign body and variation of x - ray picture in relation to time lapse in aspiration were noted. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULT: It was observed that mean age was 28 months. About 80% of the cases were between 1 to 3 years age. 82% (n=53/54 were radio lucent foreign body, only 1.5% (n=1/54 were radio o paque. Site of lodgment of foreign body was right main bronchus in 48% (n=26/54, left main bronchus 46% (n=25/54 , tracheal 1.85% (n=1/54, subglottic 1.85% (n=1/54, carinal 1.85% (n=1/54, multiple site i.e. left bronchus +right bronchus+ carinal 1.85% (n=1/54. Groundnut was most common

  4. Type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Rastegari, Zahra; Paknahad, Zamzam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then...

  5. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Weir-McCall

    Full Text Available Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA.50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR. The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated.The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045, however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01 with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012, which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45, while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005.ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is

  6. Body Type, Self-Esteem and Assertiveness among High School Students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body type, self-esteem and assertiveness among adolescents of ages between 13 and 19 years. To achieve this aim, the study sampled 56 male and 94 female adolescents of the Senior High School in Accra, Ghana. Results showed that, higher self-esteem leads to assertiveness. Results also showed that body type perception affects self-esteem. It is, therefore, recommended that Guidance and Counselling officers in our schools should educate adolescent students on the three body types and the advantages associated with being one of these body types. This may help prevent developing body dysmorphic disorder, low self-esteem and non-assertiveness among students with negative perceptions of their body types and the possible effects on their personal relationships with peers, general academic performance and in- school and out-of- school life.

  7. Carotid revascularization: risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marlene O'Brien, Ankur Chandra Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Despite a decline during the recent decades in stroke-related death, the incidence of stroke has remained unchanged or slightly increased, and extracranial carotid artery stenosis is implicated in 20%–30% of all strokes. Medical therapy and risk factor modification are first-line therapies for all patients with carotid occlusive disease. Evidence for the treatment of patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis greater than 70% with either carotid artery stenting (CAS or carotid endarterectomy (CEA is compelling, and several trials have demonstrated a benefit to carotid revascularization in the symptomatic patient population. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is more controversial, with the largest trials only demonstrating a 1% per year risk stroke reduction with CEA. Although there are sufficient data to advocate for aggressive medical therapy as the primary mode of treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, there are also data to suggest that certain patient populations will benefit from a stroke risk reduction with carotid revascularization. In the United States, consensus and practice guidelines dictate that CEA is reasonable in patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis, a reasonable life expectancy, and perioperative risk of less than 3%. Regarding CAS versus CEA, the best-available evidence demonstrates no difference between the two procedures in early perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death, and no difference in 4-year ipsilateral stroke risk. However, because of the higher perioperative risks of stroke in patients undergoing CAS, particularly in symptomatic, female, or elderly patients, it is difficult to recommend CAS over CEA except in populations with prohibitive cardiac risk, previous carotid surgery, or prior neck radiation. Current treatment

  8. Rare complex aneurysm of special type in the superior segment of clinoid process of internal carotid artery%瘤颈处理困难的床突上段动脉瘤三例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峥; 尚明超; 李琦; 王如密; 王守森; 林航; 张小军; 郑兆聪; 魏梁锋; 杨少春; 荆俊杰

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨罕见颈内动脉床突上段特殊类刑复杂动脉瘤某些特征,临床特点及治疗方法.方法 通过3例十分罕见颈内动脉床突上段动脉瘤的治疗经过,总结手术中所遇见的瘤颈撕裂,载瘤动脉壁薄、撕裂,血栓形成,无法夹闭等特殊情况,并且与术前的影像学资料进行对比研究,寻找这些动脉瘤的特征.结果 发现这种特殊动脉瘤,载瘤动脉局部不规则钙化、增粗畸形,甚至载瘤动脉壁菲薄;动脉瘤发生部位不规则,瘤颈及瘤体壁非薄,显微镜下见瘤体壁薄旱紫红色,手术时轻微分离瘤颈或夹闭时容易撕裂,或载瘤动脉壁撕裂,无法修补止血;2例术中由丁载瘤动脉钙化而坚硬,其近端不能予以临时阻断控制;瘤颈内有部分血栓侵犯,导致瘤夹闭合不全,调整瘤夹易撕裂瘤颈.结论 手术需谨慎,术中有可能无法夹闭或载瘤动脉壁破裂,术前造影具有明显特征,手术方法 以颅内外血管吻合+孤立为妥.%Objective To discuss the features, clinical characteristics and therapies of rare aneurysm of special type in the superior segment of clinoid process of internal carotid artery. Method From clinical courses of treatment of 3 patients with extremely rare aneurysms in the superior segment of clinoid process of internal eardotid artery, we summarized special clinical characteristics including torn aneurysm neck, thin or tom tumor-loading artery wail, thrombosis, and clipping failure, etc. , encountered during the surgery, and compared them with pro-surgical imaging data, to investigate features of this type of aneurysms. Results Of such special neurysms, it was found that the tumor-loading artery was irregularly calcified, thickened and deformed, or even the tumor-loading artery wall was extremely thin. Such neurysms occurred in irregular sites, with quite thin tumor neck and tumor body wall. Under a microscope,the tumor body wall was carmine. It was readily torn in slight

  9. A meta-analysis of carotid endarterectomy versus stenting in the treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; LIU Xiao-zhi; LIU Zhen-lin; LAN Feng-ming; SHI Wan-chao; LIU Jun; ZHANG Jian-ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Carotid stenosis is one of the common reasons for patients with ischemic stroke,and the two invasive options carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) are the most popular treatments.But the relative efficacy and safety of the methods are not clear.Methods About 521 articles related to CAS and CEA for carotid stenosis published in 1995-2011 were retrieved from MEDLINE,Cochrane Library (CL),and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) China Journal Full-Test database.Of them,eight articles were chosen.Meta-analysis was used to assess the relative risks.Results The eight studies included 3873 patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis,including 1941 cases in the carotid stent angioplasty group,and 1932 cases in the carotid endarterectomy group.Fixed effect model analysis showed that within 30 days of incidence of all types of strokes,surgery was significantly highly preferred in CAS patients (CAS group) than the CEA patients (CEA group),and the difference was statistically significant (relative ratio (RR)=1.80,95% confidence interval (CI):1.380-2.401,P <0.0001).But the incidence of death in the two groups is not showed and is not statistically significant after 30 days (RR=1.52,95% CI:0.82-2.82,P=0.18).The rate of cranial nerve injury in the CAS group is lower than the CEA group (RR=0.14,95% CI:0.05-0.43,P=0.0005).The incidence of CAS patients with myocardial infarction is lower than the CEA group after 30 days,but statistically meaningless (RR=0.22,95% CI:0.05-1.02,P=0.05).The stroke or death in CAS patients were higher than the CEA group after 1 year of treatment (RR=2.58,95% CI:1.03-6.48,P=0.04).Conclusions Compared to CAS,carotid endarterectomy is still the preferred treatment methodology of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.Future meta-analyses should then be performed in long-term follow-up to support this treatment recommendation.

  10. Vascular tone and reactivity to serotonin in the internal and external carotid vascular beds of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1976-04-01

    The effects of intra-arterial infusions of serotonin on internal and external carotid blood flow were determined in anesthetized dogs by electromagnetic flow measurements. Serotonin decreased flow in the internal carotid and increased it in the external carotid. Both responses were blocked by the serotonin antagonist methysergide. The alpha adrenergic antagonist zolertine, the ganglionic blocking agent chlorisondamine and the vasodilator diazoxide blocked external carotid dilator responses but did not modify constriction in the internal carotid. Blockade of external carotid responses by the three drugs was also demonstrated in experiments in which this bed was perfused at a constant rate. These results indicate that the internal and external carotid vascular beds of the dog react in opposite ways to serotonin, that both responses are mediated through the same type of serotonin receptors and that the dilator responses of the external carotid are dependent on vascular tone.

  11. Context-Aware Active Authentication using Touch Gestures, Typing Patterns and Body Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Active Authentication, behavioral biometrics, keystroke dynamics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU...CONTEXT-AWARE ACTIVE AUTHENTICATION USING TOUCH GESTURES, TYPING PATTERNS, AND BODY MOVEMENT LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Context-Aware Active Authentication using Touch Gestures, Typing Patterns, and Body Movement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-13-2

  12. Aerodynamics on a transport aircraft type wing-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, V.

    1982-01-01

    The DFLR-F4 wing-body combination is studied. The 1/38 model is formed by a 9.5 aspect ratio transonic wing and an Airbus A 310 fuselage. The F4 wing geometrical characteristics are described and the main experimental results obtained in the S2MA wind tunnel are discussed. Both wing-fuselage interferences and viscous effects, which are important on the wing due to a high rear loading, are investigated by performing 3D calculations. An attempt is made to find their limitations.

  13. Relevance of Body Size and Growth Type for Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Peter Herm

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High level exercising during adolescence alone enhance peak bone mineral density and reduce osteoporosis risk. It's a well-known fact that body weight influences menarche age. Intensive sports activity and thinness appear to have a synergetic effect in delaying menarche. It will be a big task during future to study relationship of physical structure to high level performance because discouraging results have shown some important high lights. It appears that with high level of sports, anatomical, biological and biomechanical modelling of physique changes. The performance may be more appropriate if the next future training may attempt to match the model better than before.

  14. Relationship between carotid atherosclerosis with serum uric acid and fibrinogen in patients with type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus%Ⅱ型糖尿病患者颈动脉粥样硬化与血尿酸、纤维蛋白原的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 王丽萍

    2011-01-01

    AIM; To determine whether uric acid and fibrinogen are independent factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS; A total of 218 T2DM patients with or without carotid atherosclerosis were examined. Serum uric acid, fibrinogen, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and HbAlc levels were determined. Other risk factors including age, T2DM duration, and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) were observed- RESULTS; Logistic regression analysis of carotid atherosclerosis showed that uric acid and fibrinogen were higher in the group with carotid atherosclerosis. Uric acid together with fibrinogen, age, T2DM duration, blood pressure, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein and UA/Cr was associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. Multiple regression analysis of uric acid in all groups showed that T2DM duration, creatinine, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and carotid atherosclerosis were independent determinants. Multiple regression analysis of fibrinogen in all groups showed that carotid atherosclerosis was an independent determinant. CONCLUSION: Uric acid and fibrinogen are higher in carotid atherosclerosis patients and are likely risk factors in patients with T2DM with carotid atherosclerosis.%目的:探讨Ⅱ型糖尿病(T2DM)患者血清尿酸(UA)、纤维蛋白原(Fg)水平是否与颈动脉粥样硬化(AS)有关.方法:T2DM患者218例,根据有无颈AS分为2组,对患者年龄、病程、高血压病、UA、肌酐(cr)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、糖基化血红蛋白和Fg等AS危险因素进行单因素和多因素分析.结果:logistic回归分析显示年龄、病程、UA、Cr、UA/Cr、LDL-C,Fg与T2DM颈AS有相关性.UA危险因素的多元逐步回归分析显示病程、颈AS、Cr TG、TC与UA相关;Fg危险因素的多元逐步回归分析

  15. The evaluation of body image in children with type 1 diabetes: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncone, Alda; Prisco, Francesco; Cascella, Crescenzo; Chianese, Antonietta; Zanfardino, Angela; Iafusco, Dario

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the body image perception in children with type 1 diabetes in order to identify symptoms of disordered eating behaviours early. Children with type 1 diabetes and controls showed underestimation and dissatisfaction with body size. The patients, especially girls, were more accurate in their perception of body size than the control group. The study sheds light on some of the underlying factors that may contribute to the development of disordered eating behaviours in adolescence. The causes of the differences of perception of body size are discussed.

  16. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  17. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brooks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the thin ideal has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of self and other are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g. expanded other/contracted self, and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one’s own body following exposure to thin and to fat others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  18. Type I collagen is thermally unstable at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikina, E; Mertts, M V; Kuznetsova, N; Leikin, S

    2002-02-05

    Measured by ultra-slow scanning calorimetry and isothermal circular dichroism, human lung collagen monomers denature at 37 degrees C within a couple of days. Their unfolding rate decreases exponentially at lower temperature, but complete unfolding is observed even below 36 degrees C. Refolding of full-length, native collagen triple helices does occur, but only below 30 degrees C. Thus, contrary to the widely held belief, the energetically preferred conformation of the main protein of bone and skin in physiological solution is a random coil rather than a triple helix. These observations suggest that once secreted from cells collagen helices would begin to unfold. We argue that initial microunfolding of their least stable domains would trigger self-assembly of fibers where the helices are protected from complete unfolding. Our data support an earlier hypothesis that in fibers collagen helices may melt and refold locally when needed, giving fibers their strength and elasticity. Apparently, Nature adjusts collagen hydroxyproline content to ensure that the melting temperature of triple helical monomers is several degrees below rather than above body temperature.

  19. Complications of the Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Yaliniz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative complications of the carotid endarterectomy; hypertention and hypotention, cervical hematoma, wound infection, and false aneurysm, cranial nerve dysfonctions, carotid thrombosis, recurrent stenosis and operative strok are discused. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 166-176

  20. 经右侧桡动脉入路支架成形术治疗牛角型或Ⅲ型主动脉弓合并颈动脉狭窄%Treatment of bovine type and type Ⅲ aortic arch carotid stenosis with stent angioplasty via the right radial approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许岗勤; 王子亮; 汪勇锋; 梁晓东; 李立; 李天晓

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of the treatment of type Ⅲ aortic arch right carotid stenosis and bovine type aortic arch left carotid stenosis with stent angioplasty via the right radial approach.Methods From September 2015 to February 2016,the clinical data of 16 patients with type Ⅲ aortic arch right carotid stenosis and bovine type aortic arch left carotid stenosis treated with carotid stent angioplasty via the radial approach at the Cerebrovascular Interventional Therapy Center,Henan Provincial People's Hospital were analyzed retrospectively,including operation success rate,cardio-cerebrovascular complications,and radial artery puncture complications.All 16 patients were treated with endovascular treatment via right radial approach.The coaxial technique was used for guiding catheter to the super-select target vessels.From January 2014 to December 2015,20 patients with type Ⅲ aortic arch right carotid stenosis and bovine type aortic arch left carotid stenosis treated with carotid stent operation were selected at the same time.The ray irradiation time between the two groups were compared.The follow-up time was 3 months.Results The surgical success rate of the 16 patients was 100%.Three patients had decreased blood pressure and heart rate during the operation.None of them had radial artery occlusion or severe cardio-cerebrovascular events.The ray irradiation time (9.94 ± 0.97 min) in patients with carotid artery stenosis stenting via the radial approach was less than those via the femoral artery approach(11.51 ± 1.39 min).There was significant difference (P =0.001).Conclusion The success rate of the type Ⅲ aortic arch right carotid and bovine type aortic arch left carotid stenosis with stent angioplasty via the right radial approach is high,safe and feasible.%目的 探讨经右侧桡动脉入路支架成形术治疗牛角型主动脉弓或Ⅲ型主动脉弓合并颈动脉狭窄的可行性及安全性.方法 回顾性分析2015

  1. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Simmerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective The primary objective of this study was to summarize current literature regarding the effects of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review details the effect of whole body vibration on areas of high clinical impact in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus such as glycemic control, body composition, renal function, inflammatory indices, peripheral neuropathy, and wound healing. Methods Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts in journal articles and books to extract data from multiple studies and literature to compile a current review on the topic of whole body vibration and diabetes mellitus. Results Current literature in murine and human models reported an overall improvement in glycemic control, renal function, inflammatory indices, and peripheral neuropathy following whole body vibration therapy. Whole body vibration effect on body mass composition is controversial with inconsistent reports of the effect on lean mass, bone density, and fat mass. Conclusions Whole body vibration has demonstrated significant promise in improving multiple systems related to the sequela of type 2 diabetes mellitus, thereby suggesting a new and novel treatment modification in this patient population. Subsequent studies are needed to further analyze the effect of whole body vibration on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. [Carotid duplex ultrasonography for neurosurgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-12-01

    Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) is one of the most well-known imaging methods for arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. For neurosurgeons, it is very important for the details of carotid plaque to be thoroughly investigated by CDU. Symptomatic carotid plaque is very fragile and easily changes morphologically, and so requires frequent CDU examination. Furthermore, after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), restenosis is evaluated with CDU. CDU facilitates not only morphological imaging in the B mode, but also allows a flow study with color Doppler and duplex imaging. So, CDU can help assess the presence of proximal and intracranial artery lesions in spite of only having a cervical view, and the patency of the extracranial artery to intracranial artery bypass is revealed with CDU, which shows a rich velocity and low pulsatility index (PI) in duplex imaging. For the examiner, it is necessary to ponder on what duplex imaging means in examinations, and to summarize all imaging finding.

  3. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  4. Review of stents for the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P

    2006-04-01

    The individual characteristics of a stent may make it an attractive choice in some circumstances, but render it a less desirable option in others. The applicability depends primarily on the arterial anatomy and the specific details of the lesion being treated. A careful assessment by the interventionalist is required to select the proper type of stent that is of appropriate size. Certainly, personal preferences and familiarity with a specific device may legitimately influence the decision to choose one stent over another. Finally, stent design can play a role in the selection procedure. Although carotid stents are often functionally equivalent in the clinical setting and have been used successfully to treat a wide variety of lesions, a basic knowledge of stent geometry can contribute to make up your mind in certain carotid cases.

  5. Relationship between daily dietary fructose intake, body composition and biochemical parameters patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Arslan

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more specific suggestions regarding fructose intake and to better understand the relationship between fructose intakes, body composition and biochemical parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Continuous Choreographies as Limiting Solutions of N-body Type Problems with Weak Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneira, Reynaldo; Padilla, Pablo; Sánchez-Morgado, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    We consider the limit Nto +∞ of N-body type problems with weak interaction, equal masses and -σ-homogeneous potential, 0absolute minimizer of the action functional among zero mean (travelling wave) loops of class H^1.

  7. Carotid endovascular interventions: patient selection, devices, techniques and tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Peeters, P

    2010-02-01

    The optimal treatment of patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic carotid artery disease (CAD) has been a long-lasting debate. The choice between carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid artery stenting (CAS) and/or optimal medical therapy to treat patients with CAD, depends on their risk profile. Recent data from EVA-3S, SPACE randomized trials failed to demonstrate non-inferiority for CAS over CEA. However, other publications suggest that with growing experience and the development of dedicated CAS technology, CAS can be performed safely and efficiently. The success of carotid stenting does not solely depend on the operator's skills and experience, but also on the adequate selection of carotid stents and cerebral protection devices. Currently, CAS practitioners are confronted with a large number of dedicated CAS devices (stents and embolic protection devices). This wide array of products makes individual treatment strategies difficult to generalise as no single device possesses all of the optimal features to treat all types of carotid plaques and patients. This article reviews the principles of patient selection and device selection in contemporary CAS practice.

  8. Differential Changes of Aorta and Carotid Vasodilation in Type 2 Diabetic GK and OLETF Rats: Paradoxical Roles of Hyperglycemia and Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated large vessel function in lean Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (GK and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty diabetic rats (OLETF with possible roles of hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity and insulin. Both young and old GK showed marked hyperglycemia with normal insulin level and well-preserved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in aorta and carotid artery. There were significant elevations in endothelial/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/iNOS and inducible/constitutive heme oxygenase (HO-1/HO-2 in GK. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation in GK was inhibited partly by NOS blockade and completely by simultaneous blocking of HO and NOS. In contrast, OLETF showed hyperinsulinemia and mild hyperglycemia but significant endothelium dysfunction beginning at early ages with concomitantly reduced eNOS. Insulin injection corrected hyperglycemia in GK but induced endothelium dysfunction and intima hyperplasia. Hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity in vitro enhanced vessel eNOS/HO. We suggest that hyperinsulinemia plays a role in endothelium dysfunction in obese diabetic OLETF, while hyperglycemia/hyperosmolarity-induced eNOS/HO upregulation participates in the adaptation of endothelium function in lean diabetic GK.

  9. The effects of vitamin D, K and calcium co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic status in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with CHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Raygan, Fariba; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Rezavandi, Zohreh; Talari, Hamid Reza; Rafiee, Motahereh; Poladchang, Somayyeh; Darooghegi Mofrad, Manijeh; Taheri, Sara; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and metabolic status in overweight diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-six diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 5µg vitamin D, 90 µg vitamin K plus 500 mg Ca supplements (n 33) or placebo (n 33) twice a day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 12-week intervention period to determine related markers. Vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (-0·04 (sd 0·22) v. +0·04 (sd 0·09) mm, P=0·02). Changes in serum vitamin D (+6·5 (sd 7·8) v. +0·4 (sd 2·2) ng/ml, Pvitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on maximum levels of left CIMT and metabolic status. The effect of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on maximum levels of left CIMT could be a chance finding.

  10. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy.

  11. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed...

  12. Carotid Disease Management: Surgery, Stenting, or Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Chaturvedi, Seemant

    2015-09-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis accounts for about 7-10 % of ischemic strokes. Conventional risk factors such as aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking increase the risk for carotid atherosclerosis. All patients with carotid stenosis should receive aggressive medical therapy. Carotid revascularization with either endarterectomy or stenting can benefit select patients with severe stenosis. New clinical trials will examine the contemporary role of carotid revascularization relative to optimal medical therapy.

  13. [Carotid endarterectomy under local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, A L; Belov, Iu V

    2001-01-01

    Results of carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) in 193 patients with different degree of cerebrovascular insufficiency were analyzed. All the patients were men with carotid atherosclerosis (age from 39 to 68 years, mean age 53.6 +/- 0.4). A total of 253 CEAEs were performed under local anesthesia (60 patients underwent consecutive bilateral operations). In early postoperative period 3 patients died, one of them--of ischemic stroke due to thrombosis of internal carotid artery on the side of the operation. Non-fatal stroke was in 1 patient. There were no intraoperative cerebral complications. This testifies to reliability of cerebral circulation control through direct contact with patient.

  14. The Short-Term Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Elastic Properties of the Carotid Artery and the Aorta in Epileptic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; İşgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur; Uysal, Utku

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the effect of a 6-month-long ketogenic diet on carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery, and aortic vascular functions. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were being treated with ketogenic diet were enrolled. Fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations were measured and echocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning of ketogenic diet and at the sixth month of treatment. The body weight, height, body mass index, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein increased significantly at month 6 when compared to baseline values (P ketogenic diet has no effect on carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of the carotid artery and the aorta.

  15. Effect of treatment temperature on collagen structures of the decellularized carotid artery using high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Decellularized tissues have attracted a great deal of attention as regenerating transplantation materials. A decellularizing method based on high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been developed, and the preparation of many types of decellularized tissues has been investigated, including aorta, cornea, and dermis. The preparation of a small-diameter vascular graft was studied using a carotid artery from the viewpoint of collagen denaturation and leakage. After HHP, the carotid artery was washed at two washing temperatures (37 and 4°C). Histological evaluation, collagen content measurement and circular dichroism (CD) measurement indicated that the washing temperatures clearly affected the collagen structure of the decellularized carotid artery. The amount of collagen decreased in the carotid artery decellularized by HHP washed at 37°C (HHP/37°C). On the other hand, the amount and structure of collagen were preserved in the carotid artery washed at 4°C after HHP (HHP/4°C). In rat carotid artery syngeneic transplantation, the HHP/37°C decellularized carotid artery occluded after 2 weeks, but the HHP/4°C decellularized one did not. These results indicate that collagen denaturation and leakage of the decellularized carotid artery affect the in vivo performance of the carotid artery.

  16. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys...... modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may...

  17. Effects of wearing two different types of clothing on body temperatures during and after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woon Seon; Tokura, Hiromi

    1989-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the human thermoregulatory responses during rest, exercise and recovery at T a 20°C and 60% R.H. under the conditions of wearing two different types of clothing. Six healthy men wore two types of clothing: one covering the whole body area except the head (Type A, weight 1656 g), and the other covering only the trunk, upper arms and thighs (Type B, weight 996 g). The level of rectal temperature was kept significantly higher in Type B than in Type A during rest and recovery. The increased and decreased rates of rectal temperature during exercise and recovery were significantly greater in Type A than in Type B, respectively. These findings are discussed from the viewpoint of the differences of skin temperatures of the extremities between Type A and Type B.

  18. Water-Body types identification in urban areas from radarsat-2 fully polarimetric SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Chen, Fulong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for supervised water-body extraction and water-body types identification from Radarsat-2 fully polarimetric (FP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in complex urban areas. First, supervised water-body extraction using the Wishart classifier is performed, and the false alarms that are formed in built-up areas are removed using morphological processing methods and spatial contextual information. Then, the support vector machine (SVM), the classification and regression tree (CART), TreeBagger (TB), and random forest (RF) classifiers are introduced for water-body types (rivers, lakes, ponds) identification. In SAR images, certain other objects that are misclassified as water are also considered in water-body types identification. Several shape and polarimetric features of each candidate water-body are used for identification. Radarsat-2 PolSAR data that were acquired over Suzhou city and Dongguan city in China are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the experimental results are evaluated at both the object and pixel levels. We compared the water-body types classification results using only shape features and the combination of shape and polarimetric features, the experimental results show that the polarimetric features can eliminate the misclassifications from certain other objects like roads to water areas, and the increasement of classification accuracy embodies at both the object and pixel levels. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can achieve satisfactory accuracies at the object level [89.4% (Suzhou), 95.53% (Dongguan)] and the pixel level [96.22% (Suzhou), 97.95% (Dongguan)] for water-body types classification, respectively.

  19. Intracerebral haemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Boesen, J

    1987-01-01

    Among 662 consecutive carotid endarterectomies eight cases of postoperative ipsilateral intracerebral haemorrhage were identified, occurring into brain areas which, preoperatively were without infarction. As blood pressures across the stenosis were routinely measured during surgery, the internal...

  20. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P BMI-classified subjects (P BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  1. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Ho [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan(Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation.

  2. Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient′s signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.

  3. Association between Albuminuria and Different Body Constitution in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Taichung Diabetic Body Constitution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients increases the risk of diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Because albuminuria is modifiable, identifying relevant risk factors could facilitate prevention and/or management. This cross-sectional study investigated whether body constitution (BC independently predicts albuminuria. Method. Patients with T2DM (n=846 received urinalysis, a blood test, and diabetic retinopathy examination. Albuminuria was defined by an elevated urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (≥30 μg/mg. BC type (Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ. Traditional risk factors for albuminuria were also recorded. Odds ratios (ORs of albuminuria for BC were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Albuminuria was more prevalent in patients with Yang deficiency or Phlegm stasis (both P<0.01. After adjustment, patients with both Yang deficiency and Phlegm stasis exhibited a significantly higher risk of albuminuria (OR = 3.037; 95% confidence interval = 1.572–5.867, and P<0.001. Conclusion. BC is strongly associated with albuminuria in T2DM patients. Using a BCQ to assess BC is noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive and can provide information for health care professionals to identify T2DM patients who are at a high risk of albuminuria.

  4. Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Schloss, Patrick D

    2014-05-15

    A primary goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was to provide a reference collection of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences collected from sites across the human body that would allow microbiologists to better associate changes in the microbiome with changes in health. The HMP Consortium has reported the structure and function of the human microbiome in 300 healthy adults at 18 body sites from a single time point. Using additional data collected over the course of 12-18 months, we used Dirichlet multinomial mixture models to partition the data into community types for each body site and made three important observations. First, there were strong associations between whether individuals had been breastfed as an infant, their gender, and their level of education with their community types at several body sites. Second, although the specific taxonomic compositions of the oral and gut microbiomes were different, the community types observed at these sites were predictive of each other. Finally, over the course of the sampling period, the community types from sites within the oral cavity were the least stable, whereas those in the vagina and gut were the most stable. Our results demonstrate that even with the considerable intra- and interpersonal variation in the human microbiome, this variation can be partitioned into community types that are predictive of each other and are probably the result of life-history characteristics. Understanding the diversity of community types and the mechanisms that result in an individual having a particular type or changing types, will allow us to use their community types to assess disease risk and to personalize therapies.

  5. Carotid artery stenting: which stent for which lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The different geometries and working principles of carotid stents (nitinol or cobalt chromium, open- or closed-cell configuration) provide each product with unique functional properties. The individual characteristics of each device may make it an attractive choice in one circumstance but render it less desirable in other situations. In approximately 75% of all procedures, all types of stents will achieve similar outcomes, making adequate device selection unnecessary. For the remaining quarter, careful preoperative screening is mandatory. In addition to eventual access issues, the choice of the optimal carotid stent depends mainly on arterial anatomy and lesion morphology. When treating a tortuous anatomy, stents with a flexible and comformable open-cell configuration are preferred. In arteries with a significant mismatch between common carotid artery and internal carotid artery diameter, cobalt chromium (Elgiloy) or tapered nitinol stents are selected. Lesions with suspected high emboligenicity are best covered with stents with a closed-cell configuration, whereas highly calcified lesions need treatment with nitinol stents. Thorough knowledge of the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and working principles of the different available stents is mandatory to optimally select the materials to be used for patients eligible for carotid revascularization.

  6. [Injuries of the intracranial part of the carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulla, I; Kafka, J; Mach, P; Výrostko, J; Kat'uch, V

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the submitted work was to draw attention to different types of injuries of the intracranial portion of the carotid artery and some problems associated with its solution. The investigated group comprised 7 subjects (2 women, 5 men) aged 19 to 76 years who attended between Jan. 1, 1995 and Feb. 29 2000 the Neurosurgical Clinic in Kosice with sequelae of injuries of the intracranial carotid artery. Two patients developed a pseudoaneurysm. In one case it was manifested by subarachnoid haemorrhage on the 24th day after a crash, in one instance by diplopia six weeks after a retrobulbar injection. Injury of the intracavernous portion of the artery was manifested in one instance by profuse epistaxis on the 17th day after a fall from a bicycle, four times by the development of a carotid-cavernous fistula several days to 3 years after the head injury. In the diagnosis classical as well as MR and digital subtraction angiography were used. In the patient with epistaxis classical carotid angiography was 3 times negative. The results are comparable with data in the literature. In three patients the problem was resolved by ligature of the common carotid artery on the neck. In another three it was necessary to use extra-intracranial trapping. One patient will be subjected to endovascular surgery. Two patients died (a 76-year-old woman from bronchopneumonia, a 19-year-old man from meningitis, despite a liquor fistula treated correctly by a patch).

  7. Anatomy of the carotid sinus nerve and surgical implications in carotid sinus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorop, Raechel J.; Scheltinga, Marc R.; Moll, Frans L.; Bleys, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) is characterized by syncope and hypotension due to a hypersensitive carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation. Some patients ultimately require surgical sinus denervation, possibly by transection of its afferent nerve (carotid sinus nerve [CSN]). T

  8. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in body fluids, using specific antibody-coated staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksanong, M; Dajani, A S

    1977-01-01

    Protein A-rich staphylococci coated with Haemophilus influenzae type b antiserum agglutinate specifically with homologous bacterial cells or with cell-free supernatant fluids of cultures of the organism. Antibody-coated staphylococci were used to detect soluble antigens in body fluids of patients infected with H. influenzae type b. Cerebrospinal fluid from 36 cases of meningitis caused by this orgainsm showed positive coagglutination tests in 86% of patients prior to initiation of therapy. Antigens could be detected in 46% of sterile cerebrospinal fluid specimens obtained from the same cases 1 to 10 days after therapy. Soluble antigens were also detectable in sera (58%) and urine specimens (67%) of patients with H. influenzae type b septicemia, when such specimens were tested within 10 days of onset of illness. No antigen could be detected in body fluids beyond 10 days. The coagglutination test was positive in 57% of all body fluids examined; contercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) was positive in only 27%. All specimens positive by CCIE were also positive by coagglutination. No false-positive reactions were noted by either test in body fluids from controls. The coagglutination test is simple, specific, and more sensitive than the CCIE method and could be a valuable tool for detecting antigens in body fluids of patients with various infections.

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  10. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion.

  11. High blood ketone body concentration in type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogaro, A; Crepaldi, C; Miola, M; Maran, A; Pengo, V; Tiengo, A; Del Prato, S

    1996-02-01

    To assess the metabolic disturbances, and, in particular, the occurrence of high blood ketone body concentration in post-absorptive Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients as compared to a matched normal population, a study was carried out in a group of 78 Type 2 diabetic outpatients matched for age and sex and in 78 normal individuals. In all subjects we measured HbA1c, and fasting levels of glucose, FFA, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon, free insulin, and C-peptide. Multistix strips were used for urine ketone determination. As expected HbA1c, and plasma glucose were higher in Type 2 diabetics. This was associated with multiple metabolic disturbances as shown by higher circulating concentrations of FFA, glycerol and gluconeogenic precursors. Similarly, blood levels of ketones (351 +/- 29 vs 159 +/- 15 umol/l; P growth hormone. Plasma glucagon levels were higher in Type 2 diabetics. Blood ketone body levels were directly correlated with both plasma glucose and FFA concentrations. These observations clearly show that Type 2 diabetes is a pathologic condition characterised by multiple metabolic disturbances which are fully apparent in the basal state. Furthermore, we emphasise that Type 2 diabetic patients, though not insulin deficient, may present a significant increase in their fasting levels of ketone bodies.

