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Sample records for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase7

  1. On the substrate- and stereospecificity of the plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Strigolactones are phytohormones synthesized from carotenoids via a stereospecific pathway involving the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 (CCD7) and 8. CCD7 cleaves 9-cis-β-carotene to form a supposedly 9-cis-configured β-apo-10′-carotenal. CCD8 converts this intermediate through a combination of yet undetermined reactions into the strigolactone-like compound carlactone. Here, we investigated the substrate and stereo-specificity of the Arabidopsis and pea CCD7 and determined the stereo-configuration of the β-apo-10′-carotenal intermediate by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Our data unequivocally demonstrate the 9-cis-configuration of the intermediate. Both CCD7s cleave different 9-cis-carotenoids, yielding hydroxylated 9-cis-apo-10′-carotenals that may lead to hydroxylated carlactones, but show highest affinity for 9-cis-β-carotene. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta. PMID:20549230

  3. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  4. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Frusciante, Sarah; Diretto, Gianfranco; Bruno, Mark; Ferrante, Paola; Pietrella, Marco; Prado-Cabrero, Alfonso; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Beyer, Peter; Gomez-Gomez, Lourdes; Al-Babili, Salim; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is a triploid, sterile species whose red stigmas constitute the most expensive spice on Earth. The color, the taste, and the aroma of the spice are owed to the crocus-specific apocarotenoid accumulation of crocetin/crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal. Through deep transcriptome analysis, we identified a novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) whose expression profile parallels the production of crocetin. Using in bacterio, in vitro, and in planta functional assays, we demonstrate t...

  5. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Frusciante, Sarah

    2014-08-05

    Crocus sativus stigmas are the source of the saffron spice and accumulate the apocarotenoids crocetin, crocins, picrocrocin, and safranal, responsible for its color, taste, and aroma. Through deep transcriptome sequencing, we identified a novel dioxygenase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 (CCD2), expressed early during stigma development and closely related to, but distinct from, the CCD1 dioxygenase family. CCD2 is the only identified member of a novel CCD clade, presents the structural features of a bona fide CCD, and is able to cleave zeaxanthin, the presumed precursor of saffron apocarotenoids, both in Escherichia coli and in maize endosperm. The cleavage products, identified through high-resolution mass spectrometry and comigration with authentic standards, are crocetin dialdehyde and crocetin, respectively. In vitro assays show that CCD2 cleaves sequentially the 7,8 and 7′,8′ double bonds adjacent to a 3-OH-β-ionone ring and that the conversion of zeaxanthin to crocetin dialdehyde proceeds via the C30 intermediate 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal. In contrast, zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (ZCD), an enzyme previously claimed to mediate crocetin formation, did not cleave zeaxanthin or 3-OH-β-apo-8′-carotenal in the test systems used. Sequence comparison and structure prediction suggest that ZCD is an N-truncated CCD4 form, lacking one blade of the β-propeller structure conserved in all CCDs. These results constitute strong evidence that CCD2 catalyzes the first dedicated step in crocin biosynthesis. Similar to CCD1, CCD2 has a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that it may cleave carotenoids localized in the chromoplast outer envelope.

  6. Partial purification and kinetic characterization of a carotenoid cleavage enzyme from quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Studer, Kerstin; Winterhalter, Peter

    2002-03-13

    For the first time, a cytosolic carotenoid cleavage enzyme isolated from quince (Cydonia oblonga) fruit is described. The enzyme was partially purified by using centrifugation, acetone precipitation, ultrafiltration (300 kD, 50 kD), isoelectric focusing (pH 3-10), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5%). In this way, an enzymatically active protein fraction was obtained that contained three similar proteins, all exhibiting molecular weights in the range of 20 kD. Using beta-carotene as substrate, the enzyme activity was detected spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 505 nm. The time constant of the reaction was 8.2 min, the Michaelis constant (K(m)) was 11.0 micromol x L(-1), and the maximum velocity (v(max)) was 0.083 micromol x L(-1) x min(-1) x mg(protein)(-1). The optimum temperature was above 50 degrees C. PMID:11879057

  7. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-15

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-trans-β-carotene at the C9'-C10' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-trans-β-apo-10'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9'-C10' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-cis-β-apo-10'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development. PMID:25703194

  8. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-. trans-β-carotene at the C9\\'-C10\\' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-. trans-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9\\'-C10\\' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-. cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-. cis-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-. trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development.

  9. Disruption of a CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 gene converts flower colour from white to yellow in Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yaqin; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Fang; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Liu, Kede

    2015-06-01

    In Brassica napus, yellow petals had a much higher content of carotenoids than white petals present in a small number of lines, with violaxanthin identified as the major carotenoid compound in yellow petals of rapeseed lines. Using positional cloning we identified a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 gene, BnaC3.CCD4, responsible for the formation of flower colour, with preferential expression in petals of white-flowered B. napus lines. Insertion of a CACTA-like transposable element 1 (TE1) into the coding region of BnaC3.CCD4 had disrupted its expression in yellow-flowered rapeseed lines. α-Ionone was identified as the major volatile apocarotenoid released from white petals but not from yellow petals. We speculate that BnaC3.CCD4 may use δ- and/or α-carotene as substrates. Four variations, including two CACTA-like TEs (alleles M1 and M4) and two insertion/deletions (INDELs, alleles M2 and M3), were identified in yellow-flowered Brassica oleracea lines. The two CACTA-like TEs were also identified in the coding region of BcaC3.CCD4 in Brassica carinata. However, the two INDELs were not detected in B. napus and B. carinata. We demonstrate that the insertions of TEs in BolC3.CCD4 predated the formation of the two allotetraploids. PMID:25690717

  10. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  11. Cloning and characterisation of a maize carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (ZmCCD1) and its involvement in the biosynthesis of apocarotenoids with various roles in mutualistic and parasitic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Z.; Hans, J.; Walter, M H; Matusova, R.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Ming, Z.; Echteld, van, C.J.A.; Strack, D; Bisseling, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Colonisation of maize roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi leads to the accumulation of apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives). Other root apocarotenoids (strigolactones) are involved in signalling during early steps of the AM symbiosis but also in stimulation of germination of parasitic plant seeds. Both apocarotenoid classes are predicted to originate from cleavage of a carotenoid substrate by a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), but the precursors and cleavag...

