WorldWideScience

Sample records for carotenoid-rich oil supplementation

  1. Influences of Orally Taken Carotenoid-Rich Curly Kale Extract on Collagen I/Elastin Index of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina C. Meinke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two differently designed, spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy-based scanners and two-photon tomography were used for noninvasive in vivo determination of cutaneous carotenoids, and collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis, respectively, in the skin of 29 healthy female volunteers between 40 and 56 years of age. The volunteers received a supplement in the form of a carotenoid-rich natural curly kale extract containing 1650 µg of carotenoids in total (three capsules of 550 µg, once a day. Measurements were taken before, after 5 months and after 10 months of daily supplementation. The results showed significantly increased values for the cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen I/elastin aging index of dermis 5 and 10 months after the beginning of the study. The obtained results show that a natural carotenoid-rich extract could prevent the aging-related collagen I degradation in the dermis and improve the extracellular matrix.

  2. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...

  3. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, MR; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G.E.; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprot...

  4. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G Ed; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprotectors? Probably not. A new study by Strong et al. challenges the role for fish oil supplementation in aging. Using a large cohort of genetically heterogeneous mice in three sites, part of the Interventions Testing Program of the NIA, Strong et al. show that fish oil supplementation at either low or high dosages has no effect on the lifespan of male or female mice. Although it is still possible that fish oil supplementation has health benefits for specific age-related diseases, it does not appear to slow aging or have longevity benefits.

  5. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Juin Kao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boiling cilantro, Thai basil leaves, and sweet potato leaves for 10 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively, and choy sum remained almost unchanged after 30 minutes of boiling. Boiling cilantro and choy sum had a negative effect on their TPC, whereas there was a significant increase in TPC of Thai basil leaf and sweet potato leaf at 1 minute and 5 minutes of boiling, respectively. During water cooking, TAC of the vegetables did not demonstrate a consistent trend. However, TCC was a vital contributor to %IP, whereas TPC showed a strong association with TEAC. Our findings suggest that a boiling time of ≤5 minutes would be better for preserving or enhancing TCC and TPC as well as revealing a higher %IP, TEAC, or metal-chelating effect for the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  6. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  7. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, de João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G.E.; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains

  8. Modulation of human T-lymphocyte functions by the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzl, B; Bub, A; Brandstetter, B R; Rechkemmer, G

    1999-11-01

    A human intervention study was conducted to determine the effect of the consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables on the immune system. Subjects, (twenty-three men), who were non-smokers, were not restricted in their daily diet, except that they had to abstain from fruit and vegetables high in carotenoids throughout the whole study period. The study was divided into four periods, each lasting 2 weeks: weeks 1-2: low-carotenoid period; throughout weeks 3-8: daily consumption of 330 ml tomato juice (40 mg lycopene/d, 1.5 mg beta-carotene/d) (weeks 3-4), 330 ml carrot juice (21.6 mg beta-carotene/d, 15.7 mg alpha-carotene/d, 0.5 mg lutein/d) (weeks 5-6), 10 g dried spinach powder (11.3 mg lutein/d, 3.1 mg beta-carotene/d) (weeks 7-8). Blood was collected weekly from subjects after a 12 h fast. T-lymphocyte functions were assessed by measuring proliferation and secretion of immunoreactive cytokines. The consumption of a low-carotenoid diet resulted in a significantly reduced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultured with concanavalin A. After 2 weeks of tomato juice consumption and until the end of the intervention period lymphocyte proliferation was not significantly changed compared with proliferation at the end of the depletion period. Secretion of cytokines by T-helper-1-like lymphocytes (interleukin (IL)-2) and by T-helper-2-like lymphocytes (IL-4) was influenced by the dietary intervention. IL-2 and IL-4 secretion values were significantly suppressed after the low-carotenoid diet (P Tomato juice consumption significantly enhanced IL-2 (P powder consumption the cytokine secretion capacity of PBMC was not significantly different from that at the end of the depletion period. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that a low-carotenoid diet reduces T-lymphocyte functions and addition of tomato juice restores these functions. This modulation could not be explained by changes in the plasma carotenoid concentrations. The

  9. No impact of fish oil supplements on bleeding risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Katrine Munk; Krag, Andreas Engel; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether...... it is necessary to discontinue fish oil supplementation prior to surgery. Methods: Studies were identified through PubMed and Embase searches and by reviewing the reference lists of the included papers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Included...... of the included studies were randomised controlled trials or included a control group. Overall, fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Fish oil exposure in surgical patients did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions either during or after surgery. Conclusion: Fish oil...

  10. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  11. Supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Alice dos Santos; Bandeira, Luana Graziella; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus olive oil, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo studies, administration of olive oil, but not fish oil, inhibited stress-induced reduction in wound contraction, reepithelialization, hydroxyproline levels, and blood vessel density. Stress-induced increases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils were reversed only by olive oil. Both oils reversed stress-induced increase in catecholamine levels and oxidative damage. In in vitro studies, olive oil treatment reversed the reduction in fibroblast migration and collagen deposition and the increase in lipid peroxidation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  13. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Shafaeizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Pectin consumption could decrease serum malondialdehyde and cholesterol in the diet that contains oxidized oil. Pectin supplementation could decrease the detrimental effects of thermally oxidized oil.

  14. Fish oil versus arachis oil food supplementation in relation to pregnancy duration in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout pregnancy, Lewis rats were fed standard rat chow supplemented with 15% (w/w) of either MaxEPA fish oil (FO) or arachis oil (AO); a third group was fed standard rat chow only (St) (n = 15, 15, and 16 rats, respectively). Compared to AO-rats, FO-rats had substantially higher levels of n-3...

  15. Effect Of Palm Oil Supplementation On The Performance Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 21-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of palm oil supplementation on the performance of broiler starter birds fed palm kernel meal based diets. One hundred and twenty (120) one-week-old Anak broilers were randomly assigned to five (5) treatment diets, each treatment diet was replicated four times at ...

  16. Red palm oil supplementation ameliorates oxidative stress in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential benefits of dietary supplementation as quenching agent against oxidative stress-related conditions has been extensively investigated. Red palm oil (RPO), from the tropical plant Elaeis guineensis has captivated much interest in the health sector lately; hence the aim to assess the potential effects of RPO ...

  17. Studies of methylhexaneamine in supplements and geranium oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, A; Hasick, N; Kazlauskas, R; Goebel, C

    2011-01-01

    A number of supplements are now available which are sold as fat burners or pre-workout boosters and contain stimulants which are banned in sport. Many contain methylhexaneamine under one of many pseudonyms including Geranamine, geranium oil or extract, or a number of chemical names such as 1,3-dimethylpentylamine. This has resulted in many athletes returning an adverse finding and having sanctions imposed. Other stimulants such as caffeine, phenpromethamine, synefrine, and phenethylamines are also to be found in supplements. This communication shows that geranium oils do not contain methylhexaneamine and that products labelled as containing geranium oil but which contain methylhexaneamine can only arise from the addition of synthetic material. Since the usual dose of methylhexaneamine is large, the drug is excreted at relatively high amounts for more than 29 h, the time for which the excretion was studied. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    OpenAIRE

    Khayef Golandam; Young Julia; Burns-Whitmore Bonny; Spalding Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflamm...

  19. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  20. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayef Golandam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3 relative to omega-6 (n-6 fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. Findings There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. Conclusion There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

  1. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja M.R.

    2007-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 3 2 intervention in 64 healthy......-a, INF-g, and IL-10 concentrations in whole-blood cultures, stimulated for 22 h with LPS1phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei, were also determined. IgA was measured in feces when infants were 10 mo of age. FO supplementation effectively raised erythrocyte (n-3) PUFA (P , 0.001), increased......, this study suggests a faster immune maturation with FO supplementation with no apparent reduction in immune activation. The implications for later health need further investigation. J...

  2. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Lauritzen, L.; Kjaer, T.M.R.

    2007-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 x 2 intervention in 64 healthy......-alpha, INF-gamma, and IL-10 concentrations in whole-blood cultures, stimulated for 22 h with LPS+phytohema-glutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei, were also determined. IgA was measured in feces when infants were 10 mo of age. FO supplementation effectively raised erythrocyte (n-3) PUFA (P ..., this study suggests a faster immune maturation with FO supplementation with no apparent reduction in immune activation. The implications for later health need further investigation....

  3. Soybean oil and linseed oil supplementation affect profiles of ruminal microorganisms in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S L; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Hu, Z Y; Li, D; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Loor, J J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal microorganisms and fermentation parameters due to dietary supplementation of soybean and linseed oil alone or in combination. Four dietary treatments were tested in a Latin square designed experiment using four primiparous rumen-cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were control (C, 60 : 40 forage to concentrate) or C with 4% soybean oil (S), 4% linseed oil (L) or 2% soybean oil plus 2% linseed oil (SL) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four periods of 21 days. Forage and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0800 and 2000 h daily. Ruminal fluid was collected every 2 h over a 12-h period on day 19 of each experimental period and pH was measured immediately. Samples were prepared for analyses of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by GLC and ammonia. Counts of total and individual bacterial groups (cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic bacteria and total viable bacteria) were performed using the roll-tube technique, and protozoa counts were measured via microscopy in ruminal fluid collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after the morning feeding. Content of ruminal digesta was obtained via the rumen cannula before the morning feeding and used immediately for DNA extraction and quantity of specific bacterial species was obtained using real- time PCR. Ruminal pH did not differ but total VFA (110 v. 105 mmol/l) were lower (P oil supplementation compared with C. Concentration of ruminal NH3-N (4.4 v. 5.6 mmol/l) was greater (P oil compared with C. Compared with C, oil supplementation resulted in lower (P oil compared with C (P oil treatments, the amount of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in ruminal fluid was substantially lower (P oil level or type. Overall, the results indicate that some ruminal microorganisms, except proteolytic bacteria, are highly susceptible to dietary unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, particularly when linolenic acid rich oils were fed. Dietary

  4. Contrasting effect of fish oil supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in murine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zampolli, Antonella; Bysted, Anette; Leth, Torben

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Increased fish oil intake is associated with protection against coronary heart disease and sudden death, while effects on atherosclerosis are controversial. We explored the effects of supplementing fish oil (rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA) or corn oil (rich in n-6 PUFA......) in two different models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Sixty-three low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and sixty-nine apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice were fed diets without supplementations or supplemented with either 1% fish oil or 1% corn oil. In apo...... unsupplemented group). Atherosclerosis was significantly less in the fish oil group compared with the corn oil group when evaluated en face in the aortic arch (area positive to lipid staining: 32% with fish oil versus 38% with corn oil; 48% with unsupplemented diet). Conclusions: n-3 and n-6 PUFA supplementation...

  5. Sows’ parity and coconut oil postnatal supplement on piglets performance

    OpenAIRE

    Luan S Santos; Caldara,Fabiana R.; Machado,Sivanilza T.; Irenilza A Nääs; Luciana Foppa; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Rafael Moura; Simone P Machado

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of sows’ of different parities and the supplement of coconut oil for piglets, on the development of litter. Materials and methods. A total of 51 sows of different parities and their 642 piglets were used in the trial. Each piglet was weighed and identified at birth in a sequential order. They were randomly distributed in two treatments (CG=control group and TG=test group). TG piglets had the first access to a dosage of 3.0 ml of cocon...

  6. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Bengtson Nash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  7. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-28

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  8. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  9. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...

  10. Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillander, Veronika; Bjørndal, Bodil; Burri, Lena; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K; Alexson, Stefan Eh

    2014-01-01

    Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium. Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in the early steps of

  11. Combined fish oil and astaxanthin supplementation modulates rat lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, Rosemari; Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; de Cássia Santos Macedo, Rita; Campoio, Thais Regina; Fineto, Claudio; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Leite, José Roberto; Barros, Marcelo Paes; Mattei, Rita

    2012-09-01

    Higher intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are abundant in marine fishes have been long described as a "good nutritional intervention" with increasing clinical benefits to cardiovascular health, inflammation, mental, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of daily fish oil (FO-10 mg EPA/kg body weight (BW) and 7 mg DHA/kg BW) intake by oral gavage associated with the antioxidant astaxanthin (ASTA-1 mg/kg BW) on the redox metabolism and the functional properties of lymphocytes from rat lymph nodes. This study was conducted by measurements of lymphocyte proliferation capacity, ROS production [superoxide (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)], nitric oxide (NO(•)) generation, intracellular calcium release, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, activities of major antioxidant enzymes, GSH/GSSG content, and cytokines release. After 45 days of FO + ASTA supplementation, the proliferation capacity of activated T- and B-lymphocytes was significantly diminished followed by lower levels of O₂(•-), H₂O₂ and NO(•) production, and increased activities of total/SOD, GR and GPx, and calcium release in cytosol. ASTA was able to prevent oxidative modification in cell structures through the suppression of the oxidative stress condition imposed by FO. L: -selectin was increased by FO, and IL-1β was decreased only by ASTA supplementation. We can propose that association of ASTA with FO could be a good strategy to prevent oxidative stress induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids and also to potentiate immuno-modulatory effects of FO.

  12. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ierna, Michelle; Kerr, Alison; Scales, H. E.; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the st...

  13. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Sorensen, J.D.; Secher, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    duration, birthweight, and birth length of a fish-oil supplement, a control olive-oil supplement, and no supplementation. 533 healthy Danish women in week 30 of pregnancy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2/1/1 to fish oil (four 1 g Pikasol capsules [containing 2.7 g n-3 fatty acids] per day), olive oil...... (four 1 g capsules per day), or no supplement. The three groups differed in mean length of gestation (p = 0.006), which was highest in the fish-oil group and lowest in the olive-oil group; the result was similar when the analysis was restricted to women with an estimate of gestation length based...... on early ultrasound findings (443 women). Pregnancies in the fish-oil group were on average 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5-6.4) days longer than those in the olive-oil group; the difference in birthweight was 107 (1-214) g. The effect of supplementation on length of gestation was influenced by intake...

  14. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia M M; Ferreira, Célia C D; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA...

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  16. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierna, Michelle; Kerr, Alison; Scales, Hannah; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko

    2010-06-29

    Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-beta were determined by a Luminex assay system. Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1alpha and IL-13. The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  17. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Kjetil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  18. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  19. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  20. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg-1 (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg-1 for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia M M; Ferreira, Célia C D; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Low SFA (cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Peffect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat.

  2. Dietary supplementation with hybrid palm oil alters liver function in the common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Flavia; Sales, Rafael Carvalho; Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Medeiros, Priscylla da Costa; Latasa, Maria-Jesús; Lima, Monique Ribeiro; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Martin-Hernández, Roberto; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Mantilla-Escalante, Diana C; das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Maria; Dávalos, Alberto

    2018-02-09

    Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months did not modify plasma lipids levels, but increased glucose levels as compared to the supplementation with African palm oil. Liver volume was unexpectedly found to be more increased in marmosets consuming hybrid palm oil than in those consuming African palm oil. Hepatic total lipid content and circulating transaminases were dramatically increased in animals consuming hybrid palm oil, as well as an increased degree of fibrosis. Analysis of liver miRNAs showed a selective modulation of certain miRNAs by hybrid palm oil, some of which were predicted to target genes involved in cell adhesion molecules and peroxisomal pathways. Our data suggest that consumption of hybrid palm oil should be monitored carefully, as its overconsumption compared to that of African palm oil could involve important alterations to hepatic metabolism.

  3. Improving oxidative stability of liquid fish oil supplements for pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Griinari, Mikko; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    of vegetable oil inclusion, the omega-3 EPA and DHA content of the blends is at least 21% of total fatty acids for both fish and tuna oil based blends. In this study we wanted to examine, whether we could reduce the level of vegetable oil inclusion without compromising oxidative stability. This study...

  4. Citrus Peel Oils Supplementation in Broiler Diet: Effects on Performance, Jejunum Microflora and Jejunum Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Erhan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine citrus peel oils (orange, lemon, bergamot as food supplementation in different levels on performance, microflora and morphology in broilers. The trial consisted of 1-day-old male and female Ross 308 chicks (250 male 250 female. The study consisted of 10 groups in total and each group was replicated five times. Experimental diets were prepared by adding orange, lemon and bergamot peel oil levels (1,2 and 3 mL/kg to basal diet. It was observed that the supplementation of citrus peel oils to the diet improved significantly the feed conversion rate. Especially the lowest feed intake and the best feed conversion ratio were received from broilers which were fed 3 mL/kg of orange peel oil. The study shows that the count of Escherichia coli (E.coli and lactic acid bacteria in the jejunum decreased significantly with the supplementation of bergamot peel oil to broilers diets. Citrus peel oil, in contrast to bergamot peel oil, significantly increased lactic acid bacteria count. The highest lactic acid bacteria count was determined in birds fed 3 mL/kg with orange peel oil. In the result of this study, both the length and density of villi and the density of blood and lymphatic capillary in the jejunum increased significantly by dietary 3 mL/kg orange peel oil supplementation. Finally, our results indicate that, especially 3 mL/kg orange peel oil has positive effects on performance, jejunum microflora, and jejunum morphology. It could be advised to supply broilers feed with 3 mL/kg orange peel oil as feed additives.

  5. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  6. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  7. Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation in Male Rats with Crude Oil-Induced Reproductive Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuchukwu S. OCHIOGU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil intoxication is a major threat among people and animals living around the crude oil producing regions of the world, hence the search for ameliorating agents. Forty-four male Wistar rats assigned into three groups were used to investigate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on crude oil-induced reprotoxicity (reproductive toxicity in male rats. Group A represented the unexposed control, whereas groups B and C were exposed orally to 0.15 and 0.3 ml of crude oil respectively every other day for 56 days. Both the low dose and high dose oral administration of crude oil caused a significant reduction in the serum testosterone level (STL and cauda epididymal sperm reserve (CESR of the exposed rats when compared to the control. Crude oil withdrawal and vitamin E supplementation significantly improved the cauda epididymal sperm reserve (CESR in all the subgroups. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities of the control and low dose group were significantly lower than those of the high dose group. The high dose crude oil administration significantly decreased the mean serum total protein (STP and sodium ions (Na+ concentration. The mean serum total cholesterol (STC value of the low dose group was significantly higher than those of the control and high dose group. However, crude oil withdrawal and vitamin E supplementation did not significantly alter the mean serum total protein (STP and mean serum total cholesterol (STC values in all the subgroups. Vitamin E supplementation following low dose crude oil withdrawal enhanced the mean serum Chloride ions (Cl-concentration. The present findings revealed that Nigerian Qua Iboe Brent crude oil induced serious reprotoxic effects in male rats which vitamin E administration within 28 days did not completely reverse.

  8. Effects of Some Tropical Plant Oils Supplemented Diet on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression analysis results showed that there was no relationship between some of the fatty acids of the plant oils and blood serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol except that of palmitic and stearic acids of bullet pear fruit oil which showed strong relationship ...

  9. The Effect of Krill Oil Supplementation on Exercise Performance and Markers of Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasole Da Boit

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a rich source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which may alter immune function after exercise. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of krill oil supplementation on post exercise immune function and performance.Nineteen males and 18 females (age: 25.8 ± 5.3 years; mean ± S.D. were randomly assigned to 2 g/day of krill oil (n = 18 or placebo (n = 19 supplementation for 6 weeks. A maximal incremental exercise test and cycling time trial (time to complete set amount of work were performed pre-supplementation with the time trial repeated post-supplementation. Blood samples collected pre- and post- supplementation at rest, and immediately, 1 and 3h post-exercise. Plasma IL-6 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentrations and, erythrocyte fatty acid composition were measured. Natural killer (NK cell cytotoxic activity and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production were also measured.No effects of gender were noted for any variable. PBMC IL-2 and NK cell cytotoxic activity were greater (P < 0.05 3h post exercise in the krill oil compared to the control group. Plasma IL-6 and TBARS, PBMC IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production, along with performance and physiological measures during exercise, were not different between groups.Six weeks of krill oil supplementation can increase PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity 3h post-exercise in both healthy young males and females. Krill oil does not modify exercise performance.

  10. The Effect of Krill Oil Supplementation on Exercise Performance and Markers of Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Mastalurova, Ina; Brazaite, Goda; McGovern, Niall; Thompson, Keith; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2015-01-01

    Krill oil is a rich source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which may alter immune function after exercise. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of krill oil supplementation on post exercise immune function and performance. Nineteen males and 18 females (age: 25.8 ± 5.3 years; mean ± S.D.) were randomly assigned to 2 g/day of krill oil (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19) supplementation for 6 weeks. A maximal incremental exercise test and cycling time trial (time to complete set amount of work) were performed pre-supplementation with the time trial repeated post-supplementation. Blood samples collected pre- and post- supplementation at rest, and immediately, 1 and 3h post-exercise. Plasma IL-6 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations and, erythrocyte fatty acid composition were measured. Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production were also measured. No effects of gender were noted for any variable. PBMC IL-2 and NK cell cytotoxic activity were greater (P exercise in the krill oil compared to the control group. Plasma IL-6 and TBARS, PBMC IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production, along with performance and physiological measures during exercise, were not different between groups. Six weeks of krill oil supplementation can increase PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity 3h post-exercise in both healthy young males and females. Krill oil does not modify exercise performance.

  11. Effects of maternal linseed oil supplementation on oxidative stress markers in cafeteria diet induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafida Merzouk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of dietary linseed oil in the modulation of biochemical parameters and oxidant/antioxidant markers in cafeteria-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female wistar rats were fed on control or cafeteria diet, supplemented or not with linseed oil (5% for one month before and during the gestation. At parturition, the mothers and their offspring were killed. Weight gain, food intake, serum biochemical and oxidant/antioxidant markers were determined. Cafeteria diet induced a significant increase in body weight, food intake and adverse alterations in biochemical parameters such as an increase in serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and oxidant markers. Linseed oil supplementation induced a reduction in weight gain, serum lipids and a modulation of oxidative stress, improving metabolic status. In conclusions, linseed oil displayed remarkable health benefits by decreasing plasma and oxidant/antioxidant markers in both obese mothers and their newborns.

  12. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed oil supplemented diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementation of the chickens diet with graded level of MOSO showed significant (P<0.05) differences in the feed intake observable within each genotype from weeks 1- 5 with the values decreasing as the level of MOSO inclusion increased. Analysis of the interaction between diets and genotype showed a significant ...

  14. Effect of Palm Oil Supplementation in Yam Peel Meal Diets Fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The YPM based diets had equal amounts of yam peels (20%, determined as the best level of inclusion of YPM from a previous trial) in both the starter and finisher phases of the experiment and were supplemented with varying levels of palm oil (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%) for diets 1-5 respectively. During the starter phase of the ...

  15. Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; Travis, John; Pace, Gerry; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a sympathomimetic compound currently incorporated into some dietary supplements. Significant controversy exists regarding the 'natural' origin of DMAA, as claimed by manufacturers of supplements. Manufacturers often refer to its presence by the name Geranamine® implying that DMAA is found in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium known collectively as Geraniaceae. This study determined whether DMAA is present in the plant species, Geranium and Pelargonium. In addition, concentrations of DMAA in popular dietary supplements and commercial Geranium and Pelargonium oils were assessed. One Pelargonium cultivar, one Geranium cultivar, three essential oils from Pelargonium or Geranium, raw DMAA powder, and seven dietary supplements (DS) sold as finished products and labelled as containing DMAA, or one of its synonyms, were analyzed for the presence of DMAA by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). No measurable levels of DMAA in Geranium, Pelargonium or essential oils at a detection limit of 1-2 ng/g were present. UPLC/MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA in spiked plant and oil samples, all seven DS products, and raw DMAA powder. Concentrations (weight%) of DMAA provided in DS ranged from 0.11% to 673%. This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS is not substantiated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of palm oil supplementation on carcass yield and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of palm oil supplementation on carcass yield and fatty acid composition of growing rabbits. ... In the liver, only laurie, stearic and myristic acids were detected, with the latter not detected in the liver of control group. Three rabbits on the control diet died as a result of speticaemia. It was concluded from this study that PO ...

  17. Effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementation to the feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total No. of 200 three weeks old Japanese quail from the breeding flock in the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, were used in this study. The quail chicks were randomly allotted equally to five groups (40 birds per each. For 4 weeks experimental period birds were kept in battery cages and water and feed were provided ad libitum. A basal diet of 24% protein and 3000 kcal M.E./Kg was formulated to cover all nutrients needed. The experimental design included five tested groups as follows: group (1: birds fed on the basal diet and served as control. Group (2: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Group (3: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame seeds. Group (4: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2%sesame oil. Group (5: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame oil. The effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementations in feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese quails was investigated. It was observed that the groups of quails supplemented with 4% sesame seeds or 4%oil recorded the lowest body weight. Female and male carcass weight had significant increase in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Total lipids in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Cholesterol content in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% sesame seeds while triglycerides in the eggs recorded significant decrease in the group supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Eggs weight did not significantly change due to the feeding on sesame seeds or oil but, the group supplemented with 4%seeds laid higher number of eggs than other groups. Serum total protein, albumin, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, urea, creastinine, total triiodothyronine (T3 and total thyroxin(T4 concentrations were

  18. Dietary supplementation with fish oil modifies the ability of human monocytes to induce an inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Nguyet-Thin; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F; Shearman, Cliff P; Chan, Tim; Dastur, Neville; Howell, William M; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B

    2007-12-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are key orchestrators of inflammation and are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis. (n-3) Fatty acids, found in fish oil, have been shown to have protective effects in such disorders. To investigate possible modes of action, we used a monocyte:endothelial cell (EC) coculture model to investigate the pro-inflammatory potential of monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from the blood of donors with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or control donors, before and after a 12-wk supplementation of their diet with fish oil. The monocytes were cultured with human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) for 24 h, after which the ability of the HUVEC to recruit flowing neutrophils was tested. Monocytes from either group of donors stimulated the EC to support the adhesion and migration of neutrophils. Fish oil supplementation reduced the potency of monocytes from normal subjects, but not those from patients with PAD, to induce recruitment. Concurrent medication may have acted as a complicating factor. On subgroup analysis, only those free of medication showed a significant effect of fish oil. Responses before or after supplementation were not closely linked to patterns of secretion of cytokines by cultured monocytes, tested in parallel monocultures. These results suggest that fish oil can modulate the ability of monocytes to stimulate EC and that this might contribute to their protective effects against chronic inflammatory disorders. Benefits, however, may depend on existing medical status and on other treatments being received.

  19. 75 FR 7440 - Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental... Forest Service Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental... considered, the FS must receive written comments on the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the...

  20. Altered monocyte CD44 expression in peripheral arterial disease is corrected by fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J; Shearman, C P; Dunn, R L; Dastur, N D; Tan, R M; Nash, G B; Rainger, G Ed; Brunner, A; Calder, P C; Grimble, R F

    2009-05-01

    CD44 and its splice variants can be expressed on all leukocytes, conferring adhesive properties and enhancing cellular recruitment to the endothelium during inflammation. CD44 expression is increased in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and CD44 variant 3 (CD44v3) expression may be associated with inflammation. We have examined CD44 and CD44v3 expression on peripheral blood monocytes from patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls. We have also examined the effect of fish oil supplementation on these markers. CD44 and CD44v3 were assessed at baseline and following dietary supplementation with fish oil for 12 weeks in both PAD and control groups. Monocytes from PAD patients had higher CD44 expression than those from controls (median intensity fluorescence (MIF): 480+/-278 vs 336+/-251 (mean+/-SD); p<0.001). Following 12 weeks' dietary supplementation with fish oil, CD44 expression was reduced in PAD patients (MIF: 480+/-278 vs 427+/-262; p=0.05) but not in controls (336+/-251 vs 355+/-280; ns). Monocyte CD44v3 expression was lower in cultured monocytes from PAD patients compared to those from controls (0.15+/-0.15 vs 0.22+/-0.14 OD units; p<0.02). This was increased in the PAD group following fish oil supplementation (0.15+/-0.14 to 0.27+/-0.23 OD units; p<0.001). Monocyte CD44 and CD44v3 expression are altered in arterial disease but are returned towards levels seen in control subjects by dietary fish oil supplementation.

  1. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  2. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD

    2007-01-01

    at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  3. Polymorphisms, de novo lipogenesis, and plasma triglyceride response following fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Interindividual variability in the response of plasma triglyceride concentrations (TG) following fish oil consumption has been observed. Our objective was to examine the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes encoding proteins involved in de novo lipogenesis and the relative change in plasma TG levels following a fish oil supplementation. Two hundred and eight participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9-2.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid. SNPs within SREBF1, ACLY, and ACACA genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. After correction for multiple comparison, only two SNPs, rs8071753 (ACLY) and rs1714987 (ACACA), were associated with the relative change in plasma TG concentrations (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively). These two SNPs explained 7.73% of the variance in plasma TG relative change following fish oil consumption. Genotype frequencies of rs8071753 according to the TG response groups (responders versus nonresponders) were different (P = 0.02). We conclude that the presence of certain SNPs within genes, such as ACLY and ACACA, encoding proteins involved in de novo lipogenesis seem to influence the plasma TG response following fish oil consumption.

  4. A Canola Oil-Supplemented Diet Prevents Type I Diabetes-Caused Lipotoxicity and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio; Camargo, Estela Melendez; Esteves-Carmona, María Miriam; Oliart-Ros, Rosa Maria; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated. The mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads were dissected and weighed. The kidneys were used for lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantifications. Diabetic rats fed with a canola oil-supplemented diet had higher body weights, were less hyperphagic, and their mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads weighed more than diabetic rats on an unsupplemented diet. The canola oil-supplemented diet decreased plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol; showed improved osmolarity, water clearances, and creatinine depuration; and had decreased LP and ROS. A canola oil-supplemented diet decreases hyperphagia and prevents lipotoxicity and renal dysfunction in a type I diabetes mellitus model.

  5. Marine Oil Supplements for Arthritis Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna K. Senftleber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched systematically (24 February 2015. We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML-based meta-regression analysis. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE was used to rate the overall quality of the evidence. Forty-two trials were included; 30 trials reported complete data on pain. The standardized mean difference (SMD suggested a favorable effect (−0.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, −0.42 to −0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; −0.21; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.004 and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; −0.63; 95% CI, −1.20 to −0.06, but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; −0.17; 95% CI, −0.57–0.24. The evidence for using marine oil to alleviate pain in arthritis patients was overall of low quality, but of moderate quality in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  6. Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabara, Sandro M; Folador, Alessandra; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Lambertucci, Rafael H; Rodrigues, Carlos F; Rocha, Marlene S; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Amanda R; Rodrigues, Alice C; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Fernandes, Luiz C; Gorjão, Renata; Curi, Rui

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil supplementation for two consecutive generations on insulin sensitivity in rats. After the nursing period (21 days), female rats from the same prole were divided into two groups: (a) control group and (b) fish oil group. Female rats were supplemented with water (control) or fish oil at 1 g/kg body weight as a single bolus for 3 months. After this period, female rats were mated with male Wistar rats fed on a balanced chow diet (not supplemented). Female rats continued to receive supplementation throughout gestation and lactation periods. The same treatment was performed for the next two generations (G1 and G2). At 75 days of age, male offspring from G1 and G2 generations from both groups were used in the experiments. G1 rats did not present any difference with control rats. However, G2 rats presented reduction in glycemia and lipidemia and improvement in in vivo insulin sensitivity (model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin tolerance test) as well as in vitro insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle (glucose uptake and metabolism). This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, but not with activation of proteins from insulin signaling (IR, IRS-1 and Akt). Global DNA methylation was decreased in liver but not in soleus muscle. These results suggest that long-term fish oil supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in association with increased insulin-stimulated p38 activation and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in skeletal muscle and decreased global DNA methylation in liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  8. [Effects of vegetal oil supplementation on the lipid profile of Wistar rats ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Elpidia; Ayala, Paola; Milena, Rodríguez; Ordóñez, Edgar; Baracaldo, Cesar; Delgado, Willman; Guerra, Martha

    2005-03-01

    Dietary tocopherols, tocotrienols and saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to have an effect on blood lipid profiles. In Colombia, vegetable oils (palm, soy, corn, sunflower, and canola) are a common dietary constituent and consumed in high quantities. In the current study, the effects of vegetable oil consumption was examined by measuring blood concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in male Wistar rats. The concentrations of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and fatty acids in each oil was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Each rat diet was supplemented with 0.2 ml/day with one oil type. Over a 4-week period, groups of animals were sacrificed weekly and blood samples were obtained to quantify TC, TG and HDL-C for each oil class. Statistical analyses included mean, standard deviation, ANOVA and Bonferroni comparisons tests. Triglyceride content was not affected except in the control and the soy group in the third treatment week, although a tendency for decreased TG was noted in the palm oil group and for increased TG in the sunflower oil and canola oil groups. No significant differences in total cholesterol were observed. In HDL-C, significant differences were present for every treatment week (p = 0.005); this represented a decreasing trend in palm oil group and an increasing trend in the sunflower and corn oil groups. The oils effected changes in the blood lipid profile. A small amount of saturated fatty acids (tocopherol and tocotrienol) were favourable for the HDL-C increase. The presenct of tocorienols tended to decrease the TG and probably helped attenuate the unfavorable effects of the saturated fatty acids.