  12. Many-Body Effect in Spin Dephasing in n-Type GaAs Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Ming-Qi; WU Ming-Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ By constructing and numerically solving the kinetic Bloch equations we perform a many-body study of the spin dephasing due to the D'yakonov-Perel' effect in n-type GaAs (100) quantum wells for high temperatures.

  13. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fox Kathleen M; Bazata Debbra D; Bays Harold E; Grandy Susan; Gavin James R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Metho...

  14. Carotid artery stenting : a 2009 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, Clark J.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Geelkerken, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of patients with significant carotid stenosis and has proven its value over the past decades. Endovascular techniques have evolved, and carotid artery stenting (CAS) is challenging CEA to become

  15. Spontaneous Resolution of Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishaq, Mazhar; Arain, Muhammad Aamir; Ahmed, Saadullah; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Khan, Muhammad Dawood; Iqbal, Zamir

    2010-01-01

    Proptosis due to carotid cavernous fistula is rare sequelae of head injury. We report a case of post-traumatic, direct high flow carotid cavernous fistula that resolved spontaneously 06 weeks after carotid angiography. It however, resulted in loss of vision due to delay in early treatment. In the ca

  16. Prevalence of peripheral vascular disease and its association with carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes: the Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES 111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepa, Rajendra; Chella, Sundarapandi; Surendar, Jayagopi; Indulekha, Karunakaran; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and its association with preclinical atherosclerotic markers [intima-media thickness (IMT)] and arterial stiffness among 1755 urban south Indian type 2 diabetic subjects recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). Doppler studies were performed, and PVD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) of ≤0.9. IMT of the common carotid artery was determined using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography, and augmentation index (AGI) was measured using the Sphygmocor apparatus. The overall prevalence of PVD was 8.3% (age-standardized 6.5%). The prevalence of PVD was higher among known diabetic subjects (n = 1401) compared to newly detected diabetic subjects (n = 354) (8.6% vs 6.8%, p = 0.250). The mean IMT and AGI in subjects with PVD were significantly higher compared to subjects without PVD (IMT: 0.99 ± 0.26 mm vs 0.83 ± 0.19 mm; AGI: 28.1 ± 9.6% vs 25.7 ± 9.8%, respectively). IMT was independently associated with PVD even after adjusting for age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9 (1.2-6.7), p = 0.016 for second tertile and OR = 3.9 (1.7-9.3), p = 0.002 for third tertile compared to first tertile]. AGI was also associated with PVD in the unadjusted model [OR = 1.8 (1.1-3.1), p = 0.027 for second tertile compared to first tertile]. However, when adjusted for age, the significance was lost. In conclusion, among urban south Indian type 2 diabetic subjects, the prevalence of PVD is 8.3% and IMT is more strongly associated with PVD than AGI.

  17. The two-body random spin ensemble and a new type of quantum phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizorn, Iztok; Prosen, Tomaz [Department of Physics, FMF, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mossmann, Stefan; Seligman, Thomas H [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 62132 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: tomaz.prosen@fmf.uni-lj.si

    2008-02-15

    We study in this paper the properties of a two-body random matrix ensemble for distinguishable spins. We require the ensemble to be invariant under the group of local transformations and analyze a parametrization in terms of the group parameters and the remaining parameters associated with the 'entangling' part of the interaction. We then specialize to a spin chain with nearest-neighbour interactions and numerically find a new type of quantum-phase transition related to the strength of a random external field, i.e. the time-reversal-breaking one-body interaction term.

  18. The two-body random spin ensemble and a new type of quantum phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Prosen, Tomaž; Mossmann, Stefan; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2008-02-01

    We study in this paper the properties of a two-body random matrix ensemble for distinguishable spins. We require the ensemble to be invariant under the group of local transformations and analyze a parametrization in terms of the group parameters and the remaining parameters associated with the 'entangling' part of the interaction. We then specialize to a spin chain with nearest-neighbour interactions and numerically find a new type of quantum-phase transition related to the strength of a random external field, i.e. the time-reversal-breaking one-body interaction term.

  19. Carotid cavernous fistula after elective carotid endarterectomy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Asser

    2014-12-01

    This is a case to illustrate a rare complication of carotid artery surgery. The patient had atherosclerotic vessel damage of ICA visible on earlier CT scans. This combined with abrupt increase of transmural pressure due to the revascularization procedure could possibly lead to arterial wall rupture and fistula formation.

  20. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) mass in nondiabetic subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Alexander; van Pelt, L. Joost; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J. J.; de Vries, Rindert; Tio, Rene A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis showed that both plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) mass and activity independently predict cardiovascular events. Notably, Lp-PLA(2) activity but not mass was found to be a determinant of cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Evaluation of intima media thickness of carotid arteries in 40-60 years old persons with type d personality and its comparison with normal ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that type D personality increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases specially the stroke and myocardial infarction due to the higher prevalence of hormonal imbalances leading to arterial vasospasm and atherosclerotic disease. As a result, it is necessary to evaluate and treat these patients due to increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases, stoke, and myocardial infarction.

  2. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  3. Effect of Antenna Type on the Capacity of Body-to-Body Capacity When Using Uniform Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Khalida

    2012-09-01

    Body-area networks are led to target multimedia applications where high-data rate is involved. In this paper, the characterization of the measured body-to-body channels and the ergodic capacity with uniform power allocation is discussed when using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) PIFA and IFA antenna systems. This capacity is compared to the measured belt-head and belt-chest on-body channels using PIFA antennas in the same environment. It is shown that body channels reach less ergodic capacity than the equivalent Rayleigh channel because of the presence of a LOS component. The capacity is the same for the body-to-body case regardless of the antenna and the on-body channels reach better capacity values compared to these former. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. A STUDY OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsala A R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anatomical variations of carotid arterial system which are not infrequently encountered have a great impact on the surgical approaches of the neck. Although the described individual variations of the carotid arteries are well-known in the literature, the combination of anomalies reported in this study has not been, to the best of our knowledge, previously described. The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck. Methods:The present study was undertaken on 80 common carotid arteries (40 left, 40 right of both sexes from embalmed adult human cadavers. The specimens were studied by detailed dissection method. Results: In the present study,fiftyone (63.8% bifurcations of common carotid arteries were high among which the most common levels of bifurcation was at the level of C 3 vertebral body (37.5%. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. Conclusion: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.

  5. Recent concepts in the management of extracranial carotid stenosis: Carotid endarterectomy versus carotid artery stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraj D Pandian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid stenosis is seen in 10% of patients with ischemic stroke, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA and carotid artery stenting (CAS are the two invasive treatments options available. Pooled analysis of the three largest randomized trials of CEA involving more than 3000 symptomatic patients estimated 30-day stroke and death rate at 7.1% after CEA. Some subgroups among the symptomatic patients appeared to have more benefit from CEA. These include patients aged 75 years or more, patients with ulcerated plaques, and patients with recent transient ischemic attacks within 2 weeks of randomization. Selection of asymptomatic patients for carotid revascularization should be guided by an assessment of comorbid conditions, life expectancy, and other individual factors, and should include a thorough discussion of the risks and benefits of the procedure with an understanding of patient preferences. The recent trials comparing CEA with CAS has not established its superiority over CEA. The carotid revascularization endarterectomy versus stenting (CREST study showed that CAS is still associated with a higher periprocedural risk of stroke or death than CEA. In patients over 70 years of age, CEA is clearly superior to CAS. The increased risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in the CREST group subjected to CEA clearly suggests that patients being considered for CEA or CAS require a careful preliminary cardiac evaluation. CAS can be justified for patients whose medical comorbidities or cervical anatomy make them questionable candidates for CEA. The benefit of revascularization by either method versus modern aggressive medical therapy has not been established for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

  6. Assessing the inter-coder reliability of the Body Type Dictionary (BTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariola Laura A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer-assisted content analysis has many advantages compared to a manual scoring system, provided that computerised dictionaries represent valid and reliable measures. This study aimed to assess the inter-coder reliability, alternate- form reliability and scoring consistency of the Body Type Dictionary (BTD (Wilson 2006 based on Fisher and Cleveland’s (1956, 1958 manual body boundary scoring scheme. The results indicated an acceptable inter-coder agreement with barrier and penetration imagery in the sub-sample (N = 53 of manually coded Rorschach responses. Additionally manually coded scores showed an acceptable correlation with the computerised frequency counts, and thus indicating an alternate-form reliability. In the full data set (N = 526, barrier imagery in the Rorschach responses only correlated with the picture response test, showing low scoring consistency, which might disconfirm the notion of body boundary awareness representing a stable personality trait but instead it might be dependent on the level of cognitive dedifferentiation.

  7. Optical detection of structural changes in human carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, R. M.; Canham, P. B.; Finlay, H. M.; Hammond, R. R.; Quantz, M.; Ferguson, G. G.; Liu, L. Y.; Lucas, A. R.

    2005-08-01

    Background: Arterial bifurcations are commonly the sites of developing atherosclerotic plaque that lead to arterial occlusions and plaque rupture (myocardial infarctions and strokes). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy provides an effective nondestructive method supplying spectral information on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition, specifically collagen and elastin. Purpose: To investigate regional differences in the ECM proteins -- collagen I, III and elastin in unstable plaque by analyzing data from laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Methods: Gels of ECM protein extracts (elastin, collagen types I & III) were measured as reference spectra and internal thoracic artery segments (extra tissue from bypass surgery) were used as tissue controls. Arterial segments and the endarterectomy specimens (n=21) were cut into 5mm cross-sectional rings. Ten fluorescence spectra per sampling area were then recorded at 5 sites per ring with argon laser excitation (357nm) with a penetration depth of 200 μm. Spectra were normalized to maximum intensity and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Tissue rings were fixed in formalin (within 3 hours of surgery), sectioned and stained with H&E or Movat's Pentachrome for histological analysis. Spectroscopy data were correlated with immunohistology (staining for elastin, collagen types I, III and IV). Results: Quantitative fluorescence for the thoracic arteries revealed a dominant elastin component on the luminal side -- confirmed with immunohistology and known artery structure. Carotid endarterectomy specimens by comparison had a significant decrease in elastin signature and increased collagen type I and III. Arterial spectra were markedly different between the thoracic and carotid specimens. There was also a significant elevation (pcollagen type I distal to the bifurcation compared to proximal tissue in the carotid specimens. Conclusion: Fluorescence spectroscopy

  8. Integrable many-body systems of Calogero-Moser-Sutherland type in high dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, O K

    1995-01-01

    A new series of integrable cases of the many-body problem in many-dimensional spaces is found. That series appears as a part of the larger series of integrable problems, which are in 1-1 correspondence with Krichever-Novikov algebras of affine type (that is with pairs each one consisting of some finite root system and some Riemann surface of finite genus with two marked points).

  9. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) outbreak associated with fowl adenovirus type 8b in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was identified as fowl adenovirus (FAdV) type 8b, a member of the Fowl adenovirus E species, based on PCR results of adenoviral polymerase and the hexon gene in an outbreak of acute mortality that affected a broiler flock of 12,000 animals. In two waves of elevated mortality rate, a total of 264 chickens were found dead. Affected birds showed ruffled feathers, depression, watery droppings and limping. Th...

  10. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ederle, J; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, RL; Bonati, LH; van der Worp, HB; de Borst, GJ; lo, TH; Gaines, P.; Dorman, PJ; Macdonald, S; Lyrer, PA; Hendriks, JM; McCollum, C; Nederkoorn, PJ; Brown, MM

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were ra...

  11. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  12. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Cutaneous Microvascular Function are Associated With Vitamin C Levels in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermarsky, Michal; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Liuba, Petru

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction and accelerated thickening of arterial intima contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity in type 1 diabetes. Although vitamin C has important antioxidant functions, and increased oxidative stress is a central mechanism of vascular abnormalities......, and the measured skin perfusion was expressed as % maximal increase from baseline. Markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and orosomucoid), lipids (total, LDL and HDL cholesterol) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in EDTA plasma. Ascorbate was analyzed in meta......-phosphoric acid-stabilized EDTA-plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: In univariate regression analysis, both cIMT and skin microvascular response to ACH correlated with ascorbate levels (r=-0.29; p=0.04, and r=0.43; p=0.004 respectively). The relationships between these vascular indexes...

  13. Selection of treatment for patients with carotid artery disease: medication, carotid endarterectomy, or carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Marc; Peeters, Patrick; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Sprouse, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    Patients presenting with atherosclerosis of the extracranial carotid arteries may be offered carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid artery stenting (CAS), or medical therapy to reduce their risk of stroke. In many cases, the choice between treatment modalities remains controversial. An algorithm based on patients' neurologic symptoms, comorbidities, limiting factors for CAS and CEA, and personal preferences was developed to determine the optimal treatment in each case. This algorithm was then employed to determine therapy in 308 consecutive patients presenting to a single institution during one calendar year. Ninety-five (30.8%) patients presented with an asymptomatic carotid stenosis of more than 80% and 213 (69.2%) with a symptomatic stenosis of more than 50%. According to our algorithm, 59 (62.1%) of the 95 asymptomatic patients received CAS, 20 (21.1%) received CEA, and 16 (16.8%) received medical therapy. All symptomatic patients underwent intervention; 153 (71.8%) were treated with CAS and 60 (28.2%) with CEA. Combined 30-day stroke and death rates after CAS were 1.7% in asymptomatic patients and 2.6% in symptomatic patients. After CEA, these rates were 0% and 3.3%, respectively. Careful selection of treatment modality according to predetermined criteria can result in improved outcomes.

  14. Scoring System Development and Added Value of Albuminuria to Estimate Carotid Intima-media Thickness (CIMT in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Wijaya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to develop a scoring system and measure the diagnostic added value of albuminuria to estimate CIMT. Methods: cross-sectional study was done in Endocrine Outpatient Clinic Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between March-May 2012 in T2DM patients without history of cerebrocardiovascular event, CKD stage ≥ III, and smoking. Bivariate analysis and multivariate (logistic regression analysis was done, followed by developing the scoring system. Results: from 71 subjects, there were 67.6% with increased CIMT and 73.3% with albuminuria. From 48 subjects with increased CIMT, 87.5% had albuminuria. Albuminuria measurement had high sensitivity (87.5%. Adding albuminuria measurement will increase the AUC as 2.3%. Estimation score for duration of DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia were as follows 1, 2, 1 respectively. Probability score of increased CIMT for score 2 was as follows 15%, 57%, and 90%. Conclusion: albuminuria measurement increase the diagnostic value of CIMT. Scoring system can be used as a screening tool to estimate the increased of CIMT in type 2 DM patients without history of cerebrocardiovascular event, CKD stage ≥ III, and smoking.

  15. The Relationship among Carotid Artery Remodeling, Cardiac Geometry, and Serum N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level in Asymptomatic Asians: Sex-Differences and Longitudinal GEE Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yen Chien

    Full Text Available Carotid artery remodeling is known to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is limited information regarding gender differences in carotid remodeling. We sought to investigate the associations among blood pressure (BP, carotid artery remodeling and cardiac geometries, and further explore gender differences.In a large cohort of asymptomatic adults undergoing routine health screening with repeated observations, we related measures of carotid artery diameter (CCAD to various BP components, cardiac geometries and blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP level, both from baseline cross-sectional and longitudinal dataset using generalized estimating equations (GEE.A total of 2,914 person-visits (baseline: n=998, mean age: 47 ± 8.9 years, 34% female were studied (median: 6 ± 1.73 years follow up. We observed that CCAD was larger in men (p=300pg/mL; AUROC: 0.79, CCAD cut-off: 7.95mm, all p<0.05, which remained significant in multi-variate and longitudinal models. There was a prominent sex interaction (p for interaction with age and systolic BP: 0.004 and 0.028 respectively, where the longitudinal associations of age and systolic BP with increasing CCAD as more pronounced in women than men.These data demonstrated that carotid artery remodeling may parallel subclinical biomarker of cardiac dysfunction, and further showed greater effects of aging and higher blood pressure on such remodeling process in women than men. Further study is warranted to understand how this predisposition of elderly hypertensive women to vascular remodeling may play a role in clinical settings.

  16. Carotid artery grafting for restenosis after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Kuntsevich, G I; Beloiartsev, D F; Burtseva, E A; Fedorov, E E

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes outcomes of 12 internal carotid artery (ICA) graftings for repeat stenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in 11 patients. In 6 cases restenosis occurred after eversion CEA, in 5 - after conventional patch CEA, and in 1 case - after ICA patch angioplasty for post-CEA restenosis. Critical restenosis >75% in reconstruction area was an indication for surgical intervention. There was 1 case of graft thrombosis in early postoperative period with hemispherical stroke and lethal outcome. Eight patients were examined in late postoperative period. Mean follow-up was 34?+/-?8.44 months (from 16 to 48 months). No cerebrovascular disturbances in operated ICA feeding area were detected. In 6 patients graft patency was good, while 2 smoking patients with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia demonstrated repeat restenosis of proximal anastomosis >70%.

  17. Risk of asthma in adult twins with type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Duffy, D L; Kyvik, K O;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index (BMI) in adult twins. METHODS: We performed record linkage between questionnaire-defined asthma and BMI, and hospital discharge diagnoses of type 2 diabetes in 34,782 Danish twins, 20-71 years of age....... RESULTS: The risk of asthma was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes relative to nondiabetic subjects both in men (13.5%vs 7.5%), P = 0.001 and in women (16.6%vs 9.6%), P = 0.001. The result remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, marital status...... and zygosity, men: OR = 1.70 (1.07-2.70), P = 0.026; women: OR = 1.88 (1.24-2.85), P = 0.003. In this analysis, BMI remained a highly significant predictor for asthma independently of diabetes status in women, P

  18. Acute internal carotid artery occlusion after carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yunoki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of acute carotid artery (CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Case 1: a 58-year-old man was admitted with transient right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR angiography (MRA revealed cerebral infarction in the left cerebral hemisphere and left CA stenosis. Ten days after admission, he underwent CEA. 24 h after surgery, he developed right hemiplegia. MRI and MRA demonstrated a slightly enlarged infarction and left internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion. Emergency reoperation was performed and complete recanalization achieved. The patient made a clinically significant recovery. Case 2: a 65 year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis. 48 h after surgery, his family noticed he was slightly disorientated. MRI and MRA revealed multiple infarctions and right ICA occlusion. He was treated with antiplatelet therapy without reoperation because sufficient cross-flow from the left ICA through the anterior communicating artery was demonstrated by angiography, and his neurological symptoms were mild. His symptoms gradually alleviated and he was discharged 14 days after surgery. With ICA occlusion after CEA, immediate re-operation is mandatory with severe neurological symptoms, whereas individualized judgement is needed when the symptoms are mild.

  19. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela dos; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante, E-mail: danisantos2404@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. (author)

  20. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH outbreak associated with fowl adenovirus type 8b in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH was identified as fowl adenovirus (FAdV type 8b, a member of the Fowl adenovirus E species, based on PCR results of adenoviral polymerase and the hexon gene in an outbreak of acute mortality that affected a broiler flock of 12,000 animals. In two waves of elevated mortality rate, a total of 264 chickens were found dead. Affected birds showed ruffled feathers, depression, watery droppings and limping. The most common pathological lesions seen on necropsy were pale, swollen and friable livers. On histological examination, acute hepatitis characterized by necrosis of hepatocytes, with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, were observed. In addition, infectious bursal disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus were detected in the same flock.

  1. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  2. Reorganization of Cajal bodies and nucleolar targeting of coilin in motor neurons of type I spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Olga; Bengoechea, Rocío; Palanca, Ana; Arteaga, Rosa; Val-Bernal, J Fernando; Tizzano, Eduardo F; Berciano, María T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    Type I spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by loss or mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The reduction in SMN protein levels in SMA leads to degeneration and death of motor neurons. In this study, we have analyzed the nuclear reorganization of Cajal bodies, PML bodies and nucleoli in type I SMA motor neurons with homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the SMN1 gene. Western blot analysis is is revealed a marked reduction of SMN levels compared to the control sample. Using a neuronal dissociation procedure to perform a careful immunocytochemical and quantitative analysis of nuclear bodies, we demonstrated a severe decrease in the mean number of Cajal bodies per neuron and in the proportion of motor neurons containing these structures in type I SMA. Moreover, most Cajal bodies fail to recruit SMN and spliceosomal snRNPs, but contain the proteasome activator PA28, a molecular marker associated with the cellular stress response. Neuronal stress in SMA motor neurons also increases PML body number. The existence of chromatolysis and eccentric nuclei in SMA motor neurons correlates with Cajal body disruption and nucleolar relocalization of coil in, a Cajal body marker. Our results indicate that the Cajal body is a pathophysiological target in type I SMA motor neurons. They also suggest the Cajal body-dependent dysfunction of snRNP biogenesis and, therefore, pre-mRNA splicing in these neurons seems to be an essential component for SMA pathogenesis.

  3. The correlation study on arch type with physical fitness, body fat and heath-carter somatotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yin Shuai; Sui Yuelin; Liu Yuanyuan; Ding Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the arch type and physical form, physical fit-ness, body fat and somatotype. Methods:Measure and type the arch of 382 male soldier in a certain army by foot-print ratio method; Routinely detect the results of height and weight, body fat, 100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump;According to the international heath-carter method, ten indexes were measured and the somatotype were evaluated. Results:①382 samples, flatfoot 91, accounted for 23. 6%, the foot arch index 0. 60 + 0. 21;non-flatfoot 291 , 76 . 2%, arch index 1 . 14 +0 . 22 , t=22 . 83 , P=0 . 001;②Comparing the mean of the results of height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage,100 and 5 000 meters running, standing jump of the two groups( flatfoot and non-flatfoot) samples, t-text, P>0. 05; ③Assessed by the method of heath-carter shape, flatfoot group so-matotype mean is 2. 7 (0. 7) -4. 8 (1. 3) -2. 7 (0. 9), sam is 1. 5 (0. 9);non flatfoot group somatotype mean is 2. 3 (0. 7) -5. 0 (3. 1) -2. 4 (0. 9), sam is 1. 6 (1. 0);The distance of two groups`points in 3D space mean somatotypes is 0. 54; t-test of the two groups`somatotype mean, P>0. 05. Conclusions: Compared the flatfoot group with the control group, there is no significant difference in physical form, physical fitness, body fat and so-matotype. The increasingly high rate of flatfoot in healthy people is physical, but not flatfoot disease, and no need for surgery.

  4. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. Perioperative risk and late results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Rasmussen, L;

    1987-01-01

    Recent reports on the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral occlusion have been conflicting. Therefore, we reviewed 51 cases identified, among 675 consecutive carotid endarterectomies. A perioperative mortality of 2% and a permanent morbidity rate of 16% was observed....... Compared with a complication rate of about 5% previously reported from this institution, this clearly indicates contralateral carotid occlusion as a major risk factor in carotid surgery. Though not statistically significant, patients with severely reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) had suffered more...

  5. Carotid baroreceptor reflexes in humans during orthostatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, V L; Hainsworth, R

    2001-09-01

    Orthostatic stress, including standing, head-up tilting and lower body suction, results in increases in peripheral vascular resistance but little or no change in mean arterial pressure. This study was undertaken to determine whether the sensitivity of the carotid baroreceptor reflex was enhanced during conditions of decreased venous return. We studied eight healthy subjects and determined responses of pulse interval (ECG) and forearm vascular resistance (mean finger blood pressure divided by Doppler estimate of brachial artery blood velocity) to graded increases and decreases in carotid transmural pressure, effected by a neck suction/pressure device. Responses were determined with and without the application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at -40 mmHg. Stimulus-response curves were determined as the responses to graded neck pressure changes and the differential of this provided estimates of reflex sensitivity. Changes in carotid transmural pressure caused graded changes in R-R interval and vascular resistance. The cardiac responses were unaffected by LBNP. Vascular resistance responses, however, were significantly enhanced during LBNP and the peak gain of the reflex was increased from 1.2 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 2.2 +/- 0.3 units (P < 0.05). The increased baroreflex gain may contribute to maintenance of blood pressure during orthostatic stress and limit the pressure decreases during prolonged periods of such stress.

  6. Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimenko, L P; Esham, H R; Ahmed, W

    2000-10-01

    Once considered uncommon, spontaneous dissection of the carotid artery is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke, headache, cranial nerve palsy, or ophthalmologic events, especially in young adults. Even in the presence of existing signs and symptoms, the diagnosis can be missed by experienced physicians of all specialties. We report a case of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection in a 38-year-old woman with a cortical stroke and visual disturbances as initial symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography and by angiography. Prompt anticoagulation was instituted, and the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Cervicocephalic arterial dissection should be included in the differential diagnosis of the causes of cerebrovascular events.

  7. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Methods Respondents (n = 13,887 to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM. Results Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p Conclusions Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

  8. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques.

  9. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C

    2002-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  10. Genetic Effects of FTO and MC4R Polymorphisms on Body Mass in Constitutional Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwon Cha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a Korean tailored medicine, categorizes human beings into four types through states of physiological imbalances and responsiveness to herbal medicine. One SCM type susceptible to obesity seems sensitive to energy intake due to an imbalance toward preserving energy. Common variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R genes have been associated with increased body mass index (BMI by affecting energy intake. Here, we statistically examined the association of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms with BMI in two populations with 1370 Koreans before and after SCM typing, and with the lowering of BMI in 538 individuals who underwent a 1-month lifestyle intervention. The increased BMI replicated the association with FTO haplotypes (effect size ≃ 1.1 kg/m2 and MC4R variants (effect size ≃ 0.64 kg/m2. After the lifestyle intervention, the carriers of the haplotype represented by the minor allele of rs1075440 had a tendency to lose more waist-to-hip ratio (0.76% than non-carriers. The constitutional discrepancy for the accumulation of body mass by the effects of FTO and/or MC4R variants seemed to reflect the physique differences shown in each group of SCM constitutional types. In conclusion, FTO and MC4R polymorphisms appear to play an important role in weight gain, while only FTO variants play a role in weight loss after lifestyle intervention. Different trends were observed among individuals of SCM types, especially for weight gain. Therefore, classification of individuals based on physiological imbalance would offer a good genetic stratification system in assessing the effects of obesity genes.

  11. Genetic Effects of FTO and MC4R Polymorphisms on Body Mass in Constitutional Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seongwon; Koo, Imhoi; Park, Byung L; Jeong, Sangkyun; Choi, Sun M; Kim, Kil S; Shin, Hyoung D; Kim, Jong Y

    2011-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a Korean tailored medicine, categorizes human beings into four types through states of physiological imbalances and responsiveness to herbal medicine. One SCM type susceptible to obesity seems sensitive to energy intake due to an imbalance toward preserving energy. Common variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been associated with increased body mass index (BMI) by affecting energy intake. Here, we statistically examined the association of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms with BMI in two populations with 1370 Koreans before and after SCM typing, and with the lowering of BMI in 538 individuals who underwent a 1-month lifestyle intervention. The increased BMI replicated the association with FTO haplotypes (effect size ≃ 1.1 kg/m(2)) and MC4R variants (effect size ≃ 0.64 kg/m(2)). After the lifestyle intervention, the carriers of the haplotype represented by the minor allele of rs1075440 had a tendency to lose more waist-to-hip ratio (0.76%) than non-carriers. The constitutional discrepancy for the accumulation of body mass by the effects of FTO and/or MC4R variants seemed to reflect the physique differences shown in each group of SCM constitutional types. In conclusion, FTO and MC4R polymorphisms appear to play an important role in weight gain, while only FTO variants play a role in weight loss after lifestyle intervention. Different trends were observed among individuals of SCM types, especially for weight gain. Therefore, classification of individuals based on physiological imbalance would offer a good genetic stratification system in assessing the effects of obesity genes.

  12. Observational study of body weight, body fat with segmental fat distribution, visceral fat and body mass index in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dube; Shanti Viswanathan; Manjree Dube

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in the last decade. This prevalence has been steadily increasing and is expected to increase further in the coming decade. The change in our lifestyle plus a sedentary lifestyle has led to this .Various body composition monitoring methods help us evaluate obesity and its association with diabetes. In this study, we analysed the trend of body fat distribution in diabetics. Methods: A multifrequency body c...

  13. Body Image and Body Type Preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: A Cross-Cultural Comparison with U.S. Samples regarding Attitudes towards Muscularity, Body Fat, and Breast Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Gray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39 and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618 and the Internet (n = 438. Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.

  14. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Cassandro; Giovanni Bittante; Luigi Gallo; Paolo Carnier; Riccardo Dal Zotto

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS), calving interval (CI), angularity (ANG), strength (FV) and milk yield (MY) on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits re...

  15. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  16. Carotid type of Eagle′s syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaprasad Kondajji Ramachandra; Shreehari Ambika Krishnan; Saravanan Sampoornam Pape Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Eyes don’t see what mind does not know. It is important for a clinician to refresh his knowledge frequently to recognize some of the conditions that one may come across rarely no matter how insignificant the condition may seem. Especially in a dental outpatient department setting, individuals may complain of varied symptoms which the clinician, often tends to correlate to one of the oral diseases. We present a case of Eagle's syndrome with vague clinical presentation which could have easily g...

  17. Carotid type of Eagle′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaprasad Kondajji Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyes don′t see what mind does not know. It is important for a clinician to refresh his knowledge frequently to recognize some of the conditions that one may come across rarely no matter how insignificant the condition may seem. Especially in a dental outpatient department setting, individuals may complain of varied symptoms which the clinician, often tends to correlate to one of the oral diseases. We present a case of Eagle′s syndrome with vague clinical presentation which could have easily gone undiagnosed if not for the application of simple diagnostic procedures and aids like Orthopantamogram (OPG.

  18. Eight different types of dopaminergic neurons innervate the Drosophila mushroom body neuropil: anatomical and physiological heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmei Mao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-GAL4 expression and anti-TH immunoreactivity in the Drosophila protocerebrum and characterized single cell clones of the TH-GAL4 neurons. Eight clusters of putative dopaminergic neurons were characterized. Neurons in three of the clusters project to the mushroom body neuropil: PAM neurons project to the medial portion of the horizontal lobes; PPL1 neurons project to the vertical lobes, the junction area, the heel and distal peduncle; and PPL2ab neurons project to the calyx. Five types of PPL1 neurons were discovered that innervate different zones of the mushroom body lobes. Functional imaging experiments showed that the dopaminergic processes in four of the zones differ in response properties to odor, electric shock, or following the pairing of odor and electric shock. These results indicate that distinct dopaminergic neurons define separate zones of the mushroom body lobes and are probably involved in different functions. Differences in functional response properties of these neurons suggest that they are involved in different behavioral processes.

  19. Choice of order and extrapolation method in Aarseth-type N-body algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, William H.; Spergel, David N.

    1988-02-01

    The force-versus-time history of a typical particle in a 50-body King model is taken as input data, and its 'extrapolatability' is measured. Extrapolatability means how far the force can be extrapolated, measured in units of a locally defined rate-of-change time scale, and still be within a specified fractional accuracy of the true values. Greater extrapolatability means larger step size, hence greater efficiency, in an Aarseth-type N-body code. Extrapolatability is found to depend systematically on the order of the extrapolation method, but it goes to a finite limit in the limit of large order. A formula for choosing the optimal (most efficient) order for any desired accuracy is given; higher orders than are presently in use are indicated. Neither rational function extrapolation nor a somewhat vector-regularized polynomial method is found to be systematically better than component-wise polynomial extrapolation, indicating that extrapolatability can be viewed as an intrinsic property of the underlying N-body forces, independent of the extrapolation method.

  20. New bottles for old wine: fruit body types, phylogeny, and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L; Lagreca, Scott

    2007-09-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have made it evident that similar fruit body types, formerly the cornerstone of the classification of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, including those that form lichens, are often a result of convergent evolution. This commentary provides an introduction to this special issue of Mycological Research, which is based on papers presented at a one-day joint meeting of the British Mycological Society and the Natural History Museum held in London on 3 December 2005. The nine papers included address this issue in relation to its impact on classification, and also draw attention to the over-emphasis in fungal classification of ascus types and, in the case of lichen fungi, thallus form.

  1. Does carotid intima-media thickness have relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Allameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common reproductive endocrine disorder associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and metabolic disturbances and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Intima-media thickness (IMT is an indicator of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to determine the relation between IMT and PCOS in women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 44 PCOS patients and 44 healthy women. Data collection included lipid profiles, blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, and common and internal IMT of carotid artery which were measured in studied subjects. IMT was measured by a radiologist using a linear 12 MHz ultrasound probe (LOGIC S6, GE in carotid setting. Results: IMT of common carotid artery (56.8 ΁ 7.6 in cases versus 49.8 ΁ 7.3 in controls, internal carotid artery (56.9 ΁ 6.03 in cases versus 49.6 ΁ 6.9 in controls, and both common and internal carotid artery (56.6 ΁ 6.7 in cases versus 49.7 ΁ 6.9 in controls were significantly higher in PCOS patients than healthy women (P < 0.001. Conclusions: In summary, results demonstrated that carotid artery thickness as a risk for premature atherosclerosis in patients with PCOS is higher than healthy subjects. And hence care and monitoring of PCOS women with these risk factors sounds to be important and necessary.