  12. The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 catalysing the synthesis of crocetin in spring crocuses and saffron is a plastidial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Berman, Judit; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The apocarotenoid crocetin and its glycosylated derivatives, crocins, confer the red colour to saffron. Crocetin biosynthesis in saffron is catalysed by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 (AIG94929). No homologues have been identified in other plant species due to the very limited presence of crocetin and its derivatives in the plant kingdom. Spring Crocus species with yellow flowers accumulate crocins in the stigma and tepals. Four carotenoid CCDs, namely CaCCD1, CaCCD2 and CaCCD4a/b and CaCCD4c were first cloned and characterized. CaCCD2 was localized in plastids, and a longer CCD2 version, CsCCD2L, was also localized in this compartment. The activity of CaCCD2 was assessed in Escherichia coli and in a stable rice gene function characterization system, demonstrating the production of crocetin in both systems. The expression of all isolated CCDs was evaluated in stigma and tepals at three key developmental stages in relation with apocarotenoid accumulation. CaCCD2 expression parallels crocin accumulation, but C14 apocarotenoids most likely are associated to the CaCCD1 activity in Crocus ancyrensis flowers. The specific CCD2 localization and its membrane interaction will contribute to the development of a better understanding of the mechanism of crocetin biosynthesis and regulation in the chromoplast. PMID:26377696

  13. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ilg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B, which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents.

  14. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  15. Identifying a Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4a Gene and Its Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation in Bixa orellana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, Mohan; Hemachandran, Hridya; Anantharaman, Amirtha; Babu, Subramanian; Madrid, Renata Rivera; C, George Priya Doss; Fulzele, Devanand P; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are metabolized to apocarotenoids through the pathway catalysed by carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs). The apocarotenoids are economically important as it is known to have therapeutic as well as industrial applications. For instance, bixin from Bixa orellana and crocin from Crocus sativus are commercially used as a food colourant and cosmetics since prehistoric time. In our present study, CCD4a gene has been identified and isolated from leaves of B. orellana for the first time and named as BoCCD4a; phylogenetic analysis was carried out using CLUSTAL W. From sequence analysis, BoCCD4a contains two exons and one intron, which was compared with the selected AtCCD4, RdCCD4, GmCCD4 and CmCCD4a gene. Further, the BoCCD4a gene was cloned into pCAMBIA 1301, transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain and subsequently transferred into hypocotyledons and callus of B. orellana by agro-infection. Selection of stable transformation was screened on the basis of PCR detection by using GUS and hptII specific primer, which was followed by histochemical characterization. The percent transient GUS expression in hypocotyledons and callus was 84.4 and 80 %, respectively. The expression of BoCCD4a gene in B. orellana was confirmed through RT-PCR analysis. From our results, the sequence analysis of BoCCD4a gene of B. orellana was closely related to the CsCCD4 gene of C. sativus, which suggests this gene may have a role in various processes such as fragrance, insect attractant and pollination. PMID:26922728

  16. Chronic alcohol intake up-regulates hepatic expressions of carotenoid cleavage enzymes and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive and chronic alcohol intake leads to a lower hepatic vitamin A status by interfering with vitamin A metabolism.Dietary provitamin A carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A mainly by carotenoid 15,15’-monooxygenase 1 (CMO1) and, to a lesser degree, carotenoid 9910’-monooxygenase 2 (CMO2)...

  17. Intron retention and rhythmic diel pattern regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2 during crocetin biosynthesis in saffron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña-Picazo, Javier; Castillo, Raquel; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2016-06-01

    The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 2, a new member of the CCD family, catalyzes the conversion of zeaxanthin into crocetin-dialdehyde in Crocus. CCD2 is expressed in flowers, being responsible for the yellow, orange and red colorations displayed by tepals and stigma. Three CsCCD2 genes were identified in Crocus sativus, the longest contains ten exons and the shorter is a truncated copy with no introns and which lacks one exon sequence. Analysis of RNA-seq datasets of three developmental stages of saffron stigma allowed the determination of alternative splicing in CsCCD2, being intron retention (IR) the prevalent form of alternative splicing in CsCCD2. Further, high IR was observed in tissues that do not accumulate crocetin. The analysis of one CsCCD2 promoter showed cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to light, temperature, and circadian regulation. The light and circadian regulation are common elements shared with the previously characterized CsLycB2a promoter, and these shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation of these genes during the development of the stigma in saffron. A daily coordinated rhythmic regulation for CsCCD2 and CsLycB2a was observed, with higher levels of mRNA occurring at low temperatures during darkness, confirming the results obtained in the in silico promoter analysis. In addition, to the light and temperature dependent regulation of CsCCD2 expression, the apocarotenoid β-cyclocitral up-regulated CsCCD2 expression and could acts as a mediator of chromoplast-to-nucleus signalling, coordinating the expression of CsCCD2 with the developmental state of the chromoplast in the developing stigma. PMID:27071403

  18. THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRET CAROTENE-9', 10'-MONOOXYGENASE CATALYZING CLEAVAGE OF CAROTENOIDS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that beta -carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO1) catalyzes the cleavage of beta -carotene at the central carbon 15, 15’-double bond, but cleaves lycopene with much lower activity. However, expressing the mouse carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO2) in beta-carotene/lycopene...

  19. The promoter of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a-5 gene of Chrysanthemum morifolium (CmCCD4a-5) drives petal-specific transcription of a conjugated gene in the developing flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ayano; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-15

    Carotenoids comprise one of the major groups of pigments in flowers. Because carotenoids are physiologically indispensable pigments for all photosynthetic plants, their catabolism must be discretely regulated in photosynthetic organs and non-photosynthetic organs such as petals or fruits. In the chrysanthemum, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a (CmCCD4a), which is dominantly expressed in petals, cleaves carotenoid, leading to a white flower. CmCCD4a-5 was recently identified as a new member of the CmCCD4a family, but its detailed expression profile in plant tissues has not yet been established. In this study, we sequenced a 1094-bp region upstream of CmCCD4a-5 and assessed its petal-specific promoter activity. To evaluate the activity of this gene, we constructed two types of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that possessed, respectively, a fusion gene of a 1090-bp or 505-bp segment of the upstream region plus the β-d-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (1090bUR::GUS and 505bUR::GUS). GUS activity in the 505bUR::GUS strain was observed mainly in the anthers/pollen in flower buds, whereas GUS activity of the 1090bUR::GUS strain was observed in immature petals of the flower buds. Among the cis-acting elements located between positions -505 and -1090, no elements that have previously been reported to enhance the expression in petals or to suppress it in anthers/pollen were detected by PLACE analysis, indicating the existence of unknown cis-element(s). A semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CmCCD4a-5 transcription was prominent in petals but was undetectable in roots, stems and leaves. PMID:23643306