  9. Effect of chronic supplementation with shark liver oil on immune responses of exercise-trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Daniele Cristina; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Curi, Rui; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO) improves immune response of lymphocyte, macrophage and neutrophil in animal models and humans. In a similar manner, exercise training also stimulates the immune system. However, we are not aware of any study about the association of exercise and SLO supplementation on immune response. Thus, our main goal was to investigate the effect of chronic supplementation with SLO on immune responses of exercise-trained rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary with no supplementation (SED, n = 20), sedentary with SLO supplementation (SEDslo, n = 20), exercised (EX, n = 17) and exercised supplemented with SLO (EXslo, n = 19). Rats swam for 6 weeks, 1.5 h/day, in water at 32 +/- 1 degrees C, with a load of 6.0% body weight attached to the thorax of rat. Animals were killed 48 h after the last exercise session. SLO supplementation did not change phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by peritoneal macrophages and blood neutrophils. Thymus and spleen lymphocyte proliferation were significantly higher in SEDslo, EX, and EXslo groups compared with SED group (P immune response and also did not modify innate immunity.

  10. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  11. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J; Llamas-Elvira, José M; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Speranza, Lorenza; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2017-06-29

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F₂-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F₂-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals.

  12. Neutralization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate for Vitamin Supplement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelem Iribarrem Benites

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD, a byproduct of the soybean oil refining process, is a complex mixture of compounds, such as free fatty acids (FFA, hydrocarbons, and sterols, such as tocopherols, a class of major natural antioxidants with vitamin E activity. As the utilization of SODD for tocopherol extraction is shown to be not economically viable, SODD in the semirefined form (neutral is an interesting alternative to animal and possibly human diet enrichment. This study aimed to evaluate the SODD neutralization process varying the alkali (Na2CO3 concentration, temperature, and homogenization time. The optimal conditions for the neutralizing process, in order to obtain the greatest reduction in FFA content, the lowest leaching of tocopherols, and the greatest yield, were the following: Na2CO2 concentration of 4.34 N, temperature of 45.8°C, and homogenization time of 3 min 20 s. The FFA content was reduced from 53.4% to 6.1% after the initial neutralization, thus requiring a second neutralization step. The final FFA content was of 1.8% and total tocopherol (TT accounted for about 11% of SODD.

  13. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino APA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4 1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA.Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value.Results: Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020. The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (P<0.050, suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol.Conclusion: The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed

  14. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and offspring risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Maslova, E.; Hansen, S.

    2013-01-01

    . Objective: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Methods: We used data from 397 and 654 singleton offspring of mothers who were randomized to fish oil (providing 1 g/day of DHA) or olive oil during...... pregnancy as participants in: the RCT90, a single center trial enrolling normal pregnancies in 1990, and FOTIP, a multicenter trial enrolling high-risk pregnancies during 1990–1996. We used definitions of ADHD and depression based on ICD-10 codes and drug dispensary data, using information on first...... in the fish oil group, [OR = 0.71(95% CI: 0.38;1.33)]; whereas the OR in the FOTIP was approaching unity [OR = 1.09 (95%CI 0.53;2.25)]. Conclusions: We found no statistically significant effects of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on ADHD or depression in the offspring up to the age of 14–20. However...

  15. Citrus Peel Oils Supplementation in Broiler Diet: Effects on Performance, Jejunum Microflora and Jejunum Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan, MK; Bölükbaşı, ŞC

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine citrus peel oils (orange, lemon, bergamot) as food supplementation in different levels on performance, microflora and morphology in broilers. The trial consisted of 1-day-old male and female Ross 308 chicks (250 male 250 female). The study consisted of 10 groups in total and each group was replicated five times. Experimental diets were prepared by adding orange, lemon and bergamot peel oil levels (1,2 and 3 mL/kg) to basal diet. It was observed...

  16. Supplementation with corn oil and palm kernel oil to grazing cows: ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Esteban Parales Girón

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of supplementation with corn oil (CO and its mixture with palm kernel oil (CO:PKO 75:25 to grazing cows on ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and its fatty acid (FA profile was evaluated. The treatments were: one control treatment (C without oil and two treatments with 720 g d−1/cow of CO or CO:PKO (ether extract: 22.7 g kg−1 for control treatment, 66 g kg−1 for CO, and 65 g kg−1 for CO:PKO. Six multiparous Holstein cows (6.3±1.8 yr, 597±11.5 kg body weight (BW, 160±29 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation were assigned to a double 3 × 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows grazed (3 kg DM/100 kg BW a Cenchrus clandestinus (previously Pennisetum clandestinum pasture and were supplemented with 0.9 kg d−1 DM corn silage, 4.2 kg d−1 DM concentrate, and 9 g Cr2O3. The mixture of concentrate and oils was offered twice a day. The addition of oils increased milk yield (kg d−1 (C: 21.4, CO: 23.6, CO:PKO: 23.9 and milk fat concentration (g kg milk−1 (C: 31.5, CO: 34.0, CO:PKO: 34.0. Compared with control, conjugated linoleic acid (18:2c9 t11 CLA proportion (g 100 g−1 FA in milk fat was higher for oil treatments (C: 0.68, CO: 1.56, CO:PKO: 1.01. Voluntary intake and digestibility were not different among treatments. The molar ratio of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was not different among treatments, but the molar concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA was lower for CO and CO:PKO, resulting in a lower estimated methane (CH4 production (mL/100 mol VFA for CO and CO:PKO treatments. Supplementing CO and CO:PKO to grazing dairy cows increases milk yield without affecting voluntary intake or diet digestibility. The proportion of conjugated linoleic acid increases more for CO than for CO:PKO.

  17. Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Naiane F B; Porpino, Suênia K P; Monteiro, Matheus M O; Gomes, Enéas R M; Braga, Valdir A

    2015-04-01

    The hypothesis that oral supplementation with virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and exercise training would improve impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and reduce oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was tested. Adult male SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were divided into 5 groups: WKY + saline (n = 8); SHR + saline (n = 8); SHR + coconut oil (2 mL·day(-1), n = 8); SHR + trained (n = 8); and SHR + trained + coconut oil (n = 8). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded and BRS was tested using phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, intravenous) and sodium nitroprusside (25 μg·kg(-1), intravenous). Oxidative stress was measured using dihydroethidium in heart and aorta. SHR + saline, SHR + coconut oil, and SHR + trained group showed higher MAP compared with WKY + saline (175 ± 6, 148 ± 6, 147 ± 7 vs. 113 ± 2 mm Hg; p coconut oil, SHR + trained group, and SHR + trained + coconut oil groups presented lower MAP compared with SHR + saline group (148 ± 6, 147 ± 7, 134 ± 8 vs. 175 ± 6 mm Hg; p Coconut oil combined with exercise training improved BRS in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (-2.47 ± 0.3 vs. -1.39 ± 0.09 beats·min(-1)·mm Hg(-1); p coconut oil group presented reduced oxidative stress compared with SHR + saline in heart (622 ± 16 vs. 774 ± 31 AU, p coconut oil reduced oxidative stress in SHR compared with SHR + saline group (454 ± 33 vs. 689 ± 29 AU, p coconut oil combined with exercise training improved impaired BRS and reduced oxidative stress in SHR.

  18. The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2008-01-01

    . At baseline and at the end of the intervention, the fatty acid composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analysed by GLC and oxidative burst was studied in whole blood stimulated with zymosan using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. The PBMC content of n-3 LCPUFA was markedly increased...... a randomised 2 £ 2-factorial design in which subjects were randomly assigned to 8-week supplementation with capsules containing fish oil (about 29 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or olive oil (control). Subjects were also randomly assigned to household use of oils and fat spreads with a high or a low 18 : 2n-6 content...... by the fish oil-supplementation (P,0001, compared to the olive oil groups). No effect of the intervention was observed on neutrophil count, but one measure of the zymosan-induced oxidative burst was higher in the fish oil groups (P¼003) compared to the olive oil groups. The fat intervention did not in itself...

  19. Tocotrienol content in hen eggs: its fortification by supplementing the feed with rice bran scum oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookwong, Phumon; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Nakajima, Shin-Ichi; Amano, Yoshikazu; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2008-11-01

    Tocotrienol (T3) is an unsaturated vitamin E having health benefits (e.g., anti-angiogenesis). We measured T3 in commercial eggs, and developed T3-fortified eggs by adding rice bran scum oil (RBO, containing 1.3% T3) to the feed. Commercial eggs contained about 0.11 mg of T3/egg, while the T3 content was improved to 0.62 mg/egg after RBO supplementation to the feed of hens for 7 d.

  20. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  1. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in healthy individuals with response to 4-week n-3 fatty acid supplementation from krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-05

    Due to structural differences, bioavailability of krill oil, a phospholipid based oil, could be higher than fish oil, a triglyceride-based oil, conferring properties that render it more effective than fish oil in increasing omega-3 index and thereby, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to assess the effects of krill oil compared with fish oil or a placebo control on plasma and red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid profile in healthy volunteers. Twenty four healthy volunteers were recruited for a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The study consisted of three treatment phases including krill or fish oil each providing 600 mg of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or placebo control, corn oil in capsule form. Each treatment lasted 4 wk and was separated by 8 wk washout phases. Krill oil consumption increased plasma (p = 0.0043) and RBC (p = 0.0011) n-3 PUFA concentrations, including EPA and DHA, and reduced n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios (plasma: p = 0.0043, RBC: p = 0.0143) compared with fish oil consumption. Sum of EPA and DHA concentrations in RBC, the omega-3 index, was increased following krill oil supplementation compared with fish oil (p = 0.0143) and control (p krill (TC: p = 0.0067, LDL: p = 0.0143) and fish oil supplementation (TC: p = 0.0028, LDL: p = 0.0143) compared with control. Consumption of krill oil was well tolerated with no adverse events. Results indicate that krill oil could be more effective than fish oil in increasing n-3 PUFA, reducing n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio, and improving the omega-3 index. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01323036.

  2. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  3. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  4. Dual effects of a dispersant and nutrient supplementation on weathered Endicott oil biodegradation in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves R. Personna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the biodegradation of physically (WAF and chemically dispersed (CEWAF Endicott oil in seawater (salinity: 29.1‰ from Prince William Sound, Alaska, under low nutrient (LN (background seawater and high nutrient (HN (addition of 100 mg NO3-N/L and 10 mg PO4-P/L to background seawater at 15 ± 0.5 °C for 42 days. The dispersant was Corexit 9500. The dispersed oil concentration of the WAF (0.019 g/L ± 0.002 was an order of magnitude lower than that in the CEWAF (0.363 g/L ± 0.038. While remaining negligible in the WAF, the total oil removal in the CEWAF was 26% and 44% in LN and HN treatments, respectively. Nutrient supplementation significantly accelerated the rate of oil biodegradation as confirmed by ANOVA coupled with Tukey’s test at 95% confidence intervals (α = 0.05. GC/MS analyses revealed that biodegradation affected mainly alkane compounds. In the CEWAF, O2 consumption, CO2 production and biomass were much larger in HN than in LN treatments, which suggests that chemical dispersion of oil coupled with high nutrient concentration could be very useful in terms of remediation strategies and effective responses to oil spill at sea.

  5. Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita Oils to Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian H. Ghaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita oils to broilers for 6 weeks. A total 80 unsexed one day old Cobb broiler chicks was obtained from Cairo Company with average body weight 55g were used .The chicks were taken and randomly allocated into 4 equal groups (20 each named control, Nigella sativa oil treated group, Mentha piperita oil treated group and Nigella sativa + Mentha piperita oils treated group. Serum samples and tissue samples (liver and kidney were obtained at 21 and 42 days old for some serum biochemical analysis (ALT, AST and ALP activities; creatinine, Urea, Total protein and Albumin levels and histopathological examination (Liver and Kidney processed slide sections. The obtained results indicated that dietary supplementation of broilers diet with Nigella sativa, Mentha piperita and their combination for long period (6 weeks couldn’t alter liver and kidney functions as cleared from biochemical findings but could caused slight hepatic and renal histopathological changes as showed from histopathological examination.

  6. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  7. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  8. Predictors of change in omega-3 index with fish oil supplementation in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudi, Laura M; Schaller, Melinda S; Hiramoto, Jade; Gasper, Warren; Harris, William S; Hills, Nancy K; Grenon, S Marlene

    2017-04-01

    The omega-3 index represents the red blood cell (RBC) content of two major long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. We sought to determine factors associated with a favorable response to fish oil treatment and to characterize changes in RBC PUFAs associated with fish oil supplementation. This study was a secondary analysis of the OMEGA-PAD I trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial investigating short-duration, high-dose n-3 PUFA oral supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in subjects with peripheral arterial disease. Patients with mild to severe claudication received either 4.4 g of fish oil providing 2.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.8 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily (n = 40) or placebo capsules (n = 40) for 1 mo. The RBC fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography and expressed as a percent of total fatty acids. The change in omega-3 index was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-supplementation in the fish oil and placebo groups. Univariate analysis identified predictors of change in omega-3 index, with these variables included in our multivariable model. In the fish oil group, there was an increase in the omega-3 index (5.1± 1.3% to 9.0± 1.8%; P change in the control group. Factors associated with a favorable response (i.e., greater than the median change of 4.06%) included a lower body mass index and higher concentrations of low-density lipoproteins. Other demographic and/or lifestyle factors such as age, race, or smoking status were unrelated to the response. Oral n-3 PUFA supplementation also decreased the n-6 PUFA content in RBCs. Short-term, high-dose n-3 PUFA supplementation increases the omega-3 index to a greater extent in patients with a lower body mass index and higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Monensin sodium and functional oil as additive in protein-energy supplement for pasture-fed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of functional oil as an additive is a potential alternative to replace inorganic antimicrobial agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding functional oil consisting of cashew and castor oil or monensin sodium to protein-energy supplement on the performance of 14-month-old Nellore x Red Angus heifers (initial mean body weight [BW] of 246 kg raised on Tifton 85 pasture. The animals were randomly assigned to four treatments: 1 control (no supplementation; 2 addition of 2 g functional oil/animal/day, composed of 70% cashew oil and 30% castor oil; 3 addition of 4 g functional oil/animal/day, composed of 70% cashew oil and 30% castor oil, and 4 addition of 0.2 g monensin sodium/animal/day. The biomass availability and forage on offer were 5,940 kg dry matter/ha and 7.0 kg dry matter/100 kg BW/day, respectively. The average proportion of leaf blade, sheath plus stem and senescent material was 17.6%, 55.0% and 27.4%, respectively. The mean whole-plant contents of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro dry matter digestibility were 8.5%, 72.3% and 42.7%, respectively. A significant effect was observed for average daily gain of heifers receiving monensin (0.576 g/day compared to those that did not receive the protein-energy supplement (0.290 g/day. In contrast, the supplement containing the functional oil composed of cashew and castor oil provided weight gains (0.426 g/day similar (P>0.05 to that of the supplement with monensin (0.576 g/days. Under the conditions of this experiment, only the supplement with monensin resulted in a higher average daily gain than that observed for unsupplemented animals (control, while animals fed the supplement with functional oil composed of cashew and castor oil (2 or 4 g/animal/day did not exhibit differences in daily gain when compared to the other supplements.

  10. Dietary supplementation with fish oil modifies renal reserve filtration capacity in postoperative, cyclosporin A-treated renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, A. J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a daily supplementation of 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 = EPA and 20% C22:6 omega-3 = DHA) for 1 month on renal function variables was investigated in a placebo-controlled (6 g coconut oil), prospective, randomized, double-blind study in acute postoperative cyclosporin A

  11. Dietary supplementation with lish oil modifies renal reserve filtration capacity in postoperative, cyclosporin A-treated renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, J. J. Homan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Donker, A. J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, Adam M.

    The effect of a daily supplementation of 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 = EPA and 20% C22:6 omega-3 = DHA) for 1 month on renal function variables was investigated in a placebo-controlled (6 g coconut oil), prospective, randomized, double-blind study in acute postoperative cyclosporin A

  12. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  13. Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory status in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with oils or oil-products with extra virgin olive oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.

  14. Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to oxidative stress after chloramine-T treatment is increased by microalgae carotenoid-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stara, Alzbeta; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozak, Pavel; Masojidek, Jiri; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2014-01-01

    In fish aquaculture, disinfectants are used against bacterial and protozoal infections. These compounds cause oxidative stress that may stimulate the generation of reactive oxygen species, and subsequently the alteration in antioxidant systems of exposed organisms. Antioxidants like carotenoids present in microalgae increase carp resistance to oxidative stress after chemical treatment. The aim of these experiments was to prove increased resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) juveniles fed on experimental diets with microalgae biomass supplement (Algadiets) to oxidative stress caused by a disinfectant chloramine-T. In indoor experiments fish were fed on laboratory-prepared extruded diets containing supplement of Chlorella spp. (cf. C. vulgaris Beijerinck) biomass which contains antioxidants (carotenoids) like lutein. The young-of-the-year-old fish were acclimatized and fed on basal diet (control group) and the on diets containing 1, 2, 5 and 10% (w/w) of spray-dried Chlorella biomass (Algadiet 1, 2, 5 and 10) for 14 days followed by 6 weeks. Consequently, fish were treated daily with chloramine-T (Chl-T) at concentration of 10 mg x l(-1) for 1 h in three consecutive days. After this treatment, the indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity were assayed in fish gill, muscle and hepatopancreas. The fish fed on different Algadiets had increased antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in flesh after the exposure to Chl-T. Higher activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also observed in the hepatopancreas in all tested concentrations compared to the control group fed on the basal diet. The increased production and activity of antioxidant enzymes confirmed improved protection ability of fish tissues against oxidative damage when microalgae biomass was supplemented to the fish diet which was more pronounced by higher microalgae supplement in

  15. Fish oil supplementation of rats during pregnancy reduces adult disease risks in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sadhana; Rao, Shobha; Golwilkar, Ajit; Patwardhan, Manisha; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2003-10-01

    Metabolic programming in utero due to maternal undernutrition is considered to increase the risk of adult diseases in offspring. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how dietary supplementation of specific nutrients can ameliorate the negative effects of maternal malnutrition. We examined the effects of supplementing fish oil or folic acid, both of which are conventional supplements in maternal intervention, on risk factors in the offspring as adults. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (n = 6/group) were fed casein diets with 18 g/100 g protein (control diet), 12 g/100 g protein supplemented with 8 mg folic acid/kg diet (0.08 mg/kg diet) (FAS), 12 g/100 g protein without folic acid (FAD) or 12 g/100 g protein supplemented with 7 g/100 g fish oil (FOIL). Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g/100 g protein. Serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in the offspring at 6 and 11 mo of age. Serum glucose in 11-mo-old male and female pups was greater (P FAD groups (2.48 +/- 0.28 and 2.67 +/- 0.41 mmol/L) than in controls (2.03 +/- 0.15 and 2.02 +/- 0.18 mmol/L). Serum insulin concentrations were higher (P FAD group (males 1476 +/- 317, females 1441 +/- 220 pmol/L) but were lower in males from the FAS group (483 +/- 165 pmol/L) compared with controls (males 917 +/- 373, females 981 +/- 264 pmol/L). Glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the control and FOIL groups. Plasma homocysteine levels were lower (P diet containing marginal protein was beneficial in maintaining circulating glucose, insulin, cholesterol and homocysteine levels in the offspring as adults.

  16. Supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon oil is associated with increased metabolic risk in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin B; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-07-01

    Krill is an increasingly popular source of marine n-3 (ω-3) PUFA that is seen as a premium product. However, to our knowledge, the effect of krill-oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity in humans has not been reported. We assessed whether supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon (KS) oil [which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] affects insulin sensitivity in overweight men. The design was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial. A total of 47 men with a mean ± SD age of 46.5 ± 5.1 y, who were overweight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 25 to 30] but otherwise healthy, received 5 1-g capsules of KS oil or a control (canola oil) for 8 wk and crossed over to another treatment after an 8-wk washout period. The primary outcome was insulin sensitivity assessed by using the Matsuda method from an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Secondary outcomes included lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid artery intimamedia thickness. Unexpectedly, insulin sensitivity (per the Matsuda index) was 14% lower with the KS oil than with the control oil (P = 0.049). A mediation analysis showed that, after controlling for the likely positive effects of blood EPA and DHA (i.e., the omega-3 index), the reduction in insulin sensitivity after KS-oil supplementation was more marked [27% lower than with the control oil (P = 0.009)]. Supplementation with a blend of KS oil is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Thus, krill-oil supplementation in overweight adults could exacerbate risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This trial was prospectively registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000602921. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Performance of Garut breed rams fed diets containing various cation-anion difference with or without fish oil supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD and fish oil supplementations on dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter digestibility (DMD and organic matter digestibility (OMD, weight gain, as well as the acidity of urine in Garut breed rams. The experiment was done based on randomized group design with 6 treatments and 3 groups. The dietary treatments were as follows: R0= basal ration (DCAD +14 without fish oil, R1 = basal ration (DCAD +14 with 3% fish oil, R2 = base ration (DCAD +40 without fish oil, R3 = base ration (DCAD +40 with 3% fish oil, R4 = acid ration (DCAD -40 without fish oil, and R5 = acid ration (DCAD -40 with 3% fish oil. All rations contained 150 ppm of zinc and were offered to 18 of Garut breed rams. The results indicated that DCAD +40 and -40 decreased DMI significantly. The ration with DCAD +40 had the lowest DMI. Fish oil supplementation decreased DMI. No differences were observed for DMD and OMD. DCAD +40 and -40 decreased body weight of rams. However, the body weight of rams was very low. Variation of urine pH followed the DCAD pattern. It was concluded that DCAD +40 and -40, as well as fish oil supplementations decreased DMI, body weight and urine pH followed the DCAD pattern.

  18. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  19. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  20. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takahashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO, a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO (1/2 AAO, a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO, and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet, according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454. The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste, kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness, and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation.

  1. Health Food Supplements (“Health Food” Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternativefood sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgaerich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besidesthese microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial andantioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials ofhealth food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people tomaintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health foodsupplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The methodused in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation withdifferent formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids,fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B(chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  2. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  3. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  4. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, J A; Shepherd, D M; de Veth, M J; Corl, B A

    2012-09-01

    Fish oil is used as a ration additive to provide n-3 fatty acids to dairy cows. Fish do not synthesize n-3 fatty acids; they must consume microscopic algae or other algae-consuming fish. New technology allows for the production of algal biomass for use as a ration supplement for dairy cattle. Lipid encapsulation of the algal biomass protects n-3 fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen and allows them to be available for absorption and utilization in the small intestine. Our objective was to examine the use of algal products as a source for n-3 fatty acids in milk. Four mid-lactation Holsteins were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. Their rations were supplemented with 1× or 0.5× rumen-protected (RP) algal biomass supplement, 1× RP algal oil supplement, or no supplement for 7 d. Supplements were lipid encapsulated (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). The 1× supplements provided 29 g/d of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and 0.5× provided half of this amount. Treatments were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Supplementing dairy rations with rumen-protected algal products did not affect feed intake, milk yield, or milk component yield. Short- and medium-chain fatty acid yields in milk were not influenced by supplements. Both 0.5× and 1× RP algae supplements increased daily milk fat yield of DHA (0.5 and 0.6±0.10 g/d, respectively) compared with 1× RP oil (0.3±0.10 g/d), but all supplements resulted in milk fat yields greater than that of the control (0.1±0.10g/d). Yield of trans-18:1 fatty acids in milk fat was also increased by supplementation. Trans-11 18:1 yield (13, 20, 27, and 15±3.0 g/d for control, 0.5× RP algae, 1× RP algae, and 1× RP oil, respectively) was greater for supplements than for control. Concentration of DHA in the plasma lipid fraction on d 7 showed that the DHA concentration was greatest in plasma phospholipid. Rumen-protected algal biomass provided better DHA yield than algal oil. Feeding lipid-encapsulated algae supplements

  5. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and allergic respiratory disease in the adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can have immunologic effects on the developing fetus through several anti-inflammatory pathways. However, there is limited knowledge of the long-term programming effects. OBJECTIVE: In a randomized controlled trial...... outcomes. Furthermore, the offspring were invited to complete a questionnaire (74% participated) and attend a clinical examination (47% participated) at age 18 to 19 years. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analyses the probability of having had asthma medication prescribed was significantly reduced......), but the difference was not statistically significant. Self-reported information collected at age 18 to 19 years supported these findings. No associations were detected with respect to lung function outcomes or allergic sensitization at 18 to 19 years of age. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with fish oil might...

  6. Fibre degradability of oil palm frond pellet, supplemented with Arachis pintoi in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodee Khamseekhiew

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of Arachis pintoi (AP supplementation on rumen environment [(rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3N and volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentration] and degradability of oil palm frond (OPF. Three Kedah-Kelantan (KK cattle of about 2 1/2 years of age with an average body weight (BW173±17.2 kg, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used. The cattle were kept in individual pens and fed the treatment diets at 1.5% of BW. The diets comprised the following four OPF:AP ratios; 80:20 (L20, 70:30 (L30, 60:40 (L40, 50:50 (L50 in a 4 × 4 incomplete Latin Square Design. The DM an NDF degradation rates of OPF were significantly affected by AP supplementation. Ruminal pH was not significantly different (p>0.05 among the four different diets. The concentration of NH3N was significantly (p<0.05 higher in cattle fed L50 than those in L40, L30 and L20. Similarly, increasing levels of AP supplementation significantly increased the total VFAs concentration from 59.9 mmol/L for L20 to 69.2 mmol/L for L50. It is suggested that AP can be used as a protein supplement to improve fibre degradability of OPF in cattle.

  7. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  8. Consumption estimation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Díaz-Ufano, María Luisa

    2015-02-26

    The interest in the type and quantity of non alcoholic beverage, sodium, food supplements and oil consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. The need to intake liquids varies depending on the diet, the physical activity carried out, the environmental temperature, the humidity, etc. The variety of beverages in the diet can contribute to increasing the micro nutrient intake: vitamins, antioxidants, minerals. Risks associated to high sodium consumption are: an increase in high blood pressure, vascular endothelial deterioration, bone demineralisation, kidney disease, stomach cancer. Progress in health, investigation, education, etc. are leading to an increase in food supplement consumption. Olive oil represents one of the basic pillars of the Mediterranean diet and its normal presence in nutrition guarantees an adequate content of some important nutrients; not only oleic acid and linoleic acid but also tocopherols, phytoesterols and phenolic compounds. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of non alcoholic beverages, sodium, food supplements and oil intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises

  9. Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatullina, Zil; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Norazlina; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model. PMID:23024690

  10. Effects of yogurt supplemented with fish oil on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, and liver lipid contents in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Kawashima, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of yogurt supplemented with fish oil on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, and hepatic lipid contents in mice. Male Crlj:CD-1 (ICR) mice were fed five experimental diets for 12 weeks. The experimental diets were as follows: without yogurt and fish oil (control diet); 10% (w/w) yogurt without fish oil [10% FO(-)]; 10% yogurt with fish oil [10% FO(+)]; 30% yogurt without fish oil [30% FO(-)]; 30% yogurt with fish oil [30% FO(+)]. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the 10% FO(+) and 30% FO(-) groups were significantly lower than that in the control diet group (p cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were significantly lower in the 30% FO(+) group than in the control diet group (p cholesterol contents in the 30% FO(+) group were significantly lower than those in the control diet group (p yogurt with fish oil.

  11. Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, V R; Eyal, I; Zchut, S; Shafat, I; Jones, P J H

    2015-11-04

    Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, assessed as the rate of increase of n-3 PUFA in plasma and RBC, in healthy volunteers. In a semi randomized crossover single blind design study, 20 healthy participants consumed various oils consisting of 1.5 g/day of low PL krill oil (LPL), 3 g/day of high PL krill oil (HPL) or 3 g/day of a placebo, corn oil, for 4 weeks each separated by 8 week washout periods. Both LPL and HPL delivered 600 mg of total n-3 PUFA/day along with 600 and 1200 mg/day of PL, respectively. Changes in plasma EPA, DPA, DHA, total n-3 PUFA, n-6:n-3 ratio and EPA + DHA concentrations between LPL and HPL krill oil supplementations were observed to be similar. Intake of both forms of krill oils increased the RBC level of EPA (p krill oil consumption. HPL krill oil intake elevated (p krill oil did not alter total and LDL cholesterol, relative to control. The results indicate that krill oil with higher PL levels could lead to enhanced bioavailability of n-3 PUFA compared to krill oil with lower PL levels. Clinicaltrials.gov# NCT01323036.

  12. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  13. Effects of dietary selenium supplementation on serum and liver selenium, serum malondialdehyde and liver glutathione peroxidase activity in rats consuming thermally oxidized sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Negar; Jamalian, Jalal; Owji, Ali Akbar; Ramezani, Roghayeh; Karbalaie, Narges; Rajaeifard, Abdol Reza

    2008-11-01

    The present study compared the effects of four isocaloric diets containing (1) fresh sunflower oil not supplemented with selenium (Fresh), (2) oxidized sunflower oil not supplemented with selenium (Oxidized), (3) fresh sunflower oil supplemented with 1 ppm selenium as sodium selenite (Fresh+Se), (4) oxidized sunflower oil supplemented with 1 ppm selenium as sodium selenite (Oxidized+Se) on serum MDA concentrations, liver GPx activity and serum and liver selenium contents in growing male Sprague Dawley rats during a period of 43 days. The oxidized oil used was prepared by heating fresh sunflower oil at 180 degrees C for 48 h. Serum and liver selenium contents and liver GPx activity were significantly higher in the selenium supplemented groups compared to the non-selenium supplemented groups, but these parameters did not differ significantly between the oxidized oil fed groups and the fresh oil fed groups. Serum MDA concentrations increased significantly in the Oxidized group compared to the Fresh group. This suggests that the ingestion of oxidized oil resulted in, in vivo lipid peroxidation. Serum MDA concentrations remained significantly higher even in comparison of the Oxidized + Se group with the Oxidized group. Our results emphasize that the consumption of oxidized oil increases in vivo lipid peroxidation and thus can be deleterious to health. However, we did not observe a significant beneficial effect of selenium supplementation upon the ingestion of thermally oxidized oil on lipid peroxidation.

  14. Flaxseed oil supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Joana R N; Alencastro, Mariana Gascue de; Konrath, Anita Vieceli; Cargnin, Marina; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impact their survival prognosis, and nutrients, such as omega-3 oils, are postulated to reduce proinflammatory response. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of flaxseed oil (FO) on the inflammatory state of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy with hemodialysis (HD). We hypothesized that FO supplementation lowers C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. One hundred sixty patients with chronic renal failure who received HD therapy of 3 dialysis units over a 3-month period in South Brazil were included. The patients received blind doses of FO (1 g twice a day) and placebo (mineral oil, 1 g twice a day) for a period of 120 days. Inflammation was observed in 89 patients (61%) at the beginning of the study. There was a correlation between CRP and the body mass index (R(s) = 0.22; P = .022) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R(s) = -0.23; P = .032), and the CRP levels decreased significantly over time in the group that received FO compared with the control group (P oil group (P = .04). We conclude that the administration of FO decreases the CRP levels and that inflammation in HD patients appears to be correlated to their body mass index and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Studies with a larger number of patients and over a longer duration are necessary to corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülşen, N; Umucalilar, H D; Kirikçi, K; Hayirli, A; Aktümsek, A; Alaşahan, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (Alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. Increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. Except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible parts and edible organs remained unchanged by the diets. The treatments linearly decreased weight and efficiency of carcass and weights of wings and breast and did not alter weights of thighs and neck. Breast meat saturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 17.9% and unsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 10.6%, as sunflower oil level increased in the diets. Monounsaturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 27.3%, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 51%. Overall, n-3 (0.78% vs. 0.59%) and n-6 (42.6% vs. 29.8%) were greater in breast meat in treatment groups than in control group. In conclusion, sunflower addition into diets has minimal effects on performance of growing partridges, but significantly alters meat fatty acid composition.