  2. STAT3 regulates ABCA3 expression and influences lamellar body formation in alveolar type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yohei; Besnard, Valérie; Clark, Jean C; Xu, Yan; Wert, Susan E; Ikegami, Machiko; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2008-05-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a lamellar body associated lipid transport protein required for normal synthesis and storage of pulmonary surfactant in type II cells in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3, activated by IL-6, regulates ABCA3 expression in vivo and in vitro. ABCA3 mRNA and immunostaining were decreased in adult mouse lungs in which STAT3 was deleted from the respiratory epithelium (Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice). Consistent with the role of STAT3, intratracheal IL-6 induced ABCA3 expression in vivo. Decreased ABCA3 and abnormalities in the formation of lamellar bodies, the intracellular site of surfactant lipid storage, were observed in Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. Expression of SREBP1a and 1c, SCAP, ABCA3, and AKT mRNAs was inhibited by deletion of Stat3 in type II cells isolated from Stat3(Delta/Delta) mice. The activities of PI3K and AKT were required for normal Abca3 gene expression in vitro. AKT activation induced SREBP expression and increased the activity of the Abca3 promoter in vitro, consistent with the role of STAT3 signaling, at least in part via SREBP, in the regulation of ABCA3. ABCA3 expression is regulated by IL-6 in a pathway that includes STAT3, PI3K, AKT, SCAP, and SREBP. Activation of STAT3 after exposure to IL-6 enhances ABCA3 expression, which, in turn, influences pulmonary surfactant homeostasis.

  3. Managing type 2 diabetes: balancing HbA1c and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavian, Annie A; Miller, Stephan; Henry, Robert R

    2010-05-01

    Most patients with type 2 diabetes present with comorbid overweight or obesity. Reaching and maintaining acceptable glycemic control is more difficult in overweight and obese patients, and these conditions are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Glycemic management for these patients is complicated by the fact that insulin and many of the oral medications available to treat type 2 diabetes produce additional weight gain. However, an increasing number of therapeutic options are available that are weight neutral or lead to weight loss in addition to their glycemic benefits. This article evaluates the evidence from clinical trials regarding the relative glycemic benefits, measured in terms of glycated hemoglobin change, versus the impact on body weight of each medication currently approved for type 2 diabetes. In general, the sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and D-phenylalanine derivatives have been shown to promote weight gain. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are weight neutral, while the biguanides, incretin mimetics, and amylin mimetics promote weight loss. Trials examining the glycemic benefits of the weight loss agents orlistat and sibutramine are also examined. Awareness of this evidence base can be used to inform medication selection in support of weight management goals for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Carotid thromboses in the early postoperative period after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Kuntsevich, G I; Beloiartsev, D F; Timina, I E; Kolosov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes 10 cases of internal carotid artery (ICA) thrombosis, which occurred after 635 carotid endarterectomies (CEA), carried out from January 1997 to July 2004. CEA procedures included 346 (54.5%) open CEAs with PTFE patch angioplasty and 289 (45.5%) eversion CEAs. Patients with thromboses in the reconstructed area (n=10) had the profiles of comorbidities and cerebrovascular insufficiency grade similar to the total CEA group (p>0.1). Differences concerned the higher rate of atrial fibrillation cases (10%), diabetes mellitus (30%) and contralateral ICA occlusions (20%) in the group of thromboses (p>0.1). Among these 10 patients, 5 underwent eversion CEA (1.44% of the total eversion CEA group) and 5 - open CEA with patch angioplasty (1.73%). In 8 patients thromboses manifested as local neurological symptoms in the area supplied by the operated carotid artery. One patient demonstrated the progression of general cerebral symptomatology, while in the tenth patient thrombosis was accompanied with cerebral coma. Urgent ultrasonography in 7 patients failed to detect a blood flow in ICA, that proved the diagnosis of ICA thrombosis; in 3 patients ultrasonography showed a mural thrombosis. Nine patients underwent reoperation in emergency, while for the tenth patient an intervention was contraindicated due to the thrombosis of middle cerebral artery, unstable clinical state (cerebral coma) and progression of neurological symptomatology. PTFE arterial graft was implantedin 7 reoperated patients with ICA thrombosis, thrombectomy from ICA was carried out in 1 patient and in another one patient a thrombectomy from reconstructed segment with PTFE patch angioplasty of the arteriotomy defect was fulfilled. In 3 reoperated patients a complete resolution of neurological symptoms was evident 24 hours after intervention, in 2 patients neurological symptomatology regressed over 2-4 weeks. In another 3 reoperated patients local neurological symptoms persisted; 1 patient

  5. Ischemic stroke risk reduction following cardiac surgery by carotid compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingoma, Paul

    Every year over 500,000 cardiovascular procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are performed in the United States. CPB is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. During CPB, an aortic cross-clamp is used to clamp the aorta and separate the systemic circulation from the outflow of the heart. Unfortunately, these procedures have been found to cause most cerebral emboli, which produce clinical, subclinical and silent neurologic injuries. Many clinical neurologic injuries occur in the postoperative period, with over 20% of the clinical strokes occurring during this period. In this study, we focus on visualizing the flow distribution in the aortic arch, the effect of carotid compression and the influence of compression time and MAP during CPB on reducing cerebral emboli. Experiments are performed with an aortic arch model in a mock cardiovascular system. Fluorescent particles are used to simulate emboli that are released into circulation immediately after carotid compression. The LVAD is used as the pump to produce flow in the system by gradually adjusting the speed to maintain desired clinical conditions. Aortic and proximal branches MAP of 65.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg (normal MAP) or 95.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg (high MAP), aortic flow of 4.0 +/- 0.5 L/min, and all branches flow (left and right carotids, and subclavian arteries) of 10% of the aortic flow. Flow distribution of particles is visualized using LaVision's DaVis imaging software and analyzed using imagej's particle analysis tool to track, count, and record particle properties from the aortic arch. Carotid compression for 10-20 seconds reduces the number of particles entering the carotid arteries by over 73% at normal MAP, and by over 85% at high MAP. A higher MAP resulted in fewer particles entering the branching vessels both at baseline and during occlusion conditions. A compression duration of

  6. Medical treatment in carotid artery intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, J. L.; Meerwaldt, R.; Lefrandt, Johan; Geelkerken, R. H.; Zeebregts, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Medical treatment has a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with occlusive carotid artery disease. Large trials have provided the justification for operative treatment besides medical treatment in patients with recent significant carotid artery stenosis two decades ago. Since then, medical the

  7. Inlfuence of glucose lfuctuation in type 2 diabetes mellitus with carotid artery atherosclerosis%2型糖尿病患者血糖波动与颈动脉粥样硬化的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少敏; 武晋晓; 焦秀敏; 马艳霞; 王亚双; 彭永; 吕肖锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血糖波动对2型糖尿病患者颈动脉粥样硬化的影响。方法应用超声仪检测82例2型糖尿病患者颈动脉内-中膜厚度(CIMT),以CIMT=0.9 mm为切点,分为未合并颈动脉粥样硬化组(A组,36例,CIMT<0.9 mm)和合并颈动脉粥样硬化组(B组,46例,CIMT≥0.9 mm),对两组患者行72小时动态血糖监测,检测相关指标,并将其与CIMT进行相关性分析。结果①B组患者年龄、收缩压(SBP)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、日内平均血糖波动幅度(mean amplitude of glycemic excursion,MAGE)、血糖标准差(standard deviation of blood glucose, SDBG)、最大血糖波动幅度(largest amplitude of glycemic excursion,LAGE)、平均餐后血糖波动幅度(mean postprandial glucose excursion,MPPGE)、血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、CIMT、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)较A组均升高,差异具有显著性(P<0.05);②CIMT与LDL-C、Hcy、MAGE、SDBG、LAGE、MPPGE密切相关(P<0.05);③多因素逐步回归分析发现:MAGE、Hcy、HOMA-IR与CIMT独立相关(Y=0.094 MAGE+0.025 Hcy+0.440 HOMA-IR-0.039)。结论血糖波动与2型糖尿病颈动脉粥样硬化密切相关,是颈动脉粥样硬化的独立危险因素。%ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of glucose excursion on the impact of patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAS) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodThe carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) of 82 patients with T2DM were detected by high frequency of color ultrasonic Doppler. The patients were divided into T2DM unconsolidated CAS (group A,n=36, CIMT<0.9 mm) and T2DM consolidated CAS (group B,n=46, CIMT≥0.9 mm) according to CIMT=0.9 mm of cut-off point. Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 72 hours by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and related indicators were detected. Its correlations with CIMT were analyzed.Result① The

  8. Complex carotid cavernous sinus fistulas Barrow type D: endovascular treatment via the ophthalmic vein, imaging control with standardized MRI, long-term results; Interdisziplinaere Embolisation spontaner Karotis-Cavernosus-Fisteln Typ D nach Barrow ueber die Vena ophthalmica: klinische Langzeitergebnisse und kernspintomografische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany); Muecke, I. [Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: Since feeding arteries from both the internal and external carotid artery are common, cavernous fistulas of Barrow type D are difficult to treat. Embolization using the transarterial approach is considered to be the standard therapy. However, it is often impossible to embolize feeders from the internal carotid artery. The transorbital approach after anterior orbitotomy through the ophthalmic vein is an alternative in this complex situation. The following reports our experience with three female patients who underwent transvenous embolization. Procedural success was documented using standardized MRI and clinical reevaluation. Materials and Methods: Three female patients between 57 and 78 years of age were diagnosed with carotid cavernous fistulas by conventional angiogram. All patients were suffering from exophthalmus and visual impairment. Two patients showed secondary glaucoma and diplopia. In one patient we performed a technically successful transarterial embolization using particles, but no relevant improvement of the patient's condition was seen. Transfemoral transvenous access via the sinus petrosus was not possible in any patient. All patients were then embolized via the ophthalmic vein using GDC detachable coils. All patients were clinically reevaluated by an ophthalmologist. Also a standardized MRI was performed for documentation. Follow-up was performed for the first patient for 32 months, for the second patient for 34 months and for the third patient for 50 months. Results: Transvenous embolization was technically successful in all three cases. Clinical symptoms disappeared rapidly. Postprocedural MRI showed a symmetric diameter of the ophthalmic vein. Venous congestion of the orbit caused by fatty tissue edema regressed completely. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed normal arterial vessels without evidence of fistula. (orig.)

  9. Does body mass index matter while selecting the flap type for pharyngeal reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calli, Caglar; Teknos, Theodoros N; Agrawal, Amit; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Songu, Murat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of patient-related factors, such as the body mass index (BMI) and tumor size, in selecting the flap type for the reconstruction of pharyngeal defects. This retrospective review included 182 patients with pharyngeal defect reconstructions with free and pedicled flaps at the Ohio State University from January 2005 to December 2008. We conducted a retrospective comparison of variety of different flap reconstruction techniques. We compared different flap reconstruction with BMI and tumor size without functional outcome such as swallowing and speech data. Although there was no statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05) when comparing the free flaps with pedicled flaps according to the BMI and tumor size, there was an obvious tendency to prefer radial forearm free flap over anterolateral thigh free flap in patients who are overweight and those with obesity with a ratio of 32:3. In the same group of patients, a similar tendency was observed to prefer fibular free flap over iliac crest free flap with a ratio of 14:5, whereas the ratio was becoming 3:5 in favor of iliac crest free flap over fibular free flap in patients with BMI of 24 or lower. Despite the fact that surgeons' experience with a certain flap type is one of the most important factors while determining which flap to reconstruct, BMI might have a significant impact while selecting the free flap types for the reconstruction of pharyngeal defects.

  10. Impulsivity as a moderator of the associations between child maltreatment types and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Mitchell, Tarrah B; Fite, Paula J; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-03-02

    Child maltreatment has emerged as an important risk factor for adult obesity (Danese & Tan, 2014; Hemmingsson et al., 2014). However, there is a need for research delineating the factors that play a role in this association. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated with both child maltreatment (Brodsky et al., 2001) and body mass index (BMI; Cortese et al., 2008; Thamotharan et al., 2013). Further, given previous research showing that adverse events interact with impulsivity to predict hazardous drinking behaviors (Fox et al., 2010), there is reason to hypothesize that child maltreatment might interact with impulsivity to predict other adverse health outcomes, such as elevated BMI. Accordingly, the current study examined whether impulsivity moderated the association between child maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) and BMI. The sample was comprised of 500 undergraduate students (49.6% male) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Regression analyses suggested that maltreatment types and impulsivity were not uniquely associated with BMI. However, impulsivity moderated the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult BMI, such that BMI was highest at high levels of both sexual abuse and impulsivity. Impulsivity did not moderate the associations between the other child maltreatment types and BMI. Limitations, future directions, and clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  11. Effect of different types of conditioning contraction on upper body postactivation potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esformes, Joseph I; Keenan, Matthew; Moody, Jeremy; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2011-01-01

    Muscle contractions preceding an activity can result in increased force generation (postactivation potentiation [PAP]). Although the type of muscular contractions could affect subsequent strength and power performance, little information exists on their effects. The purpose of this study was to examine PAP effects produced by isometric (ISO), concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), or concentric-eccentric (DYN) conditioning contractions on upper body force and power performance. Ten male, competitive rugby players (mean ± SD: age 20.4 ± 0.8 years, height 177.0 ± 8.1 cm, body mass 90.2 ± 13.8 kg) performed a ballistic bench press throw (BBPT) followed by a 10-minute rest and one of the conditioning contractions. After a 12-minute rest, the subjects performed another BBPT (post-BBPT). The conditioning contractions, applied on separate days and in counterbalanced randomized order, were a 7-second isometric barbell bench press for ISO and 1 set of 3 bench press repetitions at 3 repetition maximum for CON, ECC, and DYN (each repetition lasting 2 seconds for CON and ECC, overall execution time transducer. Electromyography (EMG) of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii was also recorded. The ISO produced significantly higher Ppeak (587 ± 116 and 605 ± 126 W for pre- and post-BBPT, respectively; p 0.05), and no significant differences existed in Fpeak, Dmax, and RFD for ISO, CON, ECC, and DYN (p > 0.05). Finally, EMG was not significantly different between pre- and post-BBPT for any of the conditioning contractions (p > 0.05). Isometric contractions appear to be the only conditioning contractions increasing upper body power output after long resting periods.

  12. Wearable ECG Based on Impulse-Radio-Type Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Takuya; Kato, Taku; Anzai, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Human body communication (HBC) provides a promising physical layer for wireless body area networks (BANs) in healthcare and medical applications, because of its low propagation loss and high security characteristics. In this study, we have developed a wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) which employs impulse radio (IR)-type HBC technology for transmitting vital signals on the human body in a wearable BAN scenario. The HBC-based wearable ECG has two excellent features. First, the wideband performance of the IR scheme contributed to very low radiation power so that the transceiver is easy to satisfy the extremely weak radio laws, which does not need a license. This feature can provide big convenience in the use and spread of the wearable ECG. Second, the realization of common use of sensing and transmitting electrodes based on time sharing and capacitive coupling largely simplified the HBC-based ECG structure and contributed to its miniaturization. To verify the validity of the HBC-based ECG, we evaluated its communication performance and ECG acquisition performance. The measured bit error rate, smaller than 10 (-3) at 1.25 Mb/s, showed a good physical layer communication performance, and the acquired ECG waveform and various heart-rate variability parameters in time and frequency domains exhibited good agreement with a commercially available radio-frequency ECG and a Holter ECG. These results sufficiently showed the validity and feasibility of the HBC-based ECG for healthcare applications. This should be the first time to have realized a real-time ECG transmission by using the HBC technology.

  13. Assessment of risk of carotid occlusion with balloon Matas testing and dynamic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Tomoaki; Okuno, Takashi; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Nakai, Ekini; Nishiguchi, Takashi; Hayashi, Seiji; Komai, Norihiko.

    1988-02-01

    Temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery with a balloon catheter (balloon Matas test) and simultaneous dynamic computed tomographic scanning (DCT) were performed in four patients with intracranial aneurysms to determine their tolerance for permanent carotid occlusion. Five DCT parameters were evaluated: appearance time, peak time, peak height fitting, first effective moment, and transit time. The patients were characterized into three types: type I (2 patients) - lack of neurological deficit during the balloon Matas test and equally preserved cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the two hemispheres on DCT during carotid occlusion, type II (one patient) - a decreased CBF on the occluded side on DCT despite the lack of neurological deficit; type III (one patient) - neurological signs, such as disturbance of consciousness, aphasia, and right hemiparesis occuring immediately after the start of the balloon Matas test, and a decreased CBF in the region of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries on the occluded side. In the type III patient, occlusion of the internal carotid artery is contraindicated unless an EC-IC bypass procedure that can rapidly provide a large supply of blood is performed. It can be concluded that the balloon Matas/DCT method offers a reliable means of predicting the risk of carotid ligation. (Namekawa, K.).

  14. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  15. Body composition in adults with Type 1 diabetes at onset and during the first year of insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Hilsted, J;

    2002-01-01

    index (BMI) 20.8 +/- 1.6 (19.2-23.4) kg/m2, body composition was estimated by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole body scanning supplemented by estimation of total body water (TBW) (isotope dilution technique with 3H2O) at diagnosis and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of insulin therapy......AIMS: To describe body composition in patients with Type 1 diabetes at diagnosis and during the first year after initiation of insulin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 10 (eight male and two female) newly onset Type 1 patients, age 31.5 +/- 3.2 years (27-37 years) (sd and range), body mass...

  16. Urotensin Ⅱ inhibits carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ming WU; Hong-mei XUE; Lin XIAO; Rui-rong HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of urotensin Ⅱ (UV) on the carotid sinus baroreflex (CSB). Methods: The functional curve of carotid sinus baroreflex was measured by recording changes in arterial pressure in anesthetized male rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus. Results: UⅡ at the concentration of 3 nmol/L had no effect on the CSB, while at the concentration of 30, 300 and 3000 nmol/L inhibited the CSB, shifting the functional curve of the baroreflex upward and to the right. There was a marked decrease in peak slope and reflex decrease in blood pressure. These effects of UⅡ were concentration-dependent. Pretreatment with verapamil (an antagonist of the L-type calcium channel, 10 μmol/L) partially eliminated the above effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Pretreatment with BIM-23127 (3 μmol/L),an antagonist of human and rat UⅡ receptors, abolished the actions of UⅡ on the CSB. Pretreatment with, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 100 μmol/L did not affect the inhibitory effects of UⅡ (300 nmol/L) on the CSB. Conclusion: These data suggest that UⅡ exerts an inhibitory action on the isolated CSB. Such an action of UV is predominantly mediated by the UⅡ receptors in vascular smooth muscles, resulting in the opening of L-type calcium channels.

  17. The Current Role of Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography in the Management of Carotid Atherosclerosis: Foundations and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R. Byrnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention has entered a time of dramatic change. Improvements in medical management have begun to challenge traditional interventional approaches to asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Simultaneously, carotid artery stenting (CAS has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CE. Finally, multiple factors beyond degree of stenosis and symptom status now mitigate clinical decision making. These factors include brain perfusion, plaque morphology, and patency of intracranial collaterals (circle of Willis. With all of these changes, it seems prudent to review the role of carotid duplex ultrasonography in the management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention. Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU for initial and serial imaging of the carotid bifurcation remains an essential component in the management of carotid bifurcation disease. However, correlative axial imaging modalities (computer tomographic angiography (CTA and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA increasingly aid in the assessment of individual stroke risk and are important in treatment decisions. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1 to discuss foundations and advances in CDU and (2 to evaluate the current role of CDU, in light of other imaging modalities, in the clinical management of carotid atherosclerosis.

  18. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  19. Shunt for bypass graft of the cavernous carotid artery: an anatomical and technical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Mefty, O; Khalil, N; Elwany, M N; Smith, R R

    1990-11-01

    During direct surgery of neoplastic and vascular lesions of the cavernous sinus, the intracavernous carotid artery may be injured beyond repair, or its total isolation may be necessary for surgical management of these lesions. The newly developed procedure of a saphenous vein graft bypass of the cavernous carotid artery allows re-establishment of carotid circulation. Patients with poor collateral circulation are at high risk for ischemic complications induced by the prolonged temporary occlusion required to perform the bypass graft. Optimal management of these patients is to perform the venous bypass graft for permanent vascularization while maintaining carotid cerebral circulation through an intraoperative shunt. We studied this procedure in cadavers, and three shunt types were evaluated: the external intrapetrous-supraclinoid shunt (Type A), the internal intrapetrous-supraclinoid shunt (Type B), and the neck internal carotid-supraclinoid shunt (Type C). Anatomical landmarks, techniques, distances, caliber, and materials used are presented. The rationale and candidates for such a procedure are discussed. The specifications of an optimal balloon shunt are presented, and the three procedures are compared.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF THE HUMAN DIET TO MAINTAIN BODY WEIGHT, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DIFFERENT TYPES OF METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorko N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A diet of a modern man affects the formation of a healthy lifestyle very highly. It supplies the body with the main and irreplaceable nutrients, mineral components and energy. The Russian Federation population surveys, which were carried out by government agencies of the country show us that there is a lack of many nutrients with high nutritional value. Russian market is gradually stuffed with food products which have high nutritional value. For the maintenance of health, active longevity, and for improving their performance, people must consume their organism with all the necessary nutrients. That's why achieving an optimal balance among the nutrients is one of the important question of vital activity. In this article, there were considered optimization approaches to human diet with considering different types of metabolism and maintain weight with using economic and mathematical methods. Also in this article you can find the calculated values of the daily values depending on your calorie eating plan, anthropometric parameters and energy expenditure. We obtained daily value of calories and distributed basic food components- carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and also we calculate the optimal diet for the results of each type of physique - ectomorph, endomorph and mesomorph

  1. Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n=296, group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n=118, and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n=131. Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P<0.01. We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries.

  2. Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in recently diagnosed type II diabetes: role of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Schiavone, Cosima; Di Carlo, Luigi; Salini, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness is increased in diabetes. The aims of present study were to assess whether tendon changes can occur in the early stages of the disease and to evaluate the extent of the influence of body mass index (BMI). The study population included 51 recent-onset type II diabetic subjects, who were free from diabetic complications, divided according to BMI into three groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese). Eighteen non-diabetic, normal-weight subjects served as controls. Plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness was measured by means of sonography. The groups were well balanced for age and sex. In all the diabetic subjects, plantar fascia and Achilles tendon thickness was increased compared to the controls (p fascia thickness and BMI values (r = 0.749, p fascia and Achilles tendon thickness is increased in the early stages of type II diabetes and that BMI is related more to plantar fascia than Achilles tendon thickness. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether these early changes can overload the metatarsal heads and increase the stress transmitted to plantar soft tissues, thus representing an additional risk factor for foot ulcer development.

  3. Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomić, Martina; Gverović Antunica, Antonela; Ljubić, Spomenka; Salopek Rabatić, Jasminka; Karabatić, Mirela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n = 296), group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n = 118), and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n = 131). Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P < 0.01). We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries. PMID:24347825

  4. Impact of Current and Emerging Glucose-Lowering Drugs on Body Weight in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, David C W; Teoh, Hwee

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, and most people with diabetes will eventually require adjunctive pharmacotherapy to optimize their glycemic control. As the majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, weight management is an essential component of diabetes management to improve their overall health and quality of life. Many of the currently available glucose-lowering drugs are associated with weight gain, which makes it challenging for both prescribing clinicians and patients. The 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines interim update on the pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes recommend individualization of therapy and glycemic targets. Clinicians should take into consideration not only the drug's efficacy and safety profiles but also its propensity for causing hypoglycemia and weight gain. Given that the number of glucose-lowering drugs is expanding rapidly, a better understanding of the impacts of current and emerging therapies on body weight will serve as a useful guide. Metformin remains the first-line drug after diet and exercise therapy. The next add-on agent could be selected from the incretin or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor class because these drugs rarely cause hypoglycemia and may lead to modest weight loss. When insulin therapy is considered, choosing a basal insulin that is associated with less nocturnal hypoglycemia and weight gain is recommended. Emerging therapies using combination therapy of an incretin-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist-basal insulin hold promise to achieve robust glycemic control with weight loss and low risk for hypoglycemia.

  5. Apopotic gene Bax expression in carotid plaque

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Zhong MEN; Ding-Biao ZHOU; Huai-Yin SHI; Xiao-Ming ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    The expression of BAX in carotid atherosclerosis and its regulation is far from defined. Objectives To investigate BAX expression in stable/fibrous and instable/vulnerable carotid plaque and its clinical significance. Methods 25 cases of carotid plaque specimens obtained from endarterectomy were divided into two groups, stable/fibrous 14 cases, vulnerable/instable 11 cases; aortic artery and its branches from hepatic transplantation donors 6 case as control. The expression of proapoptotic BAX was detected by immunohistochemistry(IHC), in situ hybridization(ISH) and in situ TdT dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results 5 cases of BAX ( + ) were detected by ICH and ISH, 4 case of TUNEL ( + ) were detected by TUNEL in stable/fibrous carotid plaque , while 10 cases were BAX ( + )by IHC(P < 0.05) , 11case by ISH and 9 case by TUNEL were detected in instable/vulnerable carotid plaque ( P < 0.01 ), respectively. The intensity of BAX ( + ) cells by IHC and ISH was 8.63 ± 2.62 and 10.32 ± 3.12 in fibrous plaques, whereas 122 ± 21.64and 152 ± 23.35 in vulnerable plaques, respectively. No expression of BAX was found in controlled group. Conclusion The higher expression of Bax in vulnerable carotid plaque may be one mechanisms in molecular pathogenesis of carotid atherosclerosis which affect plaque stability and be the cause of higher incidence of stroke than fibrous carotid plaques, the regulation of BAX expression in different stage of atherosclerosis may provide targets in gene therapy for carotid atherosclerosis.

  6. [The effect of carotid endarterectomy on cognitive disturbances in patients with atherosclerotic stenosis of carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhno, N N; Fedorova, T S; Damulin, I V; Shcherbiuk, A N; Vinogradov, O A; Lavrent'ev, A V

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and neuropsychological features of non-dementia cognitive disturbances were studied in 102 patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis. Cognitive disturbances were assessed after the carotid endarterectomy (CEAE). Mild cognitive impairment was found in 37 (36,3%) of patients, moderate cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 36 (35,3%)patients. Moderate cognitive impairment was found more often in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis with structural brain changes confirmed by neuroimaging data and with instable atherosclerotic plaques with the predomination of hypodensity component. It allows to suggest that both the reduction of perfusion and arterio-arterial microemboli may cause cognitive dysfunction in patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis. The data on the positive effect of CEAE on cognitive functions have been obtained. The positive changes were more distinct in patients with asymptomatic course of carotid stenosis. However CEAE may have a negative effect on cognitive functions in patients with moderate cognitive impairment of dysmnestic character and symptomatic carotid stenosis.

  7. Carotid sheath abscess caused by a tooth decay infection on the opposite side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncturk, F Ruya; Uzun, Lokman; Kalcioglu, M Tayyar; Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Timurlenk, Emine; Erguven, Muferet

    2015-01-01

    Deep neck infections are mortal diseases that need emergency treatment. It can occur at any age but usually in pediatric ages. In this report, a left cervical carotid space abscess of a pediatric patient was discussed. It was interesting that the only origin of the left carotid sheath abscess was right inferior first molar tooth decay. Right neck spaces were all clean. Patient had no immunosupression and also there were no congenital masses such as branchial cleft cysts, foreign bodies, or masses suspicious for malignancies in cervical ultrasound and MRI. We discussed this rare condition under the light of the literature.

  8. General principles of carotid Doppler ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Carotid Doppler ultrasonography is a popular tool for evaluating atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. Its two-dimensional gray scale can be used for measuring the intima-media thickness, which is very good biomarker for atherosclerosis and can aid in plaque characterization. The plaque morphology is related to the risk of stroke. The ulceration of plaque is also known as one of the strong predictors of future embolic event risk. Color Doppler ultrasonography and pulse Doppler ultrasonography have been used for detecting carotid artery stenosis. Doppler ultrasonography has unique physical properties. The operator should be familiar with the physics and other parameters of Doppler ultrasonography to perform optimal Doppler ultrasonography studies.

  9. 2型糖尿病患者血清脂联素和hs-CRP水平与颈动脉内中膜厚度的关系%The relationship among serum adiponectin, hs-CRP and IMT of carotid in type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周南南; 东燕; 李春梅; 王传霞; 李晓东

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨2型糖尿病(type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)患者血清脂联素(adiponectin,APN)和超敏C-反应蛋白(high sensitivity C reactive protein,hs-CRP)水平与颈动脉内中膜厚度(intima-media thickness,IMT)的关系.方法:T2DM患者287例,其中男性148例,女性139例.收集相关临床资料,应用酶联免疫法测定空腹血清APN·免疫比浊法定量测定血清hs-CRP,并根据患者的颈动脉超声结果分为两组:IMT正常组和IMT、增厚或斑块组.分析血清ANP和hs-CRP水平与IMT的关系.结果:①IMT正常组与IMT增厚或斑块组相比,IMT增厚或斑块组APN、HDL-C显著降低,而hs-CRP水平显著高于IMT正常组;②以APN为因变量、各指标为自变量进行Pearson相关分析,体重指数(body mass index,BMI)、腰臀比值(waist to hip ratio,WHR)、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)、hs-CRP与APN水平呈负相关,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(high densitylipoprotein-cholesterol,HDL-C)与APN水平呈正相关;③多元逐步回归分析显示血清APN、hs-CRP、HDL-C与糖尿病患者IMT增厚及斑块形成相关.结论:APN可能是T2DM患者动脉粥样硬化(atheroma)的保护因素.%Objective: To investigate the relationship among serum adiponectin, hs-CRP and IMT of carotid in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods:287 cases of type 2 diaberes included 148 males and 139 females. We collected the related clinical data, measured the fasting serum adiponectin by ELISA, by immuno-turbidimetry and measured the level of hs-CRP by finally, type 2 diabetic subjects were divided into two groups depending on the carorid ultrasound results: IMT normal group and IMT thickening or plaque group. The relationship among serum adiponectin, hs-CRP and IMT was analyzed.Results : ① In catEgorical analysis, the mean level of serum adiponectin and HDL-C in IMT thickening or plaque group was significantly lower than that in the other group; ② In pearson correlation analysis, APN as the dependent variable and the index for the

  10. Reference values of one-point carotid stiffness parameters determined by carotid echo-tracking and brachial pulse pressure in a large population of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriz, Olga; Aboyans, Victor; Minisini, Rosalba; Magne, Julien; Bertin, Nicole; Pirisi, Mario; Bossone, Eduardo

    2017-03-02

    Arterial stiffness can predict cardiovascular events, and the aim of this study was to produce age- and sex-specific reference values for echo-tracking carotid stiffness in healthy subjects. A total of 900 subjects (500 males, mean age 45.8±19 years) were enrolled. Common carotid artery stiffness and compliance, using a high-definition echo-tracking ultrasound system, were evaluated. To compare stiffness parameters across the different age groups, individual scores were transformed into T-scores, indicating how many standard deviation (s.d.) units an individual's score was above or below the mean that was observed in the group including same-sex individuals aged 36 to 44 years. Carotid stiffness was similar among genders, except compliance, which was lower in women (Pgroups. Stiffness parameters increased significantly with age, but the opposite occurred for compliance. The T-score was found to increase significantly across all age groups, with a steeper increase in stiffness around the age of 60 years in women. For each T-score s.d., the corresponding carotid absolute values for arterial stiffness and compliance were obtained. In a multivariate model, carotid stiffness parameters were constantly and independently associated with age, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and body mass index. Our study provides a normogram of carotid arterial stiffness and compliance indices obtained with the echo-tracking method in a large population of healthy subjects stratified by gender and age that can be used in clinical practice.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 2 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.24.