  20. Apocarotenoids: A New Carotenoid-Derived Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Juan Camilo Moreno; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are precursors of carotenoid derived molecules termed apocarotenoids, which include isoprenoids with important functions in plant-environment interactions such as the attraction of pollinators and the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Apocarotenoids also include volatile aromatic compounds that act as repellents, chemoattractants, growth simulators and inhibitors, as well as the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactones. In plants, apocarotenoids can be found in several types of plastids (etioplast, leucoplast and chromoplast) and among different plant tissues such as flowers and roots. The structural similarity of some flower and spice isoprenoid volatile organic compounds (β-ionone and safranal) to carotenoids has led to the recent discovery of carotenoid-specific cleavage oxygenases, including carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and 9-cis-epoxydioxygenases, which tailor and transform carotenoids into apocarotenoids. The great diversity of apocarotenoids is a consequence of the huge amount of carotenoid precursors, the variations in specific cleavage sites and the modifications after cleavage. Lycopene, β-carotene and zeaxanthin are the precursors of the main apocarotenoids described to date, which include bixin, crocin, picrocrocin, abscisic acid, strigolactone and mycorradicin.The current chapter will give rise to an overview of the biosynthesis and function of the most important apocarotenoids in plants, as well as the current knowledge about the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase enzymes involved in these biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27485225

  1. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  2. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis During Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Joanna; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance. In this chapter a comprehensive list of the carotenoid content and profile in the most commonly cultivated fleshy fruits is reported. The proposed fruit classification systems attending to carotenoid composition are revised and discussed. The regulation of carotenoids in fruits can be rather complex due to the dramatic changes in content and composition during ripening, which are also dependent on the fruit tissue and the developmental stage. In addition, carotenoid accumulation is a dynamic process, associated with the development of chromoplasts during ripening. As a general rule, carotenoid accumulation is highly controlled at the transcriptional level of the structural and accessory proteins of the biosynthetic and degradation pathways, but other mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modifications or the development of sink structures have been recently revealed as crucial factors in determining the levels and stability of these pigments. In this chapter common key metabolic reactions regulating carotenoid composition in fruit tissues are described in addition to others that are restricted to certain species and generate unique carotenoids patterns. The existence of fruit-specific isoforms for key steps such as the phytoene synthase, lycopene β-cyclases or catabolic carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases has allowed an independent regulation of the pathway in fruit tissues

  3. Key to xenobiotic carotenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Richard Sliwka; Vassilia Partali

    2012-01-01

    A listing of carotenoids with heteroatoms (X = F, Cl, Br, I, Si, N, S, Se, Fe) directly attached to the carotenoid carbon skeleton has been compiled. The 178 listed carotenoids with C,H,X atoms demonstrate that the classical division of carotenoids into hydrocarbon carotenoids (C,H) and xanthophylls (C,H,O) has become obsolete.

  4. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Despite a reasonable scientific interest in sexual selection, the general principles of health signalisation via ornamental traits remain still unresolved in many aspects. This is also true for the mechanism preserving honesty of carotenoid-based signals. Although it is widely accepted that this type of ornamentation reflects an allocation trade-off between the physiological utilisation of carotenoids (mainly in antioxidative processes) and their deposition in ornaments, some recent evidence suggests more complex interactions. Here, we further develop the models currently proposed to explain the honesty of carotenoid-based signalisation of heath status by adding the handicap principle concept regulated by testosterone. We propose that under certain circumstances carotenoids may be dangerous for the organism because they easily transform into toxic cleavage products. When reserves of other protective antioxidants are insufficient, physiological trade-offs may exist between maintenance of carotenoids for ornament expression and their removal from the body. Furthermore, we suggest that testosterone which enhances ornamentation by increasing carotenoid bioavailability may also promote oxidative stress and hence lower antioxidant reserves. The presence of high levels of carotenoids required for high-quality ornament expression may therefore represent a handicap and only individuals in prime health could afford to produce elaborate colourful ornaments. Although further testing is needed, this ‘carotenoid maintenance handicap’ hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation.

  5. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Mehrshahi, Payam; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E; Angelovici, Ruthie; Gore, Michael A; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  6. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  7. Coherent spectroscopy and carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niklas Christensson, N.; Chábera, P.; Pascher, T.; Dietzek, B.; Polívka, Tomáš; Yartsev, A.; Pullerits, T.

    Nové Hrady : Academic and University Center, 2008. s. 24. [ESF Workshop on Novel Methods in Exploring Carotenoid Excited State Dynamics. 21.09.2008-25.09.2008, Nové Hrady] Keywords : carotenoids * biophysics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  8. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A;

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  9. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  10. Molecular Characterization of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Carotenoid Accumulation in Lycium chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding β-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY, phytoene desaturase (LcPDS, ξ-carotene desaturase (LcZDS, lycopene β-cyclase (LcLCYB, lycopene ε-cyclase (LcLCYE, ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE, zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1, and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of β-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense.

  11. Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Recent Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Agócs; József Deli; Veronika Nagy; Magdolna Háda

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made to synthetize partially hydrophilic carotenoids. This review compiles the recently synthetized hydrophilic carotenoid derivatives.

  12. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  13. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  14. Hydrophilic Carotenoids: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Agócs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are substantially hydrophobic antioxidants. Hydrophobicity is this context is rather a disadvantage, because their utilization in medicine as antioxidants or in food chemistry as colorants would require some water dispersibility for their effective uptake or use in many other ways. In the past 15 years several attempts were made to synthetize partially hydrophilic carotenoids. This review compiles the recently synthetized hydrophilic carotenoid derivatives.