  16. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  17. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeatedly heated palm kernel oil induces hyperlipidemia, atherogenic indices and hepatorenal toxicity in rats: Beneficial role of virgin coconut oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Nwankwo, Onyebuchi E; Folawiyo, Abiola M; Igwe, Emeka C; Epete, Michael A; Ufebe, Odomero G

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that the health benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating, which leads to lipid oxidation and the formation of free radicals. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is emerging as a functional food oil and its health benefits are attributed to its potent polyphenolic compounds. We investigated the beneficial effect of VCO supplementation on lipid profile, liver and kidney markers in rats fed repeatedly heated palm kernel oil (HPO). Rats were divided into four groups (n = 5). The control group rats were fed with   a normal diet; group 2 rats were fed a 10% VCO supplemented diet; group 3 administered 10 ml HPO/kg b.w. orally; group 4 were fed 10% VCO + 10 ml HPO/kg for 28 days. Subsequently, serum markers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and albumin), kidney damage (urea, creatinine and uric acid), lipid profile and lipid ratios as cardiovascular risk indices were evaluated. HPO induced a significant increase in serum markers of liver and kidney damage as well as con- comitant lipid abnormalities and a marked reduction in serum HDL-C. The lipid ratios evaluated for atherogenic and coronary risk indices in rats administered HPO only were remarkably higher than control. It was observed that VCO supplementation attenuated the biochemical alterations, including the indices of cardiovascular risks. VCO supplementation demonstrates beneficial health effects against HPO-induced biochemical alterations in rats. VCO may serve to modulate the adverse effects associated with consumption of repeatedly heated palm kernel oil.

  19. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  20. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  1. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Andri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42% were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control; T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil; T3: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder; T4: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder. Variable observed in this research were egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova based on Completely Randomized Design, if significant effect appear was then continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that there were no significant effect (P>0.05 of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight of local ducks. The conclusion of this research is that there was no effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks.

  2. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  3. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  4. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a greater effect of milking frequency reduction on tight junctions in Control ewes. In fact, the ratio between glands for milk yield was significantly (P<0.05) greater in SO (0.82) than in Control (0.72) ewes. In Period 3, this ratio increased but it

  5. An evaluation of the structural reserves with proven oil concentrations as an additional source for supplementing commercial oil reserves in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavochkina, I.A.; Shakirov, N.Z.

    1983-01-01

    Results are given from an analysis of the distribution conditions and morphometric characteristics of existing structural reserves containing proven oil reserves, together with the features of oil show and pool distribution in these structures. A differential preliminary evaluation of these reserves as an additional source for supplementing commercial oil reserves, depending on the degree to which they have been explored (by deep wells, etc.) and practical significance is given. Specific recommendations on the types and volume of preliminary exploration of these structures are given.

  6. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  7. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  8. A Pilot Study: Effects of Dietary Supplementation with α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Perilla Seed Oil on Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozo Ashida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available N-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, have been reported to have some beneficial effects in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil rich in a-linolenic acid (α-LNA, parent n-3 fatty acid, were studied in five patients with asthma. The symptoms of asthma and mean peak flow rates (PFR both early in the morning and in the evening were improved 2 weeks after dietary supplementation and the increases in PFR were significant (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by peripheral leukocytes stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was significantly suppressed from 77.6 to 41.6 ng/5Xl06 cells by dietary supplementation (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 by leukocytes was also significantly suppressed from 64.0 to 38.8 ng/5x106 cells after supplementation with perilla seed oil (P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.

  9. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters.

  10. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  11. Temporal changes in human skeletal muscle and blood lipid composition with fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; McClintock, Craig; Breen, Leigh; Dick, James R; Bell, John G; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in the lipid profile of red blood cells and muscle tissue along with the expression of anabolic signalling proteins in human skeletal muscle. Following a 2-week control period, 10 healthy male participants consumed 5 g d(-1) of fish oil (FO) for 4 weeks. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state 2 weeks prior (W-2) and immediately before (W0) the initiation of FO supplementation for internal control. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were again obtained at week 1 (W1), 2 (W2) and 4 (W4) during FO supplementation for assessment of changes in lipid composition and expression of anabolic signalling proteins. There was no change in the composition of any lipid class between W-2 and W0 confirming control. Following FO supplementation n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) muscle lipid composition was increased from W0 to W2 and continued to rise at W4. n-3 PUFA blood lipid composition was increased from W0 to W1 and remained elevated for the remaining time points. Total protein content of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) increased from W0 to W4 whereas total mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was increased from W0 at W1 with no further significant increases at W2 and W4. These data show that FO supplementation results in discordant changes in the n-3 PUFA composition of skeletal muscle compared to blood that is associated with increases in total FAK content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic

  13. Linseed, microalgae or fish oil dietary supplementation affects performance and quality characteristics of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de la Fuente-Vazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of meat from light lamb, frequently reared in Spain and in other Mediterranean countries. A total of 44 light lambs fed different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids sources were studied: control (C (palm oil, extruded linseed (L, extruded linseed mixed with microalgae (LM and fish oil (FO. The productive performance from 14.7 to 26.2 kg of live weights and meat quality characteristics during refrigerated storage were assessed. Lambs fed FO showed lower feed intake (p <0.001, average daily gain (p <0.001 and higher feed conversion ratio (p <0.001 than lambs from the other treatments. Fish oil meat had the lowest (p <0.01 protein proportion and the highest (p <0.001 C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 proportions, while L or LM produced the highest (p <0.001 C18:3n-3 deposition. Fish oil meat had higher (p <0.05 L* and lower (p <0.001 a* than meats from the other treatments. After 7 days of storage, FO meat showed the highest TBARS (p <0.001, while C meat showed similar value to 0 days of storage. Additionally, FO underwent higher microbial growth after 7 days of storage as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with L and LM leads to C18:3n-3 meat enrichment and to a microbial load and colour characteristics similar to those of C, without adverse effect on lamb performance. However the use of FO improves the fatty acid profile of meat, but negatively affects lamb performance and meat quality.

  14. Dietary supplementation with Lovaza and krill oil shortens the life span of long-lived F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M

    2014-06-01

    Marine oils rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been recommended as a preventive treatment for patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases. These oils also are the third most consumed dietary supplement in the USA. However, evidence for their health benefits is equivocal. We tested the daily, isocaloric administration of krill oil (1.17 g oil/kg diet) and Lovaza (Omacor; 4.40 g/kg diet), a pharmaceutical grade fish oil, beginning at 12 months of age, on the life span and mortality-related pathologies of long-lived, male, B6C3F1 mice. The oils were incorporated into the chemically defined American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 M diet. An equivalent volume of soybean oil was removed. Krill oil was 3 % and Lovaza 11 % of the oil in the diets. When their effects were analyzed together, the marine oils significantly shortened life span by 6.6 % (P = 0.0321; log-rank test) relative to controls. Individually, Lovaza and krill oil non-significantly shortened median life span by 9.8 and 4.7 %, respectively. Lovaza increased the number of enlarged seminal vesicles (7.1-fold). Lovaza and krill oil significantly increased lung tumors (4.1- and 8.2-fold) and hemorrhagic diathesis (3.9- and 3.1-fold). Analysis of serum from treated mice found that Lovaza slightly increased blood urea nitrogen, while krill oil modestly increased bilirubin, triglycerides, and blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results do not support the idea that the consumption of isolated ω-3 fatty acid-rich oils will increase the life span or health of initially healthy individuals.

  15. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  16. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aires da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL. The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production.

  17. Sensory and molecular characterisation of human milk odour profiles after maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgruber, Stefanie; Much, Daniela; Amann-Gassner, Ulrike; Hauner, Hans; Buettner, Andrea

    2011-09-15

    The odourant profile of human milk has been proposed to be modulated by the composition of the maternal diet via the transference of specific food aromas to the milk, such that neonates are exposed to these aromas and are prepared for latter acceptance of specific diets. For that reason the aim of the present study was to investigate whether specific fish oil odour constituents translate into human milk. To achieve this goal, human sensory analyses and qualitative and quantitative instrumental determination of fish oil odourants were performed on the fish oil, as well as on human milk obtained from mothers after long-term fish oil supplementation in comparison to a control group. Sensory and analytical data showed that no statistically significant modification occurred from fish oil intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sunflower oil supplementation has proinflammatory effects and does not reverse insulin resistance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Laureane Nunes; Martins, Amanda Roque; Rosa Neto, José César; do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; de Lima Júnior, Edson Alves; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Curi, Rui

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as sunflower oil has been associated to beneficial effects in plasma lipid profile, but its role on inflammation and insulin resistance is not fully elucidated yet. We evaluated the effect of sunflower oil supplementation on inflammatory state and insulin resistance condition in HFD-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided in four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HFD, (c) CD supplemented with n-6 (CD + n-6), and (d) HFD supplemented with n-6 (HFD + n-6). CD + n-6 and HFD + n-6 were supplemented with sunflower oil by oral gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week. CD and HFD were supplemented with water instead at the same dose. HFD induced whole and muscle-specific insulin resistance associated with increased inflammatory markers in insulin-sensitive tissues and macrophage cells. Sunflower oil supplementation was not efficient in preventing or reducing these parameters. In addition, the supplementation increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and tissues. Lipid profile, on the other hand, was improved with the sunflower oil supplementation in animals fed HFD. In conclusion, sunflower oil supplementation improves lipid profile, but it does not prevent or attenuate insulin resistance and inflammation induced by HFD in C57BL/6 mice.

  19. Effect of fish and krill oil supplementation on glucose tolerance in rabbits with experimentally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Zhenya; Bjørndal, Bodil; Grigorova, Natalia; Roussenov, Anton; Vachkova, Ekaterina; Berge, Kjetil; Burri, Lena; Berge, Rolf; Stanilova, Spaska; Milanova, Anelia; Penchev, Georgi; Vik, Rita; Petrov, Vladimir; Georgieva, Teodora Mircheva; Bivolraski, Boycho; Georgiev, Ivan Penchev

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO) and krill oil (KO) supplementation on glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. The experiments were carried out with 24 male rabbits randomly divided into four groups: KO-castrated, treated with KO; FO-castrated, treated with FO; C-castrated, non-treated; NC-non-castrated, non-treated. At the end of treatment period (2 months), an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in all rabbits. Fasting blood glucose concentrations in FO and KO animals were significantly lower than in group C. The blood glucose concentrations in FO- and KO-treated animals returned to initial values after 30 and 60 min of IVGTT, respectively. In liver, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were significantly increased in FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (Acaca) expression was significantly reduced in both KO- and FO-fed rabbits. In skeletal muscle, Hmgcs2 and Cd36 were significantly higher in KO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acaca expression was significantly lower in KO- and FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. The present results indicate that FO and KO supplementation decreases fasting blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. This could be ascribed to the ameliorated insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion and modified gene expressions of some key enzymes involved in β-oxidation and lipogenesis in liver and skeletal muscle.

  20. Krill Oil Supplementation Improves Dyslipidemia and Lowers Body Weight in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Goowon; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Sangsu; Kwak, Dongyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2016-12-01

    Krill oil is a novel, commercially available marine oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Compared with fish oil, the effects of krill oil supplementation on human health and its underlying action mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of krill oil supplementation on metabolic parameters of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Krill oil supplementation in mice fed a HFD for 10 weeks resulted in an ∼15% lower body weight gain and a dramatic suppression of hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with significantly lower serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. We further uncovered a novel underlying mechanism, showing that AMP-activated protein kinase, a master regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, mediates the beneficial effects of krill oil.

  1. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Effect of cod liver oil supplementation on the stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in obese children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukihiko; Okada, Tomoo; Abe, Yuriko; Kazama, Minako; Saito, Emiko; Kuromori, Yuki; Iwata, Fujihiko; Hara, Mitsuhiko; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, we treated 10 obese children (mean age: 12.9 years) with cod liver oil once daily for 12 weeks. The effects of cod liver oil supplementation on SCD activity, as estimated by the palmitoleate/palmitate ratio, depended on the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents at baseline. Baseline DHA contents were negatively correlated with baseline SCD activity. After the treatment, baseline DHA contents were found to be significantly associated with the reduction of SCD activity. Cod liver oil supplementation may be a complementary treatment for obese children with low baseline contents of DHA. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soft cheese supplemented with black cumin oil: Impact on food borne pathogens and quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan; Mahgoub, Samir A; El-Zahar, Kahled M

    2014-07-01

    Black cumin seed oil (BCSO) was tested for its inhibitory effect against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella enteritidis PT4) in Domiati cheese during cold storage. Physical, chemical and sensorial changes in cheese during storage were recorded. Pasteurized milk was inoculated before renneting with a mixed culture of bacteria at ca. 4 log CFU mL(-1). In vitro and in situ supplementation with BCSO showed antimicrobial impact on the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. enteritidis inoculated into media and cheese samples. Supplementing of cheese with BCSO (0.1% or 0.2%, w/w) significantly reduced the counts of the inoculated pathogens by ca. 1.3 log and 1.5 log CFU g(-1) after 21 days of storage. In addition, BCSO controlled the development of titratable acidity, limited the changes in ripening indices, flavor components and kept considerable physicochemical and sensorial properties of cheese.

  5. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  6. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelrich, B; Dewell, A; Gardner, C D

    2013-04-01

    The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. This was a secondary analysis from a double-blind, parallel design, placebo controlled trial with 42 adults that experienced significant TG lowering and modest increases in total LDL-C concentrations after 12 weeks of 4 g/d EPA + DHA. Reduction in serum TG concentrations (mean ± SEM) was -26 ± 4% (-0.81 ± 10.12 mmol/L), p adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Can fish oil supplementation improve endothelial function in asymptomatic offspring of patients with peripheral arterial disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spark JI

    2013-07-01

    maintain a diary of fish oil consumption on a daily basis, and fish oil returned will be measured to confirm adherence. Participants will complete validated surveys to determine background diet and physical activity levels.Discussion: This study will examine the effectiveness of a moderate-dose fish oil intervention in reversing endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic offspring of patients with peripheral arterial disease. It provides the opportunity to delay the progression of peripheral arterial disease using a cheap and readily available dietary supplement that has minimal side effects compared with synthetic vasoactive pharmacological medications.Keywords: omega 3 fatty acids, endothelial function, peripheral arterial disease

  8. Haematological parameters, serum lipid profile, liver function and fatty acid profile of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterys, A; Franczyk-Zarow, M; Czyzynska-Cichon, I; Drahun, A; Kus, E; Szymczyk, B; Kostogrys, R B

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and linseed oil (LO) on haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes as well as fatty acids profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Broilers (n = 400) were fed on diets containing graded PSO levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) with or without 2% LO. After 6 weeks of feeding, 6 male broilers from each group were slaughtered and abdominal fat, liver and blood samples were collected. Mixtures of pomegranate seed oil (0.5%, 1%) with linseed oil increased white blood cell level in broilers. Total cholesterol was elevated after LO supplementation whereas administration of PSO (1.5%) significantly decreased this parameter. PSO administration caused c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration-dependent deposition in adipose tissue. By LO addition α-linolenic acid (ALA) content was enhanced, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio. PSO and ALA also affected oleic acid proportion in adipose tissue. Neither pomegranate seed oil nor linseed oil had any effect on liver parameters. Pomegranate seed oil had no negative effects on broiler health status and can be considered as a functional poultry meat component.

  9. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  10. Different gene expression profiles in normo- and dyslipidemic men after fish oil supplementation: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular health, but only limited data are available describing n-3 PUFA regulated pathways in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on whole genome expression profiles in the blood of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects. Methods Differentially expressed genes were detected after four hours, one week and twelve weeks of supplementation with either fish oil (FO or corn oil in normo- and dyslipidemic men using whole genome microarrays. Results Independent of the oil, a significantly higher number of genes was regulated in dyslipidemic subjects compared to normolipidemic subjects. Pathway analyses discovered metabolisms dominantly affected by FO after twelve weeks of supplementation, including the lipid metabolism, immune system and cardiovascular diseases. Several pro-inflammatory genes, in particular, were down-regulated in dyslipidemic subjects, indicating the immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory capability of FO and its bioactive FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions This is the first study showing significant differences in gene expression profiles between normo- and dyslipidemic men after FO supplementation. Further studies need to clarify the exact role of n-3 PUFAs in pathways and metabolisms which were identified as being regulated after FO supplementation in this study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01089231

  11. Growth Performance of Lambs Fed Diet Supplemented with Rice Bran Oil as Such or as Calcium Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Bhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty two Malpura lambs (21 d old were divided into three groups of 14 each consisting of 8 females and 6 males. Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams twice daily up to weaning (13 wks and offered free choice concentrate and roughage in a cafeteria system. The lambs in control group were fed conventional concentrate mixture, in RBO group concentrate mixture fortified with 4% industrial grade rice bran oil and in Ca-soap rice bran oil (as in RBO group was supplemented in the form of calcium soap. The concentrate intake decreased(p≤0.05 in RBO group as a result total dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake decreased compared to control whereas Ca-soap prepared from the same rice bran oil stimulated the concentrate intake leading to higher total dry matter, crude protein and energy intakes. The digestibility of dry matter (p≤0.05, organic matter (p≤0.05 and crude protein (p≤0.05 was higher in RBO group followed by Ca-soap and control whereas no effect was observed for ether extract digestibility. Higher cholesterol (p≤0.05 content was recorded in serum of oil supplemented groups (RBO and Ca-soap while no effect was recorded for other blood parameters. Rice bran oil as such adversely affected and reduced the body weight gain (p≤0.001 of lambs in comparison to control whereas the Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in lambs. Fat supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acids (p≤0.05 and individual volatile fatty acid concentration which increased at 4 h post feeding. Fat supplementation also reduced (p≤0.05 total protozoa count. Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved pre slaughter weight (p≤0.05 and hot carcass weight (p≤0.05. It is concluded from the study that rice bran oil in the form of calcium soap at 40 g/kg of concentrate improved growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality as compared to rice bran oil as such and control groups.

  12. Growth performance of lambs fed diet supplemented with rice bran oil as such or as calcium soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Karim, S A; Sahoo, A; Shinde, A K

    2013-06-01

    Forty two Malpura lambs (21 d old) were divided into three groups of 14 each consisting of 8 females and 6 males. Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams twice daily up to weaning (13 wks) and offered free choice concentrate and roughage in a cafeteria system. The lambs in control group were fed conventional concentrate mixture, in RBO group concentrate mixture fortified with 4% industrial grade rice bran oil and in Ca-soap rice bran oil (as in RBO group) was supplemented in the form of calcium soap. The concentrate intake decreased(p≤0.05) in RBO group as a result total dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake decreased compared to control whereas Ca-soap prepared from the same rice bran oil stimulated the concentrate intake leading to higher total dry matter, crude protein and energy intakes. The digestibility of dry matter (p≤0.05), organic matter (p≤0.05) and crude protein (p≤0.05) was higher in RBO group followed by Ca-soap and control whereas no effect was observed for ether extract digestibility. Higher cholesterol (p≤0.05) content was recorded in serum of oil supplemented groups (RBO and Ca-soap) while no effect was recorded for other blood parameters. Rice bran oil as such adversely affected and reduced the body weight gain (p≤0.001) of lambs in comparison to control whereas the Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in lambs. Fat supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acids (p≤0.05) and individual volatile fatty acid concentration which increased at 4 h post feeding. Fat supplementation also reduced (p≤0.05) total protozoa count. Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved pre slaughter weight (p≤0.05) and hot carcass weight (p≤0.05). It is concluded from the study that rice bran oil in the form of calcium soap at 40 g/kg of concentrate improved growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality as compared to rice bran oil as such and control groups.

  13. The influence of feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate on fatty acid profile in goat yoghurt drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Borková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed composition is one of the most influential factors affecting fatty acid profile of milk products. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of linseed oil and linseed extrudate supplementation on fatty acid composition of goat prebiotic and probiotic yogurt drinks. Thirty six White Shorthaired dairy goats at the beginning of their third lactation period were divided into two experimental and one control group, each comprising twelve animals. Goats in the experimental groups were given either 55 mL/day of linseed oil or 120 g/day of linseed extrudate over a three week period. The results suggest that feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate caused considerable changes in fatty acid profile of goat yoghurt drinks. The most important nutritional change which was observed was increased n-3 fatty acid content (P<0.001 and decreased saturated fatty acid content (P<0.001. α-linolenic acid was significantly elevated (P<0.001 in both groups (in particular in goats which feed was supplemented with linseed oil.

  14. Effects of Short Term Supplementation of Fish Oil Capsules on the Blood Fatty Acid Profile of Vegetarians: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida A Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for cardio vascular as well as overall health. Therefore, fish oil which is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids namely EPA and DHA is recommended. We supplemented vegetarian volunteers, not consuming fish, with fish oil capsules to observe the changes in lipo-protein metabolism. Methods and Results: Commercially available fish oil capsules were given to normal healthy volunteers for two weeks and lipid profiles analyzed. Lipid profile normalizing effect of triglycerides and cholesterol was observed in the consuming subjects. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids increased in the plasma and RBC of all volunteers. Conclusion: Consumption of omega-3 fish oil capsules is beneficial and heart healthy

  15. Dietary extra virgin olive oil polyphenols supplementation modulates DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Cárdeno, Ana; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenol extract (PE) supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to chronic colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: standard diet (SD), EVOO diet and both enriched with PE (850 ppm) (SD+PE and EVOO+PE). After 30 days, animals that were exposed to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (3%) followed by 3 weeks of drinking water developed chronic colitis, which was evaluated by disease activity index (DAI) and histology. Cell proliferation was analyzed by immunohistochemical and changes in monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Colonic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), IκBα inhibitory and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) were determined by western blotting. SD-DSS group showed a significant increase of DAI, histological damage and cell proliferation, as well as an up-regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1, COX-2 and iNOS proteins. p38 and JNK MAPKs phosphorylation, IκBα degradation and PPARγ deactivation were also observed. However, in DSS-treated and EVOO+PE-fed mice, DAI and cell proliferation were significantly reduced, as well as MCP-1, TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS expression levels. In addition, this dietary group, notably down-regulated JNK phosphorylation, prevented IκBα degradation and PPARγ deactivation. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that EVOO-PE supplementation possessed marked protective effects on experimental colitis through PPARγ up-regulation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and MAPK signaling pathway inhibition, decreasing the inflammatory cascade. We concluded that PE-enriched EVOO diet could be a beneficial functional food on ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal Andri; Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42%) were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control); T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3...

  18. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  19. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  20. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry,  strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients.  Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.

  1. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Psunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Psunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Psunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals

  2. Influence of fish oil supplementation on in vivo and in vitro oxidation resistance of low-density lipoprotein in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.; Major-Pedersen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Fish oil supplement has been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy to correct the atherogenic lipid profile associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, fish oil may have deleterious effects on lipid peroxidation and glycemic control.Design: In this study, 44 type 2 diabetic...... to clarify the clinical importance of this finding. Sponsorship: Financially supported by The Danish Heart Association and Dansk Droge A/S. Dansk Droge A/S generously provided the fish oil and corn oil capsules.......Objective: Fish oil supplement has been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy to correct the atherogenic lipid profile associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, fish oil may have deleterious effects on lipid peroxidation and glycemic control.Design: In this study, 44 type 2 diabetic...... patients were randomized to vitamin E standardized (53.6 mg/day) supplementation (capsules) with 4 g daily of either fish oil (n = 23) or corn oil (n = 21) for 8 weeks preceded by a 4 week run-in period of corn oil supplementation. LDL was isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and oxidized...

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of pigs fed on fodder supplemented with sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEVRKLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare meat and fat content and meat quality of pigs fed diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and animals not receiving the supplement SFO or CLA (control group. The experiment consisted of 116 pigs, divided into three groups: two experimental (n = 40 where animals were fed feed supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and control (n = 36. Fattening pigs were kept and fed in standardized conditions. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 120 kg. Meat quality traits (pH, drip loss, backfat fat content, colour, MLLT muscle dry matter content, fat in the dry matter, IMF in MLLT were determined. Summarizing obtained results it should be concluded that 2% sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid did not affect the meat quality. The experimental animals were characterized by high meat content (58.26% - SFO addition; 57.63% - CLA addition; 57.99% C group and low fat content (from 14.35 mm in SFO group up to 14.70 mm in CLA group.

  5. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy: A 12 Year Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Meldrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age.

  6. Effects of the foal at the milking and dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil on jennet milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giosuè

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the foal at the milking and the extra virgin olive oil supplementation in the diet, on the milk obtained by 12 Ragusana jennets were studied. The jennets were each fed 3.5+1.5 kg/d of concentrate+bran, and hay ad libitum. They were divided into 2 equal groups with one group receiving an additional dietary supplement of 100 ml/d of olive oil. Milk was collected at day 20 post foal- ing and every 15-18 d for 5 times. At each collection period jennets were milked 4-times per day. At 07:30 h foals were separated from the jennets and after a 4 hour interval were milked manually (1MNF;1st milking, foal absent. At the end of the 1MNF, each jennet was milked again, with the foals kept near the udder, but prevented from suckling (2MYF; 2nd milking, foal present. After 2MYF, foals were removed a second time and the sequence repeated after another 4 hour interval for the 3rd (3MNF and 4th (4MYF milkings. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and samples analyzed for qualitative variables. The milk yield was 26% higher than that reported by Giosuè et al. (2008 in similar conditions. The milk fat content were positively influenced by the presence of the foal at the milking but was not effect by the dietary supplement of olive oil.

  7. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Lerma-Reyes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Methods Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15; grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12; and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12 from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils; CII (soybean vs canola oil to compare the treatment effects. Results The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: −0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03 but did not improve milk production or affect kids’ growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05 with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05 in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was increased (p<0.05 in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids’ performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  8. Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza-Martínez, German D; Rojo-Rubio, Rolado; Mejia, Mario; García-Lopez, J C; Lee-Rangel, Héctor A

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05) with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05) in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

  9. Comparison of mammary lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Toral, P G; Chilliard, Y

    2017-11-01

    A direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid (FA) responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression in the bovine has suggested interspecies differences in rumen and mammary lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer some potential mechanisms responsible for the differences in mammary lipogenesis due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 26-d experimental periods. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured. On the last day of each period, the mRNA abundance of 19 key genes in mammary metabolism or the enzyme activity or both were measured in mammary tissue sampled by biopsy or at slaughter or both. The results show significant differences in the response of cows and goats to the dietary treatments. In cows, milk fat content and yield were lowered by FO and SOS (-31%), whereas only FO decreased milk fat content in goats (-21%) compared with the control. In cows and to a lesser extent in goats, FO and SOS decreased the secretion of C16 FA output (mmol/kg of BW). However, SOS increased the secretion of >C16 FA in goats. These changes in milk fat content and FA secretion were not associated with modifications in mammary expression or the activity of 19 proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways. This absence of variation may be attributable to posttranscriptional regulation for these genes or related to the time of sampling of the mammary tissue relative to the previous meal and milking. Otherwise, the abundances of 15 mRNA among the 19 encoding for genes involved in lipid metabolism in the mammary gland were different among species, with 9 more abundant in cows (FASN, FADS1, SCD1, GPD1, LALBA, SREBF1, LXRA, PPARA, and PPARG1) and 6 more abundant in

  10. [Significance and application of vitamin E in broilers and laying hens, especially during supplementation with fish oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Erich; Seehawer, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin E is necessary as an antioxidant, as a regulator of the transcription and of the activity of enzymes as well as an activator of the immune system. Supplements of 150-300 mg/kg feed stimulate the activity of the immune system. A content of vitamin E of 200 mg/kg feed in the last three weeks of fattening increases the content in the tissues and stabilises the meat quality. A supplement of fish oil (3%) increases the content of fish fatty acids in the yolk and necessitates an addition of 60 mg vitamin E/kg feed. The content of vitamin E in the tissues of chicks at hatch is dependent of that in the yolk. A supplement of 250 mg vitamin E/kg feed diminishes the decrease in egg production in heat stress. Recommendations for an optimal supply with vitamin E are given.

  11. Daily sesame oil supplementation attenuates local renin-angiotensin system via inhibiting MAPK activation and oxidative stress in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2017-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by which increases cardiac morbidity and mortality. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and oxidative stress are important in RAS-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Sesame oil, a potent antioxidant, attenuates hypertension-dependent LVH. We examined the protective role of sesame oil on RAS-mediated MAPK activation and oxidative stress in rats. We induced LVH using a hypertensive model by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/ml/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was gavaged (0.5 or 1 ml/kg/day for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Cardiac histopathology, RAS parameters, expression of MAPKs, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were assessed 24 h after the last dose of sesame oil. Sesame oil significantly decreased the size of cardiomyocytes and the levels of cardiac renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II. In addition, sesame oil down-regulated the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor, JNK and p38 MAPK and apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1, c-Fos and c-Jun in rats receiving DOCA/salt. Furthermore, the induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation by DOCA/salt were inhibited by sesame oil. Sesame oil modulates cardiac RAS to ameliorate LVH by inhibiting MAPK activation and lowering oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF KAPOK (Ceiba pentandra SEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON CELLULOLYTIC ENZYME AND RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LOCAL SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation oncellulolytic enzyme and microbial fermentation activity. Sheep rumen fluid was used as enzyme sourceand inoculant, whereas carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was used as the substrate. There were 4 levels ofKSO supplementation as treatment, i.e. : 0% (T0, 5% (T1, 10% (T2, and 15% (T3. Two measuredvariables were reduced sugar production rate and gas fermentation production. The data were analyzedby analysis of variance in completely randomized design. The result showed that reduced sugarproduction rate in T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups were 2.58; 2.93; 2.08 and 1.58 mg/gCMC/minute, respectively, whereas gas production were : 15.97; 13.26; 10.54 and 7.57 mg/g CMC,respectively. Kapok seed oil supplementation up to 5% DM of cellulose substrate (CMC did notinfluence the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity. The KSO supplementation level 10% - 15%decreased the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity.

  13. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rumen degradation of oil palm fronds is improved through pre-digestion with white rot fungi but not through supplementation with yeast or enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassim, H.A.; Lourenco, M.; Goh, Y.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Fievez, V.

    2012-01-01

    Rumen fermentation kinetics of oil palm fronds (OPF) supplemented or not with enzymes (Hemicell® or Allzyme SSF®) or yeasts (Levucell®SC or Yea-Sacc®) were studied through an in vitro gas production test (96 h) (exp. 1). In exp. 2, enzymes were supplemented to OPF pre-treated during 3 or 9 wk with

  15. The growth and physiological responses of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum fed on the high dose of clove oil-supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Tiara Eka Diana Puteri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, tambaqui Colossoma macropomum juvenile were given feed supplemented with clove oil Syzygium aromaticum at a dose of 0 and 100 mg/100 g diet. This study purposed to assessment the effect of clove oil supplementation at high dose (100 mg/100 g diet on growth performance and health status of freshwater tambaqui. As many as 25 fishes with initial body weight 7.62±0.44 g maintained in 15 aquariums for 45 days. Each treatment consisted of three replications. Data were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that tambaqui growth performance on both treatments were not significantly different. However, supplementation of high doses 100 mg clove oil/100 g diet showed reduce on the blood parameters and declining the abundant of intestinal microflora in tambaqui gut, but the types seen more diverse. The observation of fish liver histology showed that hepatocyte cells in the treatment of 100 mg clove oil become smaller and dense compared with 0 mg clove oil treatment. The use of high doses of clove oil does not interfere with the tambaqui growth performance despite the downturn in the physiological responses were observed. Keywords: clove oil, Syzygium aromaticum, Colossoma macropomum, growth performance  ABSTRAK Di dalam penelitian ini, benih ikan bawal tawar Colossoma macropomum dipelihara dengan pemberian pakan yang ditambah minyak cengkeh Syzygium aromaticum pada kadar 0 dan 100 mg/100 g pakan. Tujuannya untuk melihat pengaruh penambahan minyak cengkeh di dalam pakan pada dosis tinggi (100 mg/100 g pakan terhadap performa pertumbuhan dan respons fisiologis ikan bawal. Sebanyak 25 ekor ikan bawal dengan bobot individu awal 7,62 ± 0,44 g dipelihara pada 15 akuarium selama 45 hari. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan uji komparasi t-test antar dua perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada pengaruh dari kedua perlakuan terhadap parameter pertumbuhan. Namun, pemberian pakan yang mengandung

  16. Enhanced cognitive function and antidepressant-like effects after krill oil supplementation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrand, Karin; Berge, Kjetil; Messaoudi, Michaël; Duffaud, Anaïs; Panja, Debabrata; Bramham, Clive R; Burri, Lena

    2013-01-25

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of krill oil (KO) on cognition and depression-like behaviour in rats. Cognition was assessed using the Aversive Light Stimulus Avoidance Test (ALSAT). The Unavoidable Aversive Light Stimulus (UALST) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of KO. Imipramine (IMIP) was used as the antidepressant reference substance. After 7 weeks of KO intake, both males and females treated with KO were significantly better in discriminating between the active and the inactive levers in the ALSAT from day 1 of training (p<0.01). Both KO and IMIP prevented resignation/depression on the third day in the UALST. Similarly, a shorter immobility time was observed for the KO and IMIP groups compared to the control in the FST (p<0.001). These data support a robust antidepressant-like potential and beneficial cognitive effect of KO. Changes in expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also investigated. mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) was specifically upregulated in the hippocampus of female rats receiving 7 weeks of KO supplementation (p=0.04) and a similar trend was observed in males (p=0.08). Males also exhibited an increase in prefrontal cortex expression of Arc mRNA, a key protein in long-term synaptic plasticity (p=0.05). IMIP induced clear effects on several plasticity related genes including Bdnf and Arc. These results indicate that active components (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and astaxanthin) in KO facilitate learning processes and provide antidepressant-like effects. Our findings also suggest that KO might work through different physiological mechanisms than IMIP.