  11. Carotid-cavernous fistula after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun

    2009-03-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  12. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  13. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF LEAN BODY WEIGHT TYPE 2 DIABETICS, NORMAL WEIGHT AND OBESE DIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders with a phenomenal increase in developing countries like India . 1 When we compare the clinical profile in developed countries we find there is a remarkable difference in developing countries. In Asia the proportion of lean diabetics are relatively more when compared to developed countries . 2 Hence it is worth comparing t he clinical and biochemical profile in lean diabetic, normal and obese type 2 diabetic patients in our population . 3 OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the clinical profile in lean type 2 diabetic patients compared to normal and obese diabetics by age, sex, family history and anthropometry . We also compared the biochemical profile in lean type 2 diabetic patients with normal and obes e diabetics by estimation of blood glucose, urea, serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study of 1070 patients was conducted in our hospital between June 2011 to July 2013.We have selected patient s aged 30 years and older diabetics from outpatient and inpatient departments of our hospital and compared age, sex, family history, anthropometry, blood glucose, urea, serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. RESULTS: There is a statis tical significant relationship between age, FBS and BMI. Lean diabetic patients were more in the age group between 41 to 50, whereas there is no statistical significant relationship between sex, HbA1C, diastolic blood pressure, HDL and BMI. There is a stat istical significant relationship between family history, skin fold thickness, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI. PPBS and LDL were statistically significant in normal weight diabetics. We also found there is a significant relationship between pulmonary tuberculosis and lean diabetics. CONCLUSION: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients in our population are having normal weight with lean body

  14. Survey of adult carotid atherosclerosis in drinking-water type of endemic high arsenic area in Shanxi province in 2009%2009年山西省饮水高砷区成人颈动脉粥样硬化调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周令望; 孙殿军; 邓晴; 刘辉; 刘加勇; 李军; 吴赵明; 宋久成; 高本; 刘运起

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨饮水型砷中毒与成人颈动脉粥样硬化发生的关系.方法 2009年,在山西省应县,根据(WS 277-2007),选择东辛寨村、北湛村、大西头村、赤堡村和杏寨村为病区组,选择龙泉村、接马峪村、城下庄村、罗庄村和南丰町村作为对照组,利用彩超对40岁以上的饮水型高砷地区居民285人和对照地区居民293人进行颈动脉粥样硬化检查,并进行诊断、记分.在对年龄构成标准化后,计算动脉粥样硬化的标准化检出率.每个调查村各抽取10人,采用原子荧光法检测水砷和发砷.结果在病区组中,东辛寨村、北湛村、大西头村、赤堡村和杏寨村成人颈动脉粥样硬化检出率分别为35.09%(20/57)、55.74%(34/61)、38.46%(20/52)、36.51%(23/63)、46.15%(24/52);标准化检出率分别为32.5%、33.8%、34.9%、46.2%、47.3%;在对照组,龙泉村、接马峪村、城下庄村、罗庄村和南丰町村成人颈动脉粥样硬化检出率分别为18.18%(10/55)、30.77%(16/52)、20.00%(10/50)、18.67%(14/75)和21.31%(13/61);标准化检出率为22.4%、17.7%、10.7%、24.6%、18.9%.病区组的标准化检出率[39.50%(113/285)]高于对照组[21.70%(64/293),T=26,P<0.01],病区组成人颈部动脉粥样硬化4~7分的构成[17.70%(20/113)]与对照组[14.06%(9/64)]比较,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.26,P>0.05).结论山西省饮水型砷中毒病区成人的动脉粥样硬化检出率高于对照区.为进一步证实砷中毒可致动脉粥样硬化症提供了证据.%Objective To investigate the relationship between drinking-water type of endemic arsenicosis and adult carotid artery atherosclerosis. Methods In 2009, 285 participants aged over 40 from drinking-water type of endemic arsenism areas and 293 residents aged over 40 from control areas were investigated in Yingxian county,Shanxi province. Portable-type B mode color ultrasound was used to examine the carotid artery of all participants.The carotid atherosclerosis

  15. Itinerant type many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Keiichiro

    2004-09-01

    Itinerant type quantum many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions (PSPTs) are reviewed in close connection with various recent experimental results related to this new optical phenomenon. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I) rarr neutral (N) phase transition in the organic charge transfer (CT) crystal, TTF-CA, as a typical example for this type of transition, we, at first, theoretically show an adiabatic path which starts from CT excitons in the I-phase, but finally reaches an N-domain with a macroscopic size. In connection with this I-N transition, the concept of the initial condition sensitivity is also developed so as to clarify experimentally observed nonlinear characteristics of this material. In the next, using a more simplified model for the many-exciton system, we theoretically study the early time quantum dynamics of the exciton proliferation, which finally results in the formation of a domain with a large number of excitons. For this purpose, we derive a stepwise iterative equation to describe the exciton proliferation, and clarify the origin of the initial condition sensitivity. Possible differences between a photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and an equilibrium phase at high temperatures are also clarified from general and conceptional points of view, in connection with recent experiments on the photo-induced phase transition in an organo-metallic complex crystal. It will be shown that the photo-induced phase can make a new interaction appear as a broken symmetry only in this phase, even when this interaction is almost completely hidden in all the equilibrium phases, such as the ground state and other high-temperature phases. The relation between the photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and the hysteresis induced nonequilibrium one is also qualitatively discussed. We will be concerned with a macroscopic parity violation

  16. Itinerant type many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Keiichiro [Solid State Theory Division, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Graduate University for Advanced Study, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Itinerant type quantum many-body theories for photo-induced structural phase transitions (PSPTs) are reviewed in close connection with various recent experimental results related to this new optical phenomenon. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I) {yields} neutral (N) phase transition in the organic charge transfer (CT) crystal, TTF-CA, as a typical example for this type of transition, we, at first, theoretically show an adiabatic path which starts from CT excitons in the I-phase, but finally reaches an N-domain with a macroscopic size. In connection with this I-N transition, the concept of the initial condition sensitivity is also developed so as to clarify experimentally observed nonlinear characteristics of this material. In the next, using a more simplified model for the many-exciton system, we theoretically study the early time quantum dynamics of the exciton proliferation, which finally results in the formation of a domain with a large number of excitons. For this purpose, we derive a stepwise iterative equation to describe the exciton proliferation, and clarify the origin of the initial condition sensitivity. Possible differences between a photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and an equilibrium phase at high temperatures are also clarified from general and conceptional points of view, in connection with recent experiments on the photo-induced phase transition in an organo-metallic complex crystal. It will be shown that the photo-induced phase can make a new interaction appear as a broken symmetry only in this phase, even when this interaction is almost completely hidden in all the equilibrium phases, such as the ground state and other high-temperature phases. The relation between the photo-induced nonequilibrium phase and the hysteresis induced nonequilibrium one is also qualitatively discussed. We will be concerned with a macroscopic parity

  17. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS, calving interval (CI, angularity (ANG, strength (FV and milk yield (MY on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits records. A multi-traits REML animal model was used to estimate (covariance components, with repeated observations. Heritability estimates for BCS, FV and ANG was 18%, 18% and 27%, respectively, while estimates for CI was very low (2%. Genetic correlations between CI and BCS was -0.44; between BCS and ANG was - 0.64; between BCS and MY was -0.35; between ANG and CI was 0.12. In conclusion, the selection for MY and ANG negatively affect fertility and average condition score of Brown cows. BCS recorded during lactation could be proposed as a useful trait for indirect selection aimed to improve fertility of cows.

  18. Defective cerebrovascular autoregulation after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    that ipsilateral middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity was pressure dependent. This substantiates the hypothesis of defective autoregulation in the ipsilateral hemisphere after carotid endarterectomy, and in turn demonstrates an immediate cessation of symptoms with reduction of arterial pressure even...

  19. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  20. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  1. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats Metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos durante as lesões de isquemia e reperfusão cerebrais após oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Girão Faria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were determined. RESULTS: Cerebral ACT and BHB levels increased significantly in Group T after 30min of carotid occlusion (time 0. The highest brain ketone bodies (ACT+BHB concentration was verified at 5min of reperfusion, decreasing after 10min of recirculation. Systemic ketone bodies levels increased similarly between test and sham groups. Group S demonstrated a significant increase in cerebral and systemic ACT and BHB concentrations mainly after 40-45min of study. CONCLUSIONS: The partial transient acute global brain ischemia induced by the bilateral carotid occlusion in Wistar rats triggered ketogenesis probably due to a central stimulation of catecholamine secretion. There was an increased cerebral uptake of ketone bodies following brain ischemia, reaffirming these metabolites as alternative energy substrates under conditions of cerebral metabolic stress as well as its potential role on neuroprotection. The greatest changes in ketone bodies metabolism were verified at initial minutes of recirculation as a result of the reperfusion injury phenomenon.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações in vivo no metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos após isquemia/reperfusão cerebral através de um modelo experimental de isquemia cerebral induzido pela simples oclusão das artérias carótidas comuns (CCAs em ratos Wistar. M

  2. Evaluation of the carotid artery elasticity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using two-dimensional strain imaging%超声二维应变成像评价2型糖尿病患者颈动脉弹性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀云; 邹春鹏; 姜淑英; 何慧疗; 寇红菊; 张其敏; 赵雅萍

    2014-01-01

    目的 应用超声二维应变成像检测2型糖尿病患者颈动脉整体圆周应变(CS)、应变率(CSr)和硬度参数(β),探讨其评价颈动脉弹性的临床应用价值.方法 选择2型糖尿病患者60例为病例组,并分为颈动脉内中膜厚度(CIMT)增厚组(34例,1.0 mm<CIMT≤1.2 mm)和斑块组(26例,CIMT> 1.2mm),33例正常人为对照组.在颈总动脉二维短轴图像测量收缩期峰值CS和CSr,根据超声二维应变计算动脉硬度参数β,并将β和CS分别与CIMT进行相关性分析.结果 CIMT增厚组与斑块组CS和CSr均低于对照组(P<0.01),斑块组CS和CSr低于CIMT增厚组(P<0.05);CIMT增厚组与斑块组β高于对照组(P<0.01);斑块组β高于CIMT增厚组(P<0.01);CS与CIMT显著相关(r =-0.79,P<0.01),β与CIMT显著相关(r=0.72,P<0.01).结论 超声二维应变成像能更早地检测出2型糖尿病患者颈动脉受累的信息,2型糖尿病患者颈动脉的变形程度随CIMT增厚而减低,硬度随CIMT增厚而增大.%Objective Three parameters include circumferential strain (CS),circumferential strain rate (CSr) and stiffness parameter (β) were measured to evaluate the elasticity of carotid artery using two-dimensional(2D) strain imaging and evaluate its clinical value in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods 60 patients with T2DM were collected and divided into carotid intima-midia thickness (CIMT) thickeness group(34 cases,1.0 mm<CIMT≤1.2 mm) and plaque group(26 case,CIMT> 1.2 mm).33 normal people were supplied as control group.The systolic global peak CS and CSr of the carotid artery were obtained from short-axis view of the common carotid artery and the stiffness parameters β was measured using 2D strain imaging.All the parameters were compared among the three groups.Results The CS and CSr were decreased and β was increased in patients with T2DM (P < 0.01),The CS and CSr obtained from the plaque group were less than that of the CIMT thickeness group

  3. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  4. Effect of rosiglitazone on progression of atherosclerosis: insights using 3D carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Cheuk F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is recent evidence suggesting that rosiglitazone increases death from cardiovascular causes. We investigated the direct effect of this drug on atheroma using 3D carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Results A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes and coexisting vascular disease or hypertension. The primary endpoint of the study was the change from baseline to 52 weeks of carotid arterial wall volume, reflecting plaque burden, as measured by carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Rosiglitazone or placebo was allocated to 28 and 29 patients respectively. Patients were managed to have equivalent glycemic control over the study period, but in fact the rosiglitazone group lowered their HbA1c by 0.88% relative to placebo (P 3 and in the rosiglitazone group was 1354 ± 532 mm3. After 52 weeks, the respective volumes were 1134 ± 523 mm3 and 1348 ± 531 mm3. These changes (-12.1 mm3 and -5.7 mm3 in the placebo and rosiglitazone groups, respectively were not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.57. Conclusion Treatment with rosiglitazone over 1 year had no effect on progression of carotid atheroma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to placebo.

  5. The Effect of Simvastatin and Felodipin on Carotid Atherosclerosis Plaque in Hypertensive Patients Complicated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%辛伐他汀联合非洛地平对高血压并发2型糖尿病患者颈动脉粥样硬化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华发; 周荣辉; 朱可云

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of simvastatin and felodipin on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods Ninety two hypertensive patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly to receive simvastatin(20 mg/d)and felodipin(5-10 mg/d)while control group receive simvastatin(20 mg/d).Carotid intima-medial thickness(IMT)、incidence of carotid plaque were measured by ultrasound and hs-CRP、total cholesterol(TC)and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined before and after 6 months treatment in all patients.Results hs-CRP[(9.2±1.5)vs after treatment(6.5±1.6)]mg/L;IMT(1.25±0.13)vs after treatment(0.97±0.15)accumulate score of carotid plaque(6.21±0.50)vs after treatment(5.05±0.39);the prevalence rate of carotid plaque(84.5% vs after treatment:67.5)were all reduced in experiment group(all P<0.05).The correlation analysis revealed hs-CRP level was related to the improved level of carotid arteriosclerosis.Conclusion Simvastatin and felodipin reduced inflammation and carotid arteriosclerosis in hypertensive patients complicated with type 2 DM.%目的 探讨辛伐他汀与非洛地平单用及联合对高血压并发2型糖尿病患者颈动脉粥样硬化的疗效.方法 原发高血压并发2型糖尿病颈动脉粥样硬化患者92例,随机分组为2组,实验组口服辛伐他汀20 mg,每晚一次和非洛地平5-10 mg,1次/d;对照组口服其他类型降压药及辛伐他汀20mg,每晚一次.采用彩色多普勒超声检测颈动脉,记录颈动脉内膜-中层厚度(IMT)、颈动脉斑块积分、斑块发生率.并分别监控血压、血糖变化及于入院后和6个月时检测血浆hs-CRP、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA lc).结果 实验组治疗后hs-CRP[(9.2±1.5)比治疗后(6.5±1.6)]mg/L下降(P<0.05),且下降幅度较对照组大(P<0.05)、IMT(1.25±0.13)比治疗后(0.97±0.15)mm下降(P<0.05),且

  6. Endovascular treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with trapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional endovascular treatment for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF involves a direct delivery of either coils, detachable balloon or both to the fistula with end point of CCF resolution and carotid artery preservation. But in few cases with severe laceration of carotid artery, the feasible endovascular technique applicable is by blocking the filling of fistula from cerebral circulation. This method known as trapping technique which implicates carotid artery occlusion, was performed in our present case with good result. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:178-82. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.588Keywords: Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF, carotid occlusion, trapping technique

  7. Severe orthostatic hypotension due to unilateral carotid artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Ishii

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with mild right-sided hemiparesis and orthostatic hypotension. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed stenosis of the left distal carotid sinus surrounded by intraluminal hyperintensities on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, representing a periluminal hematoma secondary to carotid artery dissection. The dissection hyperextended the carotid artery wall and stimulated baroreceptors in the carotid sinus. The stimulated baroreceptors induced carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which may have been related to her orthostatic hypotension. Post-stroke orthostatic hypotension should prompt consideration of carotid artery dissection.

  8. Clinical Results of Carotid Denervation by Adventitial Stripping in Carotid Sinus Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorop, R. J.; Scheltinga, M. R.; Huige, M. C.; Moll, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Older patients with spells of syncope may suffer from a carotid sinus syndrome (CSS). Patients with invalidating CSS routinely receive pacemaker treatment. This study evaluated the safety and early outcome of a surgical technique termed carotid denervation by adventitial stripping for CSS trea

  9. Psammoma bodies in two types of human ovarian tumours: a mineralogical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlu, Meng; Changqiu, Wang; Yan, Li; Anhuai, Lu; Fang, Mei; Jianying, Liu; Jingyun, Du; Yan, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Psammoma body (PB) is a common form of calcification in pathological diagnosis and closely relevant to tumours. This paper focuses on the mineralogical characteristics of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma by using polarization microscope (POM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), micro-area synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (μ-SRXRD) and fluorescence (μ-SRXRF). Both the PBs in tissues and separated from eight typical cases were investigated. POM and ESEM observation revealed the inside-out growth pattern of PBs. μ-SRXRD and micro-FT-IR results demonstrated the dominant mineral phase of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma was AB-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (Ca10[(PO4)6-x-y(CO3)x(HPO4 2-)y][(OH)2-u(CO3)u] with 0 ≤ x,y,u ≤ 2). As observed by ESEM and TEM, the layer-rich PBs in teratoma were up to 70 μm and mainly consisted of 5 nm-wide, 5-12 nm-long columnar crystals; the PBs in ovarian serous cancer with a maximum diameter of 35 μm were composed of slightly longer columnar crystals and granulates with 20-100 nm in diameter. The selected area electron diffraction patterns showed dispersed polycrystalline diffraction rings with arching behavior of (002) diffraction, indicating the aggregated nanocrystals grew in the preferred orientation of (002) face. The EDX and μ-SRXRF results together indicated the existence of Na, Mg, Zn and Sr in PBs. These detailed mineralogical characteristics may help uncover the nature of the pathological PBs in ovary.

  10. Erratum to: Psammoma bodies in two types of human ovarian tumours: a mineralogical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanlu; Wang, Changqiu; Li, Yan; Lu, Anhuai; Mei, Fang; Liu, Jianying; Du, Jingyun; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Psammoma body (PB) is a common form of calcification in pathological diagnosis and closely relevant to tumours. This paper focuses on the mineralogical characteristics of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma by using polarization microscope (POM), environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), micro-area synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (μ-SRXRD) and fluorescence (μ-SRXRF). Both the PBs in tissues and separated from eight typical cases were investigated. POM and ESEM observation revealed the inside-out growth pattern of PBs. μ-SRXRD and micro-FT-IR results demonstrated the dominant mineral phase of PBs in ovarian serous cancer and teratoma was AB-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (Ca10[(PO4)6-x-y(CO3)x(HPO4)y][(OH)2-u(CO3)u] with 0 ≤ x,y,u ≤ 2). As observed by ESEM and TEM, the layer-rich PBs in teratoma were up to 70 μm and mainly consisted of 5 nm-wide, 5-12 nm-long columnar crystals; the PBs in ovarian serous cancer with a maximum diameter of 35 μm were composed of slightly longer columnar crystals and granulates with 20-100 nm in diameter. The selected area electron diffraction patterns showed dispersed polycrystalline diffraction rings with arching behavior of (002) diffraction, indicating the aggregated nanocrystals grew in the preferred orientation of (002) face. The EDX and μ-SRXRF results together indicated the existence of Na, Mg, Zn and Sr in PBs. These detailed mineralogical characteristics may help uncover the nature of the pathological PBs in ovary.

  11. Using uncertain data from body-worn sensors to gain insight into type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Nathaniel; Kleinberg, Samantha

    2016-10-01

    The amount of observational data available for research is growing rapidly with the rise of electronic health records and patient-generated data. However, these data bring new challenges, as data collected outside controlled environments and generated for purposes other than research may be error-prone, biased, or systematically missing. Analysis of these data requires methods that are robust to such challenges, yet methods for causal inference currently only handle uncertainty at the level of causal relationships - rather than variables or specific observations. In contrast, we develop a new approach for causal inference from time series data that allows uncertainty at the level of individual data points, so that inferences depend more strongly on variables and individual observations that are more certain. In the limit, a completely uncertain variable will be treated as if it were not measured. Using simulated data we demonstrate that the approach is more accurate than the state of the art, making substantially fewer false discoveries. Finally, we apply the method to a unique set of data collected from 17 individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in free-living conditions over 72h where glucose levels, insulin dosing, physical activity and sleep are measured using body-worn sensors. These data often have high rates of error that vary across time, but we are able to uncover the relationships such as that between anaerobic activity and hyperglycemia. Ultimately, better modeling of uncertainty may enable better translation of methods to free-living conditions, as well as better use of noisy and uncertain EHR data.

  12. Body composition in adults with Type 1 diabetes at onset and during the first year of insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Hilsted, J

    2002-01-01

    . RESULTS: During the first year after onset of diabetes body weight (BW) increased 4.3 +/- 2.9 (0.1-8.3) kg (P = 0.0012) distributed as a 13.3% (1.6 kg) increase in total fat mass (FM) and 4.9% (2.5 kg) increase in lean body soft tissue mass (LBM). The self-reported weight loss at onset was 6.3 +/- 2.5 kg......AIMS: To describe body composition in patients with Type 1 diabetes at diagnosis and during the first year after initiation of insulin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 10 (eight male and two female) newly onset Type 1 patients, age 31.5 +/- 3.2 years (27-37 years) (sd and range), body mass...... was within the expected range. CONCLUSIONS: During the first year after onset of Type 1 diabetes the mean increase in BW is 6.5% with a 13.3% increase in FM and a 4.9% increase in LBM. Self-reported data on premorbid BW suggest an approximately 10% reduction in BW at onset of Type 1 diabetes. Compared...

  13. The Correlation Between Glycosylated Hemoglobin,Central Aortic Pressure and the Formation of the Carotid Artery Plaque with the Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%2型糖尿病患者 HbA1 c1 CAP 水平与颈动脉斑块关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奥日瀚; 李冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin ,central aortic pressure and the formation of the carotid artery plaque with the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus .Methods Determi-nating the glycosylated hemoglobin ,average fasting blood glucose and peripheral blood pressure ,central aortic pressure( including central systolic pressure ,diastolic pressure ,central pulse pressure) ,of 120 diabetes mellitus patients (diabetes mellitus group) and 100 healthy volunteers (normal control group) .Then according to the re-sult of ultrasound ,the patients were divided into carotid artery plaque group and non -plaque group ,all the data were determined again ,the correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin ,central aortic pressure and the forma-tion of the carotid artery plaque was analyzed by SPSS .Results (1 ) The glycosylated hemoglobin ,average fast-ing blood glucose levels of diabetes group are significantly higher than those of normal control group .(2 )There is no significant difference between systolic central aortic pressure and central pulse pressure of the diabetes mellitus group and those of normal control group .(3 )Glycosylated hemoglobin ,average fasting blood glucose ,central pulse pressure ,systolic central aortic pressure of carotid artery plaque group levels were significantly higher than those of non-plaque group( P<0 .0 1 ) .(4 )Glycosylated hemoglobin levels and the incidence of carotid plaques were positively correlated in diabetes group .(5 )Multiple linear regression analysis showed that for the patients of type 2 diabetes ,glycosylated hemoglobin ,central systolic pressure and central pulse pressure is risk factors of oc-currence and development of carotid plaques .Conclusion Concentrating glycosylated hemoglobin ,central sys-tolic pressure the central pulse pressure helps to monitor the occurrence and development of diabetic carotid plaques .%目的:探讨2型糖尿病患者糖化血红蛋白及中心动脉压与颈动脉

  14. Correlation between Common Carotid Artery Intima-media Thickness and Degree of Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%2型糖尿病视网膜病变程度与颈总动脉内-中膜厚度的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 邓又斌; 杨顺实

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估2型糖尿病患者(diabetes mellitus,DM)视网膜病变程度与颈总动脉内-中膜厚度(common carotid artery inti-ma-media thickness,CCA IMT)的相关性,以期早期发现糖尿病视网膜病变(diabetic retinopathy,DR)并评估其病变程度.方法 筛选2型糖尿病患者84例.根据眼底荧光造影的结果分为糖尿病无视网膜病变(non-diabetic retinopathy,NDR)组、非增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变(non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,NPDR)组及增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变(proliferative di-abetic retinopathy,PDR)组三组.记录各组病例的性别、年龄、糖尿病病程,测量其CCA IMT、空腹血糖(fasting blood glu-cose,FBG)、糖化血红蛋白(glycosylated hemoglobin,HbA1c)、血清甘油三脂(serum triglycerides,TG)、总胆固醇(totalcholesterol,TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(low-density lipoprotein cholestero,LDL-C)及高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(high-density lipo-protein cholesterol,HDL-C).结果 CCA IMT、FBG、HbA1c及糖尿病病程均同DR的程度具有正相关性(P<0.05);且排除了FBG、HbA1c及糖尿病病程的影响后,CCA IMT仍与DR程度相关(P<0.01).结论 2型糖尿病患者DR的程度同CCA IMT具有正相关性.%Objective To estimate the correlation between the degree of the diabetic retinopathy(DR)and the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT)in type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM)for early detection of DR and the the extent of their lesions. Methods A total of 84 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,according to the result of fundus fluorescein angiography,were divided into three groups:non-diabetic retinopathy(NDR)group,non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR)group and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR)group. In each group, gender, age and duration of diabetes were recorded, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness(CCA IMT), fasting blood glucose (FBG) ,glycosylated hemoglobin( HbAlc), serum triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low

  15. Ventilatory chaos is impaired in carotid atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mangin

    Full Text Available Ventilatory chaos is strongly linked to the activity of central pattern generators, alone or influenced by respiratory or cardiovascular afferents. We hypothesized that carotid atherosclerosis should alter ventilatory chaos through baroreflex and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Chaotic dynamics of inspiratory flow was prospectively evaluated in 75 subjects undergoing carotid ultrasonography: 27 with severe carotid stenosis (>70%, 23 with moderate stenosis (<70%, and 25 controls. Chaos was characterized by the noise titration method, the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated in the frequency domain. In the control group, 92% of the time series exhibit nonlinear deterministic chaos with positive noise limit, whereas only 68% had a positive noise limit value in the stenoses groups. Ventilatory chaos was impaired in the groups with carotid stenoses, with significant parallel decrease in the noise limit value, correlation dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent, as compared to controls. In multiple regression models, the percentage of carotid stenosis was the best in predicting the correlation dimension (p<0.001, adjusted R(2: 0.35 and largest Lyapunov exponent (p<0.001, adjusted R(2: 0.6. Baroreflex sensitivity also predicted the correlation dimension values (p = 0.05, and the LLE (p = 0.08. Plaque removal after carotid surgery reversed the loss of ventilatory complexity. To conclude, ventilatory chaos is impaired in carotid atherosclerosis. These findings depend on the severity of the stenosis, its localization, plaque surface and morphology features, and is independently associated with baroreflex sensitivity reduction. These findings should help to understand the determinants of ventilatory complexity and breathing control in pathological conditions.

  16. Diagnostics and surgical treatment of pathological deformation of the carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Sh I; Tursunov, B Z; Sunnatov, R D; Irnazarov, A A; Keldiiarov, B K; Akhmatov, A M; Iulbarisov, A A; Asrarov, U A; Alizhanov, Kh K

    2010-01-01

    The most effective way of preventive maintenance of sharp and chronic disturbances of brain blood circulation are reconstructive operations on branches of an arch of an aorta. Pathological deformation meets far quite often in clinical practice and is the reason of cerebral-vascular insufficiency of various degree, including ischemic strokes. Research objective - improvement of diagnostics and tactics of treatment of the patients with pathological deformation of carotid arteries. 132 patients have entered into research with various kinds of pathological deformation. Have been made 143 reconstructive operations. Indications to operative treatment revealed by means of duplex investigation and angiography. At the same time defined hemodynamic changes on carotids with an obligatory estimation of a condition intracranial vascular channel. By the indication to operative treatment of the given category of patients it is considered: hemodynamic significant pathological deformations of an internal carotid, pathological deformation of an internal carotid in a combination with embologenal plaque, pathological deformation of an internal carotid with all types of atherosclerotic plaques narrowing a vessel gleam on 60% and more, in the presence of symptoms of cerebral-vascular insufficiency, especially at transient ischemic attacks and at an ischemic stroke. Positive clinical effect has been reached at 100% of patients with I and II degree chronic vascular-brain insufficiency, at 80,6% of patients with chronic vascular-brain insufficiency of III degree, and at 45,8% of patients which in the anamnesis have transferred sharp infringement of brain blood circulation.

  17. Ultrasonic Measurement of Carotid Intima–Media Thickness in a Group of Iranian with No Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourafkari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To obtaining reference values for intima–media thickness (IMT of the carotid arteries in the Iranian subjects without any known atherosclerosis risk factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 400 subjects (146 male and 254 female, mean age 36.3±14 years in men and 35.9±12 years in women, with normal body mass index and no history or evidence of cardiovascular or peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, thyroid diseases or smoking were examined. IMT was measured on a longitudinal ultrasound image of the carotid artery. Mean thickness was evaluated for the right common carotid (RCCA, right internal carotid (RICA, left common carotid (LCCA and left internal carotid (LICA. Results: The mean value of carotid IMT was 0.38±0.11 in women and 0.41±0.13 in men. For different age groups, the lowest mean thickness was 0.305±0.045, seen in the RCCA among 20–29-year-old cases, and the highest was 0.645±0.125, seen in the LICA of cases over 60. The mean thickness was higher in men than in women, in all four locations (all p values< 0.02 Linear regression models for prediction of IMT by age, were separately done in different groups of anatomical location and gender, and all models’ R2 were higher than 0.5. Conclusion: Mean IMT in RCCA, RICA, LCCA and LICA in both genders and different age dec-ades was lower than many reports, which may be due to ethnic factors or different inclusion criteria. Reference values of carotid IMT increase significantly with age and IMT is higher in men than in women.

  18. Chemical zoning and homogenization of Pasamonte-type pyroxene and their bearing on thermal metamorphism of a howardite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M.; Duke, M. B.; Mckay, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mg-Fe zoning of pyroxenes in Pasamonte and Juvinas eucrites is examined in order to gain a better understanding of the metamorphism in the surface layer of a eucrite/howardite parent body. Three distinct types of Ca-Mg-Fe zoning of Pasamonte pyroxenes are identified. The wide compositional range of the zoned pyroxenes suggests that Pasamonte is less metamorphosed than previously believed. It is also found that a Pasamonte-type pyroxene may yield a Juvinas-type pyroxene by thermal metamorphism. Calculations imply that the homogenization of Juvinas pyroxenes may have occurred during later reheating events rather than during initial cooling.

  19. 中青年男性体脂分布与颈动脉内膜中层厚度的相关研究%The study of relationship between body fat distribution and carotid intima-media thickness in young and middle-aged men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春朋; 刘兰祥; 杨蕾; 刘晓丽; 王锐; 尹福在; 陆强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between fat distribution and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in young and middle-aged men.Methods Five hundred and one men aged 20-50 years who took physical examination in the first hospital of qinhuangdao were selected.The abdominal obesity group included 299 cases with waist circumference ≥90 cm,and the normol waist circumference group included 202 cases with waist circumference <90 cm.Height,weight and waist circumference were measured and body mass index was calculated.Fasting insulin (FINS) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were detected,and homeostasis model assay insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated.Total body fat mass (BF),body muscle mass (BM),truncal fat mass (TrF),upper limb fat mass (UF),limb fat mass (LF) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).BF%(=BF/W) and TrF/BF were calculated.CIMT was detected with color ultrasound.Results (1) The abdominal obesity group showed increased levels of BF%,TrF/BF,BF,BM,TrF,UF,LF,body mass index,waist circumference,CIMT and HOMA-IR,compared with normol waist circumference group (all P <0.05).(2) In Pearson correlation analysis,CIMT had positive correlation with BF%,TrF/BF,BF,BM,TrF,UF,LF,body mass index and waist circumference (R=0.443,0.481,0.429,0.377,0.472,0.376,0.304,all P <0.05).(3)In Pearson correlation analysis,HOMA-IR had positive correlation with BF%,TrF/BF,BF,BM,TrF,UF,LF,body mass index,waist circumference(R =0.510,0.441,0.576,0.502,0.528,0.526,0.577,0.384,0.639,all P<0.05).HOMA-IR had positive correlation with CIMT (R =0.416,P <0.05).(4)In multiple regression analyses,TrF/BF and body mass index were the independent risk factors of CIMT.Conclusion Fat distribution was closely related with CIMT and insulin resistance in young and middle-aged men.To prevent carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases,exercise should be recommended and abdominal obesity should be avoided.%目的 探讨中青年男性体

  20. [Ischaemic lesions of cerebral after carotid stenting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, R B; Tanashian, M M; Kuntsevich, G I; Lagoda, O V; Skrylev, S I; Krotenkova, M V; Koshcheev, A Iu; Suslin, A S; Gemdzhian, É G

    2015-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a reliable method of primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke in patients with stenosing lesions of the internal carotid artery. However, carrying out such operations is sometimes associated with risk for the development of intraoperative impairments of cerebral circulation due to arterioarterial embolism in cerebral arteries, as well as vasospasm. Presented herein are the results of following up a total of 64 patients with pronounced atherosclerotic lesions of internal carotid arteries (>70%) - "symptomatic" and "asymptomatic", undergoing carotid stenting. Acute foci of ischaemia in the brain after stenting according to the findings of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance tomography were revealed in 40% of cases, and in only 6% of patients they manifested themselves by symptoms of acute cerebral circulatory impairment. We revealed a direct correlation between the number, size of infarctions in the brain, and the appearance of neurological symptomatology. Intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery during stenting makes it possible to predict the appearance of acute foci of cerebral ischaemia, to specify the genesis of perioperative stroke, as well as to evaluate clinical significance of vasospasm and material microembolism. The obtained findings should concentrate neurologists' attention on active postoperative follow up of patients subjected to carotid angioplasty with stenting in order to perform adequate personified neuroprotective correction, including preventive one.