  15. Encapsulation of Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Henelyta S.; Schuchmann, Heike P.; Engel, Robert; Walz, Elke; Briviba, Karlis

    Carotenoids are natural pigments, which are synthesized by microorganisms and plants. More than 600 naturally occurring carotenoids have been found in the nature. The main sources of carotenoids are fruits, vegetables, leaves, peppers, and certain types of fishes, sea foods, and birds. Carotenoids may protect cells against photosensitization and work as light-absorbing pigments during photosynthesis. Some carotenoids may inhibit the destructive effect of reactive oxygen species. Due to the antioxidative properties of carotenoids, many investigations regarding their protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, as well as other degenerative illnesses, have been carried out in the last years (Briviba et al. 2004; Krinsky et al. 2004; Kirsh et al. 2006). A diet rich in carotenoids may also contribute to photoprotection against UV radiation (Stahl et al. 2006). In vitro studies have shown that carotenoids such as β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene stimulate bone formation and mineralization. The results may be related to prevention of osteoporosis (Kim et al. 2003; Yamaguchi and Uchiyama 2003; 2004; Yamaguchi et al. 2005).

  16. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  17. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  18. Carotenoids in Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Vitalia; Escobar, Carolina; Galarza, Janeth; Gimpel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoids synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms as well as by some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi with broad applications in food, feed and cosmetics, and also in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Microalgae represent an important source of high-value products, which include carotenoids, among others. Carotenoids play key roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. Carotenoids are generally divided into carotenes and xanthophyls, but accumulation in microalgae can also be classified as primary (essential for survival) and secondary (by exposure to specific stimuli).In this chapter, we outline the high value carotenoids produced by commercially important microalgae, their production pathways, the improved production rates that can be achieved by genetic engineering as well as their biotechnological applications. PMID:27485224

  19. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartarini Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch., and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid

  20. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis. PMID:27485220

  1. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution. PMID:27000655

  2. Carotenoid Distribution in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaíno, Jennifer; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments that are synthesized by plants and some microorganisms and fulfill many important physiological functions. This chapter describes the distribution of carotenoid in microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, filamentous fungi and yeasts. We will also focus on their functional aspects and applications, such as their nutritional value, their benefits for human and animal health and their potential protection against free radicals. The central metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of carotenoids is described as the three following principal steps: (i) the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the formation of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, (ii) the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and (iii) the synthesis of carotenoids per se, highlighting the differences that have been found in several carotenogenic organisms and providing an evolutionary perspective. Finally, as an example, the synthesis of the xanthophyll astaxanthin is discussed. PMID:27485217

  3. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the gree...

  4. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid bioavailability.In a

  5. Mechanistic aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Moïse, Alexander R.

    2014-01-08

    Carotenoid synthesis is based on the analysis of the phenotype of several mutant strains of tomato lacking carotenoid synthetic genes. Carotenoids are tetraterpenes derived through the condensation of the five-carbon (C5) universal isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). A recently developed concept that could explain the role of the poly-cis pathway in carotenoid synthesis is that the intermediates of this pathway have additional physiological roles that extend beyond serving as precursors of lycopene. This concept is based on the analysis of the phenotype of several mutant strains of tomato lacking carotenoid synthetic genes. The feedback regulation of early carotenoid synthetic genes in response to a block in upstream metabolism represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mechanism and regulation of carotenoid synthesis and of metabolic regulation in general. The molecular details of a signaling pathway that regulates carotenogenesis in response to the levels of carotenoid precursors are still unclear.

  6. A molecular and carbon isotopic study towards the origin and diagenetic fate of diaromatic carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Requejo, A.G.; Allan, J.; Hayes, J.M.; Ling, Y.; Xie, T.-M.; Primack, J.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1994-01-01

    Pyrolysates of high-molecular-weight sedimentary fractions of the Duvernay Formation (Western Canada Basin) are dominated by 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, which, generated via beta-cleavage, indicate the presence of diaromatic carotenoids in the macromolecular aggregates. This was substan

  7. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Omholt Stig W; Våge Dag; Øyehaug Leiv; Rajasingh Hannah

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation) model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organi...

  8. Increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Camilla Z; Fuller, Steven C; Fanning, Kent J; Smyth, Heather E; Pun, Sharon; Martin, Ian F; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2013-07-31

    Carotenoids are responsible for the yellow color of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata), but are also potentially the source of flavor compounds from the cleavage of carotenoid molecules. The carotenoid-derived volatile, β-ionone, was identified in both standard yellow sweet corn ('Hybrix5') and a zeaxanthin-enhanced experimental variety ('HZ') designed for sufferers of macular degeneration. As β-ionone is highly perceivable at extremely low concentration by humans, it was important to confirm if alterations in carotenoid profile may also affect flavor volatiles. The concentration of β-ionone was most strongly correlated (R(2) > 0.94) with the β-arm carotenoids, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, and to a lesser degree (R(2) = 0.90) with the α-arm carotenoid, zeinoxanthin. No correlation existed with either lutein (R(2) = 0.06) or antheraxanthin (R(2) = 0.10). Delaying harvest of cobs resulted in a significant increase of both carotenoid and β-ionone concentrations, producing a 6-fold increase of β-ionone in 'HZ' and a 2-fold increase in 'Hybrix5', reaching a maximum of 62 μg/kg FW and 24 μg/kg FW, respectively. PMID:23767984

  9. How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cogdell, R J; Howard, T. D.; Bittl, R.; Schlodder, E; Geisenheimer, I; Lubitz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Based upon recent structural studies on reaction centres and antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria, the detailed organization of the carotenoids is described. Then with specific reference to bacterial antenna complexes the details of the photoprotective role, ...

  10. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  11. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota. PMID:27485223

  12. Food Predictors of Plasma Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Hendrickson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical prediction models that weight food frequency questionnaire (FFQ food items by their relation to nutrient biomarker concentrations may estimate nutrient exposure better than nutrient intakes derived from food composition databases. Carotenoids may especially benefit because contributing foods vary in bioavailability and assessment validity. Our objective was to develop empirical prediction models for the major plasma carotenoids and total carotenoids and evaluate their validity compared with dietary intakes calculated from standard food composition tables. 4180 nonsmoking women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS blood subcohort with previously measured plasma carotenoids were randomly divided into training (n = 2787 and testing (n = 1393 subsets. Empirical prediction models were developed in the training subset by stepwise selection from foods contributing ≥0.5% to intake of the relevant carotenoid. Spearman correlations between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were compared to Spearman correlations between dietary intake and measured plasma concentrations for each carotenoid. Three to 12 foods were selected for the α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids prediction models. In the testing subset, Spearman correlations with measured plasma concentrations for the calculated dietary intakes and predicted plasma concentrations, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.37 for α-carotene, 0.29 and 0.31 for β-carotene, 0.36 and 0.41 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.28 and 0.31 for lutein/zeaxanthin, 0.22 and 0.23 for lycopene, and 0.22 and 0.27 for total carotenoids. Empirical prediction models may modestly improve assessment of some carotenoids, particularly α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin.