  17. The effects of the avilamycin, Protexin® and basil essential oil supplements on ileal bacteria of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Riyazi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of probiotic (Protexin®, Protexin Veterinary, Somerset, UK, medicinal plant (basil essential oil and an antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin as broiler feed additives on ileal bacteria of broilers were studied. A total of 600 Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatments, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments were a plant essential oil in 3 level (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic (150 ppm, an antibiotic (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that probiotic treatment significantly decreased total bacteria counts (P<0.05. Any of the supplements did not affect colony-forming units of lactobacilli (P>0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained by the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E.coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P<0.05. Our results suggest that basil essential oil and Protexin could be of value to replace the antibiotics that have been banned as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  18. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cormier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2 Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3 Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191, but relative quantification (RQ within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all. (4 Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels.

  19. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased (pPalm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids (ppalm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  20. Pollock oil supplementation modulates hyperlipidemia and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatanaka Akimasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperlipidemia associated with obesity is closely related to the development of atherosclerosis. Both n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs; i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers supplementation modulate risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the restoration of impaired lipid metabolism. We therefore examined the effects of pollock oil, which contains a considerable amount of n-3 PUFAs as well as long-chain MUFAs, on plasma hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice (24-26 g were divided into two groups (n = 10/group and were fed a high-fat diet containing 32% lard (control group or 17% lard plus 15% pollock oil (experimental group for 6 weeks. For both groups, fat comprised 60% of the total caloric intake. Results Although body and liver masses for the two groups did not differ significantly, hepatic lipids concentrations (triglycerides and total cholesterols were lower (P P P P SREBP2, HMGCR, and ApoB and lipogenesis (SREPB1c, SCD-1, FAS, and Acacα was suppressed in the experimental group, and may have favorably affected hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by the high-fat diet. Conclusions We demonstrated that pollock oil supplementation effectively improved hyperlipidemia, attenuated hepatic steatosis, and downregulated the express of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity.

  1. Oil rich in carotenoids instead of vitamins C and E as a better option to reduce doxorubicin-induced damage to normal cells of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice: hematological, toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar K; Longo, João Paulo F; Peixoto, Raphael C A; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Barbosa, Lilian Carla P; Roll, Mariana M; Portilho, Flávia A; Estevanato, Luciana L C; Bocca, Anamélia L; Báo, Sônia N; Lacava, Zulmira G M

    2014-11-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies to attenuate chemotherapy toxicity represents an area of great interest in cancer research, and among them is nutritional therapy based on antioxidants. As research on this topic is still controversial and scarce, we aim to investigate the effects of antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E or pequi oil, a carotenoid-rich oil extracted from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), on doxorubicin (DX)-induced oxidative damage to normal cells in Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice. Tumor weight and volume, histopathology, morphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the treatments' efficacy in containing tumor aggressiveness and regression, while possible toxicity of treatments was assessed by animals' weight, morphological analysis of the heart, liver and kidneys, hemogram, and serum levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Although all the chemotherapeutic treatments increased internal necrosis area and reduced the positive Ki-67 cells compared to non-treated tumors, the treatments with pequi oil provided before tumor inoculation (PTDX) or in continuous and concurrent administration with doxorubicin (PTPDX) were more effective in containing tumor growth, besides increasing lymphocyte-dependent immunity and reducing the adverse side effects associated with DX-induced oxidative damage to normal cells, mainly the PTDX treatment. Vitamins C and E given before tumor inoculation and chemotherapy were not successful against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, besides increasing doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity, indicating that, at least for doxorubicin, pequi oil instead of vitamins C and E would be the best option to reduce its adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  3. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A.H. Lentjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplement users (SU make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK. Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-03-01

    Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado.

  5. Enrichment of poultry products with omega3 fatty acids by dietary supplementation with the alga Nannochloropsis and mantur oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsan, Z; Mokady, S; Sukenik, A

    1999-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (Nanno.), as a supplement to laying hens' diet, for the production of enriched eggs and meat with omega3 fatty acids (FA). Nanno. has a unique FA composition, namely, the occurrence of a high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega3) and the absence of other omega3 FA. The effect of supplementing diets with Nanno. on omega3 FA levels in eggs, plasma, liver, and thigh muscle was compared to that of mantur oil, high in alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3 omega3). Nanno. is rich also in carotenoids, which may be useful for egg yolk pigmentation. The observed effect of Nanno. supplementation on yolk pigmentation was dose responsive, in both the rate of coloration and the color intensity. Addition of enzyme preparations (glucanase plus cellulase or glucanase plus pectinase) slightly elevated the yolk color score. The most prominent changes in the level of omega3 FA in egg yolk were evident when the diets were supplemented with 1% Nanno. or mantur lipid extracts. Levels of dietary algal meal (0.1-1.0%) had low and inconsistent effects on the level of yolk omega3 FA. Algal EPA is not accumulated in the liver or in the egg yolk; it is apparently converted and deposited as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). LNA from mantur oil was partially converted to DHA, and both DHA and LNA were deposited in egg yolks and livers. It is suggested that the absence of DHA and EPA from thigh muscle is due to the small amount of dietary omega3 FA used in this work, compared to other studies, and to the possibility that in laying hens the egg yolk has a priority on dietary FA over that of muscles.

  6. Fatty acid composition, fat deposition, lipogenic gene expression and performance of broiler fed diet supplemented with different sources of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Jannatara; Loh, Teck Chwen; Akit, Henny; Foo, Hooi Ling; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2017-09-01

    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P diet supplemented with SO and the combination of SO and PO down-regulated gene expression of key hepatic lipogenic enzymes of fatty acids synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). These findings suggest that the diet containing the combination of 2% PO and 4% SO may reduce hepatic lipogenesis, as well as lower abdominal fat content of broilers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Virgin olive oil supplementation and long-term cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized, trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lapiscina, E H; Clavero, P; Toledo, E; San Julián, B; Sanchez-Tainta, A; Corella, D; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Martínez, J A; Martínez-Gonzalez, M Á

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect on cognition of a controlled intervention testing Mediterranean diets (MedDiet). Randomized trial after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Eight primary care centers affiliated to the University of Navarra. A random subsample of 285 participants (95 randomly allocated to each of 3 groups) of the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial. All of them were at high vascular risk (44.8% men, 74.1±5.7 years at cognitive evaluation). Nutritional intervention comparing two MedDiets (supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil [EVOO] or mixed nuts) versus a low-fat control diet. Participants received intensive education to increase adherence to the intended intervention. Participants allocated to the MedDiet groups received EVOO (1 l/week) or 30 g/day of mixed nuts. Dietary habits were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Additionally, adherence to MedDiet was appraised using a 14-item questionnaire both at baseline and yearly thereafter. Cognitive performance as a main outcome and cognitive status (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI] or dementia) as a secondary outcome were evaluated by two neurologists blinded to group assignment after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Better post-trial cognitive performance versus control in all cognitive domains and significantly better performance across fluency and memory tasks were observed for participants allocated to the MedDiet+EVOO group. After adjustment for sex, age, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, family history of cognitive impairment/dementia, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, alcohol and total energy intake, this group also showed lower MCI (OR=0.34 95% CI: 0.12-0.97) compared with control group. Participants assigned to MedDiet+Nuts group did not differ from controls. A long-term intervention with an EVOO-rich MedDiet resulted in a better cognitive function in comparison with a control diet. However, non

  8. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  9. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  10. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (Pgrape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing methane emissions and the methanogen population in the rumen of Tibetan sheep by dietary supplementation with coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuezhi; Long, Ruijun; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Xiaodan; Guo, Xusheng; Mi, Jiandui

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary coconut oil on methane (CH(4)) emissions and the microbial community in Tibetan sheep. Twelve animals were assigned to receive either a control diet (oaten hay) or a mixture diet containing concentrate (maize meal), in which coconut oil was supplemented at 12 g/day or not for a period of 4 weeks. CH(4) emissions were measured by using the 'tunnel' technique, and microbial communities were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Daily CH(4) production for the control and forage-to-concentrate ratio of 6:4 was 17.8 and 15.3 g, respectively. Coconut oil was particularly effective at reducing CH(4) emissions from Tibetan sheep. The inclusion of coconut oil for the control decreased CH(4) production (in grams per day) by 61.2%. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the number of methanogens and the daily CH(4) production (R = 0.95, P sheep and that these reductions persist for at least the 4-week feeding period.

  13. Oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune Fr.:Fr. extract during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Heng, Pei Ying; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The oxidative stability of sunflower oil supplemented with medicinal split gill mushroom, Schizophyllum commune's crude extract (CE), the formic acid (FA) fraction and semipurified subfractions (SF) II and IV were tested, compared to BHA and alpha-tocopherol, by measuring their peroxide value, iodine value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and free fatty acid content. Their total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were also evaluated. FA and CE exhibited highest DPPH* scavenging, while FA and SFIV showed the highest FRAP; TPC was found to be highest in CE, FA, and SFIV. BHA and alpha-tocopherol are more protective in stabilizing the sunflower oil; SFII and SFIV had short-term protective effect in secondary oxidation for 1 year, while CE and FA retarded secondary oxidation and extended the shelf life 1 1/2 years and 2 years, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis found (+)-catechin in Sch. commune's extracts. Sch. commune's extracts did not show similar retardation of lipid oxidation in sunflower oil as compared to alpha-tocopherol and BHA at the 200 ppm level. However, the higher concentration of Sch. commune's extract that provided the protective effect in stabilizing sunflower oil can be further studied.

  14. Influence of Supplementation of Vegetable Oil Blends on Omega-3 Fatty Acid Production in Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Vadivelan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were designed for improved production of mycelial omega-3 fatty acids with particular reference to EPA and DHA from the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 under submerged low temperatures fermentation supplemented with linseed oil and garden cress oil as an additional energy source. The fungus was grown at 20°C temperature for four days initially followed by 12°C temperature for next five days. The basal medium contained starch, yeast extract, and a blend of linseed oil (LSO and garden cress oil (GCO in the ratio 1 : 1. Results of the study revealed that, after nine days of total incubation period, the enhancement of biomass was up to 16.7 g/L dry weight with a total lipid content of 55.4% (v/w. Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids indicated a significant increase in fatty acid bioconversion (ALA 32.2±0.42%, EPA 7.9±0.1%, and DHA 4.09±0.2% by 2.5-fold. The two-stage temperature cultivation alters the fatty acid profile due to activation of the desaturase enzyme in the cellular levels due to which arachidonic acid (AA content reduced significantly. It can be concluded that Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 is a fungal culture suitable for commercial production of PUFAs with enriched EPA and DHA.

  15. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  16. Fish oil supplementation does not lower C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, M F; Laderian, B; Kuan, D C H; Sereika, S M; Marsland, A L; Manuck, S B

    2016-01-01

    The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may prevent a range of chronic conditions through anti-inflammatory actions. However, as clinical trials using these fatty acids for primary prevention are yet unavailable, their putative role in disease prevention rests, in part, on evidence of anti-inflammatory actions in healthy individuals. To investigate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial whether supplementation with a moderate dose of EPA+DHA reduces common biomarkers of chronic, systemic inflammation in healthy individuals. A total of 261 healthy individuals aged 30-54 years who were free of inflammatory conditions and consumed ≤ 300 mg per day EPA+DHA were included in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to 18 weeks of either fish oil supplementation providing 1400 mg per day EPA+DHA or matching placebo. Outcome measures were serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. In a substudy, ex vivo cytokine production was measured. Missing data for CRP and IL-6 were estimated using regression imputation. Data analyses conformed to intention-to-treat principles. Participant blinding was verified. Red blood cell EPA+DHA increased by 64% in the active treatment group, but serum CRP and IL-6 were not affected by supplementation (P ≥ 0.20). Findings were consistent with and without imputed values and across subgroups. Similarly, EPA+DHA supplementation did not alter ex vivo production of four pro-inflammatory cytokines (P ≥ 0.20). Supplementation with 1400 mg EPA+DHA did not reduce common markers of systemic inflammation in healthy adults. Whether this or a higher dose affects other measures of inflammation, oxidative stress or immune function warrants examination. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  17. Plasma lipid profile of Wistar albino rats fed palm oil-supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    the present study suggest that palm oil may be beneficial as its intake produces decreases in TC/HDL, a useful ..... of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease ... of healthy adults. Arch. Latinoam Nutr. 52: 145-150. Chen XS, Fan WX. 1992. Studies of utilization and health effect of palm oil in. China. Nutr. Res., 12 (1): ...

  18. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  19. Influence of different levels of n-3 supplemented (fish oil) diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate fish oil as n-3 fatty acids source on some performance, carcass and serum parameters in broilers. One-day old Ross strain male broiler chickens (n = 120) were randomly arranged in four dietary treatments (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent fish oil), with three replicates for each treatment.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  2. Black currant seed oil supplementation of mothers enhances IFN-γ and suppresses IL-4 production in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnamaa, Pia; Nieminen, Kaisa; Koulu, Leena; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru; Tahvonen, Raija; Savolainen, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    The first year of infancy is crucial for the development of atopic immune response. Inadequate early Th1 and Treg responses and increased production of Th2 cytokines are associated with atopy. Breast milk contains several immunomodulatory cytokines and other factors that might influence the maturation of the infant's immune system. We assessed the cytokines in breast milk of mother of newborn infants and their associations with black currant seed oil (BCSO) supplementation during pregnancy, mother's atopic status and the development of infant's atopic dermatitis. Mothers and infants from an intervention study by black currant seed oil (n = 31) or olive oil as placebo (n = 30) were included in the study. Breast milk samples were collected during the first 3 months of breastfeeding. Breast milk levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF were measured by Luminex technology. BCSO intervention group had decreased level of IL-4 (p = 0.044) and elevated level of IFN-γ (p = 0.014) in breast milk as compared to olive oil group. No significant differences were observed in IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF levels between the BCSO and olive oil groups. Mothers who had atopic dermatitis had significantly decreased levels of IL-10 (p = 0.044) in breast milk. Breast milk of the mothers of the children who developed atopic dermatitis had lower levels of IFN-γ (p = 0.039) as compared to the breast milk of the mothers of the children without dermatitis. Dietary intervention with BCSO had immunomodulatory effects on breast milk cytokine production towards Th2 to Th1 immunodeviation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  4. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    . Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...

  5. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam S. Vafa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control, 2% fish oil (FO, 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO, or 2% canola oil (CO according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001 and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05, but dry matter intake (DMI was lower (p0.05. The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids of short chain fatty acids (SCFA decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA increased (p0.05. The proportion of trans(t-18:1 increased (p<0.01 in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c-11 18:1 (p<0.01. The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 increased (p<0.05 in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of milk.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from...... week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed...... to collect milk samples at days 4, 16, and 30 postpartum. The FA composition of the milk samples was determined by GLC. At days 4, 16, and 30 in lactation, FO(pregn/lact) women (n = 12) had, respectively 2.3 (P = 0.001), 4.1 (P = 0.001), and 3.3 (P = 0.001) times higher mean contents of LCPUFA(n-3...

  7. Sunflower oil supplementation affects the expression of miR-20a-5p and miR-142-5p in the lactating bovine mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenha Mobuchon

    Full Text Available Oil supplementation in dairy cattle diets is used to modulate milk fat composition, as well as the expression of mammary lipogenic genes, whose regulation remains unclear. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNA considered as crucial regulators of gene expression, offering clues to explain the mechanism underlying gene nutriregulation. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs whose expression in the cow mammary gland is modulated by sunflower oil supplementation. MiRNomes were obtained using RNAseq technology from the mammary gland of lactating cows receiving a low forage diet, supplemented or not with 4% sunflower oil. Among the 272 miRNAs characterized, eight were selected for RT-qPCR validations, showing the significant down-regulation of miR-142-5p and miR-20a-5p by sunflower supplementation. These two miRNAs are predicted to target genes whose expression was reported as differentially expressed by sunflower supplementation. Among their putative targets, ELOVL6 gene involved in lipid metabolism has been studied. However, a first analysis did not show its significant down-regulation, in response to the over-expression of miR-142-5p, of miR-20a-5p, or both, in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line. However, a clearer understanding of the miRNA expression by lipid supplementation would help to decipher the regulation of lactating cow mammary gland in response to nutrition.

  8. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal-function and the course of early postoperative rejection episodes in cyclosporine-treated renal-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, J. J. Homan; Bilo, H. J. G.; Donker, A. J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.

    In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g [63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n=48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n=40]) on the incidence and

  9. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and the course of early postoperative rejection episodes in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, A. J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Sluiter, W. J.; Tegzess, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized prospective coconut oil (daily 6g[63% C8:0 and 36% C10:0] [EPA-] [n = 48])-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a one-month dietary supplementation with daily 6 g fish oil (30% C20:5 omega-3 and 20% C22:6 omega-3 as their methyl esthers [EPA+] [n = 40]) on the incidence

  10. Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Heart Levels of Interleukin-6 in Rats with Chronic Inflammation due to Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bocca Nejm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6 being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats. In this scenario, anti-inflammatory actions are among the beneficial effects of fish oil dietary supplementation. This investigation revealed that elevated levels of IL-6 in the heart were markedly reduced in epileptic rats that were treated in the long-term with fish oil, suggesting protective anti-inflammatory actions against dangerously high levels of IL-6. Based on these findings, our results suggest beneficial effects of long-term intake of fish oil in reducing the inflammation associated with chronic epilepsy.

  11. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  12. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, C.; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fish oil affects cardiovascular risk factors during the adolescent growth spurt. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 78 boys age 13-15 years with a mean body fat percentage of 30% +/- 9% were randomly assigned to consume fish oil (providing 1.5 g of n-3 long-chain polyunsat...... slightly overweight adolescent boys. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved....

  13. Supplementation with Ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: milk production and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fernanda Lopes; de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Chagas, Lucas Jado; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) supplementation on milk production, milk composition, and milk fatty acids of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. Twenty-four Jersey × Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and CSSO supplementation (without CSSO vs. with 250 g CSSO cow/day). All cows grazed on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon) and received the supplemental treatments for a 90-day period. Interactions between concentrate level and CSSO were detected for milk yield, milk yield components, energy-corrected milk (ECM) and 3.5 % fat-corrected milk (FCM). Milk yield increased when CSSO was fed in a low concentrate level, while it decreased milk production in a high concentrate level. Yields of fat, protein, lactose, 3.5 % FCM, and ECM were not affected with CSSO in the low concentrate, but reduced in the high concentrate level. CSSO increased proportions of monounsaturated milk FA, C18:2 trans-10 cis-12, and polyunsaturated FA, and reduced proportions of saturated milk FA in milk. In conclusion, feeding the high level of concentrate was an effective strategy to improve milk yield and solid production. CSSO supplementation increased milk production when fed at low concentrate level but did not affect yield of solids.

  14. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risso Analía

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Manipulating the dietary fatty acid (FA content can alter FA profiles of reproductive tissues. Numerous researchers have evaluated the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation on reproductive characteristics in domestic animals, but reliable information concerning dietary FO effects on semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs has not been reported. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of dietary FO on semen quality and serum testosterone concentrations in dogs. Materials and Methods In this cross-over experimental study, 5 male dogs consumed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg metabolic body weight (BW for 120 days. After the 120-day wash-out period, control (C dogs received FO and FO-fed dogs consumed the control diet. In the first period, 2 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 3 to the C group. In the second period, 3 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 2 to the C group. Semen samples collected on days 0, 60, 90 and 120 were evaluated by standard methods. Day 120 semen samples were analyzed for FA profiles. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 to measure serum testosterone concentrations. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Animals and period of time (first or second 120 days were random variables; and treatment, time, and the treatment by time interaction were considered fixed effects. Results FO supplementation increased the percentage of motile sperm (P=0.02, total sperm count (P<0.01, total sperm viability (P<0.01, and total morphologically normal sperm (P<0.01. Supplementation decreased the percentage of viable sperm (P=0.03 and serum testosterone concentration (P<0.01. FO supplementation also increased the percentage of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA and total n-3 in semen samples (P≤0.05. Conclusion These results

  15. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Effects of dietary oxidized fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Larroquet, Laurence; Dias, Karine; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Heraud, Cécile; Corlay, Dominique

    2017-12-27

    The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups. Muscle lipid content was reduced and n-6 PUFA levels were increased in rainbow trout fed diets BYP and OX compared to CTL. After 12 weeks of feeding, the level of lipid peroxidation products in muscle was not affected whereas the 8-isoprostane content in liver was increased in fish fed diet OX as well as plasma total and oxidized glutathione contents. The hepatic and muscle contents for α-tocopherol were decreased in fish fed BYP and OX. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels were not affected after 12 weeks of feeding, except for catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1b2 mRNA levels that were decreased in trout fed diet OX. Fish fed diet OX and BYP displayed also reduced cytosolic Nrf2 and both cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB protein levels in liver. The present work indicates that feeding rainbow trout juveniles with fresh fish oil from by-products or moderately oxidized lipid appears not to be detrimental to the growth performance of fish. The mechanisms beyond the control of the antioxidant defense system by moderately oxidized lipid require further investigations in rainbow trout juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  18. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    ; lipid oxidation, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are involved in fish oil and TTA action. Evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided. Additionally we postulate that down regulation of components of complexes I and II contributes to the strong......, however, shows additionally that amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are also strongly affected by TTA and also to some extent by fish oil administration. Strong evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided linking the different metabolic effects......Fish oil (FO) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) - a synthetic modified fatty acid have beneficial effects in regulating lipid metabolism. In order to dissect the mechanisms underlying the molecular action of those two fatty acids we have investigated the changes in mitochondrial protein...

  19. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Morales, Rogelio Palomino; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana

    2010-07-14

    Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in SMC cultures. An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch) alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO) and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C). Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V) and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.

  20. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  1. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  2. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  3. Fish oil supplementation attenuates neuroinflammation and alleviates depressive-like behavior in rats submitted to repeated lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ruili; Zhou, Xueyuan; Tang, Mimi; Xu, Pengfei; Gong, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jiao, Hongxiao; Jiang, Pei

    2017-01-05

    Depression is frequently associated with inflammation, whereas omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) primarily found in fish oil possess anti-inflammatory properties. Although converging studies suggest an antidepressant effect of PUFAs, there is limited evidence directly linking the neuro-immune modulating features of PUFAs to the antidepressant actions. Therefore, we assessed the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on behavioral changes, inflammatory cytokine expression and oxidative reactions in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats following repeated peripheral immune challenge by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 weeks (500 μg/kg every other day). Repeated LPS administration induced the rats to a depressive-like state and increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including 1L-1β, 1L-6 and TNF-α, in frontal cortex and hippocampus. FO supplementation attenuated the LPS-induced abnormal behavior and brain inflammatory response. Concurrent with the antidepressant action, FO also reduced LPS-induced oxidative reactions and neural apoptosis in the rat brain, as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) production, increased catalase activities and inhibited pro-apoptotic protein Bax mRNA expression. In addition, FO inhibited activation of NF-κB and iNOS induced by LPS. Interestingly, we found FO suppressed the activation of the inflammasome NLRP3 and ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X7R evoked by LPS, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory mechanism for PUFAs. Besides, FO also restored the LPS-induced neurochemical disturbance, especially the balance between serotonin and kynurenine branches of tryptophan metabolism, which is tightly associated with depression. These findings provide novel insights into the antidepressant action of PUFAs and further strengthen the link between inflammation and depression.

  4. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  5. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  6. Performance in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil Lippia berlandieri Schauer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of two qualities of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) in the broiler diet on broiler weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain, and water intake. The qualities were MOO1 (4% thymol, 60% carvacrol) and MOO2 (40% thymol, 20% carvacro...

  7. New methods and antioxidants to prevent oxidation of omega-3 oil supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 oils have gained much attention recently due to their beneficial health effects. However, their polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) are so prone to oxidation in the presence of oxygen, heat, light, and metal ions that a strong antioxidant is needed to prevent oxidation during manufacturing processe...

  8. Treatment of an adrenomyeloneuropathy patient with Lorenzo's oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jacobus J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a case report of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN, the adult variant of adrenoleukodystryphy (ALD. The diagnoses in the patient, aged 34, was confirmed via increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentration (VLCFA. Treatment started with the cholesterol lowering drug, atorvastatin, followed by add-on therapy with Lorenzo's oil (LO and finally supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the AMN patient before DHA treatment, already showed abnormal white matter in the brain. Although the MRI showed no neurological improvement after 6 months of DHA treatment, no selective progression of demyelination was detected in the AMN patient. Contrary to what was expected, LO failed to sustain or normalize the VLCFA levels or improve clinical symptoms. It was however, shown that DHA supplementation in addition to LO, increased DHA levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC. Additionally, the study showed evidence that the elongase activity in the elongation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA might have been significantly compromised, due to the increased DHA levels.

  9. Performance of growing lambs fed processed karanj (Pongamia glabra) oil seed cake as partial protein supplement to soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soren, N M; Sastry, V R B; Saha, S K; Wankhade, U D; Lade, M H; Kumar, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether processed karanj (Pongamia glabra) oil seed cake can be used as a supplement to partially replace soybean meal (SBM). Male lambs (n = 24) of uniform body weight (12.88 +/- 0.15 kg) were equally allotted at random to a SBM-based control (CON) and three test concentrate mixtures, containing detoxified solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) using three processing methods: water washing (WW), 2.5% lime (LM) and 0.4% binder (BN) treatment. The processed SKC replaced 50% nitrogen of SBM of CON. The respective concentrate mixtures were fed along with ad libitum chaffed oat (Avena sativa) straw for 196 days. Dry matter intake was significantly (p 0.05) between the CON and WW diets but significantly lower in LM and BN groups. Yield of greasy wool was lower (p < 0.05) in BN group. Comparable dry matter and nutrient (crude protein and total digestible nutrients) conversion efficiency was observed on CON and WW diet but the lambs on the LM and BN diets exhibited lower (p < 0.01) conversion efficiency. It is concluded that SKC after water washing could replace 50% of SBM nitrogen in protein supplementation.

  10. Effects of Trang Phuc Linh Plus-Food Supplement on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Mustard Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thong T; Dau, Duong T; Nguyen, Dung C; Nguyen, Huong T T G; Ngo, Phuong T B; Nguyen, Thai Q; Han, Bo; Hoang, Ba X

    2017-04-01

    Trang phuc linh plus (TPLP) is a food supplement product derived from dried extracts of herbal agents Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Paeonia lactiflora, Phellodendron amurense, and added lactobacillus fermentum lysate (ImmuneGamma®) and 5-hydroxytryptophan. TPLP is a functional food used as adjunctive treatment for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However the biological effect and its mechanism of action in IBS have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the pharmacological activities and mode of action of TPLP on IBS animal models. Mice were given a single administration of 5% mustard oil (MO) intracollonically. Acute colitis induction by MO resulted in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit in mice. Mice were treated with different does of TPLP and controls. Results showed that TPLP at the dose of 654 mg/kg/day given orally significantly decreased intestinal motility (IM) compared with the control animals. The effect was similar to Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day) (Mebeverine Hydrochloride, an antispasmodic that helps to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with gastrointestinal spasms). Increased TPLP dose (1962 mg/kg/day) had a better effect on relief of IM than Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day). TPLP also reduced peristalsis frequency and decreased fluid volume and electrolytes excretion in intestine tested in ex vivo models. Overall, TPLP may be an effective nutraceutical supplement for IBS.

  11. Transcriptome-based identification of antioxidative gene expression after fish oil supplementation in normo- and dyslipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, especially in dyslipidemic subjects with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, are widely described in the literature. A lot of effects of n-3 PUFAs and their oxidized metabolites are triggered by regulating the expression of genes. Currently, it is uncertain if the administration of n-3 PUFAs results in different expression changes of genes related to antioxidative mechanisms in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects, which may partly explain their cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on expression changes of genes involved in oxidative processes. Methods Ten normo- and ten dyslipidemic men were supplemented for twelve weeks with fish oil capsules, providing 1.14 g docosahexaenoic acid and 1.56 g eicosapentaenoic acid. Gene expression levels were determined by whole genome microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Using microarrays, we discovered an increased expression of antioxidative enzymes and a decreased expression of pro-oxidative and tissue enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and matrix metalloproteinases, in both normo- and dyslipidemic men. An up-regulation of catalase and heme oxigenase 2 in both normo- and dyslipidemic subjects and an up-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 only in dyslipidemic subjects could be observed by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Supplementation of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects with n-3 PUFAs changed the expression of genes related to oxidative processes, which may suggest antioxidative and potential cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. Further studies combining genetic and metabolic endpoints are needed to verify the regulative effects of n-3 PUFAs in antioxidative gene expression to better understand their beneficial effects in health and disease prevention. Trial registration Clinical

  12. Virgin coconut oil supplementation attenuates acute chemotherapy hepatotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate via inhibition of oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ufebe, Odomero G; Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwankwo, Onyebuchi E; Obaje, Godwin S

    2017-03-01

    The emerging health benefit of virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been associated with its potent natural antioxidants; however, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of VCO against methotrexate-induced liver damage and oxidative stress remains unexplored. The study explored the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of VCO against oxidative stress and liver damage induced by anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) in rats. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats pretreated with dietary supplementation of VCO (5% and 15%) by intraperitoneal administration of MTX (20mg/kg bw) on day 10 only. After 12days of treatment, assays for serum liver biomarkers (aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase, albumin and total protein as well as hepatic content of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) were carried out. Liver was used to examine histopathological changes. MTX administration induced significant increase in serum liver enzymes along with marked decrease in albumin and total protein compared to control group. Hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased, while malondialdehyde increased significantly. Treatment with VCO supplemented diet prior to MTX administration attenuated MTX-induced liver injury and oxidative stress evidenced by significant improvements in serum liver markers, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde comparable to control group. Histopathological alterations were prevented and correlated well with the biochemical indices. The study suggests antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of VCO supplementation against hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage via improving antioxidant defense system in rats. Our findings may have beneficial application in the management of hepatotoxicity associated with MTX cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-03-09

    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability.

  14. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Ana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC in SMC cultures. Methods An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C. Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.

  15. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed diets supplemented with fish or vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limtipsuntorn, Ubonrat; Haga, Yutaka; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Satoh, Shuichi

    2014-02-01

    Gene expression profiling was performed in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), linseed oil (LO), or olive oil (OO) for 6 weeks. The LO and OO groups showed significantly retarded growth, lower feed intake, lower protein efficiency ratio, and lower hepatosomatic index (P < 0.05). Liver fatty acid composition reflected the dietary fatty acid composition. Microarray analysis revealed that dietary n - 3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) deficiency affected 169 transcripts. In the LO group, 57 genes were up-regulated and 38 genes were down-regulated, whereas in the OO group nine genes were up-regulated and 87 genes were down-regulated. Analysis of the functional annotations suggested that dietary n - 3 HUFA affected genes involved in signal transduction (23.2 %), cellular processes (21.1 %), metabolism (including glucose, lipid, and nucleobase; 15.5 %), transport (11.3 %), regulation of transcription (10.5 %), and immune response (4.2 %). Several genes encoding serine/threonine kinases such as protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent kinase and nuclear hormone receptors such as vitamin D receptor, retinoic acid receptor, and receptors for cytokines (bone morphogenic protein and transforming growth factor β) were affected. Among 169 transcripts, 22 genes were affected in both LO and OO groups. The present study identified several genes involved in n - 3 HUFA deficiency-sensitive pathways, which will be useful for selective breeding of flounder strains able to adapt to n - 3 HUFA deficiency.