  1. MIGRAINE, CAROTID STIFFNESS AND GENETIC POLYMORPHISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kes, Vanja Basić; Jurasić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Corić, Lejla; Rotim, Kresimir

    2015-12-01

    Recently migraine has been associated with increased arterial stiffness, procoagulant state, increased incidence of cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and stroke. Our aim was to compare the characteristics of migraineurs to headache free controls regarding their functional carotid ultrasound parameters. Sixty patients (45 women) with migraine (mean age 40.42 ± 10.61 years) were compared with 45 controls (30 women) with no prior history of repeating headache (mean age 38.94 ± 5.46 years) using E-tracking software on Alpha 10 ultrasound platform. Student's t-test was used on statistical analysis with alpha < 0.05. All tested carotid vascular parameters were worse in patients with migraine including increased intima-media thickness, greater carotid diameter and carotid diameter change, as well as several arterial stiffness indices. Additionally, patients with migraine had greater incidence of homozygous mutations for procoagulant genes (MTHFR (C677T), PAI-1 and ACE I/D) than expected. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed WML in 11 patients, four of them migraine with aura patients. Since we established increased carotid stiffness and higher frequency of procoagulant gene mutations in migraineurs, we propose prospective ultrasound monitoring in such patients, especially those with detected WML, in order to timely commence more active and specific preventive stroke management strategies.

  2. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.;

    1998-01-01

    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  3. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.;

    1998-01-01

    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  4. A Rare Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is a common cause of fainting and falls in the elderly, and can be diagnosed by carotid sinus massage. We present a 67-year-old diabetic man who was admitted with hyperglycemia. During thyroid examination, clouding of consciousness occurred with unilateral palpation. Asystole was documented for 4.8 seconds and suspected for 7 seconds upon carotid sinus massage. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity should be kept in mind when examining diabetic patients.

  5. SP600125对1型糖尿病小鼠颈动脉内皮功能及单核细胞趋化蛋白1表达的影响%The Effect of SP600125 on Endothelial Function and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Expression in Carotid Artery in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启章; 陈茂刚; 李达文; 刘朝来; 徐格林; 刘新峰

    2011-01-01

    Aim The incidence of stroke in diabetes is increasing seriously, which is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation in carotid artery.Our study is to investigate the effect of c-Jun arnino-terminal ki-nase (JNK) specific inhibitor SP600125 on carotid endothelial function and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in type 1 diabetes. Methods Animals were divided into five groups in this study. The 1st group was C57BL/6 wild type male mice; the 2nd group was INS2AKUTI male mice, intraperitoneal injection with 0. 9% normal saline (NS) each day for 8 weeks; the 3rd, 4th, 5th group were INS2AKITA male mice, intraperitoneal injection with SP600125 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg respectively each day for consecutive 8 weeks. Then the mice were killed and sreum my-eloperoxidase (MPO) , malondialdehyde (MDA) , nitric oxide (NO) , total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) were measured. HE staining was performed in carotid artery and immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate MCP-1 protein expression in endothelial cells of carotid artery. P-JNK, JNK, MCP-1 protein expression in carotid artery was measured by Western blot, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) DNA binding activity was assayed by electro-phoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results Compared with wild type mice, serum MPO and MDA expression increased prominently (P <0. 05) , whereas TNOS, NO decreased and p-JNK/JNK, MCP-1 expression increased significantly in INS2AKITA mice (P<0.05); STAT-1 DNA binding activity increased prominently in type 1 diabetic group compared with that in control group (P <0. 05). Compared with type 1 diabetic mice, after treatment with SP600125, MPO decreased and NO, TNOS increased and p-JNK/JNK, endothelial MCP-1 expression decreased (P<0. 05). The effects of SP600125 on MPO, NO, TNOS, MCP-1 were increased accordingly as the dose of SP600125 increased. As the dose of SP600125 increased, MCP-1 protein expression decreased 21. 82

  6. Endovascular treatment with transvenous approach for embolization of carotid cavernous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of endovascular treatment in carotid cavernous fistula is to close the tear side at cavernous sinus part. It can be dealt either by transvenous or transarterial approach. The option is influenced by type of fistula and angioarchitectural findings. We described two different transvenous routes emphasizing on anatomical consideration and its technical aspect.

  7. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  8. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  9. Endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting : the quest continues part two

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although randomized trials on carotid artery stenting (CAS) could not establish its equivalence to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with symptomatic carotid disease, CAS is rapidly evolving. Data on long-term outcome after CAS from randomized trials have now become available and

  10. Agenesis of internal carotid artery associated with congenital anterior hypopituitarism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, W.-J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Porto, L.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Weis, R. [Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    We report a rare case of unilateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery in association with congenital anterior hypopituitarism. The collateral circulation is supplied by a transsellar intercavernous anastomotic vessel connecting the internal carotid arteries. These abnormalities are well depicted on MRI and MRA. The agenesis of the internal carotid artery may explain the pathogenesis of some of congenital anterior hypopituitarism. (orig.)

  11. Oblique Axis Body Fracture: An Unstable Subtype of Anderson Type III Odontoid Fractures—Apropos of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Takai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as “oblique type axis body fracture.” Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic “oblique type” fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1–C3/4 posterior fusion and the course was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion for this injury and suggest early operative stabilization.

  12. 2型糖尿病患者颈动脉斑块与外周血白细胞计数相关分析%Correlation between Atherosclerosis of Carotid Artery and White Blood Cell Count in the Elderly People with Type 2 Dia-betes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯尚勇; 朱妍; 张真稳; 王艳; 罗娜; 佘敦敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation of white blood cell count(WBCC) with atherosclerosis of carotid artery in the elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM ) .Methods:WBCC was measured with automated cell counters via standard techniques .Height ,weight ,blood pressure(BP) ,fasting blood glucose(FBG) ,hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ,total cholesterol (TC) ,triglyceride(TG) ,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) ,high-density lipopro-tein cholesterol(HDL-C) and Lipoprotein(a)(Lp-a) were determined by routine laboratory methods .The retinol bind-ing protein 4(RBP-4) was measured by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and the insulin concentration was measured by an electrochemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay .Results:Within the survey population carotid intima thickening plaque prevalence was 35 .4% and 29 .2% .Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that there were seven factors associated with the occurrence of carotid artery atherosclerosis and its risk descending were:high LDL-C , high HOM A-IR ,male ,high HbA1c ,high WBCC ,smoking and high RBP-4 .Conclusion:A high prevalence of athero-sclerosis of carotid artery was found in the elderly people with T2DM ,which was associated with high LDL-C ,high HOMA-IR ,male ,high HbA1c ,high WBCC ,smoking and high RBP-4 .%目的:探讨扬州地区中老年2型糖尿病人群颈动脉内中膜增厚及粥样斑块的患病率、危险因素及其与外周血白细胞计数的关系.方法:通过颈部血管超声检查颈动脉 ,测量身高、体重、血压 ,应用全自动生化分析仪测定空腹血糖(FBG)、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、脂蛋白a (LP-a).应用全自动血液分析仪进行外周血白细胞(WBC)测定.应用高压液相色谱法检测糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c).应用电化学发光夹心免疫测定血清胰岛素.应用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清视黄醇结合蛋白4 (RB P-4 ).结果:调

  13. Short-term results of carotid stenting for the treatment of extracranial carotid occlusive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Wei-guo; ZHU Ting; CHEN Bin; JIANG Jun-hao; YANG Jue; SHI Zhen-yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has been performed with increasing frequency for the treatment of extracranial carotid occlusive diseases (ECOD) in recent years. Its feasibility and safety are supported by the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patient at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) trial,1 which revealed a lower incidence of death, stroke and myocardial infarction compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in high-risk patients. However, it is a pity that up to now, initial results of this endovascular procedure have yet been infrequently documented in China. This retrospective study was to analyze the short-term results of CAS to treat ECOD in a single medical center.

  14. The relationship of total body composition with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Valer'evich Klimontov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimTo determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and total body composition in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.Materials and MethodsThe study included 78 women, from 50 to 70 years of age (median 63 years. Twenty women had normal body mass index (BMI, 29 ones were overweight and 29 had obesity. The body composition and BMD was studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsWomen with normal BMD had higher BMI, total and truncal fat mass, as well lean mass as compared to women with osteoporosis and osteopenia (all p <0.05. Patients with osteoporosis had a lower fat mass at the hips, compared with those with normal BMD. Total and truncal fat mass, as well as lean mass were positively correlated with BMD in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, femoral neck and radius. In multivariate regression analysis fat mass was an independent predictor for total BMD, after adjusting for age, BMI, duration of menopause, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and other total body composition parameters.ConclusionsIn postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women BMI and fat mass is associated positively with BMD.

  15. Equilibrium shapes and faceting for ionic crystals of body-centered cubic type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlon, E.; van Beijeren, H.

    2000-01-01

    A mean-field theory is developed for a calculation of the surface free energy of the staggered body-centered solid-on-solid (or six vertex) model as function of the surface orientation and temperature. The model approximately describes surfaces of crystals with nearest neighbor attractions, and next

  16. INSULIN HORMONE EFFECTS ON FT&ST MUSCLES OF BODY BULDING ATHLETS AND DIABETIC PEOPLE TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI GHORBANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a Hormone that is secreted from pancreas and has an undeniable role in regulating blood - suger. In medicine, the injection samples of this Hormone are used for controlling diabetes disease. But recently, it has been used by athletes for driving G lucose and Amino Acids in to muscle - cells in industrial and injection forms for fast development of muscle volume and power among potency athletes specially body - builders. The present study, is reviewing consumption consequences of this drug by athletes and it’s important and of course hidden hazards. In this study, the Hormone’s impression and it’s high secretion and mechanism imbalance in body - builders bodies are analyzed by following Dosage and period of Insulin consumption among athletes and body - b uilders and studying different forms and injection amounts of Insulin, and comparing them with diabetes disease. Results show that Insulin is a Hormone with high Anabolic effect and it is responsible for nutrient materials transmission into blood stream an d muscle - cells. The blood - suger is saved as glycogen in muscles on this hormone effect and Amino acid transmission is developed in body’s muscle system. This features by muscle manufacturing apparent of athletes and muscle exhausting delay in fast contra cting muscle fibers and enthusiasm of practicing for hours, dosen’t cause to ignore the dangerous disadvantageous of this hormone including: imbalance of metabolism such as extra lipid burning and glycogen saving in body. Because of Insulin long consumptio n body produces little amount of glycogen and adrenaline hormones to re increase the amount of blood - suger, therefore increasing blood - suger isn’t declared with warning signals such as: trembling and nervousness, and athletes encounter with the shock of decreasing blood - suger (Hyper - glysemia and die. This study shows that in correct consumption of diabetes drugs are hazardous in body. Builders in different

  17. Percutaneous catheter dilatation of carotid stenoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, K.; Mittermayer, C.; Ensinger, H.; Neff, W.

    1980-09-01

    Thirty-one carotid artery stenoses were produced in thirty dogs by three different techniques. Twenty-three of these could be cured by transfemoral percutaneous catheter dilatation. High grade tight stenoses may present resistance which cannot be overcome by the catheter. Histological examination of the dilated vessels showed circumscribed changes in the vessel wall, with destruction of elastic membranes. From our experience of catheter dilatation of pelvic and lower limb arteries and of renal arteries, we consider it feasible to use this technique in selected patients with carotid stenosis.

  18. Percutaneous cervical carotid artery access with stenting of the left internal carotid artery in an elderly patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To describe the successful endovascular treatment in a nonagenarian with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis using direct carotid artery access. An independent 98 year-old man was admitted to our hospital for symptoms of progressive weakness with disorientation and dysphasia. Carotid Duplex ultrasonography was performed which revealed a totally occluded right internal carotid artery and high grade stenosis of the left internal carotid artery by velocities of 608/240 cm/sec. The patient refused surgical endarterectomy and thus he was referred for carotid artery stenting. Using the femoral artery approach and multiple catheter techniques, access to the common carotid artery could not be accomplished safely. The procedure was aborted and he was therefore brought back to the catheterization laboratory the following day for direct carotid access. Carotid artery stenting was accomplished by using of a 6F sheath percutaneously in the left common carotid, cerebral protection device (CPD) and a Nitinol stent. The patient was discharged the following day without complications. At 14 months follow-up the patient is functional and independent without recurrence of symptoms. Carotid artery stenting via direct access can be accomplished in patients when the femoral artery approach is anatomically prohibitive. In this case of advanced age and the patient's refusal for surgery, direct carotid access was his only option.

  19. Private farmers’ annual exposure to whole body vibration from the aspect of the type of agricultural and transport activities performed

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Solecki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was hygienic evaluation of farmers’ exposure to whole body vibration from the aspect of the type of agricultural and transport activities performed during the whole year. Twenty farms were selected for the study using arable land of over 10 ha, engaged in mixed production (plant-animal). The scope of the study covered measurements of mechanical vibration (acceleration) on seats of agricultural vehicles while performing various field and transport activities, t...

  20. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation......, with the greatest correlation between BCS and CF2 (−0.51). Genetic correlations with locomotion were greatest for CF1 and CF2 (−0.34 for both). Results of this study show that cows that are genetically extreme for angularity, stature, and body depth tend to perform poorly for fertility traits. At the same time...

  1. Beneficial autoimmunity at body surfaces– immune surveillance and rapid type 2 immunity regulate tissue homeostasis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eDalessandri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation or toxins cause activation of epithelial cells with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on epithelial cells and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. Epithelial cells are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, epithelial cells have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1 upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  2. The history of surgical treatment for occlusive carotid artery diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-biao ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the history of surgical treatment for occlusive carotid artery diseases is briefly reviewed. It is emphasized that, after the results of large cohort, multicenter, randomized clinical trials, including North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET and European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST, were reported in 1991, the important role of carotid endarterectomy (CEA for the surgical treatment of carotid atherosclerosis had already been confirmed. Although it has a late start in China, CEA has a bright and promising future.

  3. 2型糖尿病患者尿微量白蛋白与颈动脉内中膜相关性研究%Research on the relationship between microalbuminuria and carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetic patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆雅慧; 骆丽娅; 董科娜; 耿河川; 田云龙; 刘静

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨2型糖尿病患者尿微量白蛋白( UMA)与颈动脉内中膜厚度( IMT)的关系,研究微量白蛋白尿在2型糖尿病患者中预测大血管病变的价值。方法选取尿微量白蛋白异常的2型糖尿病患者111例,根据尿微量蛋白水平分为尿蛋白正常组64例(尿微量白蛋白30mg/L)。微量尿蛋白组又分为3个亚组,即A组19例(尿微量白蛋白30~50mg/L),B组14例(尿微量白蛋白50~100mg/L),C组14例(尿微量白蛋白100~300mg/L)。比较各组及各亚组微量尿蛋白水平及颈动脉内中膜厚度,探讨其相关关系。结果UMA与IMT呈正相关性,尿微量白蛋白高即颈动脉内中膜厚度高。结论尿微量白蛋白与颈动脉硬化相关,尿微量白蛋白越高,与颈动脉硬化相关性越密切。尿微量白蛋白可能为2型糖尿病大血管及微血管病变的标志物。%Objective Research on the relationship between microalbuminuria and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patient,Prediction of major vascular lesions of urinary albumin in type 2 diabetes mellituspatients value. Method Based on patients with type 2 diabetes in 111 cases. According to the microalbuminuria levels were divided into normal group 64 cases(microalbuminuria30mg/L). Mi-croalbuminuria group was divided into 3 sub groups,namely group A 19 cases(microalbuminuria 30-50mg/L),14 cases in B group(microalbuminuria 50-100mg/L),group C 14 cases with microalbuminuria 100-300mg/L). Comparison of groups and subgroups of microalbuminuria and carotid artery intima-media thickness, and explore its correlation. Result Mi-croalbuminuria and carotid artery intima-media thickness process positive correlation. Conclusion Microalbuminuria may be the marker of macrovascular and microvessels disease in type2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. 脉冲电场介导AT2R基因在血管局部表达及其对血管新生内膜的影响%Electroporation-mediated angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 receptor expression improves neo intimal hyperplasia of carotid arteries in rats after balloon angioplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德峰; 屈小玲; 刘建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of electroporation on the transfection of angiotensin Ⅱ type 2 receptor (AT2R) gene into rat carotid arteries and predict its role in neointimal hyperplasia of carotid arteries after balloon angioplasty. Methods After the establishment of rat carotid balloon injury restenosis model, 18 SD rats were divided into AT2R transfection group, empty plasmid transfection group (GFP), and non-transfection group (n = 6 ). AT2R gene plasmid or empty plasmid was transfected by electroporation into rat carotid arteries. Their arteries were harvested at 3, 14 and 21 d after gene transfer, with 2 rats at each time points. The expression of AT2B and morphology of the arteries were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and HE staining respoctively. Results Electroporation-mediated transfection of AT2R gene into injured rat carotid arteries significantly up-regulated the levels of AT2R mRNA in the neointima in a time dependent manner from day 3 to day 14 ( strong to moderate to mild expression). But no expression of AT2B was found in the other 2 groups at these 3 time points. At day 21, AT2R transfection significantly reduced intimal/medial area ratio as compared with non-transfection group and GFP transfection group (0.76 ± 0.08 vs 1.39 ± 0.08 and 1.32 ± 0. 10, P < 0.01 ). No significant difference was found between non-transfection group and GFP transfection group. Conclusion Our results indicate that electroporation is an effective means to introduce naked AT2R DNA into the blood vessel wall, and gene transfer of AT2R in vessel wall may effectively inhibit VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in the rat carotid arteries after balloon angioplasty.%目的 研究脉冲电场对血管紧张素2型受体(AT2R)基因在血管局部表达的作用,探讨AT2R基因在体转染对大鼠颈动脉球囊损伤后新生内膜增生的作用.方法 大鼠颈动脉球囊损伤后,用脉冲电穿孔法介导AT2R cDNA真核表达质粒或空质粒载

  5. Carotid artery stenting in patients with coexistent carotid and coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jian-fang; HUANG Wen-hui; WANG Shuo; DAI Cheng-bo; LI Guang; CHEN Ji-yan; ZHOU Ying-ling; WANG Li-juan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Atherosclerotic disease, as a systemic process, affects all arteries to varying degrees. In particular,coexistent carotid and coronary artery diseases are common; Management of such patients has been a point of continuing controversy.

  6. Figure "8" Type Solutions for Planar Circular Restricted 3-body Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世清

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study planar restricted 3-body problems[1]. Suppose point masses m1 and m2 move around their center of mass in circular orbits. Choose units of length, time and mass so that the angular velocity of rotation, the sum of masses of mi and m2, and the gravitational constant are all equal to one. Then for this choice the distance between m1 and m2 is also equal to 1.

  7. MR coil sensitivity inhomogeneity correction for plaque characterization in carotid arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Olivier; Hillenbrand, Claudia; Suri, Jasjit; Wilson, David L.

    2004-05-01

    We are involved in a comprehensive program to characterize atherosclerotic disease using multiple MR images having different contrast mechanisms (T1W, T2W, PDW, magnetization transfer, etc.) of human carotid and animal model arteries. We use specially designed intravascular and surface array coils that give high signal-to-noise but suffer from sensitivity inhomogeneity. With carotid surface coils, challenges include: (1) a steep bias field with an 80% change; (2) presence of nearby muscular structures lacking high frequency information to distinguish bias from anatomical features; (3) many confounding zero-valued voxels subject to fat suppression, blood flow cancellation, or air, which are not subject to coil sensitivity; and (4) substantial noise. Bias was corrected using a modification of the adaptive fuzzy c-mean method reported by Pham et al. (IEEE TMI, 18:738-752), whereby a bias field modeled as a mechanical membrane was iteratively improved until cluster means no longer changed. Because our images were noisy, we added a noise reduction filtering step between iterations and used about 5 classes. In a digital phantom having a bias field measured from our MR system, variations across an area comparable to a carotid artery were reduced from 50% to <5% with processing. Human carotid images were qualitatively improved and large regions of skeletal muscle were relatively flat. Other commonly applied techniques failed to segment the images or introduced strong edge artifacts. Current evaluations include comparisons to bias as measured by a body coil in human MR images.

  8. Hyperuricemia and carotid artery dilatation among young adults without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Krishnan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not known if hyperuricemia is associated with early vascular changes signifying arteriosclerosis. We performed a cross sectional study of 163 young adults without metabolic syndrome in Allegheny County, PA, USA. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure two metrics of early arteriosclerosis: carotid artery dimensions and aortic pulse wave velocity. Individuals in the highest quartiles of serum uric acid (>6.2 mg/dL for men and >4.6 for women were more likely to be of younger age, and to possess greater measures of adiposity and an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Higher serum uric acid concentration was associated with larger luminal and adventitial diameters as well as changes in diameters between the phases of the cardiac cycle (P<0.001 but not with carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, or pressure strain modulus. In multivariable linear regression models where the effects of age, ethnicity, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, current alcohol use, body mass index and smoking status were accounted for, the highest quartile of serum uric acid was associated with greater luminal and adventitial diameters and change in luminal diameter between the phases of cardiac cycle (P<0.05, but not with pulse wave velocity, pressure strain modulus or carotid intima media thickness. We can conclude that hyperuricemia is associated with larger carotid artery diameters signifying an early adaptive response to vascular stress. This has implications on the observed link between hyperuricemia and hypertension.

  9. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Karppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46-65 years from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005, α-carotene (p = 0.002 and β-carotene (p = 0.019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis.

  10. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  11. Correlation between Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque and Type H Hypertension in Patients with Ischemic Stroke%缺血性脑卒中患者颈动脉粥样硬化斑块与H型高血压的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾蕾; 郭改艳

    2016-01-01

    patients, using enzyme-linked immunoassay of homocysteine in patients with testing, and according to the test results, A history of high blood pressure, all patients can be divided into four types, A class of H type patients with high blood pressure, class B for ordinary high blood pressure patients, class C for patients with high homocysteine, class D for patients with hypertension and normal homocysteine, respectively to four types of test group and the control group, compared two groups of test results, analysis of ischemic stroke in patients with carotid atherosclerosis plaque with H the correlation of high blood pressure. Results: Experimental group patients for age, smoking history, history of high blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) patients want to compare with control group, there were significant differences (P<0.05, statistically significant; Four types of experimental group patients and the control group patients have obvious differences, P<0.05, statistically significant, and the experimental group patients, class A H the highest incidence of hypertension patients, followed by the class B ordinary high blood pressure patients, moreover is C in patients with high homocysteine, finally the class D hypertension patients and normal homocysteine. Conclusion:H high blood pressure in patients with ischemic stroke of carotid atherosclerosis plaque has the highest probability.

  12. Analysis of the population at high risk of stroke detected with carotid artery ultrasonography in Tianjin urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YUE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the features of carotid atherosclerosis in a population at high risk of stroke in urban communities of Tianjin, so as to provide inspiration for carotid ultrasonography to play a greater role in the prevention and control of stroke.  Methods A total of 956 residents at high risk of stroke were selected from 4 urban communities in Tianjin using cluster random sampling method. Doppler ultrasound screening was performed in bilateral common carotid artery (CCA, internal carotid artery (ICA, external carotid artery (ECA, vertebral artery (VA, subclavian artery (SCA and innominate artery of the population. The intima-media thickness (IMT, atherosclerotic plaque formation and its location and size, vascular stenosis or occlusion, and flow spectrum were detected. The results and features of carotid ultrasound screening were analyzed and compared among different gender and age groups.  Results 1 The detection rate of carotid atherosclerosis was 71.55% (684/956, and the detection rate in males was significantly higher than that in females (79.08% vs 65.87%; χ2 = 20.067, P = 0.000. 2 Among the population with carotid atherosclerosis, the most common manifestation was the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (81.58%, 558/684, secondly intima-media thickening (13.01%, 89/684, followed by moderate to severe stenosis or occlusion (5.41%, 37/684. The proportion of intima-media thickening in males was lower than that in females (7.08% vs 18.38%; χ2 = 19.269, P = 0.000. The proportion of carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in males was higher than that in females (86.46% vs 77.16%; χ2 = 9.824, P = 0.002. The median rating of carotid atherosclerosis was 1.79, with males higher than females [1.98 (0.70, 3.26 vs 1.52 (0.20, 2.84; Z = 2.304, P = 0.042]. The site of plaque formation was most commonly located in carotid bulb (36.61%, secondly SCA (22.18%. Of the type of carotid stenosis, ICA stenosis was detected in 30 cases, VA

  13. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  14. Endovascular Management of Long-Segmental Petrocavernous Internal Carotid Artery (Carotid S) Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soonchan; Park, Eun Suk; Kwak, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Dong-geun; Suh, Dae Chul; Kwon, Sun U.; Lee, Deok Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-segmental thrombotic occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) sparing the cervical segment proximally and the supraclinoid segment distally, which could be termed ’Carotid S occlusion’, has an unusual clinical presentation. However, endovascular management of this lesion is challenging. The purpose of our study is to report our endovascular treatment clinical experience of the disease. Methods From March 2008 to June 2013, we could identify 14 patients...

  15. Higher body mass index in adults at diagnosis of the slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with lower risk HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourlanos, S; Elkassaby, S; Varney, M D; Colman, P G; Harrison, L C

    2014-06-01

    We hypothesised that higher body weight, a proposed risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, would be associated with increased penetrance of lower risk genes. In adults at diagnosis of the slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes mellitus we found that higher body mass index was associated with the absence of the highest risk HLA genes.

  16. A collaborative European exercise on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and interpretation of DNA and RNA results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berge, M; Carracedo, A; Gomes, I;

    2014-01-01

    The European Forensic Genetics Network of Excellence (EUROFORGEN-NoE) undertook a collaborative project on mRNA-based body fluid/skin typing and the interpretation of the resulting RNA and DNA data. Although both body fluids and skin are composed of a variety of cell types with different function...

  17. Stroke prevention-surgical and interventional approaches to carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.

  18. Novel methodology for 3D reconstruction of carotid arteries and plaque characterization based upon magnetic resonance imaging carotid angiography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellarios, Antonis I; Stefanou, Kostas; Siogkas, Panagiotis; Tsakanikas, Vasilis D; Bourantas, Christos V; Athanasiou, Lambros; Exarchos, Themis P; Fotiou, Evangelos; Naka, Katerina K; Papafaklis, Michail I; Patterson, Andrew J; Young, Victoria E L; Gillard, Jonathan H; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we present a novel methodology that allows reliable segmentation of the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for accurate fully automated three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the carotid arteries and semiautomated characterization of plaque type. Our approach uses active contours to detect the luminal borders in the time-of-flight images and the outer vessel wall borders in the T(1)-weighted images. The methodology incorporates the connecting components theory for the automated identification of the bifurcation region and a knowledge-based algorithm for the accurate characterization of the plaque components. The proposed segmentation method was validated in randomly selected MRI frames analyzed offline by two expert observers. The interobserver variability of the method for the lumen and outer vessel wall was -1.60%±6.70% and 0.56%±6.28%, respectively, while the Williams Index for all metrics was close to unity. The methodology implemented to identify the composition of the plaque was also validated in 591 images acquired from 24 patients. The obtained Cohen's k was 0.68 (0.60-0.76) for lipid plaques, while the time needed to process an MRI sequence for 3D reconstruction was only 30 s. The obtained results indicate that the proposed methodology allows reliable and automated detection of the luminal and vessel wall borders and fast and accurate characterization of plaque type in carotid MRI sequences. These features render the currently presented methodology a useful tool in the clinical and research arena.

  19. Opportunity choice of surgical resection of carotid body tumor after transcathter superselective embolization of feeding artery: A color Doppler ultrasonic observation%颈动脉体瘤超选择性动脉栓塞治疗后外科切除术的时机选择:彩色多普勒超声观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶有强; 梁建深; 郭辉; 林志东; 王思阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the opportunity choice of surgical resection of carotid body tumor (CBT) after transcathter superselective embolization of feeding artery with color Doppler ultrasound observation (CDU). Methods Tran-stheter embolization of tumor feeding artery was performed on 22 CBT patients before surgical operation. CDU was used to measure the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistance index (RI) of blood flow of feeding artery before and 1,2,4 days after embolization, respectively. Statistical analysis of these data was performed. Results One and 2 days after embolization, PSV and RI of tumor feeding artery were lower than those before embolization (both P0. 05). Conclusion CDU is valuable for the judgment of involvement aera, feeding artery and collateral pathways of CBT, as well as for the opportunity choice of surgical resection. Surgical resection of CBT may be safely performed within 2 days after transtheter superselective arterial embolization of feeding artery.%目的 利用彩色多普勒超声(CDU)观察经导管超选择性动脉栓塞治疗颈动脉体瘤(CBT)后的外科切除时机.方法 对22例外科切除术前CBT患者行经导管超选择性肿瘤供血动脉栓塞.于栓塞术前、术后1、2、4天分别采用CDU检测肿瘤供血动脉的峰值血流速度(PSV)和阻力指数(RI),并进行统计学分析.结果 栓塞术后1、2天,CBT供血动脉的PSV、RI均低于术前(P均<0.01),而栓塞术后4天PSV、RI与术前比较差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).结论 CDU对判断CBT侵犯范围、供血血管、侧支循环状况及选择手术时机均具有临床应用价值.栓塞术后2天内可能为安全切除CBT的手术时机.

  20. Common Carotid Artery Stump Syndrome Due to Mobile Thrombus Detected by Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Shusaku; Hasegawa, Yuki; Sakai, Kenichiro; Matsuno, Hiromasa; Arai, Ayumi; Terasawa, Yuka; Mitsumura, Hidetaka; Iguchi, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Carotid stump syndrome is a cause of recurrent embolic stroke following occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The present report describes a case of recurrent cerebral embolism ipsilateral to a chronically occluded left common carotid artery (CCA), i.e., "CCA stump syndrome." Doppler color flow imaging showed anterograde flow in the left internal and external carotid arteries, which were supplied by collateral flow from the superior thyroid artery inflowing just proximal to the left carotid bifurcation. According to carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU), a low-echoic mobile thrombus was noted at the distal stump of the occluded CCA, which presumably caused distal embolism. The low-echoic mobile thrombus dramatically changed to a homogenously high-echoic thrombus, and there was no recurrence of stroke after antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. This is the first report to demonstrate a CDU-verified temporal change in the thrombus at the stump in CCA stump syndrome. CDU is a noninvasive and useful technique to characterize hemodynamics, thrombus morphology, and the response to therapy.

  1. Haemodynamic evaluation of carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1989-01-01

    evaluating therapeutic modalities or natural history of carotid artery disease should therefore include a test capable of assessing cerebral haemodynamics. However, most studies, invasive as well as non-invasive, have focused on the ability of the test to diagnose the ICA lesions itself, rather than...

  2. Management of Extracranial Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleweerd, J. C.; den Ruijter, H. M.; Nelissen, B. G. L.; Bots, M. L.; Kappelle, L. J.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Moll, F. L.; de Borst, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid artery (ECAA) are rare. Several treatments have been developed over the last 20 years, yet the preferred method to treat ECAA remains unknown. This paper is a review of all available literature on the risk of complications and long-term outcome aft

  3. Lesion load in unprotected carotid artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Karp, K.; Krick, C.; Schieber, H.; Mueller, M.; Reith, W. [University of the Saarland, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Fassbender, K.; Haass, A. [University of the Saarland, Division of Neurology, Homburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in nonselected patients after unprotected carotid artery stent placement. We retrospectively reviewed a nonrandomized cohort of 197 patients presenting with carotid occlusive disease who underwent unprotected carotid artery stent placement between 2003 and 2006. Mean degree of stenosis was 86.94% {+-} 9.72. In all patients, DWI was obtained before and 24 h after stent placement. New lesions were evaluated according to size and location. In 59 of 197 patients (29.9%), new ischemic lesions were found on DWI in the vessel dependent area. In 23 of 197 patients (11.7%), new ischemic lesions were found in the vessel independent area. Combined stroke/death rate was 3.63%. In our series of unprotected carotid angioplasty with stent, we found new DWI lesions in 34% of the patients. Further studies should now show in how far protection devices can reduce these lesions. (orig.)

  4. Lack of association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotypes and body weight on the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Winkler

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes and body weight influence the development of islet autoantibodies and the rate of progression to type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, FTO, HHEX-IDE, HMGA2, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, PPARG, SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 was obtained in 1350 children from parents with type 1 diabetes participating in the BABYDIAB study. Children were prospectively followed from birth for islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes. Data on weight and height were obtained at 9 months, 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 years of age. RESULTS: None of type 2 diabetes risk alleles at the CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B, FTO, HHEX-IDE, HMGA2, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, PPARG and SLC30A8 loci were associated with the development of islet autoantibodies or diabetes. The type 2 diabetes susceptible genotype of TCF7L2 was associated with a lower risk of islet autoantibodies (7% vs. 12% by age of 10 years, P = 0.015, P(corrected = 0.18. Overweight children at seroconversion did not progress to diabetes faster than non-overweight children (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.48-2.45, P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support an association of type 2 diabetes risk factors with islet autoimmunity or acceleration of diabetes in children with a family history of type 1 diabetes.