  13. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, José M.; Inés Garbayo; Francisco Bédmar; María Cuaresma; Carlos Vílchez; Eduardo Forján

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesised by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has be...

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Carotenoid photoprotection in Diaptomus kenai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairston, N.G. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    Red copepods have been reported from a wide variety of aquatic environments. The red color is produced by a carotenoid pigment, in most cases astaxanthin and its esters, that the copepods cannot form de novo but derive from ingested pigments such as beta-carotene. In an earlier study, the adaptive advantage of carotenoid pigmentation was investigated. Copepods containing large amounts of astaxanthin had significantly better survival than copepods containing small amounts of the pigment when exposed to light of an intensity and color similar to that occurring in the lakes from which they were taken. This result suggested that the carotenoid pigment protected the copepods from photodamage by visible light. Here a second example of carotenoid photoprotection involving the copepod Diaptomus kenai found in fresh-water mountain lakes is described. Information on the vertical distributions of D. sicilis and D. nevadensis in relation to their pigmentation is summarized, as these data will be presented elsewhere.

  18. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  19. Potential production of carotenoids from Neurospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PRIATNI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Priatni S. 2014. Review: Potential production of carotenoids from Neurospora. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 63-68. Carotenoids are abundant and widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. Commercial use of carotenoids competes between microorganisms and synthetic manufacture. Carotenoids production can be increased by improving the efficiency of carotenoid synthesis in microbes. Some of the cultural and environmental stimulants are positively affecting the carotenoid content of carotenogenic strains such as Neurospora. Neurospora is a fungus that exhibits the formation of spores and conidia, the part of the cell for carotenoids biosynthesis. The Indonesian traditional fermented food, red peanut cake or oncom, especially in West Java, is produced from legume residues of Neurospora sp. This fungus has been isolated and identified as Neurospora intermedia. In order to apply this pigment for food and cosmetic colorants, encapsulation techniques of carotenoids have been developed to improve its solubility and stability.

  20. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  1. Microalgae as Sources of Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Xavier Malcata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae constitute a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications—which encompass carotenoids, among others. A growing body of experimental evidence has confirmed that these compounds can play important roles in prevention (and even treatment of human diseases and health conditions, e.g., cancer, cardiovascular problems, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, cataracts and some neurological disorders. The underlying features that may account for such favorable biological activities are their intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral features. In this invited review, the most important issues regarding synthesis of carotenoids by microalgae are described and discussed—from both physiological and processing points of view. Current gaps of knowledge, as well as technological opportunities in the near future relating to this growing field of interest, are also put forward in a critical manner.

  2. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Watermelon contains lycopene, a red carotenoid pigment that has strong antioxidant properties. The lycopene content of watermelon is substantial, contributing 8-20 mg per 180 g serving. There are no reports on carotenoid changes in whole watermelon during storage. Three types of watermelon, open-pollinated seeded, hybrid seeded, and seedless types, were stored at 5, 13, and 21 degrees C for 14 days and flesh color, composition, and carotenoid content were compared to those of fruit not stored. Watermelons stored at 21 degrees C had increased pH, chroma, and carotenoid content compared to fresh fruit. Compared to fresh fruit, watermelons stored at 21 degrees C gained 11-40% in lycopene and 50-139% in beta-carotene, whereas fruit held at 13 degrees C changed little in carotenoid content. These results indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelons can be affected by temperature and storage. PMID:16881688

  3. Carotenoids content and sunlight susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An environmental pink pigmented bacterium was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Pigmentation mutants were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. Pigments present in the wild type strain (RMB90), in a pale yellow mutant (RMB91) and in two mutants exhibiting increased pigmentation (RMB92 and RMB93), were extracted with chloroform-methanol and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Survival of these strains after exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation from artificial sources was studied under different physiological and irradiation conditions. The ability of RMB91 to survive sunlight exposure was reduced with respect to that of RMB90. Resistance was similar in both strains when bacteria grew in the presence of a carotenoid synthesis inhibitor, which had no effect on survival of RMB91. Reduced sunlight resistance in RMB91 was also observed during irradiations under N2. Using artificial radiation sources, non pigmented bacteria were less resistant to UVA, but not to UVB or UVC. Lethal effects of sunlight and UVA on RMB92 and RMB93 were increased with respect to the wild type strain. Carotenoids protect Rhodococcus sp against deleterious effects of sunlight. In non-photosynthetic bacteria studied to date, photo protection by carotenoids was dependent on [O2]. This is not the case with Rhodococcus sp RMB90, suggesting the occurrence of a different mechanism for protection. UVA radiation seems to playa key role in photo-damage. (author)

  4. Allometric deviations of plasma carotenoids in raptors

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Guillermo; Bautista, Luis M.; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Lambertucci, Guillermo W.; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Because large species ingest proportionally less food than small ones, it may be predicted that they should incorporate relatively fewer carotenoids to a proportionally equal volume of blood. However, some species may increase their levels of circulating carotenoids by ingesting unusual food. We tested whether the plasma concentration of carotenoids scales to the three-quarter power of mass in nine predatory and scavenger raptor species. No significant allometric relationships were found due ...