  16. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Linares Ana; Torres Carolina; Morales Rogelio; Alejandre Ma; Perales Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determi...

  17. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  18. Feeding Treatment Based on Palm Oil Byproduct and Supplementation to Support Reproduction Performance of Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ratnawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil waste (by productcan be used as a potential feed for livestock. Nevertheless, the study research of the effect of Palm oil waste (by product as a feed to the bull performance was limited. The purpose of this research is to get technology to improve semen quality through improving protein of  feed based on palm oil waste (byproducts. This research was conducted in PTPN 6 Jambi and  used 30 bulls that separated into 3 treatments, treatment I (feed protein 12% and suplementation, treatment II (feed protein 12% and treatment III (existing feed, feed protein 10%. Parameter were measured i.e feed consumption, libido, sperm motility, mass movement, sperm concentration, sperm abnormality, volume, pH, consistency, colour, body condition score and average daily gain. Design of this research was completely randomized design. Data was analyzed use ANOVA. The result showed that there is no significantly different on semen quality between treatmens. Semen quality of three treatments were appropriate to standart of quality semen of bull (sperm abnormality 50% and sperm concentration >500 million/ml. Based on this consideration, feed with protein level 10% more efficient because it needs less cost but results a good semen quality. The conclusion of this research is protein level 10% can supporting performance reproduction of bull.

  19. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  20. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  1. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Rossing, P; Jensen, T

    2001-01-01

    -blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid......OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. METHODS: A double...... 6 months. RESULTS: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6-10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40) nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11) nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION: Increased transcapillary...

  2. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.

    2001-01-01

    -blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid......Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double...... 6 months. Results: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6- 10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1+2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40)nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11)nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. Conclusion: Increased transcapillary escape...

  3. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Capó

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs, soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3 and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin, and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group.

  4. The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n--3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Dunstan, J; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2011-09-01

    The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study is a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating whether the incidence of allergic disease can be reduced and developmental outcomes enhanced through supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Infants at high risk of developing allergic disease will be randomised to receive either fish oil or olive oil supplements until 6 months of age and followed up at six postnatal clinic visits to assess allergy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Study groups to consist of a treatment group allocated to receive 650 mg of fish oil daily (250-280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and at least 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and a placebo group (olive oil) from birth to 6 months of age. Allergy outcomes will be assessed by clinical history, clinical assessments and allergen skin prick tests at the 12, 30 and 60 month visits. Neurodevelopmental assessments to be conducted at 18 months, and language questionnaires at 12, 18 and 30 months. Samples will be collected from mothers antenatally, from infants at birth, and at clinic visits from 6 months onwards for immunological assessments. Fatty acid composition to be measured in erythrocytes and plasma (at birth and after the supplementation period) to assess the effect of the intervention on fatty acid status. Information on medical history, diet and other lifestyle factors at an antenatal clinic visit and postnatal clinic visits will also be collected. This study is designed to examine clinically relevant effects of a novel, non-invasive and potentially low cost approach to reduce the incidence of allergic disease and facilitate neurodevelopment during early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino APA; Oliveira GMM; Ferreira CCD; Luiz RR; De, Rosa G.

    2015-01-01

    Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4 1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids...

  6. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Çabuk; Serdar Eratak; Ahmet Alçicek; Mehmet Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consiste...

  7. Modulation of C-reactive protein and plasma omega-6 fatty acid levels by phospholipase A2 gene polymorphisms following a 6-week supplementation with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, B L; Rudkowska, I; Couture, P; Lemieux, S; Julien, P; Vohl, M C

    2015-12-01

    This clinical trial investigated the impact of a six-week supplementation with fish oil and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes on total omega-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels in plasma phospholipids (PL) and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in 191 subjects. Interaction effects between SNPs and supplementation modulated total n-6 FAs and CRP levels in both men and women. Associations between SNPs and total n-6 FA levels and between SNPs and CRP levels were identified in men, independently of supplementation. Supplementation decreased total n-6 FAs without affecting plasma CRP levels. Changes in CRP levels correlated positively with changes in total n-6 FAs in men (r=0.25 p=0.01), but not in women. In conclusion, total n-6 FA levels in plasma PL and plasma CRP levels are modulated by SNPs within PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes alone or in combination with fish oil supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human milk protein and medium-chain triglyceride oil supplementation of human milk: plasma amino acids in very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnholm, K A; Simell, O; Siimes, M A

    1984-11-01

    Fifty-one very low-birth-weight infants (birth weight less than 1,520 g) randomly fed either human milk or human milk supplemented with human milk protein and/or with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil were observed. Plasma amino acids from these infants were studied at 2, 8, and 10 weeks. Medium-chain triglyceride oil supplementation had minimal or no influence on plasma amino acids. Human milk protein supplementation resulted in increased concentrations of all amino acids at all ages studied. The concentrations were 1.5- to threefold as compared with values in infants not given protein supplements. However, the concentrations of methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and lysine remained far below values considered harmful. The age at which maximal plasma amino acid concentrations in infants given human milk protein supplementation occur coincides with the age of the lowest serum albumin concentrations in infants fed only human milk. This suggests that high plasma amino acid concentrations may hasten albumin synthesis in very low-birth-weight infants.

  9. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Can polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster alter the effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2017-09-19

    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.

  11. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows.

  12. An oral supplement enriched with fish oil, soluble fiber, and antioxidants for corticosteroid sparing in ulcerative colitis: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidner, Douglas L; Lashner, Bret A; Brzezinski, Aaron; Banks, Phillip L C; Goldblum, John; Fiocchi, Claudio; Katz, Jeffry; Lichtenstein, Gary R; Anton, Peter A; Kam, Lori Y; Garleb, Keith A; Demichele, Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    N-3 fatty acids from fish oil, antioxidants, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced during the fermentation of soluble fiber may attenuate inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). We assessed the efficacy of a nutritionally balanced oral supplement enriched with fish oil, fructooligosaccharides, gum arabic, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium on disease activity and medication use in adults with mild to moderate UC. A total of 121 patients with UC and a disease activity index (DAI) from 3-9 on a 12-point scale were block randomized for extent of disease and smoking status. In addition to their usual diet, patients consumed 18 oz of the oral supplement or a carbohydrate-based placebo formula each day for 6 months. Clinical and histologic responses were assessed at 3 and 6 months or at the final visit. A change in average prednisone use between groups was tested by using a linear mixed-effects model. Eighty-six patients completed the study. Baseline characteristics were not different between groups except for a higher total DAI score in the oral supplement group (7.3 +/- 1.3; n = 36) compared with the placebo group (6.2 +/- 2.0; n = 50) ( P < .05). Both groups showed significant and similar degree of improvement at 6 months in DAI (-2.5 for oral supplement and -2.8 for placebo) and histologic index (-1.9 for oral supplement vs. -2.0 for placebo). Both intent-to-treat and completed patients given oral supplement had a significantly greater rate of decrease in the dose of prednisone required to control clinical symptoms over 6 months as compared with the placebo group ( P < .001). The improvement in clinical response combined with a decreased requirement for corticosteroids suggest that this enriched oral supplement can be a useful adjuvant therapy in patients with UC.

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  14. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    vocabulary at one year was lower in the children of the FO-compared with the OO-group ( P ... with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant...... DHA-intake and RBC-DHA level was assessed on problem solving ability at nine months and language at one and two years of age. Infants in the three groups performed equally well on the problem test and no association was observed between problem solving and erythrocyte-DHA at four months. Passive...

  16. Post-artificial insemination supplementation with calcium salts of soybean oil influences pregnancy establishment factors in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, A D; Silva, L G T; Bohnert, D W; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M; Pires, A V; Cerri, R L A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare hormonal, uterine, and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) for 21 d beginning after timed AI. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows were allocated to 20 groups of 5 cows/group and timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment. After AI, groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of protein-mineral mix + 100 g of ground corn per cow per day, in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO ( = 10) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; = 10). Groups were maintained in 4 pastures (5 groups from the same treatment within each pasture) with ad libitum access to forage. Groups were segregated daily and individually offered treatments from d 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected and transrectal ultrasonography was performed to verify ovulation and corpus luteum (CL) volume immediately before AI (d 0) and on d 7 and 15. After ultrasonography on d 15, 60 cows (30 cows/treatment and 3 cows/group) diagnosed without the presence of a CL on d 0 but with a CL greater than 0.38 cm3 in volume on d 7 and 15 were assigned to conceptus collection via transcervical flushing with PBS followed by endometrial biopsy in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL. Additional blood samples were collected for whole-blood RNA extraction (d 20), and pregnancy status was verified by transrectal ultrasonography (d 30) in cows not assigned to conceptus collection. Cows receiving CSSO had greater ( ≤ 0.04) mean plasma linoleic acid concentration, plasma linoleic:linolenic acid ratio, plasma progesterone (P4) concentration, and CL volume during the experiment compared with CON cows. Moreover, CSSO supplementation increased ( ≤ 0.04) length and mRNA expression of and by the conceptus as well as blood mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes on d 20 in gestating cows. No treatment differences were detected

  17. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-09-28

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  18. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  19. A 21-day Daniel fast with or without krill oil supplementation improves anthropometric parameters and the cardiometabolic profile in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Kabir, Mohammad M; Alleman, Rick J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2012-09-13

    The Daniel Fast is a vegan diet that prohibits the consumption of animal products, refined foods, white flour, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, flavorings, caffeine, and alcohol. Following this dietary plan for 21 days has been demonstrated to improve blood pressure, LDL-C, and certain markers of oxidative stress, but it has also been shown to lower HDL-C. Krill oil supplementation has been shown to increase HDL-C. We investigated the effects of following a Daniel Fast dietary plan with either krill oil supplementation (2 g/day) or placebo supplementation (coconut oil; 2 g/day) for 21 days. The subjects in this study (12 men and 27 women) were heterogeneous with respect to body mass index (BMI) (normal weight, overweight, and obese), blood lipids (normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic), blood glucose (normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetic), and blood pressure (normotensive and hypertensive). Krill oil supplementation had no effect on any outcome measure (all p > 0.05), and so the data from the krill oil group and the placebo group were collapsed and analyzed to examine the effects of following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Significant reductions were observed in LDL-C (100.6 ± 4.3 mg/dL vs. 80.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL), the LDL:HDL ratio (2.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1), fasting blood glucose (101.4 ± 7.5 mg/dL vs. 91.7 ± 3.4 mg/dL), fasting blood insulin (7.92 ± 0.80 μU/mL vs. 5.76 ± 0.59 μU/mL), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (2.06 ± 0.30 vs. 1.40 ± 0.21), systolic BP (110.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg vs. 105.5 ± 1.7 mm Hg), and body weight (74.1 ± 2.4 kg vs. 71.5 ± 2.3 kg) (all p krill oil supplementation. Clinicaltrial.govNCT01378767.

  20. Clinical and metabolic response to flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Hashemdokht, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-09-01

    Data on the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in subjects with DFU. The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 subjects (aged 40-85years old) with grade 3 DFU. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups (30 subjects each group) to receive either 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil supplements or placebo twice a day for 12weeks. After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation resulted in significant decreases in ulcer length (-2.0±2.3 vs. -1.0±1.1cm, P=0.03), width (-1.8±1.7 vs. -1.0±1.0cm, P=0.02) and depth (-0.8±0.6 vs. -0.5±0.5cm, P=0.01). Additionally, significant reductions in serum insulin concentrations (-4.4±5.5 vs. +1.4±8.3 μIU/mL, P=0.002), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-2.1±3.0 vs. +1.0±5.0, P=0.005) and HbA1c (-0.9±1.5 vs. -0.1±0.4%, P=0.01), and a significant rise in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.005±0.02, P=0.002) were seen following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids compared with the placebo. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids supplementation significantly decreased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-25.5±31.5 vs. -8.2±18.9μg/mL, P=0.01), and significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+83.5±111.7 vs. -73.4±195.5mmol/L, Pomega-3 fatty acids supplementation for 12weeks among subjects with DFU had beneficial effects on parameters of ulcer size, markers of insulin metabolism, serum hs-CRP, plasma TAC and GSH levels. In addition, flaxseed oil omega-3 fatty acids may have played an indirect role in wound healing due to its effects on improved metabolic profiles

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-04-11

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Impacts of Grape Seed Oil Supplementation against the Acrylamide Induced Lesions in Male Genital Organs of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mansour Hasseeb*, Fahad Abdullah Al-Hizab and Mahmoud Abdel-Halem Hamouda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of grape seed oil (GSO on the lesions of experimental Acrylamide (ACR intoxication in male rat genital organs. Two experimental groups of concomitant administration of 2 dietary levels of GSO with the toxic dose of ACR were evaluated in comparison with a negative control group and other 3 positive control groups for each of the 2 dietary levels of GSO and the toxic dose of the ACR. The results, at the end of the experiment (3 weeks, revealed occurrence of the highest scale of the histopathologic changes in case of the group of ACR-intoxication. These changes were in the form of testicular degeneration, abnormal epididymal contents of immature spermatocytes and multinucleated giant cells. The prostate glands and seminal vesicles showed cystic dilatation with less secretory materials, epithelial hyperplasia, necrosis and desquamation. Nearly similar scales of lesions were seen in the group administrated by ACR with low levels of GSO, while the lesions in the other group of administration by ACR with the high levels of GSO were of less scales. The conclusion from this microscopic evaluation was the occurrence of a less and level-dependent impact ameliorating effect of GSO supplementation against ACR-induced lesions in male genital organs of the adult rats.

  3. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  4. Dietary Oil Source and Selenium Supplementation Modulate Fads2 and Elovl5 Transcriptional Levels in Liver and Brain of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brito, Francisca; Magnoni, Leonardo J; Fonseca, Sthelio Braga; Peixoto, Maria João; Castro, L Filipe C; Cunha, Isabel; de Almeida Ozório, Rodrigo Otávio; Magalhães, Fernando Antunes; Gonçalves, José Fernando Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is taking on increasing importance in the aquaculture industry. In view of the limited supply of fish oil (FO) as a feed ingredient, the study of the capacity to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from alternative dietary oil sources is important. We analyzed changes in fatty acid (FA) desaturase 2 (fads2) and FA elongase 5 (elovl5) mRNA levels in livers and brains in response to FO replacement with a blend of vegetable oils (VO) and selenium (Se) supplementation. Fish were fed for 60 days with either a diet containing FO or a diet including VO, each supplemented or not with organic Se. Results showed that fads2 and elovl5 transcription was higher in liver when fish were fed VO diets. The brain mRNA levels of both genes were not affected by the dietary replacement of FO by VO. FA composition in the liver and skeletal muscle was altered by FO replacement, particularly by decreasing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. The α-linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid contents increased in both liver and brain of fish fed VO diets. The effect of Se supplementation on lipid metabolism was evident only in fish fed FO, showing a decrease in the transcription of hepatic fads2. Results indicate that the total replacement of FO by VO in diets modulates the expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in meagre, affecting the FA profile of the fish flesh.

  5. Activity of liver enzymes in multiple sclerosis patients with Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadeghihokmabad, Elyar; Torbati, Mohammadali; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Chehreh, Mahtaj; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2014-12-01

    It is unknown whether diets with a high dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) can modify oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, or liver dysfunction, all of which are risk factors for multiple sclerosis disease. This study assesses alanine amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities in MS patients treated with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature diet and the therapeutic potential this intervention. In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 MS patients with EDSShemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot-nature diet; "group B",who received olive oil; and "group C", who received the co-supplemented oils. Clinically, EDSS as well as serum level of liver enzymes (GGT, AST, and ALT) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. Serum levels of liver enzymes (GGT, AST, and ALT) were serially monitored. Intervention was associated with liver function alteration in three groups. Significance decreased in EDSS score and the levels of liver enzymes were found in groups A and C, whereas elevated serum liver enzymes and EDSS score were observed in group B after the intervention. Selecting foods according to their Total antioxidant capacity such as co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot-nature diet affects antioxidant intake and can have beneficial effects on improving EDSS score and activity of liver enzymes in RRMS patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSShemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction.

  7. Essential fatty acids in breast milk of atopic mothers: comparison with non-atopic mothers, and effect of borage oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, C; Houwelingen, A; Poorterman, I; Mordant, A; van den Brandt, P

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate whether levels of n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) in human breast milk are related to the mother's atopic constitution, and whether a decreased level can be restored by gamma-linolenic acid supplementation. Cross-sectional study and dietary supplementation trial. 20 atopic mothers and 20 non-atopic mothers (controls), all lactating. General population. The atopic mothers were randomly assigned to low (n=10) or high (n=10) dosage oral supplementation with oral borage oil for one week (230 or 460 mg gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) per day). Essential fatty acid composition of the breast milk total fat fraction, determined by gas liquid chromatography. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) was lower in breast milk of atopic mothers compared with non-atopic mothers (0.39 wt% vs 0.46 wt%, difference -0.07% wt% (95% confidence limits -0.13, -0.01 wt%; PLeeuwarden, The Netherlands).

  8. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10-12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02092649.

  9. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  10. Dietary supplementation of krill oil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstad, Tore; Bjørndal, Bodil; Cacabelos, Daniel; Aasprong, Ole Gunnar; Janssen, Emiel A M; Omdal, Roald; Svardal, Asbjørn; Hausken, Trygve; Bohov, Pavol; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Berge, Rolf K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of krill oil (KO) on inflammation and redox status in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control, DSS, and DSS + KO 5% in a 4-week diet study. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in the drinking water the last week of the experiment. Weight and disease activity index (DAI), colon length, histological combined score (HCS), colon levels of selected cytokines and prostaglandins, markers of protein oxidative damage, fatty acid profile, and expression of selected genes were measured. Rats in the DSS group increased their DAI and HCS compared with healthy controls. The colon length was significantly preserved after KO diet. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were elevated in the DSS group compared with controls. Cytokines and HCS were nonsignificantly lower in the KO versus the DSS group. Prostaglandin (PG)E(3) increased significantly in the KO versus the other groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ expression was nonsignificantly increased while PPAR-γ coactivator 1α (Pparg1α) expression increased significantly after KO. The levels of protein oxidation markers decreased significantly. KO showed protective potential against DSS colitis based on the preservation of colon length, reduction of oxidative markers and the consistent beneficial changes of HCS, cytokine, and (PG)E(3) levels, as well as PPAR-γ and Pparg1α expression compared with DSS alone. These findings indicate an anti-inflammatory and a protein antioxidant effect of KO.

  11. On-line gel permeation chromatography-attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared determination of lecithin and soybean oil in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, J; Quintás, G; Esteve-Turrillas, F A; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2008-03-21

    Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry detection has been proposed for the simultaneous determination of lecithin and soybean oil in dietary supplements. The method involves the extraction of analytes with dichloromethane in an ultrasound water bath and the injection of 2 ml of centrifuged and filtered extracts into the system integrated by two Envirogel GPC columns (19 mm x150 mm, 19 mm x 300 mm) coupled on-line. Dichloromethane was used as mobile phase. A method has been developed to select the most appropriated wavenumber to be used for the determination of each considered compound from the calculation of a factor which maximizes the analyte signal minimizing the interferent contributions, being selected the detection wavenumbers of 1034 and 1138 cm(-1) for lecithin and soybean oil, respectively in the first order derivative ATR-FTIR spectra. The method provides limits of detection of 2 and 4 mg ml(-1) for lecithin and soybean oil and repeatability values, measured as relative standard deviation, of 2.5% and 3.4% being extended the linear range till 100 mg ml(-1) for lecithin and up to 50 mg ml(-1) for soybean oil. Accurate results were found for 10 synthetic samples and 7 commercial dietary supplement preparations.

  12. Dietary linseed oil supplemented with organic selenium improved the fatty acid nutritional profile, muscular selenium deposition, water retention, and tenderness of fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Tang, Xinyue; Xue, Yan; Lin, Gang; Xiong, Youling L

    2017-09-01

    Cross-bred pigs were fed a control diet (with 0.3ppm sodium selenite and 1.5% soybean oil) or organic selenium diets (0.3ppm Se-Yeast with 1.5% soybean or linseed oil) to investigate nutrient supplement effects on meat quality and oxidative stability. The organic selenium diets increased muscular selenium content up to 54%, and linseed oil increased n-3 fatty acids two-fold while lowering the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio from 13.9 to 5.9 over the selenite control diet (Pmeat storage (4°C up to 6days) showed no appreciable difference (P>0.05) between diets, in agreement with the lack of notable difference in endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity between these meat groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  14. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  15. Performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of dairy calves fed starter mixtures supplemented with herbal plants, essential oils or monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian-Tefaghi, M; Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M

    2018-01-18

    This study evaluated the supplementation effects of three herbal plants (thyme [THY], eucalyptus [EUC] and celery [CEL]), a commercial phytogenic additive ‎containing essential oils (PFA-EO, Digestarom® P.E.P.) and monensin (MON) in calf starter on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during pre- (days 3-55) and post-weaning (days 56-70). Sixty-six Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age, 41.2 ± 3 kg of BW) were allocated to one of six starters supplemented with: (i) no additives (CON), (ii) MON (30 mg/kg), (iii) THY (23 g/kg), (iv) CEL (23 g/kg), (v) EUC (23 g/kg) and (vi) PFA-EO (3 g/kg). All the calves were offered starters ad libitum plus 6 L of whole milk daily. Starter intake tended to be the highest in calves fed PFA-EO and THY; intermediate in calves fed CON, MON and EUC; and the lowest in those fed CEL. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) remained unaffected by dietary treatments during the pre-weaning. During the post-weaning period, ADG and FE ‎were greatest in calves fed EUC followed by those fed CON, MON, PFA-EO and THY, and then in those fed CEL. No differences were observed among the treatments in skeletal growth, faecal score, rumen pH or ammonia-N concentration. Compared to calves fed CON and MON, those fed the herbal plants or PFA-EO tended to recorded higher molar proportions of acetate and butyrate, and the acetate: propionate ratio. Blood malondialdehyde level did not differ among treatments, but calves on CON had the highest glucose concentration, and those fed PFA-EO recorded the highest value for β-hydroxyl butyrate on day 70. In conclusion, the results indicate that the three herbs and PFA-EO are capable of modulating some of the rumen fermentation parameters and blood metabolites as well as eucalyptus could potentially be a better alternative to monensin for improving post-weaning performance. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramprasath, V. R.; Eyal, I.; Zchut, S.; Shafat, I.; Jones, P. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, asse...

  18. Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism.

  19. Improving growth performance and health status of meat-type quail by supplementing the diet with black cumin cold-pressed oil as a natural alternative for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Mahgoub, Samir A; Hussein, Mohamed M A; Saadeldin, Islam M

    2018-01-01

    Using antibiotics in poultry diets as growth promoters was reported to have harmful effects on consumers, so the current study was done to monitor the impact of dietary supplementation of antimicrobial black cumin oil (BCO) on carcass traits, growth performance, biochemical components, and ileal microbial populations of growing Japanese quails. Three hundred growing Japanese quails were used with three different treatments (0, 0.50, and 1.0 g BCO/g diet). Birds fed diet supplemented with 0.5 g BCO/kg diet showed significant increase in body weight comparing with the control and other treatment group. The daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly increased side by side with increasing BCO level in the diet. The majority of carcass characteristics were maximized by supplementing the quail diet with 0.5 g BCO/kg. Moreover, liver functions, anti-oxidative capacity, lipid profile and anabolic hormones showed significant improvement in BCO-treated diets in a dose-dependent manner. The BCO showed highest antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The ileal bacterial populations, i.e., total bacterial count (TBC), coliform, Salmonella species, and Escherichia coli were decreased in birds supplemented with BCO 0.5 and 1.0 BCO g/kg compared with the control diet. Based on the aforementioned results, conclusion could be drawn that supplementing quail with BCO in their diet could improve productive performance traits and enhance health aspect of the birds.

  20. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Anaerobic digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Min, Min; Chen, Yifeng; Zhu, Jun; Ruan, Roger R

    2010-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp. Different dilution multiples of 10, 15, 20, and 25 were applied to the digested manure and algal growth was compared in regard to growth rate, nutrient removal efficiency, and final algal fatty acids content and composition. Slower growth rates were observed with less diluted manure samples with higher turbidities in the initial cultivation days. A reverse linear relationship (R(2) = 0.982) was found between the average specific growth rate of the beginning 7 days and the initial turbidities. Algae removed ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and COD by 100%, 75.7-82.5%, 62.5-74.7%, and 27.4-38.4%, respectively, in differently diluted dairy manure. COD in digested dairy manure, beside CO(2), proved to be another carbon source for mixotrophic Chlorella. Fatty acid profiles derived from triacylglyceride (TAG), phospholipid and free fatty acids showed that octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) were the two most abundant fatty acids in the algae. The total fatty acid content of the dry weight increased from 9.00% to 13.7% along with the increasing dilution multiples. Based on the results from this study, a process combining anaerobic digestion and algae cultivation can be proposed as an effective way to convert high strength dairy manure into profitable byproducts as well as to reduce contaminations to environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  3. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Fabiana; Carta, Gianfranca; Bisogno, Tiziana; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Berge, Kjetil; Tandy, Sally; Cohn, Jeffrey S; Griinari, Mikko; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2011-07-13

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA) are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids) and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO), on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT), liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1) the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2) two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3) the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS). Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  4. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality of lambs supplemented with increasing levels of a tanniferous bush (Cistus ladanifer L.) and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, A; Dentinho, M T; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Fernandes, F; Sengo, S; Jerónimo, E; Oliveira, M A; Costa, P; Sequeira, A; Bessa, R J B; Santos-Silva, J

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dietary inclusion of Cistus ladanifer L. (CL) and a vegetable oil blend were evaluated on growth performance,carcass and meat quality of fifty four lambs that were assigned to 9 diets, corresponding to 3 levels of CL(50, 100 and 200 g/kg DM) and 3 levels of oil inclusion (0, 40 and 80 g/kg DM). Treatments had no effects on growth rate. Oil depressed dry matter intake (P = 0.017), carcass muscle (P = 0.041) and increased (P = 0.016) kidney knob channel fat. Chemical and physical meat quality traits were not affected by treatments. Off-flavour perception was higher for 8% of oil (P b 0.001). The level of 100 g/kg DM of CL inclusion improved meat stability after 7 days of storage. Supplementation with linseed and soybean oils (2:1) was a good approach to improve meat nutritional value from feedlot lambs, increasing total n-3 PUFA.

  5. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Mehdi, Farhoudi; Mehrangiz, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadeghihokmabad, Elyar; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Torbati, Mohammad-ali; Sanaie, Sarvin; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most chronic and inflammatory disorder. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. This study was aimed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature dietary intervention on RRMS patients. In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 MS patients with EDSShemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot-nature diet, "Group B" who received olive oil, "Group C" who received the co-supplemented oils. Mizadj, clinically EDSS and relapse rate as well as immunological factors (IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in Mizadj, EDSS and relapse rate were found in the groups A and C, while the group B showed a border significant decrease in relapse rate. Immunological parameters showed improvement in groups A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for group B after the intervention. The co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot-nature diet have beneficial effects in improving of clinical score in RRMS patients which were confirmed by immunological findings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of oat by-product antioxidants and vitamin E on the oxidative stability of pork from pigs fed diets supplemented with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Wiesław; Flis, Marianna; Antoszkiewicz, Zofia; Lipiński, Krzysztof; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the experiment was to compare the antioxidative potential of an oat by-product with the effect of vitamin E on the oxidative stability of pork from pigs fed a diet enriched with linseed oil. Thirty-four crossbreed barrows were fed individually from 39 to 109 kg body weight (BW) on one of four diets: a control diet based on barley-triticale-soybean (Diet C), a diet containing an oat byproduct (Diet O), and the same diets supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/kg diet) (Diets CE and OE, respectively). The oat by-product, comprising oat hulls and bran, was included at 10 and 20% in the grower and finisher diets, respectively. To Diets O and OE, refined rapeseed oil was added to equalise their energy content to Diets C and CE. Compared to Diets C and CE, the inclusion of the oat by-product in Diets O and OE increased the antioxidative capacity of water-soluble and lipid soluble compounds in these diets. Dietary treatment did not influence growth performance, slaughter value, longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle quality measured by nutrient contents, pH, drip loss or colour. Vitamin E supplementation increased the alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and meat (p oxidative stability of meat. However, dietary inclusion with the oat by-product was not as efficient as supplementation with vitamin E.

  7. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  8. Fat-soluble vitamins in the maternal diet, influence of cod liver oil supplementation and impact of the maternal diet on human milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, A S; Wagner, K H; Thorsdottir, I; Elmadfa, I

    2001-01-01

    To investigate lactating mothers' intake of fat-soluble vitamins in free-living subjects and to what extent cod liver oil supplementation influences the maternal intake in a population with common intake of cod liver oil. The impact of maternal diet on the concentration of fat-soluble vitamins in human milk was studied. Dietary intake of 77 lactating women was investigated by 24-hour diet recalls and breast-milk samples were taken at the same occasions. Breast milk samples were analyzed for fat-soluble vitamins. The median intakes were 927 microg/day for vitamin A, 5.5 mg/day for vitamin E and 3.3 microg/day for vitamin D. Maternal vitamin A, E and D intakes were higher when the diet was supplemented with cod liver oil. Icelandic breast milk was found to have high contents of vitamin A and E. Only vitamin D was too low in breast milk to meet the recommended intake for infants. Retinylpalmitate in relation to lipids correlated with maternal vitamin A intake (r = 0.23, p milk (p diet alone. Only vitamin D in human milk cannot meet the recommended intakes for infants, with normal breastfeeding. There is a relationship between the content of vitamins A and E in human milk and the maternal diet. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil (Euphausia superba) supplementation on oxidative stress and DNA damages markers in cafeteria diet-overfed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Z; Agustina, M; Ramirez, M; Pena, K; Arivalo, J

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil supplementation in modulation of oxidative stress components and DNA oxidative damages marker in cafeteria diet-overfed-rats. Eighteen aging male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each and were exposed for the ensuing 8 weeks to one of the diets: control group (TS) which was submitted to standard chow (330kcal/100g), containing 24% of proteins, 5% of lipids and 70% of carbohydrates. Cafeteria standard group (TC) exposed to cafeteria diet (420kcal/100g). The last group received a cafeteria diet enriched in oral force-feeding krill oil 2% (CK). The plasma and tissues pro-oxydant status were assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxydes, and isoprostans. The determination of DNA oxidative damages was evaluated by the measurement of the major products of DNA oxidation (8-OHdG). Exposure to a cafeteria diet increases the metabolic response to the radical attack and DNA oxidative damages in both plasma and key tissues involved in antioxidant defense. Krill oil supplementation in cafeteria diet relieves oxidative stress and DNA damages by lowering several lipid peroxidation components and the main marker of DNA oxidation in obese rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The reduction of starch in finishing diets supplemented with oil does not prevent the accumulation of trans-10 18:1 in lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Alves, S P; Francisco, A; Almeida, J; Alfaia, C M; Martins, S V; Prates, J A M; Santos-Silva, J; Doran, O; Bessa, R J B

    2017-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the replacement of cereal with low-starch feed ingredients in lambs' finishing diets supplemented with oils could prevent the accumulation of -10-18:1 in meat. Forty lambs were fed 1 of 4 diets supplemented with soybean oil (5.9%) and fish oil (1%) for 6 wk before slaughter. The control (CON) diet contained 43% barley, and in the other diets, barley was completely replaced by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP), dehydrated sugar beet pulp (DBP), or soybean hulls (SH). Growth performance, feed intake, and carcass and meat quality traits were analyzed. At slaughter, LM samples were collected for gene expression evaluation, and 3 d after slaughter, LM and subcutaneous (s.c.) fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. None of the diets affected meat quality, but the DCP diet reduced ADG ( led to increased a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) in s.c. fat compared with the CON treatment ( 0.05) with treatment and averaged 34.4 g/kg of meat. Diets had no effect ( > 0.05) on SFA, PUFA, and -MUFA sums and on the -6:-3 ratio in both LM and s.c. fat. A lower expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) was found with the DCP treatment than with the other treatments ( meat and fat.