  5. [Carotid body paraganglioma in a teenager. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, María Elisa; Llamas-Macías, Francisco Javier; Nuño-Escobar, César; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello son tumores neuroendocrinos de baja incidencia (0.6%), en su mayor parte benignos, en cuyo origen se han involucrado múltiples factores. Los seres humanos y otras especies que viven a grandes alturas (por arriba de 2000 metros sobre el nivel del mar) son propensos a sufrir hipoxia crónica relativa, hiperplasia del cuerpo carotídeo y, eventualmente, paragangliomas. Este padecimiento aparece en la quinta década de la vida y en la tercera, en caso de presentación familiar. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de una adolescente de 16 años de edad que un año antes tuvo faringitis aguda con tumor localizado en la cara lateral izquierda del cuello, de crecimiento gradual, sin ningún síntoma. El ultrasonido Doppler dúplex de cuello mostró una lesión nodular sólida sobre el trayecto de la bifurcación carotídea izquierda. Fue intervenida quirúrgicamente mediante cervicotomía lateral izquierda, en la cual se encontró una tumoración de aproximadamente 4 × 3 × 3 cm, sumamente vascularizada, que afectaba la carótida común desde su tercio medio, la carótida interna hasta la base del cráneo y la carótida externa hasta el tercio superior, con íntima relación con la tráquea, el esófago y la columna cervical. La tumoración se resecó en su totalidad, el estudio histopatológico corroboró los paragangliomas. Conclusiones: la edad de presentación es poco común, por lo que se considera relevante y de interés clínico comunicar este caso, toda vez que debe considerarse como posibilidad diagnóstica.

  6. Factors predicting compensatory vascular remodelling of the carotid artery affected by atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, D; Oka, T; Kajiyama, A; Ohnishi, N; Shiraki, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors predicting the development of outward remodelling of the carotid artery in patients with atherosclerosis. Design: 130 patients with carotid artery stenosis (15–85% of the vessel diameter) were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of outward remodelling of the sclerotic carotid segment on high resolution ultrasonography. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of haemodynamic, laboratory, and clinical measurements on the development of remodelling, including age, sex, type of stenosis, extent of plaque, per cent diameter stenosis, underlying disease, selected drug treatment, and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid. Results: 64 patients (49%) had outward remodelling. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hypertension, the type of plaque, the thickness of the plaque, and the extent of stenosis were independent factors predicting remodelling. The odds ratios of hypertension, unstable shape of plaque, thickness of plaque, and the extent of the stenosis were 6.70, 3.02, 2.04, and 1.05, respectively. Other measurements did not contribute significantly to the estimation of remodelling. Conclusions: Compensatory enlargement of the vessel occurs in about 50% of carotid artery segments with a diameter stenosis of 15–85%. Hypertension and the shape of the plaque are major determinants of the development of outward remodelling. PMID:11796551

  7. Report on a new type of trauma full-body digital X-ray machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beningfield, S; Potgieter, H; Nicol, A; van As, S; Bowie, G; Hering, E; Lätti, E

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic equivalence, radiation dose, clinical usefulness and radiographic aspects of a low-dose, full-body digital X-ray machine in a busy trauma unit. A digital trauma X-ray machine known as "LODOX" was compared with conventional radiography between June 1999 and November 2001 in the Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit, Cape Town. Digital images of a variety of body regions commonly imaged in trauma were compared for diagnostic image quality in a number of categories with equivalent conventional radiographs. A seven-point equivalence scoring system ranging from much inferior (-3) through equivalent (0) to much superior (+3) was used in each category. Radiation dose was recorded and compared with that in conventional measurements. Turnaround times of patients undergoing digital and conventional X-rays were evaluated. Clinical and radiographic issues were assessed by staff feedback. The digital images when compared with conventional film had an overall mean equivalence score of -0.429, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.77. The best digital performance was in the mediastinum (mean 0.346, SD 0.49) and the weakest was for bony detail (mean -0.654, SD 0.81). Relative digital radiation dose compared to conventional varied from 72% (chest) to 2% (pelvis), with a simple average of 6%. Radiographic points included full-body imaging capability and differing positioning, penetration, workflow and practicality considerations. The digital images required overall patient times of 5-6 min, compared with 8-48 min for conventional X-rays. New installations are under way, and computed tomography and angiography applications are being explored. FDA approval is awaited. Projected cost is similar to that of flat-panel digital units. This digital unit was felt to be diagnostically substantially equivalent to conventional radiographs, with low-dose full-body imaging, improved workflow, digital technology and long-term cost benefits as

  8. Carotid angioplasty and stenting in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadkhodayan, Yasha [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Neuroradiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cross, DeWitte T.; Moran, Christopher J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Neuroradiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States); Derdeyn, Colin P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Neuroradiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2007-11-15

    To investigate the technical success rate as well as the procedural and mid-term complication rates of carotid angioplasty and stenting in elderly patients, a group excluded from large randomized endarterectomy trials given their perceived high surgical risk. Of 200 consecutive carotid angioplasty and/or stenting procedures performed between March 1996 and March 2005, 21 procedures were performed without cerebral protection devices in 20 patients over the age of 79 years (mean age: 83 years, 12 men, eight women). These patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed for vascular imaging reports and available clinical follow-up. Procedural and mid-term complication rates were calculated and compared to a previously published cohort of 133 consecutive patients {<=}79 years of age who also underwent endovascular treatment at our institution. Carotid stenosis was reduced from a mean of 82% to no significant stenosis in all procedures. The procedural stroke rate was zero of 21 procedures. The procedural transient ischemic attack rate (TIA) was one of 21 procedures (4.8%). Mean follow-up was 24.6 months (range: 1.0-79.5 months) with at least a 30-day follow-up for 20 of the 21 procedures (95.2%). There were no new strokes. There was one recurrent ipsilateral TIA at 1.9 months. In five cases with follow-up carotid ultrasonography, no hemodynamically significant restenosis had occurred. There were three myocardial infarctions (MI) occurring at 0.5, 2.1, and 15.2 months, of which the last MI was fatal. The composite 30-day stroke and death rate was zero of 21 procedures (95% confidence interval: 0-14%). No significant difference was found in the 30-day rate of stroke, TIA, MI, or death between the elderly and younger patients. Carotid angioplasty and stenting in elderly patients can be performed successfully with acceptable procedural and mid-term complication rates comparable to younger patients. (orig.)

  9. Automated carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiburger, Kristen M; Molinari, Filippo [Biolab, Department of Electronics, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Acharya, U Rajendra [Department of ECE, Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Singapore); Saba, Luca [Department of Radiology, A.O.U. di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Rodrigues, Paulo [Department of Computer Science, Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Liboni, William [Neurology Division, Gradenigo Hospital, Torino (Italy); Nicolaides, Andrew [Vascular Screening and Diagnostic Centre, London (United Kingdom); Suri, Jasjit S, E-mail: filippo.molinari@polito.it [Fellow AIMBE, CTO, Global Biomedical Technologies Inc., CA (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Evaluation of the carotid artery wall is essential for the assessment of a patient's cardiovascular risk or for the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies. This paper presents a new, completely user-independent algorithm called carotid artery intima layer regional segmentation (CAILRS, a class of AtheroEdge(TM) systems), which automatically segments the intima layer of the far wall of the carotid ultrasound artery based on mean shift classification applied to the far wall. Further, the system extracts the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders in the far wall of the carotid artery. Our new system is characterized and validated by comparing CAILRS borders with the manual tracings carried out by experts. The new technique is also benchmarked with a semi-automatic technique based on a first-order absolute moment edge operator (FOAM) and compared to our previous edge-based automated methods such as CALEX (Molinari et al 2010 J. Ultrasound Med. 29 399-418, 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CULEX (Delsanto et al 2007 IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 1265-74, Molinari et al 2010 IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57 1112-24), CALSFOAM (Molinari et al Int. Angiol. (at press)), and CAUDLES-EF (Molinari et al J. Digit. Imaging (at press)). Our multi-institutional database consisted of 300 longitudinal B-mode carotid images. In comparison to semi-automated FOAM, CAILRS showed the IMT bias of -0.035 {+-} 0.186 mm while FOAM showed -0.016 {+-} 0.258 mm. Our IMT was slightly underestimated with respect to the ground truth IMT, but showed uniform behavior over the entire database. CAILRS outperformed all the four previous automated methods. The system's figure of merit was 95.6%, which was lower than that of the semi-automated method (98%), but higher than that of the other automated techniques.

  10. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  11. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density.

  12. Computational Analysis on Stent Geometries in Carotid Artery: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisal, Muhammad Sufyan Amir; Taib, Ishkrizat; Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the work done by previous researchers in order to gather the information for the current study which about the computational analysis on stent geometry in carotid artery. The implantation of stent in carotid artery has become popular treatment for arterial diseases of hypertension such as stenosis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis and embolization, in reducing the rate of mortality and morbidity. For the stenting of an artery, the previous researchers did many type of mathematical models in which, the physiological variables of artery is analogized to electrical variables. Thus, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of artery could be done, which this method is also did by previous researchers. It lead to the current study in finding the hemodynamic characteristics due to artery stenting such as wall shear stress (WSS) and wall shear stress gradient (WSSG). Another objective of this study is to evaluate the nowadays stent configuration for full optimization in reducing the arterial side effect such as restenosis rate after a few weeks of stenting. The evaluation of stent is based on the decrease of strut-strut intersection, decrease of strut width and increase of the strut-strut spacing. The existing configuration of stents are actually good enough in widening the narrowed arterial wall but the disease such as thrombosis still occurs in early and late stage after the stent implantation. Thus, the outcome of this study is the prediction for the reduction of restenosis rate and the WSS distribution is predicted to be able in classifying which stent configuration is the best.

  13. Carotid artery surgery in patients over 70 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J

    1981-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.

  14. Melt-peridotite reactions in upwelling EM1-type eclogite bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    the Payenia volcanic province (34–38 °S) in Argentina, for which Sr, Nd and double-spike Pb isotope ratios are presented, and from other north Patagonian volcanic fields may provide details of the eclogite melt–peridotite reactions taking place in the melting column of an upwelling OIB-type mantle....... The isotopic composition of the uncontaminated lavas is highly restricted but the Payenia basalts fall in two distinct trace element groups termed the high and low Nb/U groups, which both have EM1-type trace element patterns but with subtle differences that cannot be explained by contamination, fractionation...

  15. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Komiya

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis.

  16. Correlation between serum homocysteine content and carotid atherosclerosis as well as left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between serum homocysteine content and carotid atherosclerosis as well as left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension.Methods:A total of 106 patients with essential hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia were included in H-type hypertension group (group A), 42 patients with primary hypertension and without hyperhomocysteinemia were included in non-H-type hypertension group (group B) and 60 healthy subjects were included in control group. Carotid artery ultrasound and cardiac ultrasound were conducted to determine carotid atherosclerosis indexes and left ventricular diastolic function indexes; serum was collected to determine carotid atherosclerosis and myocardial remodeling indexes.Results:Carotid IMT,β1,β2 and Ep, left ventricular IVSd, LVPW, LVEDd and LVMI as well as ox-LDL, MDA, MCP-1, VE-cadherin, TGFβ1, FGF23, PICP, ICTP and PIIINP content in serum of group A and group B were significantly higher than those of control group while the AC were significantly lower than that of control group; carotid IMT,β1,β2 and Ep, left ventricular IVSd, LVPW, LVEDd and LVMI as well as ox-LDL, MDA, MCP-1, VE-cadherin, TGFβ1, FGF23, PICP, ICTP and PIIINP content in serum of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while the AC was significantly lower than that of group B.Conclusions:The combination of hyperhomocysteinemia will promote the carotid atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory response, left ventricular diastolic hypofunction as well as myocardial remodeling and fibrosis process in patients with essential hypertension.

  17. Repetitive subcutaneous implantation of different types of (biodegradable) biomaterials alters the foreign body reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luyn, MJA; Plantinga, JA; Brouwer, LA; Khouw, IMSL; de Leij, LFMH; van Wachem, PB

    2001-01-01

    In the present study two biodegradable materials (cross-linked collagens) and two non-biodegradable materials (polyurethane and silicone) were applied in a repetitive subcutaneous implantation model in rats. In contrast to the first challenge, the second challenge with the same type of material, but

  18. Changes in body weight during various types of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Beijer, S.; Lieshout, van R.; Barneveld, van D.; Hofstede, ter J.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Weight gain is a common problem for breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It increases the risk of several comorbidities and possibly cancer recurrence. We assessed whether weight gain depends on the type of chemotherapy. Methods In a retrospective study among 739 b

  19. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids, choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient <0.4. This methodology allowed for the differentiation between the fruiting bodies of A. muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  20. 糖尿病牙周炎病人颈动脉硬化相关因素分析%Factor analysis of diabetic periodontitis patients with carotid atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张煜; 滕志海; 王浙云; 张诚

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨Ⅱ型糖尿病牙周炎病人与颈动脉硬化的关系.方法:随机选取20例健康对照组(A组),同期选取20例Ⅱ型糖尿病无合并症病人(B组),和20例Ⅱ型糖尿病仅合并牙周炎病人(C组).所有研究对象进行牙周检查,并测定身体质量指数(body mass index,BMI),空腹血糖(FPG),空腹胰岛素(FNS),游离脂肪酸(FFA);免疫比浊法测定C反应蛋白(CRP).采用彩超测定所有研究对象的颈动脉内膜-中膜厚度(MT).结果:糖尿病组的FPG、FNS、FFA、CRP、MT水平均明显高于对照组.Pearson相关分析示:MT与FPG、FNS、FFA、CRP、BMI呈正相关;Logistic回归分析显示:MT与龈炎指数(GI)、临床附着丧失(CAL)、牙周袋探诊深度(PD)密切相关.结论:牙周炎与糖尿病并发颈动脉硬化有密切联系.%AIM; To investigate the relationship between periodontitis and carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS; Twenty healthy volunteers, 20 type 2 diabetes patients without complications and 20 type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis were included in this study. Periodontal examination, body mass index (BMI) , fasting plasma glucose (FPG) , fasting insulin (FNS) , free fatty acid (FFA) , C-reactive protein (CRP) and carotid artery intiman-media thickness ( MT) were measured for each subject. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and Logistic regression analysis with SPSS 15 software. RESULTS; FPG, FNS, FFA, CRP and MT levels in diabetic group were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, FPG, FNS, FFA, CRP and MT levels in periodontitis group were significantly higher than those in diabetic patients without periodontitis. MT was positively correlated with FPG, FNS, FFA, CRP and BMI by Pearson correlation analysis. Meanwhile, MT was closely related to GI, CAL and PD by Logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Periodontitis is closely related with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients.

  1. Carotid subclinical atherosclerosis is associated with disease activity but not vitamin D in Korean systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J-Y; Koh, B-R; Bae, C-B; Kim, H-A; Suh, C-H

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerosis develops early in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and is an important cause of mortality. Vitamin D deficiency is found to be associated with cardiovascular disease and autoimmunity. We evaluated the extent of carotid subclinical atherosclerosis and analyzed its correlation with vitamin D in SLE. One hundred and two female patients with SLE and 52 normal controls (NCs) were recruited. The mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of SLE patients was 0.41 ± 0.08 mm, which was higher than that of NCs (0.32 ± 0.08 mm, p = 0.012). In addition, carotid plaques were more frequent and the plaque index was higher in SLE patients than in NCs (0.68 ± 1.39 vs. 0.26 ± 0.87, p = 0.026). Carotid IMT was correlated with age, body mass index, SLE disease activity index, and aspirin use in SLE patients. The plaque index was correlated with renal involvement. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 level was not correlated with carotid IMT, plaque index or disease activity markers. In SLE, the risk of cardiovascular disease is higher than that in NCs, which may be derived from systemic inflammation. It may be not suitable to assess vitamin D as a marker of disease activity or subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE patients.

  2. Soluble CD93 Is Involved in Metabolic Dysregulation but Does Not Influence Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strawbridge, Rona J.; Hilding, Agneta; Silveira, Angela; Osterholm, Cecilia; Sennblad, Bengt; McLeod, Olga; Tsikrika, Panagiota; Foroogh, Fariba; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Giral, Phillipe; Kurl, Sudhir; Mannarino, Elmo; Grossi, Enzo; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Humphries, Steve E.; de Faire, Ulf; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Maegdefessel, Lars; Hamsten, Anders; Backlund, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are complex disorders involving metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Here we investigated whether sCD93, a group XIV c-type lectin of the endosialin family, plays a role in metabolic dysregulation or carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Although no assoc

  3. Muons as local probes of three-body correlations in the mixed state of type-II superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, G I; Drew, A; Divakar, U K; Lee, S L; Gilardi, R; Mesot, J; Ogrin, F Y; Charalambous, D; Forgan, E M; Momono, N; Oda, M; Dewhurst, C; Baines, C

    2006-10-27

    The vortex glass state formed by magnetic flux lines in a type-II superconductor is shown to possess nontrivial three-body correlations. While such correlations are usually difficult to measure in glassy systems, the magnetic fields associated with the flux vortices allow us to probe these via muon-spin rotation measurements of the local field distribution. We show via numerical simulations and analytic calculations that these observations provide detailed microscopic insight into the local order of the vortex glass and more generally validate a theoretical framework for correlations in glassy systems.

  4. Research on the relationship between microalbuminuria and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patients%尿微量白蛋白与2型糖尿病患者颈动脉内中膜厚度的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱红霞; 李新胜; 李佳芮; 赵永才

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨T2DM患者尿微量白蛋白与颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)的相关性.方法 微量白蛋白尿组(MAU)60例、30名健康者(NC)和30例正常白蛋白尿组(NMAU)作对照,测定血糖、UAER、血压及血肌酐等.采用彩色多普勒超声观察双侧颈动脉内膜中层厚度.结果 NMAU组较NC组FPG、IMT、SBP 明显升高(P<0.05)MAU组较NC组FPG、SBP、UAER、IMT也明显升高(P<0.05);MAU组较NMAU组IMT、UAER显著升高(P<0.01).MAU组患者UAER与IMT呈显著正相关(P<0.05).结论 MAU与颈动脉硬化密切相关,MAU可能为大血管及微血管病变的标志物.%Objective To explore the relationship between microalbuminuria and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Sixty microalbuminuria patients(MAU,UAER20-200 μg/min), 30 nonmicroalbuminuria patients(NMAU, UAER<20 μg/min) and 30 healthy people(NC) were selected in the reserch. The levels of glucose , UAER, blood-pressure and serum creatinine were measured. IMT of carotid arteries were determined with high-sensitive B-mode ultrasound. Results The levels of glucose, IMT,SBP were significantly increased in NMAU versus NC group(all P<0. 05). The levels of glucose, SBP, UAER and IMT were increased significantly in MAU versus NC group (all P< 0. 05). The levels of IMT and UAER were increased in MAU than in NMAU group(P<0. 05). UAER was negatively correlated with IMT. Conclusions Microalbuminuria is negatively correlated with IMT. Microalbuminuria level is likely to be a marker of diabetes' complications.

  5. 血管增强技术对2型糖尿病患者颈动脉病变的检测价值%The detection significance of vascular enhancement technique in carotid pathological changes of patients with type 2 ;diabte es mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 王丽红; 焦丽娜

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价超声血管增强技术(VET)对颈动脉的检测价值,并同时评价VET对2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者血管早期病变的诊断价值。方法对63例T2DM患者应用VET,显示正常及病变血管,并与正常对照组及传统的超声技术对比。结果 T2DM组糖化血红蛋白、空腹血糖、低密度脂蛋白、IMT明显高于正常对照组( P <01.05)。应用VET不仅提高了超声对颈动脉血管管壁、内膜的显示,还可清晰显示斑块的轮廓、大小及范围情况。与传统的超声技术相比,可明显提高斑块的显示率( P <0.05)。结论 VET可提高血管的显示能力及显示灵敏度,能更清晰地显示血管腔及管壁结构,具有较高的临床应用价值。%Objective To evaluate the detection significance of vascular enhancement technique ( VET ) in carotid pathological changes ,and to explore the diagnostic value of VET for vascular early pathological changes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM) in order to provide clinical reference .Methods Sixtyz-three patients with T2DMwere examined by VET to show normal and pathological change blood vessel , moreover, the examination results were compared with those examined by traditional ultrasound technique .Results The levels of HbA1C, FPG, LDL-C, IMT in T2DM group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P <0 .05 ) .The application of VET not only improved the display of ultrasound for carotid artery vessel wall and intima ,but also more clearly showed the outline ,size and scope of the plaque .As compared with traditional ultrasound technique ,VET could obviously increase display rate of plaque ( P<0 .05).Conclusion VET can improve the vascular display capability and display sensitivity , can show more clearly the structure of vascular lumen and vascular wall ,which has higher clinical application value .

  6. Body weight and carcass dressing as affected by sex class, breed type, muscle thickness, age and provenance of Venezuelan cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Huerta-Leidnez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets of 439 fed males (bulls and steers (MALES and 155 fed cattle (bulls, steers and heifers (MIXED chosen by their good finish and cutting-out potential were used to study variation in body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (DRESSING according to muscle thickness score (MUSCLING, breed-type, region of provenance (PROVENANCE, sex class, and age by dentition. Correlations between the dependent variables and carcass conformation were analyzed. In MALES, MUSCLING and PROVENANCE affected DRESSING (P<0.05, 1.4% in favor of cattle with thicker MUSCLING, and 1.6% in favor of cattle originated from the Andean region versus their Mid-Western region counterparts. Sex class (in MIXED, and PROVENANCE (in MALES, affected both BW and CW (P<0.01. In MIXED, an age exceeding 36 months, raised the CW (P<0.05. In MALES, MUSCLING was associated (P<0.01 with carcass conformation (r=0.53 and DRESSING (r=0.18. In MIXED, sex class  breed-type interaction tended to affect DRESSING (P=0.055 with the Zebu type surpassing the Dairy type in DRESSING (64% vs. 54%, respectively while bulls and steers performed different in DRESSING, depending on breed-type (P<0.06.

  7. Equilibrium shapes and faceting for ionic crystals of body-centered-cubic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon; van Beijeren H

    2000-12-01

    A mean-field theory is developed for a calculation of the surface free energy of the staggered body-centered solid-on-solid (or six vertex) model as function of the surface orientation and temperature. The model approximately describes surfaces of crystals with nearest neighbor attractions, and next nearest neighbor repulsions. The mean-field free energy is calculated by expressing the model in terms of interacting directed walks on a lattice. The resulting equilibrium shape is very rich with facet boundaries and boundaries between reconstructed and unreconstructed regions, which can be either sharp (first order) or smooth (continuous). In addition, there are tricritical points where a smooth boundary changes into a sharp one, and triple points where three sharp boundaries meet. Finally our numerical results strongly suggest the existence of conical points, at which tangent planes of a finite range of orientations all intersect each other. The thermal evolution of the equilibrium shape in this model shows a strong similarity to that seen experimentally for ionic crystals.

  8. Assessment of the co-incidence between non alcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Sohair Abd El-Kader; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Ahmed, Amr Mahmmoud

    2014-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver biochemistry and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Those with NAFLD have a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis, as shown by increased carotid artery intimal media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study is to assess the co-incidence and prevalence between NAFLD and carotid atherosclerosis. In this study seventy-two subjects were categorized into 2 groups. GI: 52 patients diagnosed as NAFLD with diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity or hyperlipedemia. GII: 20 diseased controls diagnosed as NAFLD without other predisposing factor. CIMT and plaque prevalence were estimated by carotid ultrasonography as a single trained operator who was blind to clinical characteristics of participants. The results showed that CIMT by carotid duplex ultrasonography was significantly higher in group A than group B but CIMT did not reveal any significant difference as regards to the etiology of NAFLD. CIMT was significantly higher in cases with bright liver than those with homogenous liver (by abdominal US) in group I and II. CIMT was significantly higher in those with moderate steatosis than those with mild steatosis (in GI & GII).

  9. The association of meat intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes may be modified by body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Villegas, Xiao Ou Shu, Yu-Tang Gao, Gong Yang, Hui Cai, Honglan Li, Wei Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the association between meat intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes (type 2 DM in a large cohort of middle-aged women. Design, subjects and methods: Incident cases of type 2 DM were identified during an average of 4.6 years of follow-up in a prospective cohort study of 74,493 middle-aged, Chinese women (mean age ± SD =51.7± 8.97 years. Participants completed in-person interviews that collected information on type 2 DM risk factors such as dietary factors and physical activity in adulthood. Anthropometric indices were measured. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We included in the current analysis 70,609 women who had no prior history of type 2 DM at study recruitment and who had valid dietary data. The association of type 2 DM with unprocessed meat intake (g/day and the frequency of consumption of processed meat was evaluated using the Cox model with adjustment for age, kcals/day, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, vegetable intake, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income level, education level, occupation status, and history of hypertension and chronic disease at baseline. Principal results: We identified 1972 incident cases of type 2 DM during a total of 326,581 person-years of follow up. Intake of unprocessed meat, particularly poultry, was associated with a decrease in the risk of type 2 DM in this cohort. The fully adjusted relative risks (RRs for quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.00, 0.78, 0.83, 0.74, and 0.83 (P for trend: <0.01. When the joint effect between meat intake and BMI categories was evaluated, high intake of total unprocessed meat appeared to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 DM among obese women but a reduced risk among lean women (P value for the interaction tests = 0.05. Processed meat consumption was positively associated with the risk of type 2 DM. The adjusted RR was 1.15 (95% 1.01-1.32 in women

  10. CT angiography helps to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusion: the ''carotid ring sign''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Patrik; Ntaios, George [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Neurology Service, Lausanne (Switzerland); Delgado, Montserrat G. [Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Bezerra, Daniel C. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Meuli, Reto; Binaghi, Stefano [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, there is no reliable method to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusion. We propose a novel CTA-based method to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusions that could potentially aid clinical management of patients. We examined 72 patients with 89 spontaneously occluded extracranial internal carotids with CT angiography (CTA). All occlusions were confirmed by another imaging modality and classified as acute (imaging <1 week of presumed occlusion) orchronic (imaging >4 weeks), based on circumstantial clinical and radiological evidence. A neuroradiologist and a neurologist blinded to clinical information determined the site of occlusion on axial sections of CTA. They also looked for (a) hypodensity in the carotid artery (thrombus), (b) contrast within the carotid wall (vasa vasorum), (c) the site of the occluded carotid, and (d) the ''carotid ring sign'' (defined as presence of a and/or b). Of 89 occluded carotids, 24 were excluded because of insufficient circumstantial evidence to determine timing of occlusion, 4 because of insufficient image quality, and 3 because of subacute timing of occlusion. Among the remaining 45 acute and 13 chronic occlusions, inter-rater agreement (kappa) for the site of proximal occlusion was 0.88, 0.45 for distal occlusion, 0.78 for luminal hypodensity, 0.82 for wall contrast, and 0.90 for carotid ring sign. The carotid ring sign had 88.9% sensitivity, 69.2% specificity, and 84.5% accuracy to diagnose acute occlusion. The carotid ring sign helps to differentiate acute from chronic carotid occlusion. If further confirmed, this information may be helpful in studying ischemic symptoms and selecting treatment strategies in patients with carotid occlusions. (orig.)

  11. Study on the Association between Body Weight and Insulin Resistance in Essential Hypertension , X- syndromes and Type- 2 Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱玲; 徐岩; 陈森

    2004-01-01

    Objective To prove the hypothesis that there are associations between body weight and insulin resistance in essential hypertension, X- syndromes and type- 2 diabetes. Methods We examined the body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitve index (ISI) among 70 hypertensives, 39 X - syndromes, 33 type - 2 diabetes and 46 controls. To observe the relations between the degrees of obesity and LSI in all study groups. Seventy patients with hypertension [70 hypertensives, 48 men and 22 women, mean age (69.3 + 6.7) years], 39X-syndromes [27 men and 12 women, mean age (66.4+6.2) years], 33 type- 2 diabetes [21 men and 12 women, mean age (68.7±7.3) years], and 46 healthy controls [36 men and 10 women, mean age (66.1 + 6.6) years]. During study period, no patients died. Results All patients of hypertensives, X - syndromes and type - 2 diabetes have insulin resistance, BMI in all patients was singnificantly higher than in controls. The levels of blood glucose and insulin were significantly higher in obese hypertensives (BMI≥25kg/m2 ) than in those (BMI<25kg/m2 ). LSI in obese subjects with hypertension and X - syndrome were significantly lower than in no - obesities. ISI was related to BMI. Conclusion There were insulin resistance in patients of hypertension and X - syndrome. Obesity was related to lower ISI. Obesity may be an important risk factor for insulin resistance of essential hypertension and X - syndrome. ISI and BMI may be simple and specific clinical predictor for hypertension and X - syndrome patients.

  12. 老年2型糖尿病患者颈动脉病变与血清铜锌的关系%Relationship of Serum Copper and Zinc Levels to Carotid Intima-media Thickness of Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海静如

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness( IMT )and serum microelements of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods 180 patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into non-elderly group and elderly group, and 90 healthy people were chosen as control group. Serum levels of copper and zinc were detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure,body mass index,blood sugar,blood fat and IMT were also detected and compared among different groups. Pearson correlation test was applied in the study. Results Blood pressure in elderly group was significantly higher than non-elderly group and control group( P 0.05 ). Compared to non-elderly group,the serum levels of FPG.HbA1cHOMA-IR,TC,TG and LDL-C were statistically higher, and the serum levels of HDL-C was statistically lower in elderly group( P < 0. 05 ). Compared to control group, serum levels of copper in non-elderly group and elderly group were statistically higher,but serum levels of zinc were statistically lower( P <0. 05 ). Compared to non-elderly group,serum level of copper in elderly group was statistically higher,but serum level of zinc was statistically lower( P < 0. 05 ). Pearson correlation tests showed that serum level of copper was positively correlated with IMT and blood sugar, and serum level of zinc was negatively correlated with IMT and blood sugar both in on-elderly group and elderly group. Conclusion High level of serum copper and low level of serum zinc may play an important role on IMT in elderly patients with diabetes.%目的 探讨老年2型糖尿病患者大血管病变与血清微量元素的关系.方法 随机选择非老年2型糖尿病患者和老年2型糖尿病患者各90例,以90例健康体检者作为对照组.采用原子吸收光谱法测定血铜和血锌水平,超声检测颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT),同时检测患者血压、体重指数、血糖、血脂.将血铜和血锌水平与血压、体重指数、血糖、血脂

  13. Lactobacillus casei reduces susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via microbiota-mediated body chloride ion influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Jianlin; He, Qiuwen; Li, He; Song, Yuqin; Zhang, Heping

    2014-07-18

    Gut microbiota mediated low-grade inflammation is involved in the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this study, we used a high fat sucrose (HFS) diet-induced pre-insulin resistance and a low dose-STZ HFS rat models to study the effect and mechanism of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in protecting against T2DM onset. Hyperglycemia was favorably suppressed by L. casei Zhang treatment. Moreover, the hyperglycemia was connected with type 1 immune response, high plasma bile acids and urine chloride ion loss. This chloride ion loss was significantly prevented by L. casei via upregulating of chloride ion-dependent genes (ClC1-7, GlyRα1, SLC26A3, SLC26A6, GABAAα1, Bestrophin-3 and CFTR). A shift in the caecal microflora, particularly the reduction of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, and fecal bile acid profiles also occurred. These change coincided with organ chloride influx. Thus, we postulate that the prevention of T2DM onset by L. casei Zhang may be via a microbiota-based bile acid-chloride exchange mechanism.

  14. Estimation of Stiffness Parameter on the Common Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao; Matsui, Kiyoaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. Up to the present, several methods to measure stiffness parameter of the carotid artery have been proposed. However, they have analyzed at the only one point of common carotid artery. In this paper, we propose the method of analysis extended over a wide area of common carotid artery. In order to measure stiffness parameter of common carotid artery from echocardiogram, it is required to detect two border curves which are boundaries between vessel wall and blood. The method is composed of two steps. The first step is the detection of border curves, and the second step is the calculation of stiffness parameter using diameter of common carotid artery. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Advanced Asymptomatic Carotid Disease and Cognitive Impairment: An Understated Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Martinić-Popović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced carotid disease is known to be associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA, as well as with poststroke cognitive impairment. However, cognitive decline often occurs in patients with advanced carotid stenosis without clinically evident stroke or TIA, so it is also suspected to be an independent risk factor for dementia. Neurosonological methods enable simple and noninvasive assessment of carotid stenosis in patients at risk of advanced atherosclerosis. Cognitive status in patients diagnosed with advanced carotid stenosis is routinely not taken into consideration, although if cognitive impairment is present, such patients should probably be called symptomatic. In this paper, we discuss results of some most important studies that investigated cognitive status of patients with asymptomatic advanced carotid disease and possible mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between asymptomatic advanced carotid disease and cognitive decline.

  16. An internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, P T; Rychlik, I; O'Donnell, M; Baker, R; Rennie, I

    2013-10-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented to her general practitioner with a 4-week history of right neck swelling. Clinical examination elicited a pulsatile mass consistent with a carotid artery aneurysm. Five days later the patient noticed her tongue movements had become awkward with associated dysarthria. Computed tomography confirmed a 4cm internal carotid artery aneurysm arising just distally to the carotid bifurcation. She proceeded to transfemoral diagnostic carotid angiography. Balloon occlusion of the right internal carotid artery origin was performed for a ten-minute period without any neurological deficit. The decision was taken to proceed to surgical ligation of the origin of the internal carotid artery. Her symptoms of dysarthria have resolved.