  5. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  6. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  7. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-29

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  8. Fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ashokkumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In marine actinomycetes, carotenoid production occurs in constitutive, light-dependent or cryptic manner. The present work deals with the fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes."nMaterials and Methods: Marine actinomycetes namely Streptomyces strain AQBMM35 was isolated from the marine sponge Mycale mytilorum collected from South West coast of India using ISP media. The Streptomyces isolates were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. Fermentation of the strain under fluorescent white light was carried out for the production of carotenoids. UV spectrum, TLC and HPLC analysis were done for the confirmation of carotenoids."nResults: The characteristics studied strongly suggest that the strain AQBMM35 belongs to the genus Streptomyces sp. It has been found that Streptomyces strain (AQBMM35 fermenting under fluorescent white light produced carotenoids. Spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed a peak at 280 nm. TLC analysis of the carotenoid extract showed the presence of phytoene (Rf of 0.81. HPLC confirmed the production of phytoene when compared with standards."nConclusion: The fermenting sponge-associated Streptomyces isolate (AQBMM35 produced carotenoids namely phytoene. If this symbiotic Streptomyces strain, from which secondary metabolite like carotenoids are derived, can be cultured under light, then it can be used for mass production of precursor pigment and it can be used as an antioxidant and also as a food additive.

  9. Carotenóides: propriedades, aplicações e biotransformação para formação de compostos de aroma Carotenoids: properties, applications and biotransformation in flavor compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Uenojo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, providing yellow, orange or red color in a great number of vegetables, microorganisms and in some animals. Carotenoids act as biological antioxidants and seem to play an important role in human health by protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Several authors describe the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids in flavor compounds as occuring through chemical or photochemical degradations or through biotechnological processes. Biotransformation of carotenoids seems to be a reasonable alternative to produce flavor compounds since these compounds are considered 'natural' ingredients. In this work we describe the properties of some carotenoids, as well as biotechnological approaches to obtain its oxyfunctionalized derivatives.

  10. Excited-state properties of hydrophilic carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábera, P.; Naqvi, K.R.; Melo, T.B.; Sliwka, H.R.; Partali, V.; Lockwood, S.; Nodolski, G.; Polívka, Tomáš

    Nové Hrady : Academic and University Center, 2008. s. 40. [ESF Workshop on Novel Methods in Exploring Carotenoid Excited State Dynamics. 21.09.2008-25.09.2008, Nové Hrady] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * biophysics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Method of producing purified carotenoid compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, Laura (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of producing a carotenoid in solid form includes culturing a strain of Chlorophyta algae cells in a minimal inorganic medium and separating the algae comprising a solid form of carotenoid. In one embodiment f the invention, the strain of Chlorophyta algae cells includes a strain f Chlamydomonas algae cells.

  12. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...

  13. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  14. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functi

  15. Carotenoids exclusively synthesized in red pepper (capsanthin and capsorubin) protect human dermal fibroblasts against UVB induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Elisabet; Carvajal-Lérida, Irene; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    Photoprotection by dietary carotenoids has been linked to their antioxidant properties, in particular quenching of singlet molecular oxygen and scavenging of peroxyl radicals. Here, we compared the DNA-protection and antioxidant effects of selected carotenoids exclusively synthesized in red pepper (capsanthin and capsorubin) to the xanthophyll lutein. Preincubation of human dermal fibroblasts (hdf) with capsanthin and capsorubin significantly counteracted UVB induced cytotoxicity at doses between 0 and 300 mJ cm(-2). Pretreatment of hdf with capsanthin, capsorubin or lutein (1 μM) significantly decreased the formation of DNA strand breaks following irradiation with UVB light. All carotenoids studied decreased caspase-3 cleavage (a marker for UVB-induced apoptosis), however, caspase dependent PARP-1 cleavage was not affected suggesting that the remaining caspase activity is sufficient to promote UVB-induced apoptosis. It is conceivable that carotenoids selectively interfere with cellular responses activated by UVB-mediated damage. Our findings indicate that capsanthin and capsorubin exhibit similar properties to lutein and could be used as a dietary supplement to improve natural photoprotection. PMID:27537377

  16. Carotenoid Metabolism: Biosynthesis, Regulation,and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Lu; Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are Indispensable to plants and play a critical role in human nutrition and health. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of carotenoid metabolism in plants. The biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied.Nearly all the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes have been isolated and characterized from various organisms. In recent years, there is an increasing body of work on the signaling pathways and plastid development, which might provide global control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation. Herein, we will highlight recent progress on the biosynthesis,regulation, and metabolic engineering of carotenoids in plants, as well as the future research towards elucidating the regulatory mechanisms and metabolic network that control carotenoid metabolism.

  17. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47......% and 32%, respectively, of the mean intake of carotenoids of 4.8 mg/day A median value of 4.1 mg/day was found indicating skewed intake distributions. The difference between men and women was 0.4 mg/day (p carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, contributed...

  18. Structures and Analysis of Carotenoid Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2016-01-01

    Modifications of the usual C40 linear and symmetrical carotenoid skeleton give rise to a wide array of structures of carotenes and xanthophylls in plant tissues. These include acyclic, monocyclic and dicyclic carotenoids, along with hydroxy and epoxy xanthophylls and apocarotenoids. Carotenols can be unesterified or esterified (monoester) in one or two (diester) hydroxyl groups with fatty acids. E-Z isomerization increases the array of possible plant carotenoids even further. Screening and especially quantitative analysis are being carried out worldwide. Visible absorption spectrometry and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy have been used for the initial estimation of the total carotenoid content or the principal carotenoid content when large numbers of samples needed to be analyzed within a short time, as would be the case in breeding programs. Although inherently difficult, quantitative analysis of the individual carotenoids is essential. Knowledge of the sources of errors and means to avoid them has led to a large body of reliable quantitative compositional data on carotenoids. Reverse-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector has been the preferred analytical technique, but UHPLC is increasingly employed. HPLC-MS has been used mainly for identification and NMR has been useful in unequivocally identifying geometric isomers. PMID:27485219

  19. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloz, Miroslav [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pillai, Smitha [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Kodis, Gerdenis [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gust, Devens [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Thomas A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); van Grondelle, Rienk [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kennis, John T. M. [VU Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-14