  12. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E supplementation on meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology in pigs following transport stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Hu, Xiao Ming; Zhang, Ting; Wei, Hong Kui; Zhou, Yuan Fei; Zhou, Zhong Xin; Peng, Jian

    2017-02-14

    This study investigates the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO) and vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation on meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology in pigs following transport stress. A total of 288 finishing pigs were randomly assigned to three groups: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented either with 200 mg/kg Vit E or 25 mg/kg OEO. After a 28-day feeding trial, total of 132 finishing pigs according diet and transport stress were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) control treatment without transport stress (Control group), 2) control treatment with 5-hr transport stress (Negative group), 3) Vit E treatment with 5-hr transport stress and 4) OEO treatment with 5-hr transport stress. Transport stress pigs had lower muscle 45 min pH (pHi) and higher drip loss than control pigs. Dietary OEO and Vit E supplementation significantly increased 45min pH under transport stress, and the OEO groups produced lower 24-hr drip loss values (Pnegative group. The OEO-supplemented pigs showed decreased serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol (Pmeat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology of pigs after challenge due to transportation stress.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms influence runners' responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Lordelo, Graciana Souza; Akimoto, Arthur Kenji; Alves, Penha Cristina Zaidan; Pereira, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2011-11-01

    Genes have been implicated in the levels of oxidative stress, lipids, CVD risk, immune reactivity, and performance. Pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) has shown anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, besides reducing exercise-induced DNA, tissue damages, and anisocytosis. Given that diet can interact with the human genome to influence health and disease, and because genetic variability can influence response to diet, we aim to investigate the influence of 12 gene polymorphisms on inflammatory markers, postprandial lipids, arterial pressure, and plasma lipid peroxidation of runners (N = 125), before and after 14 days of 400 mg pequi-oil supplementation, after races under closely comparable conditions. Arterial pressure was checked before races; blood samples were taken immediately after racing to perform leukogram and plateletgram, Tbars assay, lipid, and CRP dosages and genotyping. CAT, GST-M1/T1, CRP-G1059C, and MTHFR-C677T polymorphisms influenced post-pequi-oil responses in leukogram; Hp and MTHFR-C677T, in plateletgram; Hp, ACE, GSTT1, and MTHFR-A1298C, in lipid profile; MTHFR-A1298C, in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; and Hp and MnSOD, in Tbars assay. Differences between ACE genotypes in leukogram and total cholesterol disappeared after pequi, and the same occurred for Hp and MnSOD in Tbars assay and for MTHFR-A1298C with CRP levels. Because genetic inheritance is one of the factors that drive atherosclerosis-related lipid abnormalities, results can contribute to a greater understanding of the influence of genetic polymorphisms in situations that push up free radicals. Knowledge is also expanded on how antioxidant supplementation affects an individual's genes and how athletic genetic makeup can affect the way a person responds to antioxidant supplements.

  14. Fish oil supplementation lowers C-reactive protein levels independent of triglyceride reduction in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G; Wilson, Ronald L; Deike, Erika; Gentile, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation has been identified as a marker for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fish oil fatty acid supplementation on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The study uses a double-blind, permuted-randomized, and placebo-controlled experimental protocol. Patients are randomly placed into a fish oil group or a control group. Thirty-three patients in the experimental and control groups ingest 2 soft-gel pills (1 g each) of fish oil supplements containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo at each meal. Patients follow the supplementation protocol for 6 months. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to measure pretest and posttest differences in the variable of interest. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality is used to test whether CRP levels are normally distributed. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for CRP finds a P value of .273 (KS = .997), revealing that the distribution is normal. ANOVA reveals no statistically significant difference between groups at baseline for CRP (F = 4.118, P = .053). ANOVA reveals a significant main effect (F = 4.29, P = .048) for CRP, with the EPA/DHA group having a significant change in values from pretest (16 mg/dL, standard deviation [SD] = 13.80) to posttest (10.22 mg/dL, SD = 7.87). The placebo group's CRP levels do not change significantly from pretest (13.37, standard deviation [SD] = 7.94) to posttest (13.67, SD = 7.07). An observed power calculation using Cohen's D with a computed alpha of .05 is .588. The study demonstrates that consuming 960 mg/d of EPA and 600 mg/d of DHA can lower CRP.

  15. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268, F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273, and cytokines (p > 0.05. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001. Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  16. Association of Expanded Disability Status Scale and Cytokines after Intervention with Co-supplemented Hemp Seed, Evening Primrose Oils and Hot-natured Diet in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Baradaran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. The aim of this study is to examine the correlations between expanded disability status scale (EDSS and cytokines after intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils and hot-natured diet in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Methods: We studied a group of 23 patients with clinically definite RRMS, with EDSS<6 who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advising hot-natured diet. Clinically EDSS and immunological factors (plasma cytokines of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 days (N=23, 7 Male and 16 Females aged 25.0±7.5 years with disease duration 6.26±3.9 years. After 6 months, significant improvements in extended disability status score were found in the patients in agreement with decrease cytokines of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increase cytokines of IL-4. Clinical and immunological parameters showed improvement in the patients after the intervention. Conclusion: Our study shows that co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with hot-natured diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms in relapsing remitting MS patients and significant correlation was found between EDSS and immunological findings.

  17. Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and different variants of β-lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Kuczyńska, Beata; Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Balcerak, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of β-lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β-LG (β-LGAA, β-LGBB, β-LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same total mixed ration (TMR) diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis-9 trans-11, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that β-LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5 n-6, phospholipids and β-carotene. β-LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans-11, C18:2cis-9 trans-11 and lactoferrin. β-LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5 n-3, Lysozyme, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β-LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β-LG phenotype × diet interaction. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits on their productive performances, carcass traits and fresh and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matics, Zs; Cullere, M; Szín, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Szabó, A; Fébel, H; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, Zs

    2017-08-01

    The present experiment tested a dietary supplementation with linseed oil and selenium to growing rabbits. The basal diet (B) contained 3% sunflower oil, while it was substituted with 3% linseed oil in the experimental feed (S). The selenium (Se) content of the two diets was 0.10 vs. 0.46 mg/kg. Rabbits were fed with B diet from the age of 18 days. One group was fed with the B diet until 11 weeks of age (group B), whereas the experimental groups were fed with S diet for 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks (groups S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively), before slaughtering (11 weeks of age). Live performance and carcass traits of rabbits, fatty acid (FA) profile and selenium content of their hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were considered in this study. In addition, the effect of two different cooking methods on the nutritional value of the enriched HL meat was also assessed. The tested dietary supplementation only minimally affected the live performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The S supplementation significantly reduced the Σ n-6 FA and increased the Σ n-3 FA of the HL meat and LTL meat, compared to the B diet (p meat and LTL meat of S fed rabbits were significantly enriched in Se reaching a twofold increase in both meat cuts (p meat. The heat treatment affected cooking loss, Se and vitamin E contents as well as the oxidative status of the HL meat (p < 0.001), with the different cooking methods providing different results. In addition, even if the beneficial C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 decreased with cooking, the n-6/n-3 ratio remained unaffected. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah U. Çatli; Ahmet Alçiçek; Mehmet Pamukçu; Metin Çabuk; Kamil Küçükyilmaz; Mehmet Bozkurt

    2012-01-01

    One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM) till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assign...

  20. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  1. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  2. The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardio (GISSI)-Prevenzione Trial on fish oil and vitamin E supplementation in myocardial infarction survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N J

    2000-09-01

    A recent large-scale, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in 11, 324 myocardial infarction (MI) survivors has shown low-dose fish oil, but not vitamin E, to reduce significantly the cumulative rate of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke. Neither intervention significantly reduced the other primary endpoint, the cumulate rate of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke. Analysis of secondary endpoints indicated that the benefits of the 875 mg fish oil capsules containing 850 to 882 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as ethyl esters was in reducing mortality and not in a reduction of nonfatal MI. It was a safe intervention. The internal validity and external validity of the data was examined and the findings placed in clinical perspective. Important questions remain about the benefits of increased plant sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for those who cannot obtain or consume fish. Also the benefits of diet versus fish oil supplementation haven't been determined precisely. Although it seems reasonable to increase sources of n-3 PUFA in the diet for those at high risk of coronary heart disease, current data do not support a policy of promoting fish oil capsules for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  3. The effect of chosen food oils to supplementation of last fattening pigs period on fatty acids structure in pig muscle fat and the consumption preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Paradovský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids profile in broilers feed, it is possible to influence their share in a desired structure, which can balance the n-6:n-3 ratio in food, according to the consumers needs. Flax seed to lactating goats can be used as nutritional supplement to reduce saturated fatty acids and increase polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk. A significant increase in CLA in milk was achieved by suplementation to  goats. In experiment last month of fattening group of pig in five groups of pig was fed with a basal diet, which incorporated various fats (canabis oil-2%, soybean oil-5%, linseed oil-5%, raps oil5%. The indicators (food intake, body weight gain, and the conversion were established during the experiment, and in the end, the content of essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids in pigs meat were determined. The data, analyzed and statistically interpreted. By the four experimental groups, there are, some variations of the determined fatty acids content in pectoral muscles as well as in breast skin.

  4. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito; M. Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; Guadalupe Melo-Santiesteban; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent,...

  5. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to

  6. A 21-day Daniel fast with or without krill oil supplementation improves anthropometric parameters and the cardiometabolic profile in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trepanowski John F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Daniel Fast is a vegan diet that prohibits the consumption of animal products, refined foods, white flour, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, flavorings, caffeine, and alcohol. Following this dietary plan for 21 days has been demonstrated to improve blood pressure, LDL-C, and certain markers of oxidative stress, but it has also been shown to lower HDL-C. Krill oil supplementation has been shown to increase HDL-C. Methods We investigated the effects of following a Daniel Fast dietary plan with either krill oil supplementation (2 g/day or placebo supplementation (coconut oil; 2 g/day for 21 days. The subjects in this study (12 men and 27 women were heterogeneous with respect to body mass index (BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obese, blood lipids (normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic, blood glucose (normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetic, and blood pressure (normotensive and hypertensive. Results Krill oil supplementation had no effect on any outcome measure (all p > 0.05, and so the data from the krill oil group and the placebo group were collapsed and analyzed to examine the effects of following a 21-day Daniel Fast. Significant reductions were observed in LDL-C (100.6 ± 4.3 mg/dL vs. 80.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, the LDL:HDL ratio (2.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.7 ± 0.1, fasting blood glucose (101.4 ± 7.5 mg/dL vs. 91.7 ± 3.4 mg/dL, fasting blood insulin (7.92 ± 0.80 μU/mL vs. 5.76 ± 0.59 μU/mL, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (2.06 ± 0.30 vs. 1.40 ± 0.21, systolic BP (110.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg vs. 105.5 ± 1.7 mm Hg, and body weight (74.1 ± 2.4 kg vs. 71.5 ± 2.3 kg (all p  Conclusion Following a Daniel Fast dietary plan improves a variety of cardiometabolic parameters in a wide range of individuals in as little as 21 days, and these improvements are unaffected by krill oil supplementation. Trial registration

  7. Milk fatty acid profile and dairy sheep performance in response to diet supplementation with sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to develop strategies for enhancing the nutritional value of sheep milk fat, dairy ewe diet was supplemented with 3 incremental levels of marine algae (MA), in combination with sunflower oil, to evaluate the effects of these marine lipids on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and animal performance. Fifty Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 10 lots of 5 animals each and allocated to 5 treatments (2 lots per treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 25 g of sunflower oil/kg of DM plus 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of MA (56.7% ether extract)/kg of DM. Milk production and composition, including FA profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment. Neither intake nor milk yield were significantly affected by lipid addition, but all MA supplements decreased milk fat content from d 14 onward, reaching a 30% reduction after 28 d on SOMA(3). This milk fat depression might be related not only to the joint action of some putative fat synthesis inhibitors, such as trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 and probably trans-10 C18:1, but also to the limited ability of the mammary gland to maintain a desirable milk fat fluidity, that would have been caused by the noticeable increase in trans-C18:1 together with the lowered availability of stearic acid for oleic acid synthesis through Delta(9)-desaturase. Furthermore, all lipid supplements, and mainly MA, reduced the secretion of de novo FA (C6:0-C14:0) without increasing the yield of preformed FA (>C16). Supplementation with sunflower oil plus MA resulted in larger increases in cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 than those observed with sunflower oil alone, achieving a mean content as high as 3.22% of total FA and representing a more than 7-fold increase compared with the control. Vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) was also significantly enhanced (on average +794% in SOMA treatments), as was C22:6 n-3 (DHA) content, although the transfer efficiency of the latter, from the diets

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of essential oils of some commonly used Indian spices in in vitro models and in food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2017-10-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of essential oils of some commonly used Indian spices (black pepper, cinnamon, clove, coriander and cumin) in various in vitro models and in food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. In vitro antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and Fe2+ ion-chelating methods and lipid oxidation stabilisation potential was evaluated in bulk soybean oil-fish oil mixture and their oil-in-water emulsions using peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV) and total oxidation value as indicators of oxidation. Combination effects using DPPH radical scavenging and Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction methods were also evaluated. Test essential oils showed varying degrees of radical scavenging and Fe2+ ion-chelating efficacy. Clove and coriander oils showed significantly higher (P  coriander > BHT > cinnamon > α-tocopherol > cumin > black pepper. Furthermore, clove and coriander oils showed synergistic antioxidant activity in combination both in DPPH radical scavenging and Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction methods whereas other possible combinations showed additive effects. Strong radical scavenging and Fe2+-chelating as well as anti-lipid peroxidative activities of clove and coriander oils provide evidence that clove and coriander oils may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation of food supplements enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

  9. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes.

  10. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E supplementations. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. 75 FR 3706 - Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Environmental Impact Statement on the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council's Restoration Efforts AGENCY... a member of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council (Council), announces the intent of the... Exxon Valdez settlement diminish, the Council seeks a more discrete and efficient funding mechanism by...

  12. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Martino, D; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo...

  13. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  14. Relationship between the omega-3 index and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators in patients with peripheral arterial disease taking fish oil supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Melinda S; Zahner, Greg J; Gasper, Warren J; Harris, William S; Conte, Michael S; Hills, Nancy K; Grenon, S Marlene

    Oral supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases the omega-3 index, a biomarker of red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and plasma levels of biosynthesis pathway markers and potent lipid mediators involved in the resolution of inflammation among patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We aimed to quantify the association between an upstream change in the omega-3 index and downstream changes in lipid mediator production. We conducted a secondary analysis of the OMEGA-PAD I Trial, a randomized, placebo controlled trial investigating high-dose n-3 PUFA oral supplementation in PAD patients. Eighty subjects were randomized to either 4.4 g of fish oil or placebo for 1 month. Regression analyses using generalized estimating equation techniques were used to investigate the relationship between changes in the omega-3 index and changes in lipid mediators, pre- and post-intervention. In the fish oil group, there was a significant increase in the omega-3 index (5 ± 1% to 9 ± 2%, P omega-3 index correlated with increases of 2.3-fold in 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE; P omega-3 index were strongly associated with increases in downstream mediators in the biochemical pathways of resolution. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative evaluation of dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide and oregano essential oil in forced molted and fully fed laying hens between 82 and 106 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Bintaş, E; Kırkan, Ş; Akşit, H; Küçükyılmaz, K; Erbaş, G; Çabuk, M; Akşit, D; Parın, U; Ege, G; Koçer, B; Seyrek, K; Tüzün, A E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of feed-grade preparations of mannan oligosaccharides ( MOS: ) and oregano essential oil ( OEO: ) in forced molted or fully fed 82-week-old, laying hens. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment investigated the influence of molting vs. full feeding and dietary supplements [i.e., unsupplemented control, MOS (1 g/kg) diet, and OEO (24 mg/kg) diet] on production parameters, egg quality, serum stress indicators, blood constituents, tibial characteristics, liver antioxidant status, and cecal microflora composition. A total of 864 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 24 hens each, and studied for 25 wk. Hens were fed a molt diet containing of 50% alfalfa and 50% wheat bran ( AA+WB: ) for 12 d, then returned to the laying ration. Results indicate that molt vs. full feed impacted more on most variables measured than supplementation or supplement type. Significant (P < 0.01) interactions between molting and diet were observed for the egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ). In fully fed hens, MOS supplementation improved (P < 0.01) the egg production, egg weight, and FCR, and an OEO addition significantly improved the egg production and FCR in forced molted hens. Molting improved egg quality despite the significant regression in ovary and oviduct weight (P < 0.01), though supplements showed no influence. The bone ash (P < 0.01) and mineral content (P < 0.05) of molted hens were significantly lower than those of fully fed counterparts; however, poor mineralization was not reflected in the bones' mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed among treatments for hematological characteristics. Both the MOS and particularly the OEO supplementation improved (P < 0.01) liver antioxidant status and mitigated the significant increase in cecal pathogenic bacteria after molt. Our results indicate that full feeding with an

  16. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine and Carbohydrate Over a 6 Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2017-09-05

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine and carbohydrate containing beverage over a 6 week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over 3 days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200mL): FO (n=10) contained n-3PUFA (1100mg DHA/EPA - approx. 550mg DHA, 550mg EPA), whey protein (15g), leucine (1.8g) and carbohydrate (20g); PRO (n=10) contained whey protein (15g), leucine (1.8g) and carbohydrate (20g) and CHO (n=10) contained carbohydrate (24g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72 hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (psoccer performance or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  17. Reduced medication use and improved pulmonary function with supplements containing vegetable and fruit concentrate, fish oil and probiotics in asthmatic school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Chen; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Huang, Shih-Yi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-07-14

    Dietary pattern changes may be one of the key factors associated with increasing asthma prevalence. Observational studies have found negative associations between fruit, vegetable and fish consumption and risk of asthma. Experimental studies have also shown that probiotics can modulate the immune system. However, each dietary component exhibits a modest effect. The objective of the present study was to investigate the joint effect of multiple beneficial dietary components on asthma. We designed a 16-week school-based double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. The supplement group received fruit plus vegetable concentrate, fish oil and probiotics (FVFP supplement), while the control group received placebos. A total of 192 asthmatic children aged 10-12 years were recruited from elementary schools in metropolitan Taipei. Pulmonary function, medication usage, Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) score and the Childhood Asthma Control Test score were evaluated at baseline, and at weeks 8 and 16. Compared with the placebo group, the supplement group showed significant improvement in pulmonary function parameters (91 v. 178 ml for forced vital capacity (FVC), 40 v. 107 ml for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and 1·6 v. 4·8 % for FEV1:FVC ratio; all P values vegetable, fish and probiotic foods.

  18. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale R. Ajuwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis, red palm oil (RPO (Elaeis guineensis, or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P<0.05 elevation in conjugated dienes (CD and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, significantly (P<0.05 decreased reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P<0.05 decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  19. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Olawale R; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Marnewick, Jeanine L

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  1. Dietary Supplementation with Virgin Coconut Oil Improves Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Has Potential Benefits on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Normal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwali, Sophia C; Agbo, Ngozi N; Obi, Joy N; Ezechukwu, Goodness C

    2018-05-04

    Research findings that suggest beneficial health effects of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) are limited in the published literature. This study investigated the in vivo effects of a 5-week VCO-supplemented diet on lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, hepatorenal function, and cardiovascular risk indices in normal rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 treatment groups (10% and 15% VCO-supplemented diets) for 5 weeks. Serum and homogenate samples were used to analyze lipid profile, hepatorenal function markers, hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde level. Lipid profile of animals fed VCO diets showed significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level increased significantly (p < .05) compared to control; and there were beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk indices. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, remarkably reduced and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-were markedly increased in VCO diet-fed rats. The VCO diet significantly modulated creatinine, sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), chloride (Cl - ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to control. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of VCO on lipid profile, renal status, hepatic antioxidant defense system, and cardiovascular risk indices in rats.

  2. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  3. Oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to high-oleic sunflower oil and vitamin E diet supplementation and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cumella, Fabio; Sardi, Luca; Della Casa, Giacinto; Lercker, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to dietary supplementation with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and/or α-tocopheryl acetate (VE), as well as the influence of storage conditions. Four different diets (control; HOSO; VE; HOSO+VE), were fed to swines until slaughtering. Meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 3 days at 8 °C. HOSO supplementation increased oleic acid content of pork meat. The highest levels of peroxide value (PV) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were detected in the control group, whereas HOSO-enriched diets displayed the highest thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARs) content. After storage under light exposure, pork meat slices exhibited a decrease of PV, which resulted in an increasing trend of TBARs and COPs. Feeding enrichment with both HOSO and vitamin E can be, therefore, used as an appropriate supplementation strategy to produce pork meat with a suitable oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive enhancement in middle-aged and old cats with dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing fish oil, B vitamins, antioxidants and arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanlong; Araujo, Joseph A; Burrows, Joey; de Rivera, Christina; Gore, Asa; Bhatnagar, Sandeep; Milgram, Norton W

    2013-07-14

    Cognitive dysfunction syndrome is a major disease affecting old cats and is the consequence of severe and irreversible loss of brain cells and brain atrophy. The present study focused on the hypothesis that the optimal strategy for promoting successful brain ageing is to target risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia. We used a nutritional strategy involving supplementation with a blend of nutrients (antioxidants, arginine, B vitamins and fish oil) to test this hypothesis. Middle-aged and old cats between 5·5 and 8·7 years of age were assigned to cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups based on prior cognitive experience and performance on baseline cognitive tests. The cats in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with the nutrient blend and the cats in the control group were maintained on the identical base diet without the additional supplementation. After an initial wash-in period, all cats were tested on a battery of cognitive test protocols. The cats fed the test diet showed significantly better performance on three of four test protocols: a protocol assessing egocentric learning, a protocol assessing discrimination and reversal learning and a protocol focused on acquisition of a spatial memory task. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of middle-aged and old cats can be improved by the nutrient blend that was selected to minimise or eliminate the risk factors associated with brain ageing and dementia.

  5. Changes in chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of chick low- and high-density lipoproteins induced by supplementation of coconut oil to the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E

    1997-06-01

    Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.

  6. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  7. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  8. Notice and Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final Renewable Fuel Standard Program from Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule finalizes the determination that canola oil biodiesel meets the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction threshold of 50 required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA).

  9. The effects of the avilamycin, Protexin® and basil essential oil supplements on ileal bacteria of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Reza Riyazi; Yahya Ebrahimnezhad; Sayed Abdoullah Hosseini; Amir Meimandipour; Abolfazl Ghorbani

    2015-01-01

    The effects of probiotic (Protexin®, Protexin Veterinary, Somerset, UK), medicinal plant (basil essential oil) and an antibiotic growth promoter (avilamycin) as broiler feed additives on ileal bacteria of broilers were studied. A total of 600 Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatments, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments were a plant essential oil in 3 level (200, 400 and 600 ppm), the probiotic (150 ppm), an antibiotic (150 ppm) and a control group with no additives. Birds in differ...

  10. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  12. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-07-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  14. Effects of antibiotic growth promoter, probiotic and basil essential oil supplementation on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYYED REZA RIYAZI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the probiotic ‘Protexin', basil essential oil and the antibiotic growth promoter ‘Avilamycin' were studied on the ileum microbial flora of broilers when these substances are used as broiler feed additives. A total of six hundred Arian broilers were divided into 6 treatment groups, with 4 replicates of 25 birds. Treatments have been performed with a plant essential oil at 3 levels (200, 400 and 600 ppm, the probiotic ‘Protexin' (150 ppm, the antibiotic ‘Avilamycin' (150 ppm and a control group with no additives. Birds in different treatments received the same diets during the experimental period. The results showed that the probiotic treatment significantly decreased the total bacteria counts (P0.05. The lowest and highest lactic acid bacteria in ileum were obtained in the control group and in birds receiving 400 ppm basil essential oil, respectively. Moreover, addition of 600 ppm of basil essential oil into diet decreased the number of E. coli colonies as compared to other treatments (P< 0.05. It could be speculated that the basil essential oil and ‘Protexin' could replace the antibiotics, which have been banned to use as growth promoter in animal feeds.

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...... pressure (P sex×group=0·020), which was driven by a 3·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 7·5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure in the FO compared with the OO group among boys only (P=0·041). Our results indicate that early n-3 LCPUFA intake may reduce height in early adolescence due to a delay in pubertal maturation...

  16. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... trends which might impact a 2022 assessment compared to earlier years such as improvements in crop yield... rule. The assumption is that the GHG reductions associated with the replacement of residual oil on an... don't have a direct replacement, but may nevertheless have indirect effects on the extent to which...

  17. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils supplementation on digestion, colostrum production of dairy ewes and lamb mortality and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeti, Samir; Joy, Margalida; Hajji, Hadhami; Alabart, José Luis; Muñoz, Fernando; Mahouachi, Mokhtar; Atti, Naziha

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary essential oils (REO) and the forage nature on ewes' performances, immune response and lambs' growth and mortality. Forty-eight dairy ewes (Sicilo-Sarde) were fed oat-hay or oat-silage supplemented with 400 g of concentrate during pregnancy and 600 g during postpartum. The experimental concentrate contained the same mixture as the control (barley, soybean meal and mineral vitamin supplement) more 0.6 g/kg of REO. Two groups were obtained with each forage (Hay groups: H-C and H-REO; Silage groups: S-C and S-REO). REO increased the dry matter (DM) intake, the nitrogen intake and retention being higher with the silage groups (P < 0.05). REO increased solid non-fat (P = 0.004) and fat contents of colostrum which was higher with hay (P = 0.002). REO decreased lamb mortality (P < 0.05) which averaged 21% for control groups and 6% for H-REO, while no mortality was recorded with S-REO. REO dietary supply improved forage intake and tended to ameliorate colostrum production; it could be a natural additive to improve ewes' performances. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  20. Effects of oxidised dietary fish oil and high-dose vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, feed utilisation and antioxidant defence enzyme activities of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Zuo, Rantao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of oxidised dietary lipids and high-dose vitamin E (VE) on growth performance and immune responses of large yellow croaker. Juvenile fish (initial average body weight of 7·82 (sem 0·68) g) were fed diets containing either fresh fish oil (fresh diet, peroxide value (POV)=1·72 mEq/kg) or fish oil oxidised to varying degrees (oxidised diets, POV=28·29-104·21 mEq/kg), with or without supplementary 600 mg VE/kg diet, for 10 weeks in floating cages. Growth was significantly lower and feed intake (g/100 g body weight per d) was higher in fish fed the oxidised diet. Supplementation with VE increased the growth of fish fed the oxidised diets, but significantly decreased the growth of fish fed the fresh diet. Hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary POV and decreased with VE supplementation. Hepatic catalase activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde content were significantly higher in fish fed the oxidised diets, and these values decreased significantly following VE supplementation. However, hepatic SOD activity was enhanced by VE supplementation in fish fed the fresh diet. Air-exposure mortality was significantly increased by dietary POV, and this effect was inhibited by VE supplementation. These results suggest that dietary oxidised fish oil could stimulate the activities of antioxidant defence enzymes in stressed large yellow croaker. High-dose VE supplementation can alleviate oxidative stress of large yellow croaker fed oxidised fish oil, but can exert deleterious effects on fish in the absence of oxidative stress.

  1. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah U. Çatli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control  diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected  by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  2. Effects of fish oil supplementation on prefrontal metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder: a preliminary 1H MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Chu, Wen-Jang; Weber, Wade A; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P

    2016-05-01

    To use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on cortical metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Metabolite concentrations were determined by (1)H MRS in the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of adolescents with MDD before and following 10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO. Depressive symptom severity scores and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were also determined. Baseline erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition was positively correlated, and arachidonic acid (AA) and the AA/EPA ratio were inversely correlated, with choline (Cho) concentrations in the right DLPFC. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was inversely correlated with myo-inositol (mI) concentrations in the left DLPFC. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition increased, and AA decreased, significantly following low-dose and high-dose FO supplementation. In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (-40%, P effect sizes, including a decrease in mI in the left DLPFC (-12%, P = 0.18, d = 0.8) and increases in glutamate + glutamine (Glx) (+12%, P = 0.19, d = 0.8) and Cho (+15%, P = 0.08, d = 1.2) in the right DLPFC. In the high-dose group, there was a trend for increases in Cho in the right DLPFC (+10%, P = 0.09, d = 1.2). These preliminary data suggest that increasing the LCn-3 fatty acid status of adolescent MDD patients is associated with subtle changes in Glx, mI, and Cho concentrations in the DLPFC that warrant further evaluation in a larger controlled trial.

  3. Tumor growth reduction is regulated at the gene level in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats supplemented with fish oil rich in EPA and DHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, G.; Yamazaki, R.K.; Coelho, I.; Pequito, D.C.T.; Schiessel, D.L.; Kryczyk, M.; Mamus, R.; Naliwaiko, K.; Fernandes, L.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-08-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×10{sup 7} cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2{sup -ΔΔCT} method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.

  4. In vitro sensitivity of poultry Brachyspira intermedia isolates to essential oil components and in vivo reduction of Brachyspira intermedia in rearing pullets with cinnamaldehyde feed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, M; Pasmans, F; Mahu, M; Vande Maele, L; De Pauw, N; Yang, Z; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2013-05-01

    Cecal enteritis due to Brachyspira infections tends to be chronic in laying hens. Limited availability of antimicrobial drugs for use in laying hens emphasizes the need for alternative control measures. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia field isolates from laying hen flocks to components of essential oils (EO). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions, obtained for 8 EO components, were all monomodal. Cinnamaldehyde had the lowest MIC values (40 to 80 mg/L), followed by nerolidol, capsaicin, carvacrol, and thymol (80 to 320 mg/L), eugenol (160 to 640 mg/L), and linalool (320 to 1,280 mg/L). The MIC ranges of piperine were mostly above the test range of 1,280 mg/L. In an in vivo experiment, coated trans-cinnamaldehyde was supplemented to the feed of rearing pullets. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates each (replicate = group of seven 1-d-old laying hen chickens) was applied. The negative and positive controls received a conventional feed during the whole trial. The positive controls were orally inoculated on 3 consecutive days (d 22, 23, and 24) with 1 mL of 1.0 × 10(8) cfu/mL of a B. intermedia field isolate. Two treatment groups (preventive and curative), identically inoculated, received the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde-supplemented feed (500 mg/kg of trans-cinnamaldehyde), the preventive group from d 1, the curative from d 25. On d 32, ceca were collected for bacteriologic Brachyspira enumeration. The mean enumeration of Brachyspira cells was decreased (P feed supplemented with coated trans-cinnamaldehyde. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mode of action of the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde in reducing Brachyspira colonization of the ceca.

  5. Long-term effects of dietary supplementation with an essential oil mixture on the growth and laying performance of two layer strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pamukçu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred 1-day-old Lohmann LSL white and Lohmann Brown layer chickens were fed diets supplemented with either an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP or an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM till 58 wk of age to reveal the long-term effects of those additives on growth, performance and wholesome egg quality parameters. The study was arranged in a 2x3 factorial design with two layer strains and three feed additive regimens. Thus, the layer birds of both strains were randomly assigned to the three dietary treatments, i.e., standard basal diet (control, control with AGP (specifically, avilamycin, 10 mg/kg diet and control with EOM (24 mg/kg diet. The data regarding egg production were recorded between 22 to 58 weeks of age. Neither the dietary treatments nor the bird strain influenced the body weight and mortality of the birds in both the growing and laying period. AGP or EOM supplementation to the laying hen diet significantly increased the egg production rate and egg weight as compared to the control diet alone, but egg mass output, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio were not effected by the dietary treatments. Neither dietary treatment created any statistically significantly differences in egg quality parameters with the exception of Haugh unit. The research findings have confirmed the beneficial effects of supplementation with feed-grade EOM on the laying rate and egg weight of both white and brown layers. Indeed, EOM, being a novel feed additive natural origin, proved to be as efficacious as AGP in promoting egg yield.

  6. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (Ppopulation, but a sex×group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95 % CI 0·4, 21·8;P=0...