  17. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.

  18. Quantitative whole-body MRI in familial partial lipodystrophy type 2: changes in adipose tissue distribution coincide with biochemical improvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Patrick D

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 151660) is a systemic disorder characterized by regional lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, severe insulin resistance, and early cardiovascular death. At initial presentation, whole-body MRI allows the radiologist to accurately characterize patients with familial partial lipodystrophy and helps differentiate familial partial lipodystrophy from many other subtypes of lipodystophy. We present the findings of serial quantitative MRI analysis in two patients with familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and outline the objective imaging changes that occur during medical therapy with oral rosiglitazone. CONCLUSION: Cervical adipose volume and visceral adipose area increased by 105% and 60% in the two patients and hepatic fat fraction decreased by 55% during a 21-month period of medical therapy. These changes coincided with a decrease in biochemical indexes of insulin resistance. Whole body quantitative MRI may therefore help to demonstrate the subclinical changes in fat deposition that occur as a result of novel treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy and with continued research may play a role in guiding the choice, duration, and intensity of novel medical therapy.

  19. Imaging Mental Representations of Sex-Typed Bodies: The Effect of Number of Trials on Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James Lick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex categorization is a critical process in social perception. While psychologists have long theorized that perceivers have distinct mental representations of men and women that help them to achieve efficient sex categorizations, researchers have only recently begun using reverse-correlation to visualize the content of these mental representations. The present research addresses two issues concerning this relatively new methodological tool. First, previous studies of reverse-correlation have focused almost exclusively on perceivers’ mental representations of faces. Our study demonstrates that this technique can also be used to visualize mental representations of sex-typed bodies. Second, most studies of reverse-correlation have employed a relatively large number of trials (1,000+ to capture perceivers’ mental representations of a given category. Our study demonstrated that, at least for sex-typed representations of bodies, high quality reverse-correlation images can be obtained with as few as 100 trials. Overall, our findings enhance knowledge of reverse-correlation methodology in general and sex categorization in particular, providing new information for researchers interested in using this technique to understand the complex processes underlying social perception.

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  8. High Resolution Contrast-enhanced MRA in the Evaluation of Rabbit Carotid Artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction:Accurate lumen definition of carotid artery is crucial for determining patient treatment, because a 70% or greater stenosis of a carotid artery will benefit from carotid endarterectomy to reduce the incidence of stroke[1].

  9. Oxygen transfer in human carotid artery bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.G.Zhang; Y.B.Fan; X.Y.Deng

    2007-01-01

    Arterial bifurcations are places where blood flow may be disturbed and slow recirculation flow may occur.To reveal the correlation between local oxygen transfer and atherogenesis, a finite element method was employed to simulate the blood flow and the oxygen transfer in the human carotid artery bifurcation. Under steady-state flow conditions, the numerical simulation demonstrated a variation in local oxygen transfer at the bifurcation, showing that the convective condition in the disturbed flow region may produce uneven local oxygen transfer at the blood/wall interface.The disturbed blood flow with formation of slow eddies in the carotid sinus resulted in a depression in oxygen supply to the arterial wall at the entry of the sinus, which in turn may lead to an atherogenic response of the arterial wall, and contribute to the development of atherosclerotic stenosis there.

  10. Pre-clinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid artery intima-media thickness and the risk factors in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zheng; LIU Ying; MI Jie; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao

    2007-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis as a cardiovascular disease was found to begin even in the fetal period. However,information about risk factors of pre-clinical atherosclerosis in childhood has been limited. Hence, this study was aimed to find out the risk factors of atherosclerosis by measuring the carotid artery intima-media thickness in children. High resolution B-mode ultrasound used to examine the carotid artery intima-media thickness was demonstrated to be useful in finding the early carotid structural changes.Methods The study included 79 children who were divided into two groups according to their ages: group Ⅰ consisted of 42 children with ages from 5 to 9 years and group Ⅱ consisted of 37 children with ages from 10 to 18 years, Among them,23 had a positive family history for risk, such as hypertension, obesity or dyslipidemia. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were assayed. The carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasound. Comparisons were done between the two groups using Student's t tests and Chi-square analysis. Body mass index, blood pressure, levels of lipids, family history and the carotid artery intima-media thickness were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis.Results Compared with the children without a positive family history, the incidence of the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness was significantly high (x2=4.364, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between left and right carotid arteries in carotid artery intima-media thickness (P>0.05). In this study, diastolic blood pressure and the atherosclerosis index were suggested to be the risk factors to the thickened carotid artery intima-media thickness. In group I the diastolic blood pressure's odds radio was 1.187 (P=0.035) and the atherosclerosis index odds radio was 37.165 (P=0.001); in group Ⅱ the diastolic blood pressure's odds

  11. Carotid artery access for transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Robert A; Block, Peter C; Thourani, Vinod H; Lerakis, Stamatios; Babaliaros, Vasilis

    2013-10-01

    We report three patients who had successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) via carotid artery access. None were candidates for thoracotomy (including minimal access incisions) and had no other vascular access sites that would accommodate the transcatheter valve sheath. Antegrade carotid perfusion and retrograde insertion of the delivery sheath maintained cerebral blood flow without sequelae. Carotid access for TAVR is an option for unusual patients without other access.

  12. Cerebral Ischemia Due to Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection: Case Report

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    Deniz Kamacı Şener

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury to the neck region may lead to carotid artery dissection and cerebral ischemia. Blunt injury to carotid artery is not frequent but determination of the presence of trauma in the history of stroke patients will provide early diagnosis and treatment of them. In this article, a case with cerebral ischemia resulting from traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented and clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and choice of treatment are discussed in the light of the literature.

  13. Surgical preparation of a permanent carotid transposition in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Gouvêa, Liana Villela de; Novais, Ernane de Paiva Ferreira; Leite, Ceci Ribeiro; Ximenes, Fábio Henrique Bezerra; de Almeida, Ricardo Miyasaka; Molás, Renato Bizinoto; Palermo, João Gabriel Cesar; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos da; Borges,José Renato Junqueira; Lima, Eduardo Maurício Mendes de; Godoy, Roberta Ferro de

    2011-01-01

    In large animal research, when frequent sampling of arterial blood is needed, the carotid artery transposition is the most used technique. The objective of this paper is to describe a new technique for carotid artery transposition in sheep and evaluate its effectiveness using the echo-Doppler ultrasound. The animals enrolled in this study had their carotid surgically elevated to the subcutaneous level, by suturing underneath muscles sternocephalic and brachiocephalic. None of the ...

  14. A big floating thrombus in the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spada, Michele; Stilo, Francesco; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The management of the free-floating thrombus (FFT) is difficult, and it is unclear whether surgical or medical treatment is superior. The common carotid artery is rarely involved. An 80-year-old woman presented with right hand weakness and syncope. Ultrasound showed the presence of FFT in the left common carotid artery. A carotid endarterectomy with Dacron patch angioplasty was immediately performed without complications. In the presence of symptoms, the interventional management of FFT is advised.

  15. Cerebral haemodynamics during carotid cross-clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolese, G R; Ippoliti, A; Appolloni, A; Ronchey, S; Faraglia, V

    1993-03-01

    Carotid artery cross-clamping ischaemia during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) causes 5-30% of perioperative neurological deficits. This study was performed to identify possible clinical situations at higher risk for carotid cross-clamping ischaemia. 606 consecutive patients underwent CEA and were retrospectively studied; they were grouped according to risk factors, presence of associated vascular diseases, clinical pattern, angiographic and CT scan findings. Stump pressure measurement was provided in all patients, perioperative monitoring during CEA was performed by electroencephalogram (EEG) in 469 (77%) and somatosensorial evoked potentials (SEP) in 137 (23%). Local anaesthesia was used in 88 (14.5%) patients. Ischaemic changes during carotid cross-clamping were registered in 118 patients (19.5%). The incidence of cross-clamping ischaemia was then related to different factors; it affected 5.6% of asymptomatics, 25.4% of patients with fixed stroke and 38.5% of those with stenosis and contralateral occlusion. Angiographic and clinical correlation showed that patients with more severe lesions are mostly affected by clamping ischaemia (up to 55% in those with stroke and stenosis with contralateral occlusion). Age, hypertension and diabetes do not significantly affect incidence of ischaemic changes. Positive CT scan increased this risk; statistical relevance was found in regard to patients with unilateral or bilateral stenosis and in those with transient ischaemic attacks. A higher risk can be expected for subjects with more severe clinical and instrumental findings, even if no patients can be considered completely at risk or risk free. Perioperative monitoring is always mandatory and is of great importance in detecting ischaemic changes and preventing cerebral damage using a temporary intraluminal shunt.

  16. A multi-tissue type genome-scale metabolic network for analysis of whole-body systems physiology

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    Feist Adam M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions provide a biologically meaningful mechanistic basis for the genotype-phenotype relationship. The global human metabolic network, termed Recon 1, has recently been reconstructed allowing the systems analysis of human metabolic physiology and pathology. Utilizing high-throughput data, Recon 1 has recently been tailored to different cells and tissues, including the liver, kidney, brain, and alveolar macrophage. These models have shown utility in the study of systems medicine. However, no integrated analysis between human tissues has been done. Results To describe tissue-specific functions, Recon 1 was tailored to describe metabolism in three human cells: adipocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes. These cell-specific networks were manually curated and validated based on known cellular metabolic functions. To study intercellular interactions, a novel multi-tissue type modeling approach was developed to integrate the metabolic functions for the three cell types, and subsequently used to simulate known integrated metabolic cycles. In addition, the multi-tissue model was used to study diabetes: a pathology with systemic properties. High-throughput data was integrated with the network to determine differential metabolic activity between obese and type II obese gastric bypass patients in a whole-body context. Conclusion The multi-tissue type modeling approach presented provides a platform to study integrated metabolic states. As more cell and tissue-specific models are released, it is critical to develop a framework in which to study their interdependencies.

  17. Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid stent angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Reith, W.; Krick, C.; Karp, K.; Zimmer, A.; Struffert, T.; Kuehn, A.L.; Papanagiotou, P. [University of the Saarland, Department for Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Roth, C.; Haass, A. [University of the Saarland, Clinic for Neurology, Homburg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    This study assesses the incidence and causes of hyperperfusion syndrome occurring after carotid artery stenting (CAS). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical database of 417 consecutive patients who were treated with CAS in our department to identify patients who developed hyperperfusion syndrome and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging was performed before and after CAS in 269 cases. A Spearman's rho nonparametric correlation was performed to determine whether there was a correlation between the occurrence/development of hyperperfusion syndrome and the patient's age, degree of stenosis on the stented and contralateral side, risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, hypertension, adiposity, gender and fluoroscopy time, and mean area of postprocedural lesions as well as preexisting lesions. Significance was established at p < 0.05. Of the 417 carotid arteries stented and where MRI was also completed, we found hyperperfusion syndrome in 2.4% (ten cases). Patients who had preexisting brain lesions (previous or acute stroke) were at a higher risk of developing hyperperfusion syndrome (p = 0.022; Spearman's rho test). We could not validate any correlation with the other patient characteristics. Extensive microvascular disease may be a predictor of hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid stent placement. We believe that further studies are warranted to predict more accurately which patients are at greater risk of developing this often fatal complication. (orig.)

  18. [Eversion carotid endarterectomy: advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanchian, P O; Popov, V A; Rudakova, T V; Gaponova, E N

    1998-01-01

    A comparative analysis of results of 70 operations fulfilled by the method of classical with autovein plasty of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and of 103 operations by the method of eversion carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) was made. The time of compression of the carotid artery during the eversion CEAE proved to be considerably less (22.5 +/- 6.5) min, than when using the "classical" method (32.5 +/- 5.3) min. In the nearest postoperative period no neurological complications of embologenic genesis or those associated with acute thrombosis of ICA after the eversion CEAE were noted while after the "classical" method they developed in 3 patients and 2 of them died. After the eversion CEAE 1 patients died of myocardial infarction. In remote periods after the "classical" CEAE the restenosis and reocclusions appeared in 6 patients, while after the eversion method--in 3 patients. CEAE fulfilled by the eversion technique is an effective operation reducing the amount of postoperative neurological complications as well as of late restenosis and reocclusions. It can be used without the applying of the internal bypass.

  19. [Morbidity and mortality of carotid endarterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, A; Cabrera Morán, V; Abad Vázquez, C; Muñoz Falcón, L; Hernández Ruiz, A; Hermida Anllo, M; Cárdenes Romero, I

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate the peroperative complications in carotid surgery, a cohort of 64 patients operated of carotid endarterectomy (EC) were evaluated. A total 78 EC were performed, 56 unilateral (EC-U) and 11 bilateral (EC-B). All the cases were managed in a similar manner regarding surgical technique, monitoring, anesthetic management and pre and postoperative care. A temporary shunt was inserted in 6 cases. The hospital mortality has been 0. We registered the following postoperative complications: arterial hypertension in 23.1 of EC-U and 18.2% of EC-B, cervical hematoma in 5.3% (EC-U) and 13.6% (EC-B), TIA in 5.3% (EC-U) and 4.5% (EC-B), stroke 1.7% (EC-U) and 4.5% (EC-B), vocal cord injury in 3.5% of EC-U and chest pain with angina in 1.7% of EC-U. A review of the mortality and morbidity in carotid surgery is done.

  20. 197例脑梗死合并2型糖尿病患者颅内外动脉狭窄的研究%Internal and external carotid atrtery stenosis in 197 ischemic stroke patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃; 杨昉; 邱忠明; 陈光辉; 刘新峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the features of internal and external carotid atherosclerotic stenosis in 197 ischemic stroke patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM ) .Methods Clinical data about ischemic stroke patients with type 2 DM in Nanjing Stroke Registry Program were retrospectively analyzed (demographic features ,and distribution ,severity ,types and involed vascular segments of cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis) .Results The percentage of males was higher than that of fe-males and the disease onset age was younger in males than in females in the 197 ischemic stroke patients with type 2 DM (68% vs 32% ,61 .32 ± 10 .93 years vs 67 .27 ± 10 .14 years ,P<0.05) . The distribution rate of cerebrovascular lesions was significantly higher in anterior circulation than in posterior circulation (73 .2% vs 26 .8% ,P<0 .001) .The incidence of intracranial vascular occlusion was significantly higher than that of extracranial vascular occlusion (65 .3% vs 34.7% , P<0 .05) .The commonly involved blood vessels were the anterior cerebral artery and internal ca-rotid artery .T he distribution of intracranial vascular occlusion in anterior and posterior circulation differed greatly (P=0 .013) .Conclusion The distribution of cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis is of certain characteristics in ischemic stroke patients with type 2 DM .%目的:探讨197例脑梗死合并2型糖尿病患者的颅内外动脉粥样硬化性狭窄的特征。方法回顾性分析南京卒中注册系统中提取2007年3月~2011年3月经数字减影血管造影术证实的脑梗死合并糖尿病患者的人口统计学特征与脑动脉粥样硬化性狭窄的分布、程度、类型及病变血管段部位等。结果197例糖尿病合并脑梗死患者中,男性明显多于女性(68%vs32%),发病年龄男性小于女性[(61.32±10.93)vs(67.27±10.14),P<0.05)];脑血管病变分布前循环明显多于后循环(73.2%vs26.8%,P<0.001);颅内血

  1. Carotid Endarterectomy for Symptomatic Complete Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery

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    Cho,Yong-Pil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We described 9 consecutive patients who underwent operative carotid artery exploration with attempted carotid endarterectomy (CEA for symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion. Indications for this surgery based on vascular imaging included segmental occlusion of the proximal ICA and also extensive occlusion of the distal ICA in selected patients in whom color-flow duplex ultrasound showed a poorly echogenic or anechoic thrombus with a flow void, suggestive of an acute thrombus. CEA was performed successfully to restore blood flow in all 9 patients:CEA in 5 and CEA with Fogarty thrombectomy in 4. Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR angiography confirmed that revascularization had been successful in all 9 patients, and MR imaging displayed improved perfusion in 4 patients. Despite the lack of a generalized efficacy of surgical revascularization for symptomatic ICA occlusion, our study demonstrated that preoperative vascular imaging allows the selection of patients who may benefit from CEA.

  2. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with basilar aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briganti, F.; Tortora, F.; Elefante, A. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Cattedra di Neuroradiologia, 80131, Napoli (Italy); Maiuri, F. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery Service, Napoli (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with an associated aneurysm of the basilar tip, studied by CT angiography, MR angiography and digital angiography. The patient became symptomatic with an episode of loss of consciousness, likely due to reduced blood perfusion. The other 20 reported cases of bilateral carotid hypoplasia (only four of which with an associated aneurysm) are reviewed. The findings of noninvasive procedures (including narrowing of the carotid canals on CT) may lead to a correct diagnosis before angiography is performed; they may also help to differentiate angiographic narrowing of the hypoplastic internal carotids from the string sign often observed in some acquired conditions. (orig.)

  3. The Dolichoarteriopathia of Common Carotid Artery Narrowing the Airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Eski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortuousity of the common carotid artery is rarely seen in otorinolaryngologic  practice. In this report, a case of tortuous common carotid artery narrowing the airway and indenting the epiglottis is presented. In endoscopic examination, pulsating bulge at the level of right lateral farengeal wall, pyriform sinus and larynx was found in a 73 year-old female. Computerized tomographic scan showed tortuous  right common carotid artery bulging the submucosal area of the oropharynx and pyriform sinus. Awareness of the tortuous common carotid artery before any  laryngologic surgical intervention is very important to prevent serious complications.

  4. Effect of clothing type on body composition in adults across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADP, using Bod Pod, is a popular method to assess body composition. For valid results, however, the manufacturer warrants tight-fitting clothing (swimsuit or spandex), which may be uncomfortable or impractical for overweight (O) and obese (OB) persons or those with negative body image. This study c...

  5. Container Type Influences the Relative Abundance, Body Size, and Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to La Crosse Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-05-01

    Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), the primary vector of La Crosse virus (LAC), develops in a variety of natural and artificial aquatic containers where it often co-occurs with larvae of other mosquito species. We conducted a field study at two woodlots (South Farms and Trelease Woods) in Urbana, IL, to examine how container type influences vector abundance, body size, and susceptibility to LAC. Mosquito pupae were collected from tree holes, plastic bins, and waste tires, and eclosing adults were identified to species morphologically. Oc. triseriatus and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) females were orally challenged with LAC and midgut infection rate, disseminated infection rate, and body titer were determined by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Oc. triseriatus was the dominant species collected in tree holes while Oc. japonicus and Culex restuans (Theobald) were mostly dominant in artificial containers. Female Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus collected from plastic bins were significantly larger than those collected from tree holes or waste tires. Oc. japonicus females from South Farms were also significantly larger than those from Trelease Woods. Oc. triseriatus females collected from plastic bins and waste tires were significantly more susceptible to LAC infection relative to females collected from tree holes. In addition, Oc. triseriatus females from waste tires had significantly higher LAC titer relative to Oc. triseriatus from tree holes. For each container type and study site, wing length was not correlated to infection or dissemination rates. These findings suggest that the container type in which Oc.triseriatus develop may contribute to the spatial and temporal dynamics of LAC transmission.

  6. Prediction of Carotid Artery Stenosis in Candidates of Coronary Artery Bypasses Surgery by A Scoring System.

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    Sh. Shirani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Up to 9% of coronary ar-tery bypass grafting (CABG patients suffer from stroke after the surgery. Although post CABG stroke has multiple etiologies, stenosis of cervical carotid arteries is an important factor. Many studies have evaluated carotid artery stenosis in CABG. Carotid stenosis and its related factors and a new scoring sys-tem for selection of CABG patients for Doppler study are introduced. Materials and methods: 1721 consecutive cases of non-urgent CABG were evaluated for presence of significant carotid stenosis (> 50% stenosis. The asso-ciation of age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, dislipidemia and left main coronary stenosis with ca-rotid stenosis was evaluated. For introducing a scor-ing method, absence of each related factor was scored by 1 and its presence by 2. The score range for each patient was from 5 (none of related factors up to 10 (all of related factors. Results: 7% of patients suffered from significant stenosis. Female gender, age more than 55 years old, hypertension, diabetes, and stenosis of left main coronary artery were the related risk factors in uni-variate analysis. A step type analysis revealed patients with score 5 have 98.3% negative predictive value (NPV for significant stenosis with 96.2% sensitivity and 13.9% specificity. Patients with score 10 have 93.9% NPV for significant stenosis with 99.9% speci-ficity. Conclusion: This scoring system may help for better selection of patients for Doppler study before CABG.

  7. Surgical techniques and curative effect of carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the surgical techniques of carotid endarterectomy (CEA for treating carotid artery stenosis, in order to improve the surgical efficacy and reduce intraoperative adverse events and complications after operation. Methods Retrospective analysis was carried out on surgical data of 53 cases who were performed CEA from October 2010 to October 2013 in Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. There were 39 males and 14 females, aged from 40 to 78 years old and mean age (60.34 ± 8.92 years old; the course of disease was from 2 d to 4 years. Twenty-six cases were diagnosed as right carotid stenosis, 15 cases left carotid stenosis and 12 cases double-sided carotid stenosis. Among all of those cases, 35 cases were diagnosed as moderate stenosis (30%-69%, 16 cases severe stenosis (70%-99% , and 2 cases complete occlusion. Results Among 53 patients, 50 patients underwent CEA; 2 cases underwent CEA and aneurysm clipping; one case underwent stent removal surgery and CEA because restenosis was found after carotid artery stenting (CAS. Postoperative neck CTA and fMRI showed good morphology of carotid artery, fluent blood flow and improved cerebral perfusion after operation. All of those patients were followed up for 3 to 24 months. One case died of myocardial infarction; 2 cases appeared skin numbness on the operating side of the neck, and the symptom disappeared 3 months later; one case appeared hoarseness after operation; 3 cases experienced mild transient ischemic attack (TIA and the symptom disappeared 2 months later. No case of stroke was found. Conclusions CEA is a safe and effective surgical approach to treat carotid stenosis. Correct and reasonable choices of the surgical indications and skilled surgical technique are the key to ensure the success of operation and to improve efficacy of the therapy. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.02.006Video: http://www.cjcnn.org/index.php/cjcnn/pages/view/v14n2a6

  8. Análise estrutural e funcional carotídea em familiares de pacientes com diabete melito tipo 2 Estudio estructural y funcional carotídeo en familiares de pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Carotid artery structural and functional evaluation in relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Silva Prado

    2009-03-01

    diabetes - aun en individuos no diabéticos -, ante el aumento de riesgo de enfermedad cardiaca coronaria, se hace necesaria la utilización de reconocidos marcadores sustitutos de aterosclerosis precoz, como las mediciones por ecografía carotídea. OBJETIVO: Comparar tanto características estructurales (espesor íntima-medio - EIM como funcionales (medidas de distensibilidad de arterias carotídeas de los individuos con historia familiar (HF+ y de los no parientes de portadores de DM2 (HF-, todos sin factores de riesgo cardiovasculares reconocidos. MÉTODOS: Un total de 32 individuos (19 HF+ y 13 HF-, con edad entre 21 y 47 años, de ambos sexos, fueron sometidos a estudio ultrasonográfico de alta resolución de las carótidas (comunes e internas bilateralmente. Los grupos presentaban comparación (P > 0,05 de edad, índice de masa corporal (IMC, presión arterial, glucosa y insulina de ayuno, leptina y proteína C reactiva (PCR. RESULTADOS: El espesor íntima-medio de las arterias carótidas comunes izquierdas (ACCI se mostró estadísticamente más elevado (P = 0,029 en los HF+ (0,568 ± 0,107 mm que en los HF- (0,477± 0,116 mm. El análisis de regresión múltiple identificó como pronosticadores independientes de la EIM de ACCI la edad, el IMC superior al normal, la PCR y el LDL-colesterol. CONCLUSIÓN: Individuos con historia familiar de DM2, aun sin desórdenes metabólicas laboratoriales detectadas, presentaron mayor espesor íntima-medio en territorio carotídeo común izquierdo que pacientes sin tal parentesco. Sin embargo, no hubo alteración funcional de la arteria.In Western countries type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular causes. Since a family history of diabetes, even in non-diabetic subjects, is regarded as an increased risk of coronary heart disease, the use of approved surrogate markers of early atherosclerosis, specially of ultrasonic measurements of the carotid arteries, is of

  9. Bilateral dissection of the internal carotid artery at the base of the skull due to blunt trauma: incidence and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Y; Di Mauro, P; Tomachot, L; Albanese, J; Martin, C; Alliez, B; Juhan, C

    1998-11-01

    Between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 1996, a total of 1095 head trauma vicims were admitted in our intensive care unit. If CT scans demonstrated ischemic brain lesions, arteriography to visualize supraaortic vessels was performed. Carotid artery dissection was observed in ten patients (0.91%) and was bilateral in eight patients (0.73%). In the bilateral carotid artery dissection (BCAD) group, there were five women and three men, with a mean age of 35.2 years (range: 17 to 54 years). Injuries resulted from traffic accidents in seven patients and a fall in one patient. Upon admission, six patients presented with alteration of consciousness and three with hemiplegia or hemiparesia, associated with aphasia in two cases. In two other cases, hemiplegia occurred 24 hr and 13 days after the accident. All patients had brain infarction, which was unilateral in five cases and bilateral in three cases. The severity of lesions was graded on the basis of arteriographic findings as follows: Type I, wall involvement without significant stenosis or dilation; Type II, arterial dissection with stenosis >70% (Type IIA) or dilatation >50% (Type IIB) and the normal diameter of the proximal or distal internal carotid artery; and Type III, thrombosis of the internal carotid artery. Lesions were asymmetrical in six patients, including two with Type II and III lesions and four with Type I and II lesions, and symmetrical in two patients, including one with bilateral Type III lesions and one with bilateral Type II lesions. Surgery was performed in two patients with Type II lesions, including one case associated with contralateral carotid thrombosis. The intrapetrous carotid artery was exposed by an ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeon and repaired by interposition grafting. Follow-up in these two surgical cases was 28 and 31 months. In the remaining six cases, medical treatment was performed. Outcome in nonsurgical cases was variable: death in two cases at 31 and 43 days after the accident

  10. William Hunter Harridge Lecture. Carotid endarterectomy versus stenting for stroke prevention: what we have and will learn from Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Fred A

    2014-07-01

    The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) has major implications for the future of carotid revascularization and stroke prevention. The purpose of The William Hinter Harridge Lecture was to discuss the history of carotid revascularization before CREST, to delineate the emergence of carotid artery stenting as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy, analyze the key findings in CREST, and describe the next phase of investigation, CREST-2.

  11. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montalcini Tiziana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. Methods In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Results Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035. We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039. Conclusions In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects.

  12. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Stanisław; Wieczorek, Piotr P; Halama, Marek; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Kafarski, Paweł; Poliwoda, Anna; Młynarz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids), choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC), tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  13. Typing performance and body discomfort among overweight and obese office workers: A pilot study of keyboard modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Pickens, Adam W; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G; DeJoy, David M; Young, Kristi; Bishop, Gary; Congleton, Jerome J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in the workplace is associated with loss of productivity, high medical care expenses, and increased rates of work-related injuries and illness. Thus, effective, low-cost interventions are needed to accommodate the size of today's obese office worker while alleviating potential physical harm associated with musculoskeletal disorders. Utilizing a sample of 22 overweight and obese office workers, this pilot study assessed the impact of introducing an alternative, more ergonomically-sound keyboard on perceptions about design, acceptability, and usability; self-reported body discomfort; and typing productivity. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires and objective typing tests administered before and after the intervention. The intervention duration was six weeks. After switching from their standard work keyboard to an alternative keyboard, all participants reported significant decreases in lower back discomfort (t = 2.14, P = 0.044); although obese participants reported significant decreases in both upper (t = 2.46, P = 0.032) and lower (t = 2.39, P = 0.036) back discomfort. No significant changes were observed in overall typing performance scores from baseline to follow-up. Findings suggest that such interventions may be introduced into the workforce with positive gains for workers without reducing short-term worker productivity.

  14. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  15. Effects of metformin on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,receiving insulin analogue treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T I Romantsova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To study the dynamics of body weight, waist circumference, blood lipid and insulin demand in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM during first year of combined treatment with metformin and insulin analogues, compared with insulin analogue monotherapy.Materials and Methods. We examined 78 patients with T2DM on newly initiated insulin therapy, including 54 females and 24 males. Median age was 56 [51.0; 64.0] years, median disease duration – 9 [6.8;14.0] years. Participants were subdivided in two groups. First group was comprised of 48 subjects (33 females and 15 males, who received monotherapy with insulin analogues (glargine, de- temir, biphasic Aspart 30 and Humalog Mix 25 or rapid-acting lispro and aspart. Second group included 30 patients (18 females and12 males, who were treated with combined therapy (insulin analogues plus metformin. We measured HbA1c, plasma lipid composition, BMI, waist circumference and insulin demand initially and after one year of follow-up.Results. We showed that combined therapy vs. insulin monotherapy allows better glycemic compensation while reducing insulin demand and lowering risks for weight gain.Conclusions. Combined insulin analogue plus metformin treatment delivers better metabolic control in patients with T2DM and is as- sociated with lower risks for body weight gain and increase in insulin demand against monotherapy with insulin analogues.

  16. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer.

  17. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  18. Effect of arch type and Body Mass Index on plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Davida Louise; Tyndyk, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Several factors have been associated with the presence of abnormally high plantar foot pressure including: (i) increased body weight, (ii) foot structure and (iii) walking strategy. It is predicted that the biomechanics of the foot is influenced by the structure of the foot, primarily the Medial Longitudinal Arch. The objective of this study was to examine if Body Mass Index and the foot arch have a direct effect on dynamic peak plantar pressure for healthy subjects. Following a clinical lower limb examination, the Tekscan HR mat was utilised for this study, plantar pressure was profiled at specific events during stance phase of gait including heel strike, midstance and toe off. Results indicated to the preferable normal arch as this produced a low plantar pressure distribution in all cases. The 2nd and 3rd metatarsal head region recorded the highest pressure for all arch types during dynamic analysis. The lowest pressure for the normal and overweight BMI was at toe-off. While the obese BMI group showed highest pressure during toe-off. The obese BMI flat arch subcategory indicated to functional ambulation differences. Future work involves comparing this healthy database to a demographically matched diabetic group.

  19. Stability of the classical type of relative equilibria of a rigid body in the J2 problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yue

    2013-01-01

    The motion of a point mass in the J2 problem is generalized to that of a rigid body in a J2 gravity field. The linear and nonlinear stability of the classical type of relative equilibria of the rigid body, which have been obtained in our previous paper, are studied in the framework of geometric mechanics with the second-order gravitational potential. Non-canonical Hamiltonian structure of the problem, i.e., Poisson tensor, Casimir functions and equations of motion, are obtained through a Poisson reduction process by means of the symmetry of the problem. The linear system matrix at the relative equilibria is given through the multiplication of the Poisson tensor and Hessian matrix of the variational Lagrangian. Based on the characteristic equation of the linear system matrix, the conditions of linear stability of the relative equilibria are obtained. The conditions of nonlinear stability of the relative equilibria are derived with the energy-Casimir method through the projected Hessian matrix of the variationa...

  20. On the sites of secondary podia formation in a juvenile echinoid: growth of the body types in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Valerie B

    2009-12-01

    The growth of the adult echinoderm body is addressed here in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens in a study of the early development of the secondary podia along the five radial canals of the adult rudiment. At a stage when the first four secondary podia have formed along each radius oral to the primary podium, two podia are on one side of the radius and two are on the other side, all at a different distance from the primary podium. The pattern of the connexions of these secondary podia to the radial canals changes in successive radii in a manner similar to Lovén's law for skeletal plates and matches the reported sequence in the times at which the first ambulacral skeletal plates form in the adult echinoid rudiment. A similar pattern is described for the reported origins of the secondary podia in apodid holothurians. A common plan for the growth of the body types is described for echinoids, asteroids, holothurians and concentricycloids. The five metameric series of secondary podia formed in echinoderms have a coelomic developmental origin like the single metameric series of somites formed in the axial structures of chordates.