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8-11 backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted investigation of the role of carotenoids in the quenching of excited states of cyclic tetrapyrroles. The transient behavior varied dramatically with the length of the carotenoid and the solvent environment. Clear spectroscopic signatures of radical species revealed photoinduced electron transfer as the main quenching mechanism for all dyads dissolved in a polar solvent (THF), and the quenching rate was almost independent of carotenoid length. However, in a nonpolar solvent (toluene), quenching rates displayed a strong dependence on the conjugation length of the carotenoid and the mechanism did not include charge separation. The lack of any rise time components of a carotenoid S1 signature in all experiments in toluene suggests that an excitonic coupling between the carotenoid S1 state and phthalocyanine Q state, rather than a conventional energy transfer process, is the major mechanism of quenching. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the system was observed and attributed to the presence of a phenyl-amino linker between phthalocyanine and carotenoids. On the basis of accumulated work on various caroteno-phthalocyanine dyads and triads, we have now identified three mechanisms of tetrapyrrole singlet excited state quenching by carotenoids in artificial systems: (i) Car-Pc electron transfer and recombination; (ii)1Pc to Car S1 energy transfer and fast internal conversion to the Car ground state; (iii) excitonic coupling between 1Pc and Car S1 and ensuing internal conversion to the ground state of the carotenoid. The dominant mechanism depends upon the exact molecular architecture and solvent environment

  20. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  2. Xanthophyll supplementation regulates carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Ji, Jun; Jin, Ling; Sun, Bao-Li; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Chang-Kang; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of xanthophylls (containing 40% lutein and 60% zeaxanthin; Juyuan Biochemical Co., Ltd., GuangZhou, China) on gene expression associated with carotenoid cleavage enzymes (β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, BCMO1; and β-carotene 9', 10'-dioxygenase, BCDO2) and retinoid metabolism (lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT) and STRA6) of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into 3 groups and fed diets supplemented with zero (as the control group), 20, or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at d 35 of the trial. Results showed that 40 mg/kg xanthophyll supplementation increased BCDO2 mRNA in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum; LRAT mRNA in the jejunum; and STRA6 mRNA in the liver, while it decreased LRAT mRNA in the liver. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from a zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed a diet containing either zero or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. The liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled at zero, 7, 14, and 21 d after hatching. Results showed that in ovo xanthophyll modulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly within one wk after hatching. The maternal effects gradually vanished and dietary effects began to work one to 2 wk after hatching. Dietary xanthophyll regulated carotenoid and retinoid metabolism mainly from 2 wk onward. The xanthophyll regulation of carotenoid and retinoid metabolism also revealed strong tissue specificity. In conclusion, xanthophyll supplementation could modulate carotenoid and retinoid metabolism in different tissues of hens and chicks. PMID:26574032

  3. The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Sanchez, V.

    2013-07-26

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving β-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted Δcao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the Δcao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products.

  4. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  5. Availability of non-carotenoid antioxidants affects the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual ornament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Blount, Jonathan D; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2007-08-22

    Carotenoids are responsible for much of the yellow, orange and red pigmentation in the animal kingdom, and the importance of such coloration as an honest signal of individual quality has received widespread attention. In particular, owing to the multiple roles of carotenoids as pigments, antioxidants and immunostimulants, carotenoid-based coloration has been suggested to advertise an individual's antioxidant or immune defence capacity. However, it has recently been argued that carotenoid-based signals may in fact be advertising the availability of different antioxidants, many of which (including various vitamins, antioxidant enzymes and minerals) are colourless and so would be uninformative as components of a visual signal, yet often have greater biological activity than carotenoids. We tested this hypothesis by feeding male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) a diet containing a fixed level of carotenoids and either low or high, but biologically realistic levels of the colourless antioxidant vitamins C and E. High-antioxidant diet males produced significantly more intensely coloured (but not larger) carotenoid-based regions of nuptial coloration and were preferred over size-matched males of the opposite diet treatment in mate-choice trials. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between an individual's somatic antioxidant activity and signal intensity. Our data suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments may honestly signal an individual's availability of non-carotenoid antioxidants, allowing females to make adaptive mate-choice decisions. PMID:17472903

  6. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between t...

  7. Excited-state properties of hydrophilic carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Chábera, P.; Naqvi, K.R.; Melo, T.B.; Sliwka, H.R.; Partali, V.; Lockwood, S.; Jackson, H.L.; Polívka, Tomáš

    - : -, 2009. s. 408. ISBN N. [International Conference on Photochemistry /24./. 19.07.2009-24.07.2009, Toledo] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited-state dynamics * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  8. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the dazzling diversity of colors displayed by living organisms throughout the tree of life is determined by the presence of carotenoids, which most often provide distinctive yellow, orange and red hues. These metabolites play fundamental roles in nature that extend far beyond their importance as pigments. In photosynthetic lineages, carotenoids are essential to sustain life, since they have been exploited to maximize light harvesting and protect the photosynthetic machinery from photooxidative stress. Consequently, photosynthetic organisms have evolved several mechanisms that adjust the carotenoid metabolism to efficiently cope with constantly fluctuating light environments. This chapter will focus on the current knowledge concerning the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in leaves, which are the primary photosynthetic organs of most land plants. PMID:27485221

  9. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

  10. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Cleavage behaviors in nuclear vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleavage behaviors of nuclear vessel steels in the transition temperature range are reviewed. Viewpoints are presented to assist understanding of cleavage crack speed, cleavage initiation, cleavage arrest, and the sensitivity of fracture toughness to constraint and temperature. The importance of high local stress elevations by high strain rate is emphasized. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 149

  12. Effect of carotenoid structure on excited state dynamics of carbonyl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábera, P.; Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Polívka, Tomáš

    Messina : Universitá di Messina, 2008. s. 53. [ESF Workshop on Ultrafast Excited-State Processes in Condensed Phases. 18.06.2008-21.06.2008, Santa Tecla] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * carotenoid structure Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. Heterologous Carotenoid-Biosynthetic Enzymes: Functional Complementation and Effects on Carotenoid Profiles in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Gyu Hyeon; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Choi, Bo Hyun; Han, Se Jong; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of carotenoid pathway genes from microbial sources have been studied for analyzing the pathway complementation in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. In order to systematically investigate the functionality of carotenoid pathway enzymes in E. coli, the pathway genes of carotenogenic microorganisms (Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopirellula baltica, and Pantoea ananatis) were modified to form syntheti...