  7. Interactive effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation and indole-3-acetic acid on Coleus forskohlii Briq.: Alterations in morphological-, physiological-, and biochemical characteristics and essential oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Bhushan Agrawal, Shashi

    2017-08-28

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation and the growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) have been known to cause various changes in plants at morphological and physiological levels as individual entities, but their interactive effects on the overall plant performance remain practically unknown. The present study was conducted under near-natural field conditions to evaluate the effects of supplemental (s)-UV-B (ambient+3.6kJm(-2)day(-1)) treatment alone, and in combination with two doses of IAA (200ppm and 400ppm) exogenously applied as foliar spray on various growth-, morphological-, physiological-, and biochemical parameters of an indigenous medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii. Under s-UV-B, the plant growth and morphology were adversely affected (along with reductions in protein- and chlorophyll contents) with concomitant increase in secondary metabolites (as substantiated by an increase in the activities of various enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway) and cumulative antioxidative potential (CAP), suggesting the plant's capability of adaptive resilience against UV-B. The essential oil content of the plant was, however, compromised reducing its pharmaceutical value. IAA application at both doses led to a reversal in the effects caused by s-UV-B radiation alone; both the plant growth as well as the essential oil content improved, especially at the higher IAA dose, suggesting its ameliorative role against UV-B induced oxidative stress, and also in improving the plant's medicinal value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbild, H L; Harsløf, L B S; Christensen, J H; Kannass, K N; Lauritzen, L

    2013-10-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval. 83 Danish 9-month-old infants were randomized to ±fish oil (FO) (3.4±1.1mL/d) for 3months and 61 of these completed the free-play-test before and after the intervention. Most of the free-play scores changed during the intervention, but the intervention affected only the number of looks away from the toy, which was increased in +FO and decreased in -FO (p=0.037). The increased numbers of looks away were associated with an increase in erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (r=0.401, p=0.017, n=35) and were also associated with a decrease in systolic-BP (r=-0.511, p<0.001, n=52). The results indicate that n-3 fatty acid intake also in late infancy can influence brain development and that the cognitive and cardiovascular effects may be related. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations in Lipid Mediated Signaling and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in DMH Induced Colon Cancer on Supplementation of Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevali Kansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide mediates inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 which catalyzes formation of prostaglandin further activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ and Wnt/β-catenin pathway; and hence plays a critical role in cancer. Therefore, in current study, ceramide, COX-2, 15-deoxy prostaglandin J2(15-deoxy PGJ2, PPARγ, and β-catenin were estimated to evaluate the effect of fish oil on lipid mediated and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon carcinoma. Male Wistar rats in Group I received purified diet while Groups II and III received modified diet supplemented with FO : CO(1 : 1 and FO : CO(2.5 : 1, respectively. These were further subdivided into controls receiving ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and treated groups receiving dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH/week for 4 weeks. Animals sacrificed 48 hours after last injection constituted initiation phase and those sacrificed after 16 weeks constituted postinitiation phase. Decreased ceramide and increased PPARγ were observed in postinitiation phase only. On receiving FO+CO(1 : 1+DMH and FO+CO(2.5 : 1+DMH in both phases, ceramide was augmented whereas COX-2, 15-deoxy PGJ2, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin were reduced with respect to cancerous animals. Decrease was more significant in postinitiation phase with FO+CO(2.5 : 1+DMH. Treatment with oils increased PPARγ in initiation phase but decreased it in postinitiation phase. Hence, fish oil altered lipid mediated signalling in a dose and time dependent manner so as to inhibit progression of colon cancer.

  10. Supplementation with fish oil and genistein, individually or in combination, protects bone against the adverse effects of methotrexate chemotherapy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rethi Raghu Nadhanan

    Full Text Available Cancer chemotherapy has been shown to induce long-term skeletal side effects such as osteoporosis and fractures; however, there are no preventative treatments. This study investigated the damaging effects of anti-metabolite methotrexate (MTX subcutaneous injections (0.75 mg/kg BW for five days and the potential protective benefits of daily oral gavage of fish oil at 0.5 mL/100 g BW (containing 375 mg of n-3 PUFA/100 g BW, genistein (2 mg/100 g BW, or their combination in young adult rats. MTX treatment alone significantly reduced primary spongiosa height and secondary spongiosa trabecular bone volume. Bone marrow stromal cells from the treated rats showed a significant reduction in osteogenic differentiation but an increase in adipogenesis ex vivo. Consistently, stromal cells had significantly higher mRNA levels of adipogenesis-related proliferator activator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ and fatty acid binding protein (FABP4. MTX significantly increased the numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and marrow osteoclast precursor cell pool while significantly enhancing the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the bone. Supplementary treatment with fish oil and/or genistein significantly preserved trabecular bone volume and osteogenesis but suppressed MTX-induced adipogenesis and increases in osteoclast numbers and pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine expression. Thus, Fish oil and/or genistein supplementation during MTX treatment enabled not only preservation of osteogenic differentiation, osteoblast number and bone volume, but also prevention of MTX treatment-induced increases in bone marrow adiposity, osteoclastogenic cytokine expression and osteoclast formation, and thus bone loss.

  11. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction of extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates lung injury and DNA damage of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaâbane, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR) are well known as environmental pollutants inducing oxidative stress. Our study investigated the effects of these contaminants and if the hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil was able to prevent lung oxidative stress and DNA damage. Animals were divided into four groups of six each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received in drinking water aluminum chloride (50 mg/ kg body weight) and by gavage acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight); group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same way and the same dose as group 2 and hydrophilic fraction from olive oil (OOHF) (1 ml) by gavage; group 4 received only OOHF by gavage. Exposure of rats to both aluminum and acrylamide provoked oxidative stress in lung tissue based on biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations. In fact, we have observed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also decreased. Histopathological changes in lung tissue were noted like emphysema, vascular congestion, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel in the lung of AlCl3 and acrylamide (ACR)-treated rats. Co-administration of OOHF to treated rats improved biochemical parameters to near control values and lung histoarchitecture. The smear formation of genomic DNA was reduced. The hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil might provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy in order to prevent lung tissue damage.

  12. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  13. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lunsin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH and rice bran oil (RBO on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1 control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C, (T2 Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH, (T3 Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO, and (T4 Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO. The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH2 (purchased as hydrated lime in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05. Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05. In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05 F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  14. An Investigation of Final Gas Tightness after Supplementation of MCT Water during the Yeosu Underground Oil Storage Caverns-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Young Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun

    2009-08-15

    This report has following contents: {center_dot}Estimation of vertical hydrological gradient and the leakage in the case of EL. 10 m of injection water pressure and EL. 0 m of MCT supplement water pressure {center_dot}Undertaking the groundwater flow modeling of Case 1 and Case 2, which are based on the results of MCT supplement test The results of this project have following contents: {center_dot}Case 1 : EL. 10 m of injection water head and , EL. -5 m of MCT supplement water head {center_dot}Case 2 : the same condition as case 1 except EL. 0 m of MCT supplement water head {center_dot}Calculation of water head distribution, vertical hydro-gradient and amount of leakage - (Case 1-1 and Case 2-1) atmospheric pressure of storage cavern - (Case 1-2 and Case 2-2) 2.0 kg/cm2.Abs of storage cavern - (Case 1-3 and Case 2-3) 0.5 kg/cm2.Abs of storage cavern {center_dot}Groundwater head change is not sensitive - Distribution of vertical hydro-gradient - Case 1-1 and Case 2-1: 1.5 {approx} 2.8 - Case 1-2 and Case 2-2: 1.4 {approx} 2.6 - Case 1-3 and Case 2-3: 1.7 {approx} 3.0 {center_dot}Estimated water leakage during the operation - Case 1-1 and Case 2-1: 932 {approx} 943 m3/d - Case 1-2 and Case 2-2: 812 {approx} 819 m3/d - Case 1-3 and Case 2-3: 1,022 {approx}1,030 m3/d {center_dot}It is estimated that the gas tightness can be secured as 1.4 {approx} 2.6 range of vertical hydro-gradient and the expected amount of leakage may be 850 {approx} 950 m3/d (average)

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid conversion by six Lactobacillus plantarum strains cultured in MRS broth supplemented with sunflower oil and soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Liu, Yong; Bao, Yan; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Heping

    2012-06-01

    Six strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from traditional dairy products of minority nationalities, were evaluated for their ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from free linoleic acid in vitro. All the 6 strains were found to be capable of converting linoleic acid to CLA when using sunflower oil as substrate or during soymilk fermentation. The inhibitory effect of linoleic acid on the growth of the L. plantarum was also discussed. The production of CLA was increased with adding high concentration of substrate in sunflower oil and IMAU60042 produced the highest CLA both in sunflower oil and soymilk. The CLA was composted by 2 isomers: cis9, trans11-CLA and tran10, cis12-CLA, and cis9, tran s11-CLA covered the most part of the total CLA formed except for L. plantarum P8. The production of CLA was decreased during the storage of fermented soymilk. The CLA contents decreased significantly in the first week, also more quickly in 2 wk. Especially, tran10, cis12-CLA decreased more rapidly than cis9, tran11-CLA. No dramatic change was observed among other 8 fatty acids in soymilk. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids varied after fermentation with different L. plantrum strains, but all decreased the during storage. The research on the ability of converting CLA of L. plantrum strains could be basis for the future research and development of fermented soymilk products. Desirable probiotic traits, such as acid and bile tolerance, aggregation activity, and antibacterial activity, have been proved for the 6 Lactobacillus plantarum strains. The 6 L. plantarum strains might be used in the fermentation of soymilk to produce multifunctional probiotic soymilk products, especially the rich CLA contents. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Baudry, Charlotte; Ligneul, Amandine; Morniroli, Daniela; Garbarino, Francesca; le Ruyet, Pascale; Mosca, Fabio

    2012-10-17

    Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils can potentiate endogenous synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This trial aims to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in full-term infants (primary outcome). Erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level, the gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes throughout the study in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition are evaluated as secondary outcomes. In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, 75 healthy full-term infants are randomly allocated to receive for four months a formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils or a formula containing only plant oils or a formula containing plant oils supplemented with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twenty-five breast-fed infants constitute the reference group. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the other fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level are measured after four months of intervention. Gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition, assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system, are also evaluated throughout the study. The achievement of an appropriate long chain

  17. Molecular Fingerprints of the Human Fecal Microbiota From 9 to 18 Months Old and the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor changes in the fecal microbiota from 9 to 18 months and to investigate the effect of increasing dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fecal microbiota. Patients and Methods: In a double-blind controlled trial with random allocation to daily...... that a few T-RFs became dominant with age (bp100 and 102, both presumed to be Bacteroidetes) concomitantly with an overall increase in the microbial diversity (P¼0.04). Breast-feeding influenced both the T-RFLP profiles at 9 months and the changes from 9 to 18 months, and breast-feeding cessation during...... microbiota from 9 to 18 months. FO compared with SO supplementation affected changes in large bacterial groups, but only among children who had stopped breast-feeding before 9 months of age....

  18. An Investigation of Final Gas Tightness after Supplementation of MCT Water during the Yeosu Underground Oil Storage Caverns-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Geon Young; Ryu, Ji Hoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon

    2009-08-15

    This report has following contents: -Estimation of vertical hydrological gradient and the leakage in the case of EL. 10 m of injection water pressure and EL. 0 m of MCT supplement water pressure -Carrying out the construction of version 3 model based on the results of measurement of leakage after G/T The results derived from this project are following contents: -Distibution of groundwater head -Estimated leakage during operation -Amount of injection water in the water curtain system and MCT -Leakage of cavern -Efficiency of G/T It is estimated that the gas tightness can be secured as 1.5 - 2.6 range of vertical hydro-gradient under the normal water curtain system and the expected amount of leakage may be about 750 m3/d which is the averaged values of estimated lekage under 2.0 bar and atmospheric pressure

  19. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  20. Human absorption of a supplement containing purified hydroxytyrosol, a natural antioxidant from olive oil, and evidence for its transient association with low-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santiago, Maria; Fonollá, Juristo; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    There is growing interest in the health effects of olive oil polyphenols, particularly hydroxytyrosol (HT), for their potential application in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). As oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a central role in the development of CVD, natural antioxidants are a main target for the nutraceutical industry. In this study we firstly investigated the absorption of pure hydroxytyrosol (99.5%) administered as a supplement in an aqueous solution (2.5mg/kg BW) in the plasma and urine of healthy volunteers (n=10). Plasma C(max) for HT and homovanillic alcohol (HvOH) were detected at 13.0+/-1.5 and 16.7+/-2.4min, respectively. The HT and HvOH levels were undetectable 2-h after the administration. HT, HvOH, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were found as free forms (44%) or as glucuronide (34.4%) or sulphate (21.2%) conjugates in the 24-h urine samples of the subjects. In a second phase of the study, the same amounts of HT were administered to the subjects and the presence of HT in purified plasma lipoproteins was investigated in LDL fractions freshly isolated. 10min after the ingestion of the HT supplement, more than 50% of the total amount detected was present in the LDL-purified fractions and its concentration declined in accordance with its presence in plasma but no changes were found in total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde or LDL lag time. These results indicate that pure HT transiently associates with LDL lipoproteins in vivo. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of supplementation of mustard oil cake on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis of cattle in a straw-based diet in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Zahirul Haque; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Sultana, Nadira; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of different levels of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis by supplementing mustard oil cake (MOC) on rice straw-based diet of cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was applied. Four diets having constant energy (7.0 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM)) with varying levels of RDP (M(0) = 4.1 g/MJ (control), M(1) = 6.3 g/MJ, M(2) = 8.3 g/MJ and M(3) = 12.4 g/MJ of metabolizable energy (ME)) were received by each animal for a period of 28 days. A metabolism trial was conducted for 7 days. Results indicate that with increasing levels of RDP, crude protein (CP) and RDP intake increased significantly (P < 0.01). The significant (P < 0.01) increase in digestibility values are obtained for DM, organic matter, CP and digestible organic matter in the rumen. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen (N), ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acids increase significantly (P < 0.01) while the rumen pH increased from M(0) to M(2) and decreased thereafter. The efficiency microbial N intake increased significantly (P < 0.01) but showed a curvilinear response with higher RDP level (12.40 g/RDP/MJ ME). This study concludes that supplementation of RDP from MOC enhances the intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis which ultimately increases utilization of low-quality feed resources that can be used for developing cost-effective feeding systems on a straw-based diet in tropical regions.

  2. Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Meakin, Judith R; Greig, Carolyn A; Aspden, Richard M; Thies, Frank; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine; Mangoni, Arduino A; Preston, Thomas; Gray, Stuart R

    2017-01-01

    Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men. We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training-induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women. Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n-3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention. Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s(-1), 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P exercise training in the long-chain n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009.

  3. Effect of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower seed, palm oil and vitamin E supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid composition and oxidation susceptibility of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolé, A; Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Centeno, C; Viveros, A; Brenes, A; Arija, I

    2006-10-01

    1. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of two fat sources: high-oleic acid sunflower seed (HOASS; 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg diet) and palm oil (PO), and dietary supplementation of vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl acetate, 200 mg/kg diet) on performance, fatty acid composition and susceptibility to oxidation of white and dark chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Female chicks (3 to 6 weeks) were given one of 5 diets containing 90 g/kg of added fat with increasing monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content, adjusted by progressively replacing PO by HOASS. 2. Body weight gain and gain:food ratio of birds were depressed in diets containing the highest proportions of HOASS (150 and 200 g/kg). Relative abdominal fat was reduced in birds fed diets including HOASS, except in the diet containing 100 g HOASS/kg. The inclusion of alpha-tocopheryl acetate improved body weight gain and gain:food ratio. 3. According to the fatty acid profile of the diets, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid (SFA and PUFA, respectively) contents were significantly reduced and MUFA content was significantly increased in white and dark chicken meats when the saturated oil, PO, was replaced progressively by HOASS in the diet. The inclusion of alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased PUFA content in both meats. 4. After 4 and 7 d of refrigerated storage, white and dark meat samples obtained from birds fed on diets containing HOASS had significantly lower thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) values than those derived from the PO diet. The addition of alpha-tocopheryl acetate significantly reduced the lipid oxidation in white and dark meat. 5. Overall, the results showed that increasing MUFA content of chicken meat by replacing dietary PO with HOASS (up to 100 g/kg) did not adversely affect broiler performance and reduced the susceptibility of meat to oxidation during refrigerated storage. Dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation improved chicken performance and was

  4. Effect of Supplementing Mouse Maternal Diet during Pregnant and Weaning Period by Fish Oil and Vitamin E on Male Offspring Reproductive Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Zare Ebrahim Abad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fed fish oil (FO with or without vitamin E for mothers on the testis cells of male offsprings. Materials and Methods: Sixty mature female NMRI mice were divided into different groups: control (CTR; Standard diet(vitamin E 50 mg IU/kg pre and postnatal period; I Gavages 0.01 ml/day/mother fish oil (FO+CTR diet during prenatal period; II Gavages FO+CTR diet during postnatal period; III consumed VITE(125 mg IU/kg 2.5 folded greater than standard recommendations(2×during prenatal period; IVconsumed VITE(2×diet during pre and postnatal period; Vconsumed VITE(2×diet during postnatal period; VI Gavages FO+VITE(2× diet during prenatal period; VII Gavage FO+VITE(2×diet during postnatal period ;VIII Gavages FO+VITE (2×diet during pre and postnatal period. After weaning, the testes were collected and histological data were analyzed using SAS software by Duncan test. Results: testes cells length, width and weight was lower in offspring which their mothers fed FO+CTR diet during prenatal, (p<0.05.Vitamin E consumption during postnatal period improved these parameters (p<0.05. Spermatogoni (47 vs. 43, spermatocyte (43 vs. 34, Spermatid (63 vs. 44, Sertoli (0.9 vs. 2, and Leydig (3 vs. 1.7 were increased as FO+VITE was used than CTR (p<0.05. Conclusion: The positive effects of supplementation maternal diet by FO with VITE or sole VITE was observed. Thus, antioxidants should be consumed along with omega-3 fatty acids in maternal diet.

  5. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive.

  7. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  8. Alteration of delta-6-desaturase (FADS2), secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2) enzymes by Hot-nature diet with co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadeghihokmabad, Elyar; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Torbati, Mohammadali; Chehreh, Mahtaj

    2015-10-01

    The effect of nutrition and dietary supplements as environmental factors has been suggested as possible factors affecting both disease risk and progression in on the course of multiple sclerosis with complex genetic-risk profiles. This study was aimed to assess regulation of surface-membrane enzymes such as Delta-6-desaturase (FADS2), secretory Phospholipase A2(sPLA2) by hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-natured dietary intervention in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with Extended disability status score (EDSS)hemp seed and evening primrose oils along with advised Hot nature diet; "Group B", who received olive oil; "Group C", who received the co-supplemented oils. Clinically EDSS and functional score as well as biochemical parameters [blood cells polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), FADS2, sPLA2] were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Mean follow-up was 180±2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in EDSS and functional score were found in the groups A and C while EDSS and pyramidal score showed significant increase in group B. Alteration of biochemical parameters showed improvement in groups A and C whereas there was worsening condition for group B after the intervention. The co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot nature diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms and signs in RRMS patients which were confirmed by regulation of surface-membrane enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  10. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mat Rasol; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Mahmud, Mohd. Shukri; Wan Husain, Wan Badrin; Osman, Tajuddin; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Kassim, Asmahwati; Wan Mahmud, Zal U'yun; Manaf, Ishak; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-10-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70 % useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation carried out were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range between 25- 28 °C, relative ph between 6-8, moisture between 60-70 % and medium composition of CaCO 3: rice bran 2 %: 5 % were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that, there were substantial reduction in cellulosic component such as Crude Fiber (CF, 18 %); Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF, 45 %), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF, 61 %) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, 14 %). However, Crude Protein (CP, 10%) increased resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in fermentation process corresponds to the CO 2 released during fermentation. Hence, attributable to the decreased in content of CF, ADF, NDF, and ADL. The digestibility study has also been carried out to determine the useful level of this product to ruminant. Aflatoxin content was detected low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxin, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminant.

  11. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerburg, Olaf; De Spirt, Silke; Mattern, Annett; Joachim, Cornelia; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Siems, Werner; Stahl, Wilhelm; Mall, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF. PMID:25688177

  12. In vitro assessment of the digestibility of forage based sheep diet, supplemented with raw garlic, garlic oil and monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anassori, Ehsan; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farahmand-Azar, Safa; Besharati, Maghsoud; Tahmoozi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL(-1), raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL(-1) and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL(-1) of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisy(II) and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for Daisy(II) OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM(®) Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), Daisy(II) and gas production techniques overestimated (P raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation.

  13. Effect of dilution and ash supplement on the bio-methane potential of palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijai, Sunwanee; Muleng, Saina; Siripatana, Chairat

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bio-methane potential of POME at different dilutions (100, 80, 60, 40, and 20 percent of initial POME) and different pH dues to different levels of ash supplement. Five different amounts of ash were added to digesters (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 grams of ash were added to 170 ml of POME respectively). The digesters were operated in batch anaerobic digestion systems at room temperature (28-30 °C) and the experiments were performed in duplicate manner. The results showed that POME without dilution gave highest cumulative biogas (950 ml). However, 80% dilution from original POME gave the highest methane yield (45.83 mL CH4/ gCODadded or 103.13 mL CH4/ gCODremoved). Finally, the results of experiment 2, this adding ash into POME increased pH as well as enhanced the biogas production. It was found that adding ash at the ash:POME ratio of 2 g: 170 ml gave the highest both the cumulative biogas and methane yield (1,520 mL and 218.79 mL CH4/ gCODremoved respectively). The addition of ash in the raw waste of POME gave the pH in the range of criteria and highest bio-methane potential. The modified Gompertz equation, Schnute as well as Monod kinetic models were used to compare the data from the experiments. It was found that the factors that affected included, the bio-methane production and the kinetic parameters (the maximum specific methane production rates (Rm ml/day) and the methane production potential (P, mL)), initial COD, nutrients, levels of dilution, and initial pH (by adding different level of ash). However, λ (lag phase period) was not affected by initial COD and other factors. While Monod kinetics provides valuable insight in explaining what could happen behind the systematic trends.

  14. The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kim Sooi; Azman, Nizuwan; Omar, Eshaifol Azam; Musa, Muhammad Yusri; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2014-08-27

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman's quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. This was a prospective study of breast cancer patients admitted into the Oncology Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 60 patients with stage III and IV breast cancer allocated to either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30) using a simple random table. QOL was evaluated from the first cycle of chemotherapy to the sixth cycle, and data were collected using a validated Bahasa Malaysia version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR 23). The mean age of breast cancer patients was 50.2 (SD = 13.5) years. There were significant mean score differences for functioning and global QOL between groups (α sleep difficulties, and loss of appetite compared to the control group. Although there are deteriorations for sexual enjoyment, the intervention group exhibited improvement in breast functioning and symptom scores for body image, sexual function, future perspective, breast symptoms, and systemic therapy side effects. VCO consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the functional status and global QOL of breast cancer patients. In addition, it reduced the symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy.

  15. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin ... condition called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of ...

  16. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  17. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation mitigates the effect of lead on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in rat kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Sana; Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Farah

    2013-06-01

    Lead is a heavy metal widely distributed in the environment. Lead is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that is capable of causing numerous acute and chronic illnesses. Human and animal exposure demonstrates that lead is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce lead-induced nephrotoxicity were not found suitable for clinical use. Recently, flaxseed oil (FXO), a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and lignans, has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cardiovascular and renal disorders. In view of this, the present study investigates the protective effect of FXO on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced renal damage. Rats were pre-fed normal diet and the diet rich in FXO for 14 days, and then, four doses of lead acetate (25 mg/kg body weight) were administered intraperitoneally while still on diet. Various serum parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), and oxidative stress were analyzed in rat kidney. PbAc nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. PbAc increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme, whereas it decreased malate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and BBM enzyme activities. PbAc caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In contrast, FXO alone enhanced the enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, BBM, and antioxidant defense system. FXO feeding to PbAc-treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to PbAc-elicited deleterious effects. In conclusion, dietary FXO supplementation ameliorated PbAc-induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage by empowering antioxidant defense mechanism and improving BBM integrity and energy metabolism.

  18. Absorbance of retinal oil droplets of the budgerigar: sex, spatial and plumage morph-related variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Ben; Bowmaker, James K; Berg, Mathew L; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in photoreceptor physiology is known in several vertebrate taxa, but is currently unknown in birds, despite many avian traits varying intraspecifically, and avian visual ecology encompassing a wide range of environments and visual stimuli, which might influence spectral sensitivity. Avian retinal photoreceptors contain light absorbing carotenoid-rich oil droplets that affect vision. Carotenoids are also important plumage components. However, our understanding of the regulation of carotenoids in oil droplets remains rudimentary. Among birds, Melopsittacus undulatus has probably the best-studied colour vision, shows profound intraspecific variation in plumage colour, and increased plasma carotenoids during moult. We used microspectrophotometry to determine whether a relationship exists between oil droplet carotenoid concentration and plumage pigmentation, and tested for sex and spatial variation in droplet absorbance across the retina. Absorbance of one variety of P-type droplets was higher in males. No relationship was found between droplet absorbance and plumage colour. We found a spatial pattern of droplets absorbance across the retina that matched a pattern found in another parrot, and other avian species. Our work provides insights into the development and maintenance of retinal oil droplets and suggests a common mechanism and function for carotenoid deposition in the retina across bird species.

  19. The Protective Effect of Hippophae Rhamnoides Carotenoid Extract Against Lipid Peroxidation in Crude Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are important elements of the human diet because they contain essential nutritional factors. Due to the manufacturing processes or inadequate conditions of storage, they may also contain lipid oxidation products that are toxic to the body. The purpose of this paper is to test the protective effect of carotenoid-rich extracts obtained from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides on crude sunflower, pumpkin and olive oils oxidative processes. In order to evaluate the effect of antioxidant carotenoids, three stages were followed: thermal induction of lipid peroxidation in the presence of AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation in oxidized oils in the presence and absence of antioxidants, by quantifying the concentration of conjugated dienes and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation by evaluating the profile of the fatty acids and the ratio between the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA / SFA, using an GC-MS method. In the case of sunflower oil, it was observed that sea buckthorn fruit extract significantly decreased MDA concentration but does not significantly reduce the concentration of conjugated dienes. The protective effect of carotenoids is more evident in the case of oil from pumpkin seeds. In the olive oil, unlike the first two types of oils, the carotenoids extract inhibits both the MDA and the conjugated dienes formation to a lesser extent, statistically insignificant. Overall, the ratio UFA / SFA decreases in crude oxidized oils. In the oils in which carotenoids were added was observed an increase in the UFA / SFA ratio. Carotenoids fraction from sea buckthorn fruits, rich in xanthophylls’ esters, possess a good antioxidant effect, protecting vegetable oils against peroxidation processes induced in the presence of AAPH

  20. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Produção de poli(3-hidroxibutirato por Cupriavidus Necator em meio hidrolisado de amido de arroz com suplementação de óleo de soja em diferentes temperaturas Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus Necator in hydrolyzed rice starch medium with soybean oil supplementation at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biopolymer, completely biodegradable, which has similar properties to fuel-based polymers. However to make it economically competitive it is necessary the study of cheap sources of substrate. The influence of hydrolyzed rice starch supplemented with soybean oil at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40 °C was studied in the production of P(3HB by C. necator. The percentage of P(3HB produced in the cultures at 30, 35 °C was 30, 39% and 35, 43% without and with supplementation of oil, respectively. The culture at 40 °C showed no production phase due to a possible oxygen limitation. These results demonstrate that hydrolyzed rice starch supplemented with soybean oil increases the yield of P(3HB and temperature of 35 ºC is the most favorable for biopolymer production.

  3. Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, D E; Mizier-Barre, K A; Griscti, O; Hafez, K

    2016-10-01

    Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

  4. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O. van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, L.C. de

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  5. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.; Staveren, van W.A.; Olderikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  6. Induction of resistance to respiratory tract infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice fed on a diet supplemented with tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Archana; Sharma, Saroj; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2009-04-01

    The impact of diet and specific food groups on respiratory tract infections has been widely recognized in recent years. This study was conducted to study the effect of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) oil and clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oil on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection. The effect of 2 different regimens of short-term (15 days) and long-term (30 days) feeding with tulsi oil and clove oil on the course of Klebsiella pneumoniae American Type Culture Collection 43816 infection in the lungs of mice was analyzed. The operative mechanisms of lipid peroxidation/nitrite production were studied by estimating their levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Bacterial colonization, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite production in BALF, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in serum were assessed. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in bacterial colonization after short-term feeding with clove oil compared with the controls (p tulsi oil-fed mice, the decrease in bacterial load was significant with long-term feeding (p tulsi and clove oils protects against bacterial colonization of the lungs.

  7. Short-term alpha- or gamma-delta-enriched tocopherol oil supplementation differentially affects the expression of proinflammatory mediators: selective impacts on characteristics of protein tyrosine nitration in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted H. Elsasser

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While vitamin E has been used for decades in cattle diets, the principle form used traditionally is the synthetic α-isoform acetate or succinate and largely no data exist on the biological partitioning or functionality of the major naturally occurring γ- and δ-isoforms in cattle. Using tyrosine 3’-nitrated protein (pNT as a biomarker of nitrosative cell stress, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term feeding supplementation of high content natural α-tocopherol (α-T, 96% α-isomer compared to high content γ- and δ-enriched low α-content mixed tocopherol oils (γ-T, ~70% γ-, 20% δ-, <5% α-isoform to mitigate systemic and hepatic aspects of the proinflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS. Calves fed diets supplemented with α-T, γ-T for five days or no tocopherol supplement (T0E were challenged with a low-level of LPS (0.25 μg/kg, iv, E. coli 055:B5 sufficient to effect a liver nitration response. As fed, α-T or γ-T increased plasma and liver content of the respective tocopherols reflecting their relative abundance in the respective diets. Plasma or tissue mediators and biomarkers of the proinflammatory response [plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, P<0.001, nitrate+nitrite (NOx, P<0.01, and serum amyloid A (SAA, P<0.001], and general liver content of pNT (P<0.005 increased after LPS. LPS-mediated increases in TNF-α were not dif- ferent between diet treatments; both plasma NOx (P<0.05 and generalized liver pNT (P<0.03 responses were attenuated significantly in α-T and γ-T versus T0E calves. Plasma SAA was significantly decreased in γ-T calves at 24 h post-LPS relative to responses in α-T or T0E calves. The nitration of the mitochondrial proteins 24 h post-LPS was not only attenuated in α-T and γ-T vs T0E, but also the mitigating effect of γ-T on these specific nitration events was greater than that of α-T (P<0.01. Results are consistent with the concept that short-term α-T or

  8. Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Prevents Liver Steatosis Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Mice through PPAR-α and Nrf2 Upregulation with Concomitant SREBP-1c and NF-kB Downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodas, María C; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverría, Francisca; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Illesca, Paola; Muñoz, Patricio; Corbari, Alicia; Romero, Nalda; Gonzalez-Mañan, Daniel; Videla, Luis A

    2017-09-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver disease, for which there is no validated drug therapy at present time. In this respect, the PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) modulate lipid metabolism in the liver, and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has hepatoprotective effects. The effect of combined DHA (C22:6 n-3) and EVOO administration to mice on oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances induced by high-fat diet (HFD) is evaluated. Male C57BL/6J mice are fed with a control diet (10% fat, 20% protein, and 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals are supplemented with DHA (50 mg/kg/day), EVOO (50 mg/kg/day), or DHA + EVOO through oral route. DHA + EVOO cosupplementation results in greater protection (p EVOO supply alone, when compared to the damage induced by HFD. DHA + EVOO significantly reduces hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance. Synergistic beneficial effects of DHA + EVOO supplementation are associated with the activation/inactivation of key transcription factors involved in the above-mentioned processes. Data presented indicate that dietary supplementation with DHA + EVOO drastically reduces the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Food2Learn: Randomized control trial investigating influence of krill oil supplementation on learning, cognition, and behaviour in healthy adolescents. Design presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Food2Learn is a double blind randomized controlled trial which looks at the influence of Krill oil (rich in LCPUFA) on the cognitive performance, academic performance and mental well-being of student of lower vocational schools.

  10. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows’ and/or Weaned Piglets’ Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P<0.05 than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P<0.05 during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P<0.01 in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P<0.10 towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P<0.01 in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression.

  11. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  12. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  13. Two by-products of the olive oil extraction industry as oleic acid supplement source for Iberian pigs: effect on the meat's chemical composition and induced lipoperoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Elena; Hernández-Matamoros, Alejandro; Tejeda, Juan F

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two by-products of the olive oil extraction industry-olive soapstocks and olive-pomace oil-as added fat sources into feed concentrates, in two different rearing systems (free-range complemented with concentrates and intensive rearing with concentrates) on the chemical composition and oxidative stability of Iberian pig meat. No differences in the chemical composition, colour and fatty acid composition of gluteobiceps m. were found due to added fat source. However, the feeding system had a significant effect on protein (P oil as fat sources into concentrates did not influence meat composition or fatty acid profile. However, there are differences in the fatty acid composition of meat from Iberian pigs as a result of the production system used. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine, and fish oil improves muscle function and daily activity in tumour-bearing cachectic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van K.; Kegler, D.; Argiles, J.M.; Luiking, Y.; Gorselink, M.; Laviano, A.; Arts, K.; Faber, J.; Jansen, H.; Beek, van der E.M.; Helvoort, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterised by metabolic alterations leading to loss of adipose tissue and lean body mass and directly compromises physical performance and the quality of life of cancer patients. In a murine cancer cachectic model, the effects of dietary supplementation with a specific

  15. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giannenas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys.