  1. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light ( 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  2. What influences the standards of "quality" of carotid endarterectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Beloiartsev, D F; Kolosov, R V

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the short-term results of 463 consecutive primary reconstructive operations on the carotid bifurcation based on the standards of "quality". In 383 (82.7%) cases, the patients were operated on for stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA); 60 (13%) patients had combination of stenosis and kingking of the ICA and 20 (4.3%) presented with isolated kinking of the ICA. Classic open carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) was performed in 240 cases, eversion CEAE in 144, resection with ICA redressment in 45, and ICA grafting in 28 cases. The perioperative lethality accounted for 1.54% (7 cases), per 463 operations, with the standard of "quality" being equal to 2%. Myocardial infarction was the cause of death in 5 cases, one patient developed homolateral stroke which eventuated in lethal outcome, and one more patient developed lethal stroke in the contralateral hemisphere. The incidence of homolateral strokes which did not eventuate in lethal outcome accounted for 1.94% (9 cases). The indicator "stroke plus lethality from stroke" in the general patient group was 2.38% which is even lower versus the standard of "quality" for asymptomatic patients and constitutes 3%. Among asymptomatic patients proper, the indicator "stroke plus lethality from stroke" was equal to 0, among TIA patients to 0 at a 5% standard, and in patients with initial stroke, initial stroke, it amounted to 3.19% at a 7% standard. Perioperative strokes were not recorded in patients with ICA kingking or at ICA grafting. The basic factor of the risk of perioperative neurologic deficit was a history of stroke. Patients with different stages of cerebrovascular insufficiency did not significantly differ as regards age, sex distribution, the presence of CAD, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, the degree of stenosis of the operated ICA and the time of its clamping at operation. Patients with a history of strokes differed significantly from the general group only in the incidence of lesion of

  3. Glycemic and blood pressure control in older patients with hypertension and diabetes: association with carotid atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wei Du; Jia-Yue Li; Yao He

    2011-01-01

    Backgroud Numerous studies have confirmed the effectiveness of slowing the progression of atherosclerosis by blood pressure (Bp)control in patients with hypertension and several studies also showed the efficacy of intensive glycemic control in decreasing progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.However, few studies have compared the relative importance of glycemic vs.Bp control in patients with diabetes and hypertension.We aimed to investigate the association between Bp and glycemic control and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in older patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.Methods In a cross-sectional study, B-mode high-resolution ultrasonography of the carotid artery was performed in 670 subjects (508 males and 162 females) aged 60 years or over who had self-reported hypertension and diabetes but no history of coronary heart disease or stroke.Subjects were categorized by their systolic blood pressure: tight control, < 130 mmHg; usual control, 130-139 mmHg; or uncontrolled, > 140 mmHg,and by their hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc) level: tight control, < 6.5%; usual control, 6.5%-7.5%; or uncontrolled, ≥ 7.5%, respectively.Results The mean CIMT was 8.20 ± 0.11 mm, and carotid plaque was found in 52.5% (352/670) subjects.Overall, 62.1% of the subjects had subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, defined as having either carotid plaque or elevated CIMT (≥1.1 mm).The mean CIMT was significantly different between Bp control categories (7.60 ± 0.09 mm, 7.90 ± 0.08 mm, and 8.60 ± 0.12 mm, respectively, P = 0.03) but not between glycemic control categories (8.20 ± 0.10 mm, 8.1 ± 0.08 mm, and 8.40 ± 0.14 mm, respectively, P = 0.13) using ANCOVA analysis.Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for potential confounding factors showed that usual or uncontrolled Bp control were associated with having carotid plaque (OR = 1.08 and OR = 1.42, respectively), or elevated CIMT [Odd ratio (OR) = 1

  4. Structure and functioning of Mediterranean lagoon fish assemblages: A key for the identification of water body types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Anita; Franzoi, Piero; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge on the structure and functioning variability of transitional water fish assemblages may help in finding out the main descriptors for identifying different water body types for which specific biological reference conditions can be reliably derived. Fish assemblages from 19 Mediterranean lagoons were therefore investigated by evaluating the variability of their structure and functioning, and by relating it to the lagoons' environmental features. Fish assemblage structure was measured by its species richness. Functioning was measured by categorizing fish species into functional categories (or guilds) according to their use of lagoon habitat, feeding and reproduction, and by defining the functional structure of fish assemblages as the relative number of species per guild in each lagoon. Mediterranean lagoons' fish assemblages were found to be more similar to each other in their functional structure than in the taxonomical composition, thus confirming a shared functional role of these environments for biological communities. Lagoon local features, such as the lagoon area, its habitat heterogeneity and average salinity, significantly affected the total species richness and the different use that fish make of the lagoon environment, hence playing a primary role in the assessment of these water body types. Latitude also influenced the variability of fish assemblages in the Mediterranean lagoons investigated, with particular regard to their functioning as feeding and reproductive grounds for fish. These results are compared with previous studies and, although this limited the investigation to structural aspects only, were found to confirm in part the previous results and also added new insights about the key factors affecting the functioning of transitional water systems.

  5. Dietary iron intake, body iron stores, and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess iron has been shown to induce diabetes in animal models. However, the results from human epidemiologic studies linking body iron stores and iron intake to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are conflicting. In this study, we aimed to systematically evaluate the available evidence for associations between iron intake, body iron stores, and the risk of T2DM. Methods A systematic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to the end of 22 April 2012 was performed, and reference lists of retrieved articles were screened. Two reviewers independently evaluated the eligibility of inclusion and extracted the data. Pooled relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random-effects models. Results We reviewed 449 potentially relevant articles, and 11 prospective studies were included in the analysis. A meta-analysis of five studies gave a pooled RR for T2DM of 1.33 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.48; P0.001 in individuals with the highest level of heme iron intake, compared with those with the lowest level. The pooled RR for T2DM for a daily increment of 1 mg of heme iron intake was 1.16 (1.09 to 1.23, P0.001. Body iron stores, as measured by ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR and the sTfR:ferritin ratio, were significantly associated with the risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs for T2DM in individuals with the highest versus the lowest intake of ferritin levels was 1.70 (1.27-2.27, P0.001 before adjustment for inflammatory markers and 1.63 (1.03-2.56, P = 0.036 after adjustment. We did not find any significant association of dietary intakes of total iron, non-heme, or supplemental iron intake with T2DM risk. Conclusion Higher heme iron intake and increased body iron stores were significantly associated with a greater risk of T2DM. Dietary total iron, non-heme iron, or supplemental iron intakes were not significantly associated with T2DM risk.

  6. Carotid intima media thickness and arterial stiffness in children with acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftel, Murat; Yılmaz, Osman; Kardelen, Fırat; Kocabaş, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) constitute important public health problems in developing countries. Inflammation is present both in the early and late stages of the diseases. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness may increase due to the ongoing inflammation as well as the increased pulse pressure and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction in RHD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and carotid artery stiffness in patients with ARF. Forty patients in follow-up due to ARF in the age group of 7-16 years (disease duration 1-10 years) and 36 volunteered subjects with similar body mass index were included in the study. The subjects included in the present study were compared regarding M-mode echocardiographic parameters and CIMT as well as carotid arterial strain (CAS), carotid artery distensibility (CAD), beta stiffness index (βSI), and pressure-strain elasticity modulus (Ep) as carotid artery stiffness parameters. CIMT (0.52 ± 0.08 and 0.48 ± 0.07 mm, p = 0.01), βSI (5.29 ± 2.98 and 3.02 ± 1.30, p < 0.001), and Ep (426.53 ± 210.50 and 254.44 ± 104.69 p < 0.001) were increased, whereas CAS (0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.09, p < 0.001) and CAD (10.27 ± 4.69 and 17.76 ± 14.41, p < 0.001) were decreased in patients with ARF compared with the control group. There was a positive correlation between pulse pressure and βSI (r = 0.25, p = 0.02) and Ep (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in addition to a correlation between left atrial dilatation and CIMT (r = 0.55 p < 0.001) in patients with ARF. CIMT and carotid artery stiffness were increased in patients with ARF. Patients with ARF may have an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

  7. Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Artery is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Elderly Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na Zhang; Can Cui; Ying Fan; Man-li Chang; Wei Wu; Wei-gang Yu; Ning Tan; Feng-chen Liu; Jin-chao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Previous studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes and even those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)have marked higher risk of atherosclerosis than nondiabetic subjects. The relationship between carotid atherosclerosis intima-media thickness (IMT) with glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity was studied in the elderly Chinese subjects.

  8. Carotid baroreceptor-muscle sympathetic relation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, R F; Eckberg, D L

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the relation between carotid distending pressure and muscle sympathetic activity in humans. Carotid baroreceptors of nine healthy subjects were compressed or stretched for 5 s with graded neck pressure or suction (+40 to -65 mmHg), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. The results delineate several features of human baroreflex function. First, the carotid-muscle sympathetic relation is well described by an inverse sigmoid function. Second, a linear relation exists between carotid distending pressure and sympathetic outflow over a range of approximately 25 mmHg. Third, sympathetic responses to changes of carotid pressures are asymmetric; increases of sympathetic activity during carotid compression are much greater than reductions of sympathetic activity during carotid stretch. Fourth, at rest, normal subjects operate near the threshold level for sympathetic excitation. Thus the carotid-muscle sympathetic baroreflex is poised to oppose reductions more effectively than elevations of arterial pressure, and the range of pressures over which the reflex is active is wider than thought hitherto.

  9. PERFORMING TRANSCATHETER AORTIC VALVE IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH CAROTID STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Valkov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of carotid artery disease in patients with severe aortic stenosis referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation is challenging. By reviewing the very limited amount of literature we will try to answer the question should we perform carotid revascularization before or after the TAVI procedure.

  10. Carotid endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischaemic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathenborg, Lisbet Knudsen; Jensen, L P; Baekgaard, N;

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) has proven effective in the treatment of acute cerebral ischaemic attack in selected cases. In the presence of a carotid artery stenosis, such patients may be candidates for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Few studies have been made on the safety of CEA performed afte...

  11. Surgical interventions and studies of the carotid sinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorop, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The carotid baroreflex buffers acute changes in blood pressure and is triggered by baroreceptors in the carotid sinus. Baroreceptor firing results in an increased parasympathetic tone and a decreased sympathetic tone leading to reduced heart rate and blood pressure. Under normal conditio

  12. Posture-dependent chronotropic effect of carotid sinus massage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Oxhøj, H; Mickley, H

    1987-01-01

    The hypertensive carotid sinus can be divided into cardioinhibitory (chronotropic) and vasodepressor components; the former can be evaluated by carotid sinus massage performed in the supine position. We present the case of a patient in whom the abnormal cardioinhibitory response could only...

  13. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection causing a juvenile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S.; Huebsch, P.; Schindler, E.

    1988-11-01

    The case of a 19-year-old patient is presented who was admitted with aphasia and hemiparesis due to basal ganglia infarction as a result of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery. The difficulties in diagnosing this disease with CT and MRI in the acute stage are demonstrated. Angiography is still imperative in order to ascertain that a carotid dissection has occurred.

  14. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aortic stenosis (AS) shares risk factors with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque may reflect the cumulative damage from exposure to different atherosclerotic risk factors. We examined the relationship of carotid IMT and plaque with incident...

  15. Carotid plaque burden as a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter; Adourian, Aram

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare carotid plaque burden, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), and abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) to coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in people without known cardiovascular disease....

  16. Inclusion body hepatitis associated with an outbreak of fowl adenovirus type 2 and type 8b in broiler flocks in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Maartens

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body hepatitis is an acute disease of chickens ascribed to viruses of the genus Aviadenovirus and referred to as fowl adenovirus (FAdV. There are 12 FAdV types (FAdV1to FAdV8a and FAdV8b to FAdV11, classified into five species based on their genotype (designated FAdVA to FAdVE. A total of 218 000 chickens, 2–29 days of age, were affected over a 1-year period, all testing positive by microscopy, virus isolation and confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Affected birds were depressed, lost body weight,were weak and had watery droppings. Pathological changes observed during necropsy indicated consistent changes in the liver, characterised by hepatomegaly, cholestasis and hepatitis. Lesions were also discernible in the spleen, kidney and gizzard wall and were characterised by splenomegaly, pinpoint haemorrhages, nephritis with haemorrhage,visceral gout and serosal ecchymosis of the gizzard wall. Histopathological lesions were most consistently observed in the liver but could also be seen in renal and splenic tissue. Virus isolation was achieved in embryonated eggs and most embryos revealed multifocalto diffuse hepatic necrosis, with a mixed cellular infiltrate of macrophages and heterophils(necro-granulomas, even in the absence of macroscopic pathology. Virus isolation results were verified by histopathology and PCR on embryonic material and further characterised by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two infectious bursal disease virus isolates were also made from the Klerksdorp flock. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the L1 hexon loop of all the FAdV isolates indicated homology (99% with prototype strains P7-A for FAdV-2, as well as for FAdV-8b.

  17. The effect of dietary restriction, pregnancy, and fetal type in different ewe types on fetal weight, maternal body weight, and visceral organ mass in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2004-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate maternal body changes in response to dietary restriction or the increased nutrient requirement of fetal growth. In Exp. 1, 28 mature crossbred ewes (61.6 +/- 1.8 kg initial BW) were fed a pelleted forage-based diet to evaluate effects of pregnancy and nutrient restriction on visceral organ mass. Treatments were arranged in 2 x 3 factorially, with dietary restriction (60% restriction vs. 100% maintenance) and reproductive status (nonpregnant [NP], d 90 or d 130 of gestation) as main effects. Dietary treatments were begun at d 50 of gestation, and restricted ewes remained at 60% of maintenance throughout the experiment. Nonpregnant and d-90 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 40 d and slaughtered. The d-130 ewes were fed dietary treatments for 80 d and then slaughtered. In Exp. 2, four Romanov ewes were naturally mated (Romanov fetus and Romanov dam; R/ R), and two Romanov embryos were transferred to each of four Columbia recipients (Romanov embryos and Columbia recipient; R/C). Three Columbia ewes were naturally mated (Columbia fetus and Columbia recipient; C/C). In both experiments, maternal organ weights were reported as fresh weight (grams), scaled to empty body weight (EBW; grams per kilogram) and maternal body weight (MBW; grams per kilogram). In Exp. 1, ewe EBW and fetal mass were decreased (P < 0.02) with restriction compared with maintenance. Dietary restriction decreased liver mass (16.7 vs. 14.5 g/kg EBW or 18.8 vs. 16.4 g/kg MBW; P < 0.01), but dietary restriction did not affect total digestive tract mass. In Exp. 2, ewe BW was less for the R/R compared with R/C and C/C (44.8 vs. 110.4 and 98.1 +/- 7.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Fetal weight at d 130 was less for the R/R than for R/C and C/C (2.2 vs. 3.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.3 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) when measured as individual fetuses; however, when measured as total fetal mass carried in each ewe, there was no effect of ewe type. These data suggest that the

  18. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  19. Binary CMOS image sensor with a gate/body-tied MOSFET-type photodetector for high-speed operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a binary complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with a gate/body-tied (GBT) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-type photodetector is presented. The sensitivity of the GBT MOSFET-type photodetector, which was fabricated using the standard CMOS 0.35-μm process, is higher than the sensitivity of the p-n junction photodiode, because the output signal of the photodetector is amplified by the MOSFET. A binary image sensor becomes more efficient when using this photodetector. Lower power consumptions and higher speeds of operation are possible, compared to the conventional image sensors using multi-bit analog to digital converters (ADCs). The frame rate of the proposed image sensor is over 2000 frames per second, which is higher than those of the conventional CMOS image sensors. The output signal of an active pixel sensor is applied to a comparator and compared with a reference level. The 1-bit output data of the binary process is determined by this level. To obtain a video signal, the 1-bit output data is stored in the memory and is read out by horizontal scanning. The proposed chip is composed of a GBT pixel array (144 × 100), binary-process circuit, vertical scanner, horizontal scanner, and readout circuit. The operation mode can be selected from between binary mode and multi-bit mode.

  20. Bit error rate estimation for galvanic-type intra-body communication using experimental eye-diagram and jitter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia Wen; Chen, Xi Mei; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Gao, Yue Ming; Vai, Mang I; Du, Min

    2013-01-01

    Bit error rate (BER), which indicates the reliability of communicate channel, is one of the most important values in all kinds of communication system, including intra-body communication (IBC). In order to know more about IBC channel, this paper presents a new method of BER estimation for galvanic-type IBC using experimental eye-diagram and jitter characteristics. To lay the foundation for our methodology, the fundamental relationships between eye-diagram, jitter and BER are first reviewed. Then experiments based on human lower arm IBC are carried out using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation scheme and 500 KHz carries frequency. In our IBC experiments, the symbol rate is from 10 Ksps to 100 Ksps, with two transmitted power settings, 0 dBm and -5 dBm. Finally, the BER results were obtained after calculation by experimental data through the relationships among eye-diagram, jitter and BER. These results are then compared with theoretical values and they show good agreement, especially when SNR is between 6 dB to 11 dB. Additionally, these results demonstrate assuming the noise of galvanic-type IBC channel as Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) in previous study is applicable.

  1. Comparison of two diets of varying glycemic index on carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Vacca, Maria; De Marco, Donata; Cinquegrana, Giorgio; Laccetti, Marco; Bresciani, Alessandro; Covetti, Giuseppe; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Rubba, Paolo; Parillo, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness. Increased carotid wall thickening and rigidity are considered markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of two hypocaloric diets of varying glycemic index on weight loss and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children. Seventy consecutive obese children attending the Outpatient Weight Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics were invited to participate in an intensive dietary protocol. Twenty-six accepted and were randomly assigned to two different groups: the first group followed a hypocaloric low-glycemic index diet and the second a hypocaloric high-glycemic index diet. Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests were performed in all children. Quantitative B-mode ultrasound scans were used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and diameters of the common carotid artery. Considering both groups together, at 6 months, body mass index decreased from 28.3 +/- 3.1 to 25.8 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2), systolic blood pressure from 119 +/- 12 to 110 +/- 11 mmHg (Pglycemic index diet. These results justify the advice to obese children to follow a low-glycemic index diet in order to improve their cardiometabolic profile.

  2. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Carranza-Lira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods: In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman’s correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7% with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%, it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively, and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat ( = 0.686, p < 0.041 and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (= 0.712, p < 0.031. In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (= 0.251, p < 0.049. Conclusion : Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure.

  3. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958

  4. Dynamics of collateral circulation in progressive asymptomatic carotid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Vermeulen, F E; van Lier, H J; Schulte, B P

    1986-03-01

    Inadequacy of collateral arterial flow is the major risk factor for hemispheric infarction in association with spontaneous occlusion of the ipsilateral carotid artery. This prospective study was designed to measure the adaptation of collateral cerebral circulation through the circle of Willis in patients in whom a unilateral carotid stenosis of hemodynamic consequence develops asymptomatically. The collateral cerebral potential is assessed by ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG) during proximal common carotid artery compression, measuring the collateral ophthalmic artery pressure (COAP). During an average follow-up of almost 3 years (maximum more than 7 years), 45 patients showed asymptomatic development of a unilateral hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis according to OPG evidence. In these patients the mean index COAP/brachial artery pressure did not change on the side of stenosis progression (p greater than 0.05). The developed carotid stenosis had only reduced collateral circulation to the contralateral hemisphere. The risk of inadequate collateral cerebral circulation remained during progression of asymptomatic extracranial arterial obstructive disease.

  5. Mathematical model of carotid artery for stent placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tengku Husna Tengku Abdul; Din, Ummul Khair Salma; Ahmad, Rokiah @ Rozita

    2016-11-01

    The carotid artery stenting is one of the methods used to reduce the effect of artherosclerosis which caused by the thickening of the artery wall. In most of the studies, the measure of wall elasticity, shear stress and the blood pressure through the blood flow were considered. The aim of this study is to determine the position to place the stent inside the carotid artery. A mathematical model is reconstructed to determine the suitable location of the stent in the carotid artery. Throughout the study, differences in fluid flow between a normal carotid artery wall and stenosed carotid artery wall are investigated. Since the existence of the stenosis provides a resistance in the flow, it is important to identify the right position to place the stent. The stent will be placed in the position where stenosis exists to ease the blood to flow normally. Later after the stent placement, the blood flow normally through the blood vessel.

  6. To evaluate the composition and typing of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque and the relationship between plaque morphology and clinical symptoms%MRI评估颈动脉粥样硬化斑块成分、类型及其与临床症状的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗南; 刘一; 范占明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare plaque morphology from patients with and without stroke symptoms, determine the relationship between carotid plaque morphology and stroke pathogenesis, and evaluate the warning function of high-field MR on early diagnosis of plaque. Methods Patients with carotid artery atherosclerotic plaque detected by B-mode ultrasonography were examined with MR imaging. Imaging was performed with a 3.0-T MR imager (Philips or GE) and a special 8-channel phased-array surface coil for carotid artery. The protocols include T1-, intermediate-, T2-, and post-contrast T1-weighted MR imaging, as well as three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) and MP-RAGE. All examinations were performed with a 14cm field of view, a matrix of 256 × 256 pixels,a 2-mm section thickness, and two acquired signals. An intersection space of -1 mm was used for three-dimensional TOF angiography and MP-RAGE, whereas no intersection space was used for MR imaging. Gadopentetate Dimeglumine was the contrast agent with the dosage of 0.1 mmol/Kg(0.2 ml/Kg)and injection speed of 0.7 ml/s. One observer recorded quantitative and morphologic information, which included measurement of the area of the lumen and main plaque components (calcification, hemorrhage, loose matrix ); fibrous cap status (thick, thin, or ruptured); reformed MR lesion type (types Ⅰ-Ⅷ) based on American Heart Association (AHA). Plaques associated with neurologic symptoms(transient ischemic attack, amaurosis fugax, or stroke appropriate to the distribution of the index carotid artery)and asymptomatic plaques were compared with Independent-sample T test on luminal stenosis, chi square test on occurrence rate of main plaque components and fibrous cap rupture respectively and regression analysis for the connection strength between plaque components and clinical symptoms. Results 64 carotid artery enrolled in the symptomatic group and 131 carotid artery enrolled in the asymptomatic group. Compared with asymptomatic plaques

  7. Increased carotid intima media thickness is associated with prolactin levels in subjects with untreated prolactinoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Cui-Ling; He, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Dong-Hong; Fan, Xiang; Hu, Bin; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherogenic risk factors, but carotid intima media thickness (IMT) has not been studied in hyperprolactinemic patients. To determine whether untreated hyperprolactinemia contributes to increased carotid IMT. Thirty-one prolactinoma patients and 60 healthy controls were respectively studied. Participants underwent hormone evaluation. Anthropometric parameters (body mass index and blood pressure), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), serum glucose, insulin, lipid and apolipoprotein profiles were also determined. Endothelial function measured as the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of a brachial artery and carotid IMT were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasonography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to identify independent determinants of FMD and carotid IMT. Triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA-I ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen were significantly higher, while apoA-I was significantly lower in patients with prolactinomas than in the controls. Meanwhile, decreased FMD and increased carotid IMT were observed in hyperprolactinemic group. Serum prolactin was positively correlated with triglycerides, apoB/apoA-I ratio, hypogonadal, hsCRP and fibrinogen (P < 0.05), but inversely associated with apoA-I and HDL-C (P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, prolactin was found negatively correlated with FMD (r = -0.576, P < 0.0001), and positively correlated with mean carotid IMT (r = 0.652, P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that prolactin determined, independent of traditional risk factors, FMD (B = -0.589, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.525 to -0.804, P = 0.001) and mean carotid IMT (B = 0.527, 95% CI 0.027-0.069, P < 0.0001). Hyperprolactinemia may be involved in the preclinical increase in carotid IMT, directly or by promoting atherogenic factors, including

  8. The effect of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of people with type II diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, BSc, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongyue; Kan, Laidi; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Pu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To review and assess the effectiveness of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A computerized database search was performed through PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the reference lists of all relevant articles. The methodological quality was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. [Results] Five articles (four studies) with a combined study population of 154 patients with type II diabetes qualified for the inclusion criteria. Our review shows that whole body vibration therapy may have a positive impact on the muscle strength and balance of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas the effect on their mobility is still under discussion. [Conclusion] There was no sufficient evidence to support the premise that whole body vibration therapy is beneficial for the physical function of people with type II diabetes. Larger and higher-quality trials are needed. PMID:27799718

  9. Management of a chronic carotid artery pseudoaneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Aaron C; Arko, Frank R; Zarins, Christopher K; Lee, Eugene S

    2010-01-01

    An 82-year-old female with a history of right carotid endarterectomy with patch closure 12 years prior presents with a pulsatile right neck mass with skin erosion and bleeding. The patient had been previously evaluated but refused the surgical intervention because a median sternotomy was recommended to obtain adequate proximal control. Her aneurysm was successfully repaired using a combination of open and endovascular method. The repair was performed through a right-hand side anterior sternocleidomastoid neck incision, and proximal vascular control was obtained with an 8.5-mm balloon positioned under fluoroscopic guidance via a femoral puncture.

  10. Carotid Stent Fracture from Stylocarotid Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Jeffrey D; Joyner, David A; Farley, Edward P; Khan, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is a rare condition resulting from elongation of the temporal styloid process or calcification of its associated stylohyoid ligaments. Although usually presenting with pain or odynophagia, Eagle syndrome has been reported to cause a multitude of neurologic symptoms or vascular complications, some of which can be life-threatening. We present a case in which an endovascularly placed internal carotid artery stent in close proximity to a calcified stylohyoid ligament resulted in stent fracture with subsequent stent and vessel occlusion. We review and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, etiology, complications and treatment options of the syndrome.

  11. Pulse Wave Velocity in the Carotid Artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jensen, Julie Brinck; Udesen, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the carotid artery (CA) has been estimated based on ultrasound data collected by the experimental scanner RASMUS at DTU. Data is collected from one test subject using a frame rate (FR) of 4000 Hz. The influence of FRs is also investigated. The PWV is calculated from...... distension wave forms (DWF) estimated using cross-correlation. The obtained velocities give results in the area between 3-4 m/s, and the deviations between estimated PWV from two beats of a pulse are around 10%. The results indicate that the method presented is applicable for detecting the local PWV...

  12. Association between the Gensini Score and Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Serdar; Tabakçı, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Alizade, Elnur; Acar, Emrah; Bayam, Emrah; Tellice, Muhammet; Naser, Abdurrahman; Kargın, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the extent of coronary artery disease assessed by the Gensini score and/or the SYNTAX score and the significant carotid stenosis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Subjects and Methods A total of 225 patients who had carotid doppler ultrasonography prior to CABG were included retrospectively. Significant coronary artery disease was assumed as a lumen diameter stenosis of ≥50% in any of the major epicardial coronary arteries. The severity of carotid stenosis was determined by B-mode and duplex ultrasonography. Clinically significant carotid stenosis was defined as peak systolic velocity greater than 125 cm/s. Results The mean value of SYNTAX score and Gensini score was highest in patients allocated to significant carotid stenosis (22.98±7.32, p<0.001 and 77.40±32.35, p<0.001, respectively). The other risk factors for significant carotid stenosis were found to be male gender (p=0.029), carotid bruit (p<0.001), diabetes (p=0.021), left main disease (p=0.002), 3-vessel disease (p=0.008), chronic total coronary occlusion (p=0.001), and coronary artery calcification (p=0.001) in univariate analysis. However, only the Gensini score (odds ratio[OR]=1.030, p=0.004), carotid bruit (OR=0.068, p<0.001), and male gender (OR=0.190, p=0.003) were the independent predictors. The Gensini score cut off value predicting significant carotid stenosis was 50.5 with 77% sensitivity (p<0.001). Conclusion The Gensini score may be used to identify patients at high risk for significant carotid stenosis prior to CABG. PMID:27721854

  13. Experiences with carotid endarterectomy at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan Madathipat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid artery disease poses a grave threat to cerebral circulation, leading to a stroke with its devastating sequelae, if left untreated. Carotid endarterectomy has a proven track record with compelling evidence in stroke prevention. Objectives: aTo confirm that carotid endarterectomy (CEA is safe and effective in preventing stroke at both short and long term. b to demonstrate long term patency of internal carotid artery when arteriotomy repair is performed using autologous saphenous vein patch. Materials and Methods: During ten years, from September 1997 to February 2008, thirty nine patients who underwent consecutive carotid endarterectomy at our institute, form the basis of this report. Their age ranged from thirty to seventy eight years, with a mean age of 56. There were four women in this cohort. Thirty seven patients were symptomatic with> 70% stenosis and two were asymptomatic with> 80% stenosis, incidentally detected. Imaging included Duplex scan and MRA for carotid territory and brain, and non-invasive cardiac assessment. Co-morbidities included smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Carotid Endarterectomy was performed under general anaesthesia, using carotid shunt and vein patch arteriotomy repair. Results: All the patients made satisfactory recovery, without major adverse cerebral events in this series. Morbidities included Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA in two, needing only medications in one, and carotid stenting in the other. Minor morbidities included neck hematoma in two and transient hypoglossal paresis in three patients. Yearly follow-up included duplex scan assessment for all the patients. Two patients died of contralateral stroke, two of myocardial events and two were lost to follow up. Thirty three patients are well and free of the disease during the follow up of three to 120 months. Conclusion: Carotid endarterectomy provided near total freedom from adverse cerebral

  14. Estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has similar predictive value as measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Kruger, Ruan;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) adds significantly to traditional cardiovascular risk prediction, but is not widely available. Therefore, it would be helpful if cfPWV could be replaced by an estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV) using age and mean blood pres...

  15. Congenital bilateral absence of the common carotid artery and internal carotid artery: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xuan-ye; XI Gang-ming; ZHANG Ying-chun; ZHOU Shao-hua; YE Fei

    2006-01-01

    Absence of the common carotid artery(CCA) and/or internal carotid artery (ICA) is a kind of rare congenital anomaly. This paper reports one patient with bilateral absence of the CCA and ICA who suffered from cerebral infarction. And the relative literatures of the possible cause and collateral circulation were reviewed.

  16. Elective reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm type IV by transabdominal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA type IV represents an aortic dilatation from the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus to the iliac arteries branches, including visceral branches of the aorta. In the traditional procedure of TAAA type IV repair, the body is opened using thoractomy and laparotomy in order to provide adequate exposure of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta for safe aortic reconstruction. Case report. We reported a 71-yearold man with elective reconstruction of the TAAA type IV performed by transabdominal approach. Computed tomography scans angiography revealed a TAAA type IV with diameter of 62 mm in the region of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery branching, and the largest diameter of 75 mm in the infrarenal aortic level. The patient comorbidity included a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension, therefore he was treated for a prolonged period. In preparation for the planned aortic reconstruction asymptomatic carotid disease (occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and subtotal stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was diagnosed. Within the same intervention percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement in right internal carotid artery was made. In general, under endotracheal anesthesia and epidural analgesia, with transabdominal approach performed aortic reconstruction with tubular dakron graft 24 mm were, and reimplantation of visceral aortic branches into the graft performed. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the postoperative day 17. Control computed tomography scan angiography performed three months after the operation showed vascular state of the patient to be in order. Conclusion. Complete transabdominal approach to TAAA type IV represents an appropriate substitute for thoracoabdominal approach, without compromising safety of the patient. This approach is less traumatic, especially in patients with impaired

  17. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Leiner, Tim [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-18

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  18. Direct traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: angiographic classification and treatment strategies. Study of 172 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience in treatment of traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) via endovascular intervention. We hereof recommend an additional classification system for type A CCF and suggest respective treatment strategies. Only type A CCF patients (Barrow's classification) would be recruited for the study. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the CCF, we classified type A CCF into three subtypes including small size, medium size and large size fistula depending on whether there was presence of the anterior carotid artery (ACA) and/or middle carotid artery (MCA). Angiograms with opacification of both ACA and MCA were categorized as small size fistula. Angiograms with opacification of either ACA or MCA were categorized as medium size fistula and those without opacification of neither ACA nor MCA were classified as large size fiatula. After the confirm angiogram, endovascular embolization would be performed impromptu using detachable balloon, coils or both. All cases were followed up for complication and effect after the embolization. A total of 172 direct traumatic CCF patients were enrolled. The small size fistula was accountant for 12.8% (22 cases), medium size 35.5% (61 cases) and large size fistula accountant for 51.7% (89 cases). The successful rate of fistula occlusion under endovascular embolization was 94% with preservation of the carotid artery in 70%. For the treatment of each subtype, a total of 21/22 cases of the small size fistulas were successfully treated using coils alone. The other single case of small fistula was defaulted. Most of the medium and large size fistulas were cured using detachable balloons. When the fistula sealing could not be obtained using detachable balloon, coils were added to affirm the embolization of the cavernous sinus via venous access. There were about 2.9% of patient experienced direct carotid artery puncture and 0.6% puncture after carotid artery cut-down exposure. About 30% of cases experienced

  19. Correlative angiographic and pathologic findings in the diagnosis of ulcerated plaques in the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, C; Claasen, D; Hirsch, W; Wechsler, L; Moossy, J

    1991-07-01

    We determined the accuracy of angiography in the diagnosis of internal carotid ulcers by comparing the angiographic reports with the pathologic findings in 36 endarterectomy specimens. Eighteen of these specimens had microscopic ulcerations, and the observer with the highest accuracy rate read 12, of which ten were ulcerated. These results revealed a sensitivity of 56%, a specificity of 89%, and an overall accuracy of 61% for angiography. The ulcers were classified into types A, B, and C to assess the interobserver agreement rate among three readers. This resulted in a 4% interobserver agreement among a total of 75 ulcers. Because of the high interobserver disagreement and the poor correlation between angiographic and pathologic findings in the surgical specimens, we conclude that the diagnosis of carotid artery ulceration by angiography is not reliable.