  16. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    .... However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study...

  17. Supplementation of arachidonic acid-enriched oil increases arachidonic acid contents in plasma phospholipids, but does not increase their metabolites and clinical parameters in Japanese healthy elderly individuals: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakutani Saki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of arachidonic acid (ARA among the elderly has recently gained increased attention. The effects of ARA supplementation in the elderly are not fully understood, although ARA is considered to be associated with various diseases. We investigate whether ARA supplementation to Japanese elderly subjects affects clinical parameters involved in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. We also examine the levels of ARA metabolites such as prostanoids during intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention trial. ARA-enriched oil (240 or 720 mg ARA per day or placebo was administered to Japanese healthy men and women aged 55-70 years for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The fatty acid contents of plasma phospholipids, clinical parameters, and ARA metabolites were determined at baseline, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results The ARA content in plasma phospholipids in the ARA-administrated groups increased dose-dependently and was almost the same at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks. The elevated ARA content decreased to nearly baseline during a 4-week washout period. During the supplementation and washout periods, no changes were observed in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. There were no changes in clinical blood parameters related to cardiovascular, inflammatory and allergic diseases. ARA supplementation did not alter the level of ARA metabolites such as urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin (PG F1α and 9,15-dioxo-11α-hydroxy-13,14-dihydro-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor-PGEM, and plasma PGE2 and lipoxin A4. ARA in plasma phospholipids was not correlated with ARA metabolite levels in the blood or urine. Conclusion These results indicate that ARA supplementation, even at a relatively high dose, does not increase ARA metabolites, and suggest that it does not induce cardiovascular

  18. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  19. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  20. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P tilapia tissues.

  1. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panyakaew, P.; Boon, N.; Goel, G.; Yuangklang, C.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Fievez, V.

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on

  2. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  3. Effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm oil and chromium-propionate on insulin sensitivity and productive and reproductive traits of mid- to late-lactating Holstein × Gir dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Bertin, R D; Colombo, E A; Miranda, V F B; Lourenço, L A C; Rodrigues, S M B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-25

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity, milk production, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows consuming excessive energy during mid to late lactation and receiving in a 2 × 2 factorial design (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n = 20) or including 8% (DM basis) of Ca salts of palm oil (CSPO; n = 20), and (2) supplemented (n = 20) or not (n = 20) with 2.5 g/d of Cr-propionate. During the experiment (d 0-203), 40 multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gir cows (initial days in milk = 81 ± 2; mean ± SE) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily net energy for lactation requirements. From d -15 to 203, milk production was recorded daily, blood samples collected weekly, and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) recorded on d 0 and 203. For dry matter intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 5 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 6 times/group. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on d -3, 100, and 200. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on d -1, 98, and 198. Mean DMI, net energy for lactation intake, as well as BW and BCS change were similar across treatments. On average, cows gained 40 kg of BW and 0.49 BCS during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, CRN cows had lower serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and insulin-to-glucose ratio compared with CSPO cows, suggesting increased insulin sensitivity in CRN cows. During the GTT, insulin-sensitivity traits were also greater in CRN versus CSPO cows. Supplemental Cr-propionate resulted in lower serum insulin concentrations and insulin-to-glucose ratio within CRN cows only, indicating that Cr-propionate improved basal insulin sensitivity in CRN but not in CSPO

  4. Genetic polymorphisms influence runners’ responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): a before-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Lordelo, Graciana Souza; Akimoto, Arthur Kenji; Alves, Penha Cristina Zaidan; Pereira, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2011-01-01

    Genes have been implicated in the levels of oxidative stress, lipids, CVD risk, immune reactivity, and performance. Pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) has shown anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, besides reducing exercise-induced DNA, tissue damages, and anisocytosis. Given that diet can interact with the human genome to influence health and disease, and because genetic variability can influence response to diet, we aim to investigate the influence of 12 gene polymorphisms on inflammato...

  5. A treatment study of canine symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) comparing fish oil and cyclosporine supplementation in addition to a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziener, Martine L; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2014-10-04

    Treatment of symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) is a challenging task for dermatologists. The acute phase is characterized by sloughing of claw plates and loose claws have to be removed and secondary infections treated. The goal of long-term treatment is to allow claws to re-grow with normal quality and to achieve life-long lack of recurrence. The aim of this randomized treatment trial was to see if adding fish oil or cyclosporine to a diet rich in omega-3 could improve the treatment outcome of symmetrical onychomadesis in Gordon and English setters. All dogs were fed Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis® exclusively during the six month treatment trial. The treatment outcome was measured as the change in number of healthy claws during treatment, as well as the long-term effect on hunting ability and recurrence of onychomadesis. The hypothesis was that cyclosporine provides a stronger and different immune modulating property than fish oil and therefore would give a better treatment outcome in dogs with symmetrical onychomadesis eating a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Six Gordon setters and one English setter were treated with 5 mg/kg cyclosporine once daily for six months and seven Gordon setters were treated with 10 ml Dr Baddaky fish oil® once daily for six months. All dogs were evaluated every month and the numbers of healthy claws were recorded. Cyclosporine and fish oil appeared to be equally effective in treating symmetrical onychomadesis when the dog is fed a diet high in omega-3.

  6. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. In vitro sensitivity of poultry Brachyspira isolates to essential oil components and in vivo reduction of Brachyspira intermedia in rearing pullets with cinnamaldehyde feed supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Verlinden, Marc; Pasmans, Frank; Mahu, Maxime; Vande Maele, Lien; De Pauw, Nele; YANG Zhen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2013-01-01

    Cecal enteritis due to Brachyspira infections tends to be chronic in laying hens. Limited availability of antimicrobial drugs for use in laying hens emphasizes the need for alternative control measures. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia field isolates from laying hen flocks to components of essential oils (EO). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions, obtained for eight EO components, were all monomoda...

  8. THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIANGIOGENIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT OF NIGELLA SATIVA CRUDE OIL ON BREAST TUMOR IN BALB/C MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Bahramian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cancer embraces a vast range of diseases including that of the breast and is triggered by various factors such as reactive species of oxygen. Angiogenesis, then, aids the cancerous mass to meet its needs and develop further. Nigella sativa L. (NS, traditionally cultivated and consumed in the Middle East, has long been appreciated for its medicinal benefits. In this study, we aimed to look into its antioxidant and anti-angiogenic effects on breast tumor in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: 3 groups of BALB/c mice, respectively received 1, 2 and 4 ml/kg/day of NS crude oil via gavaging for 4 months before breast tumor transplantation, while the control mice were gavaged with distilled water. Then tumor volume, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the amounts of VEGF and endostatin were studied to examine NS crude oil’s impact against breast tumor. Results and Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the mice pretreated with 4 ml/kg/day of NS oil had significantly smaller tumor volumes, higher SOD and CAT activity, reduced VEGF and increased endostatin amounts. So, we came to this that Nigella sativa crude oil seems to inhibit breast tumor growth in part by improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes and in part by interfering with angiogenesis. More studies are, yet, required to better illuminate its other mechanisms of involvement.

  9. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe MC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michaela C Pascoe,1 David W Howells, 2David P Crewther,1 Leeanne M Carey,2,3 Sheila G Crewther4 1Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University, ²Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health La Trobe University, 4School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo–associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. Keywords: apoptosis, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  10. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  11. Effect of iodized oil supplementation on thyroid hormone levels and mental performance among Orang Asli schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in an endemic goitre area in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Z M; Alias, I Z; Kadir, K A; Ali, O

    2000-12-01

    Although endemic goitre is no longer a major public health problem in Malaysia, iodine deficiency still remains a significant problem in a few remote settlements. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of iodized oil intervention in the prevention of endemic goitre among the indigenous people in Malaysia. A pretest and post-test controlled trial was conducted among primary schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in Lasah, Sungai Siput and Perak. Legap Post and Yum Post were selected as the intervention areas, while Perwor Post and Poi Post were taken as controls. The variables studied included thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid volume, urinary iodine excretions and mental performance. A baseline and two follow-up visits were conducted in both intervention and control areas. Intervention subjects were given iodized oil in the form of capsules which were taken orally (Laboratoire Guerbet, Paris, France). There was a significant increase in serum thyroxine hormone (T4) concentrations (p<0.0001) and a significant decrease in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations (p<0.05) in the schoolchildren following the intervention, however, pregnant mothers did not show any significant changes in T4 and TSH concentrations. Thyroid size was significantly reduced in both groups (p<0.05). Urinary iodine excretions showed a significant increase in both groups following the intervention (p<0.01). However, mental performance in schoolchildren was not affected. In conclusion, iodized oil (oral) is effective in reducing thyroid size, as well as improving the supply of iodine among schoolchildren and pregnant mothers in endemic goitre areas; however, its long-term effects need to be monitored closely. This method can be considered as an alternative while awaiting national coverage for the salt iodization program.

  12. A treatment study of canine symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) comparing fish oil and cyclosporine supplementation in addition to a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Ziener, Martine Lund; Nødtvedt, Ane C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of symmetrical onychomadesis (symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy) is a challenging task for dermatologists. The acute phase is characterized by sloughing of claw plates and loose claws have to be removed and secondary infections treated. The goal of long-term treatment is to allow claws to re-grow with normal quality and to achieve life-long lack of recurrence. The aim of this randomized treatment trial was to see if adding fish oil or cyclosporine to a diet rich in omega...

  13. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  14. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A krill oil supplemented diet reduces the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the cytosolic lipogenic enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Conte, L; Zara, V

    2012-04-01

    The mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier supplies cytosol with the carbon units necessary for hepatic lipogenesis. The activities of cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase are therefore strictly connected to the function of mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are potent modulators of hepatic lipogenesis. In rats fed with a diet enriched with 2.5% krill oil (KO), a novel source of dietary n-3 PUFA, a time-dependent decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the lipogenic enzymes was found. The KO induced inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis was more pronounced than that found in fish oil (FO)-fed rats, at least at short feeding times. The decrease in the activity of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier caused by KO was due to a reduced expression of the protein. Furthermore, in the KO-fed animals a greater reduction in the levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol was found in comparison to FO-fed rats. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keeping bones strong. Pregnant women can take the vitamin folic acid to prevent certain birth defects in their babies. To take a supplement as safely as possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  17. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  18. Suplementação com óleo de soja na dieta de potros Soybean oil supplementation in the diet of foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Tobo Pastori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 X 4 balanceado, foram utilizados quatro potros, filhos do mesmo garanhão, com idade entre 10 e 12 meses e 270 ± 9,80 kg. Foram analisados os efeitos dos níveis de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de óleo de soja no concentrado sobre a aceitabilidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e sobre a concentração plasmática de colesterol total e suas frações nas lipoproteínas de densidade muito baixa (VLDL-C, densidade baixa (LDL-C e densidade alta (HDL-C e nos triglicérides totais. O aumento do nível de óleo na dieta afetou as digestibilidades da matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido, que apresentaram resposta quadrática, com diminuição após os valores de 10,7; 9,5 e 10,5%, respectivamente, de extrato etéreo na dieta. Os níveis de óleo de soja tiveram efeito linear sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C, que apresentaram diminuição de 0,65 mg/dL e 0,58 mg/dL, respectivamente, a cada 1% de aumento no extrato etéreo do concentrado. Níveis de óleo de soja superiores a 9,5% no concentrado afetam a digestibilidade da dieta, principalmente na parede celular, e diminuem as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C.Four foals, sired by the same stallion, aged between 10 and 12 months and 270 ± 9.80 kg average weight, were alloted in a 4 X 4 balanced Latin Square design. The effects were analyzed of the inclusion of the levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of soybean oil in the concentrate on the acceptability, nutrient digestibilities and on total cholesterol plasma concentrations and its fractions: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and total triglycerides (TRG. The increase in the level of soybean oil in the diet affected the digestibilities of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber that presented a quadratic response which decreased after a expected values of 10

  19. Fish oil in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangle, Samir; Kolasinski, Sharon L

    2011-02-01

    In current practice, dietary interventions and over-the-counter dietary supplements, including fish oil, vitamins, and others, comprise a significant proportion of alternate therapy use. The aim of this article is to clarify the appropriate place for the use of fish oil in rheumatologic practice amid the complexities of modern management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effects of krill oil and fish oil on the hepatic transcriptome in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eBurri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3, is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil or krill oil. We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (krill oil downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that krill oil-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from fish oil modulated fewer pathways than a krill oil-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by krill oil, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, fish oil upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low fat diet. Further studies of krill oil supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.

  1. Sequential Injection Chromatography with an Ultra-short Monolithic Column for the Low-Pressure Separation of α-Tocopherol and γ-Oryzanol in Vegetable Oils and Nutrition Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaithet, Sujitra; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    A low-pressure separation procedure of α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol was developed based on a sequential injection chromatography (SIC) system coupled with an ultra-short (5 mm) C-18 monolithic column, as a lower cost and more compact alternative to the HPLC system. A green sample preparation, dilution with a small amount of hexane followed by liquid-liquid extraction with 80% ethanol, was proposed. Very good separation resolution (Rs = 3.26), a satisfactory separation time (10 min) and a total run time including column equilibration (16 min) were achieved. The linear working range was found to be 0.4 - 40 μg with R2 being more than 0.99. The detection limits of both analytes were 0.28 μg with the repeatability within 5% RSD (n = 7). Quantitative analyses of the two analytes in vegetable oil and nutrition supplement samples, using the proposed SIC method, agree well with the results from HPLC.

  2. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  3. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  4. Krill oil for cardiovascular risk prevention: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention.

  5. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians,.

  6. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  7. Interference of age and supplementation of direct-fed microbial and essential oil in the activity of digestive enzymes and expression of genes related to transport and digestion of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Trottier, N; Steibel, J P; Lunedo, R; Campos, D M B; Santana, A M; Pizauro, J M; Furlan, R L; Furlan, L R

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe alterations that age and dietary inclusion of direct-fed microbial (DFM) Bacillus subtilis (BS) and a specific essential oil (EO) blend (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cineol, and pepper extract) causes in the activity of digestive enzymes (maltase: MALT; aminopeptidase-N: APN; intestinal alkaline phosphate: IAP) and expression patterns of genes related to transport (oligopeptide transporter gene: SLC15A1; Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter gene: SLC5A1; Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter gene: SLC2A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting gene: ATP1A1) and digestion (aminopeptidase-N gene: ANPEP; maltase-glucoamylase gene: MGAM; Sucrase-isomaltase gene: SI) of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers. Also, the objective was to analyze if growth performance of broilers is affected by supplementation (BS and EO blend). Day-old male broiler chicks (n = 1,320) were assigned to 5 treatments. Diets included a basal diet (BD) as a negative control (CON); experimental diets were BD + BS; BD + BS + EO; BD + EO; BD + antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) avilamycin was the positive control. Performance was evaluated between 1 to 42 d. Transcript abundance of transport-related genes and digestion-related genes were assayed by RT-qPCR and determined at d 7, 21, and 42. MALT-, APN-, and IAP-specific activities were determined at d 7, 21, and 42. Broilers fed BS had greater SLC15A1 mRNA abundance compared to CON, while EO and AGP were related to higher activities of IAP and APN. Analysis over time revealed higher abundance of MGAM, SLC2A2, SLC15A1, SLC5A1 and SI mRNA at d 42 when compared to d 7. Activity of IAP decreased after d 7 and activity of MALT increased with age. The current study suggests that age had effect over carbohydrate and protein transport and carbohydrate digestion. The supplementation of BS DFM hade evident effect over protein transport and that the use of EO in the diet

  8. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    conducted in Iran and the rest were performed in other middle-income countries. Only one study addressed secondary dysmenorrhoea. Interventions included 12 different herbal medicines (German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, M recutita, Chamomilla recutita), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C. verum), Damask rose (Rosa damascena), dill (Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), guava (Psidium guajava), rhubarb (Rheum emodi), uzara (Xysmalobium undulatum), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), and zataria (Zataria multiflora)) and five non-herbal supplements (fish oil, melatonin, vitamins B1 and E, and zinc sulphate) in a variety of formulations and doses. Comparators included other supplements, placebo, no treatment, and NSAIDs.We judged all the evidence to be of low or very low quality. The main limitations were imprecision due to very small sample sizes, failure to report study methods, and inconsistency. For most comparisons there was only one included study, and very few studies reported adverse effects. Effectiveness of supplements for primary dysmenorrhoea We have presented pain scores (all on a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0 to 10 point scale) or rates of pain relief, or both, at the first post-treatment follow-up. Supplements versus placebo or no treatmentThere was no evidence of effectiveness for vitamin E (MD 0.00 points, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.34; two RCTs, 135 women).There was no consistent evidence of effectiveness for dill (MD -1.15 points, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.08, one RCT, 46 women), guava (MD 0.59, 95% CI -0.13 to 1.31; one RCT, 151 women); one RCT, 73 women), or fennel (MD -0.34 points, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.06; one RCT, 43 women).There was very limited evidence of effectiveness for fenugreek (MD -1.71 points, 95% CI -2.35 to -1.07; one RCT, 101 women), fish oil (MD 1.11 points, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77; one RCT, 120 women), fish oil plus vitamin B1 (MD -1.21 points, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.63; one RCT, 120

  9. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  10. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  11. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach evaluating oil spill conditions. You are here Home | Oil and Chemical Spills | Oil Spills On Our Radar ... US Department of Commerce | USA.gov Main menu Home Oil and Chemical Spills Environmental Restoration Marine Debris Training ...

  12. Produção e composição química do leite de cabras mestiças Moxotó sob suplementação com óleo de licuri ou de mamona Production and chemical composition of the milk from crossbred Moxotó goats supplemented with licuri or castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de óleos de licuri ou de mamona na dieta sobre a produção, a composição química do leite de cabras leiteiras e a viabilidade econômica dessas dietas. No delineamento experimental foram utilizadas cabras Mestiças Moxotó distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5 com duas repetições, composto de cinco dietas: uma controle, sem lipídio suplementar, e as demais com 3% ou 5% de óleo de licuri ou de mamona. A suplementação com 5% de óleo de licuri reduziu a produção de leite, mas não influenciou a produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura. A adição de 3% de óleo de mamona reduziu o teor de gordura e de sólidos totais em comparação ao óleo de licuri, aumentando o teor de lactose. O teor de proteína do leite, no entanto, não foi alterado pela adição de óleo na dieta. Os indicadores econômicos apontaram a dieta controle como a mais rentável, no entanto, a suplementação com 3% de óleo de licuri, em comparação ao de mamona, pode ser interessante quando o leite se destina ao processamento, em virtude do maior teor de gordura.The effect was assessed of including licuri and castor oils in the diet on the production and chemical composition of milk from goats and the economic viability of the diets. Crossbred Moxotó goats in a 5 × 5 Latin square design were used with two replications consisting of five diets: a control treatment without supplementary oil (control, and the others with 3% or 5% licuri or castor oil. Milk production decreased with the inclusion of 5% licuri oil, but it did not influence the production of milk corrected to 4% fat. The addition of 3% castor oil reduced the fat content and total solids production compared to licuri oil, but it increased the lactose content. There was no significant difference in the protein content among treatments. The simple financial analyses showed that the control diet was more profitable, but supplementation with 3% licuri oil when

  13. Effects of oxidised oil and vitamin E on performance and some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hakan

    The basal diet (control), prepared with fresh sunflower oil, was supplemented with a vitamin premix containing 75 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. The second group received the basal diet containing oxidised sunflower oil (100 meq O2/kg oil). The third group was fed the same diet as the second, but was supplemented with ...

  14. Fish oil in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hansen, B V; Nielsen, F S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... oil in diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 1-year double-blind randomized controlled study comparing fish oil (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) with placebo (olive oil) was performed in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral center. Thirty-six normotensive IDDM patients with diabetic...... nephropathy were included; 18 were treated with fish oil. Seven patients dropped out (four received fish oil), and results for the remaining 29 are presented. Albuminuria (enzyme immunoassay), glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma clearance), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and lipid profile...

  15. The effects of Sawdust and Goat Dung Supplements on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust and goat dung supplements were studied for their effects on growth components and yield of Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench) in diesel oil contaminated soil. Each organic supplement was added at the rate of 3kg per 4kg of sandy-loam soil at various levels of diesel oil contamination (1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00 ...

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  17. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it by mouth to lose weight and lower cholesterol. Coconut oil is sometimes applied to the skin as a ... coconut oil by mouth as a medicine. High cholesterol: Coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase ...

  18. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-17

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010.

  19. Processing use, and characterization of shale oil products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decora, Andrew W.; Kerr, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Oil shale is a potential source of oil that will supplement conventional sources for oil as our needs for fossil fuels begin to exceed our supplies. The resource may be mined and processed on the surface or it may be processed in situ. An overview of the potential technologies and environmental issues is presented. PMID:446454

  20. Efeitos do fornecimento de monensina e óleo de soja na dieta sobre o desempenho de vacas leiteiras na fase inicial da lactação Effects of dietary supplementation of monensin and soybean oil on production of early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do fornecimento de monensina e óleo de soja na dieta sobre o desempenho de vacas leiteiras na fase inicial de lactação. Foram utilizadas 16 vacas multíparas 7/8 Holandês Gir, com 30 dias em lactação, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial. O período experimental teve duração de 84 dias, divididos em três fases: I - 5ª à 8ª; II - 9ª à 12ª; III - 13ª à 16ª semana de lactação. Os tratamentos foram denominados: CT: dieta controle - sem óleo e sem monensina; MN: dieta sem óleo, com monensina a 33 ppm; OL - dieta com óleo de soja (3,9%, sem monensina; OM - dieta com a combinação de óleo de soja e monensina. Os animais foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia, com dieta composta por 52% de silagem de milho e 48% de concentrado. O consumo foi reduzido nas vacas alimentadas com as dietas com óleo de soja, mas o consumo de energia não foi alterado pelos tratamentos. A produção de leite foi similar entre os animais, mas, enquanto as dietas sem óleo proporcionaram aumento no consumo e na produção com o avanço da lactação, nas dietas com óleo o consumo e produção de leite foram constantes. O óleo de soja reduziu a produção de leite corrigida e tanto monensina como óleo reduziram o teor de gordura, que diminuiu nas fases II e III nas vacas que receberam as dietas com óleo e aumentou naquelas alimentadas com as dietas sem óleo. A monensina elevou o teor de proteína, enquanto o óleo de soja reduziu a concentração e produção de proteína. As dietas com óleo de soja mostraram maior eficiência bruta e menor eficiência energética, indicando que a energia da produção de leite foi direcionada ao ganho de peso.Sixteen 7/8 Holstein-Zebu multiparous cows averaging 30 DIM were used in a complete randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement to study the effects of supplementing monensin and/or soybean oil on production of early lactating dairy cows. The experimental

  1. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  2. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Dietary avocado oil supplementation attenuates the alterations induced by type I diabetes and oxidative stress in electron transfer at the complex II-complex III segment of the electron transport chain in rat kidney mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Sámano-García, Carlos Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Pérez-Hernández, Ismael H; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Impaired complex III activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria have been identified as key events leading to renal damage during diabetes. Due to its high content of oleic acid and antioxidants, we aimed to test whether avocado oil may attenuate the alterations in electron transfer at complex III induced by diabetes by a mechanism related with increased resistance to lipid peroxidation. 90 days of avocado oil administration prevented the impairment in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in kidney mitochondria. This was associated with a protection against decreased electron transfer through high potential chain in complex III related to cytochromes c + c1 loss. During Fe(2+)-induced oxidative stress, avocado oil improved the activities of complexes II and III and enhanced the protection conferred by a lipophilic antioxidant against damage by Fe(2+). Avocado oil also decreased ROS generation in Fe(2+)-damaged mitochondria. Alterations in the ratio of C20:4/C18:2 fatty acids were observed in mitochondria from diabetic animals that not were corrected by avocado oil treatment, which yielded lower peroxidizability indexes only in diabetic mitochondria although avocado oil caused an augment in the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a protective effect of avocado oil against lipid peroxidation was observed consistently only in control mitochondria. Since the beneficial effects of avocado oil in diabetic mitochondria were not related to increased resistance to lipid peroxidation, these effects were discussed in terms of the antioxidant activity of both C18:1 and the carotenoids reported to be contained in avocado oil.

  19. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  20. Classification of Use Status for Dietary Supplements in Clinical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yadan; He, Lu; Zhang, Rui

    2016-12-01

    Clinical notes contain rich information about dietary supplements, which are critical for detecting signals of dietary supplement side effects and interactions between drugs and supplements. One of the important factors of supplement documentation is usage status, such as started and discontinuation. Such information is usually stored in the unstructured clinical notes. We developed a rule-based classifier to identify supplement usage status in clinical notes. The categories referring to the patient's status of supplement use were classified into four classes: Continuing (C), Discontinued (D), Started (S), and Unclassified (U). Clinical notes containing 10 of the most commonly consumed supplements (i.e., alfalfa, echinacea, fish oil, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, melatonin, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E) were retrieved from the University of Minnesota Clinical Data Repository. The gold standard was defined by manually annotating 1000 randomly selected sentences or statements mentioning at least one of these 10 supplements. The rules in the classifier was initially developed on two-thirds of the set of 7 supplements (i.e., alfalfa, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E); the performance was evaluated on the remaining one-third of this set. To evaluate the generalizability of rules, we further validated the second testing set on other 3 supplements (i.e., echinacea, fish oil, and melatonin). The performance of the classifier achieved F-measures of 0.95, 0.97, 0.96, and 0.96 for status C, D, S, and U on 7 supplements, respectively. The classifier also showed good generalizability when it was applied to the other 3 supplements with F-measures of 0.96 for C, 0.96 for D, 0.95 for S, and 0.89 for U. This study demonstrated that the classifier can accurately classify supplement usage status, which can be further integrated as a module into the existing natural language processing pipeline for supporting dietary supplement knowledge discovery.

  1. Time-dependent stability of used engine oil degradation by cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas fragi and Achromobacter aerogenes isolated from used engine oil polluted soils were grown in minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with used engine oil as sole carbon and energy source to evaluate their ability to biodegrade used engine oil. The two organisms utilized 73.3 and 80.0% of the oil with ...

  2. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  3. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of increasing Omega-3 index with krill oil supplementation on learning, cognition, behaviour and visual processing in typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation on brain functioning is debated. Some studies have found positive effects on cognition in children with learning difficulties, elderly people with cognitive impairment and depression scores in

  4. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut oil is high in monounsaturated “good” fat, and low in saturated “bad” fat, which is believed to help prevent heart disease and lower cholesterol. However, in animal studies, peanut oil has been shown to ...

  5. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  6. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  7. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  8. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  9. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  10. Alternative sources of supplements in Africanized honeybees submitted to royal jelly production - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplements with isolated soy protein, brewer’s yeast, a mixture of isolated soy protein with brewer’s yeast, linseed oil, palm oil and mixture of linseed oil with palm oil in the royal jelly production of Africanized honey bee colonies. Total royal jelly produced was superior (P

  11. Trans and conjugated fatty acids in milk from cows and goats consuming pasture or receiving vegetable oils or seeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chilliard, Yves; Ferlay, Anne; Loor, Juan; Rouel, Jacques; Martin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    ...:1 and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows and goats. Main dietary factors taken into account are the nature of for- ages and pasture, and supplementation with oil seeds, vegetable or marine oils...

  12. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000?August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including gl...

  13. A comparison of actual versus stated label amounts of EPA and DHA in commercial omega-3 dietary supplements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Alison C; Cladis, Dennis P; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits throughout life and are obtained primarily through fish and fish oil supplements. Due to the growing popularity of dietary supplements, 47 commercial fish, krill, and algal oil supplements were analyzed for EPA, DHA, and other fatty acids. For fish- and krill-based supplements, the range of EPA was 81.8 to 454.6 mg g(-1) oil and DHA was 51.6 to 220.4 mg g(-1) oil. For algal oil supplements, EPA ranged from 7.7 to 151.1 mg g(-1) oil and DHA ranged from 237.8 to 423.5 mg g(-1) oil. The percentage of the stated label amount for EPA and DHA ranged from 66 to 184% and 62 to 184%, respectively. Only 10 supplements (21% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated label amount of EPA, while 12 supplements (25% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated amount of DHA. Over 70% of the supplements tested did not contain the stated label amount of EPA or DHA. These results indicate that the quality of fish oil supplements is not being adequately monitored by manufacturers or government agencies and increased testing is needed to ensure regulatory compliance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Avaliação hematológica e bioquímica de equinos suplementados com óleo de arroz semirrefinado, rico em gamaorizanol Hematological and biochemical evaluation of horses supplemented with semi-refined rice oil enriched with gamma orizanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com óleo de arroz sobre o peso e perfil hematológico de equinos submetidos a exercício físico moderado. Foram utilizados 14 equinos machos, com peso aproximado de 411kg, distribuídos entre o grupo tratado (GT; n=7, suplementado com óleo de arroz adicionado diariamente à dieta (0,5ml/kg/PV, e o grupo-controle (GC; n=7, tratado com óleo de soja (0,5ml/kg/PV. Foram feitas três avaliações: antes do início e aos 20 e 40 dias após o início do tratamento, as quais consistiram de determinação do peso, exame clínico e coleta de amostras de sangue dos animais, antes e após o exercício, para hematócrito, hemograma, dosagem de glicose, lactato e proteína total. Não houve diferença entre grupos e nem entre avaliações quanto às variáveis peso e proteína total. A glicose aumentou significativamente após o exercício na segunda coleta no GC e na terceira no GT. No GC, o lactato aumentou nas coletas após o exercício, enquanto no GT, os valores foram semelhantes antes e após. A suplementação com óleo de arroz na dieta foi determinante para impedir o aumento de lactato em equinos submetidos a exercício, o que pode ser relevante para aumentar o seu desempenho atlético.The effect of the supplementation with rice oil was evaluated on the weight and hematologic profile of equines submitted moderate physical exercise. Fourteen male equines, averaging 411kg, were distributed into treated group (GT; n=7, supplemented daily with rice oil added to the diet (0.5ml/kg/BW; and control group (GC; n=7, treated with soybean oil (0.5ml/kg/BW. Three evaluations were made before the treatment, and 20 and 40 days after the beginning of the treatment, consisting of the determination of the weight, the clinical examination, and the collection of blood samples before and after the exercise for hematocrit, hemogram, glucose, lactate, and total protein determinations. There was no difference between the groups

  15. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  16. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  17. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.

  18. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  19. Efficiency of borage seeds oil against gamma irradiation-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of borage seeds oil against gamma irradiation-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats: possible antioxidant activity. ... induced by radiation exposure. Therefore, BO may be used as a beneficial supplement for patients during radiotherapy treatment. Keywords: Borage seeds oil; γ-irradiation; Hepatotoxicity; Antioxidant ...

  20. Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) oil on turkey slaughter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of slaughtered turkeys fed a diet supplemented with Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) oil was investigated. Two treatments were studied, T0: control diet and T1: control diet + 400 mg kg**-1 of oregano oil with 60% carvacrol. Live weight at slaughter was different, with T0...

  1. Effect of thermoxidised groundnut oil on aminotransferase activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of thermoxidised groundnut oil on the aminotransferase activity of the heart health of Wistar rats was investigated. Eighteen female albino rats were randomly divided into three groups of six rats each .Group 1 was fed 15% fresh groundnut oil supplemented rat pellet, group 2 received 15% thermoxidised ...

  2. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that oil from S. molle seeds could be used as a source of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid which would be utilised as industrial ingredients in the manufacture of soaps, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and nutritional supplements. Keywords: Schinus molle, hexane oil extraction, fatty acids, ethnomedicine

  3. Use of red palm oil in local snacks can increase intake of provitamin A carotenoids in young aborigines children: a Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.

  4. Effect of supplemental fat in low energy diets on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    The results indicate that supplementation of broiler diets with up to 40 g soyabean oil/kg feed significantly improved the performance ... Keywords: Supplemental fat, low energy diet, blood parameters, broiler chicks. # Corresponding author: ..... of aging rabbits by increased alpha-adrenegic responsivenss. J. Lipid Res.

  5. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  6. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of increasing Omega-3 index with krill oil supplementation on lear