  14. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between the carotenoid profile and the expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes is discussed. Finally, recent results of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of carotenoid contents and expression levels of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes in citrus fruit are shown. PMID:27069398

  15. Intrinsic transcript cleavage activity of RNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, M; Newlands, J; Das, A; Goldfarb, A; Borukhov, S

    1995-01-01

    The GreA and GreB transcript cleavage factors of Escherichia coli suppress elongation arrest and may have a proofreading role in transcription. With the use of E. coli greA-greB- mutant, RNA polymerase is demonstrated to possess substantial intrinsic transcript cleavage activity. Mildly alkaline pH mimics the effect of the Gre proteins by inducing transcript cleavage in ternary complexes and antagonizing elongation arrest through a cleavage-and-restart reaction. Thus, transcript cleavage cons...

  16. Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogareda, Carmina; Moreno, Jose A; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero, Manuel; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are health-promoting organic molecules that act as antioxidants and essential nutrients. We show that chickens raised on a diet enriched with an engineered corn variety containing very high levels of four key carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) are healthy and accumulate more bioavailable carotenoids in peripheral tissues, muscle, skin and fat, and more retinol in the liver, than birds fed on standard corn diets (including commercial corn supplemented with colour additives). Birds were challenged with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella and those on the high-carotenoid diet grew normally, suffered only mild disease symptoms (diarrhoea, footpad dermatitis and digital ulcers) and had lower faecal oocyst counts than birds on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid-rich corn maintains poultry health and increases the nutritional value of poultry products without the use of feed additives. PMID:25846059

  17. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  18. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puah C. Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of carotenoids from crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flow- through supercritical fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2, sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were investigated. The results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure. Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the extraction time but do not enhance the solubility. Palm carotenoids have very low solubility in SC-CO2 in the range of 1.31 x 10-4 g kg-1 to 1.58 x 10-3 g kg-1 for the conditions investigated in this study. The experimental data obtained were compared with those published by other workers and correlated by a density-based equation as proposed by Chrastil.

  19. Dietary carotenoids predict plumage coloration in wild house finches.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Geoffrey E.; Inouye, Caron Y; Montgomerie, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments are a widespread source of ornamental coloration in vertebrates and expression of carotenoid-based colour displays has been shown to serve as an important criterion in female mate choice in birds and fishes. Unlike other integumentary pigments, carotenoids cannot be synthesized; they must be ingested. Carotenoid-based coloration is condition-dependent and has been shown to be affected by both parasites and nutritional condition. A controversial hypothesis is that the expre...

  20. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Roberts, Warren

    2006-04-01

    The lycopene content of 50 commercial cultivars of seeded and seedless red-fleshed watermelons was determined. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (90 mg/kg fw). Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, ranging from 33 to 100 mg/kg. Most of the seeded hybrid cultivars had average lycopene contents. Sixteen of the 33 seedless types had lycopene contents in the high and very high ranges. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant carotenoid (84-97%) in all watermelon cultivars measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, but the germplasm differed in the relative amounts of cis-lycopene, beta-carotene, and phytofluene. Red-fleshed watermelon genotypes vary extensively in carotenoid content and offer opportunities for developing watermelons with specifically enhanced carotenoids. PMID:16569049

  1. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects

  2. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes assoc

  3. The fate of carotenoids in sediments: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Despite carotenoids being abundant natural products, there are only scattered literature reports of carotenoid derivatives (mainly in the form of their 'perhydro' derivatives) in ancient sediments and petroleum. This was thought to be due to the sensitivity of carotenoids toward oxygen and their pre

  4. Dehydrolutein: a metabolically derived carotenoid never observed in raptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David COSTANTINI; Vittorio BERTACCHE; Barbara PASTURA; Anthony TURK

    2009-01-01

    @@ Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments synthesised by photosynthetic organisms (Brush, 1990). Conversely, animals are incapable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo, and they must obtain them through their diet. However, some animal species are able to make some alterations to the basic chemical structure, converting ingested carotenoids into more oxidized and differently coloured forms (Schiedt, 1998).

  5. Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.; West, C.E.; Weststrate, J.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from vegetab

  6. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sac...

  7. Carotenoid-protein interaction alters the S1 energy of hydroxyechinenone in the Orange Carotenoid Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Chábera, P.; Kerfeld, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1827, č. 3 (2013), s. 248-254. ISSN 0005-2728 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : orange-carotenoid protein * excited states * photoprotection Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2013

  8. Sequence-Specific Ultrasonic Cleavage of DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Grokhovsky, Sergei L.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Golovkin, Michail V.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the phenomenon of ultrasonic cleavage of DNA by analyzing a large set of cleavage patterns of DNA restriction fragments using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cleavage intensity of individual phosphodiester bonds was found to depend on the nucleotide sequence and the position of the bond with respect to the ends of the fragment. The relative intensities of cleavage of the central phosphodiester bond in 16 dinucleotides and 256 tetranucleotides were determined by multiva...

  9. The carotenoid-continuum: carotenoid-based plumage ranges from conspicuous to cryptic and back again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are frequently used by birds to colour their plumage with green, yellow, orange or red hues, and carotenoid-based colours are considered honest signals of quality, although they may have other functions, such as crypsis. It is usually assumed that red through yellow colours have a signalling function while green is cryptic. Here we challenge this notion using the yellow and green colouration of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus, great tits (Parus major and greenfinches (Carduelis chloris as a model. Results The relationship between colouration (chroma, computed using visual sensitivities of conspecifics and detectability (contrast against natural backgrounds as perceived by conspecifics and avian predators followed a similar curvilinear pattern for yellow and green plumage with minimum detectability at intermediate levels of carotenoid deposition. Thus, for yellow and green plumage, colours at or close to the point of minimum detectability may aid in crypsis. This may be the case for blue and great tit green and yellow plumage, and greenfinch green plumage, all of which had comparably low levels of detectability, while greenfinch yellow plumage was more chromatic and detectable. As yellow and green blue tit colouration are strongly affected by carotenoid availability during moult, variation in pigment availability between habitats may affect the degree of background-matching or the costliness of producing cryptic plumage. Conclusions Increasing carotenoid-deposition in the integument does not always lead to more conspicuous colours. In some cases, such as in blue or great tits, carotenoid deposition may be selected through enhanced background-matching, which in turn suggests that producing cryptic plumage may entail costs. We stress however, that our data do not rule out a signalling function of carotenoid-based plumage in tits. Rather, it shows that alternative functions are plausible and that assuming a signalling

  10. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. PMID:26308012

  11. Biologically active polymers from spontaneous carotenoid oxidation: a new frontier in carotenoid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnston

    Full Text Available In animals carotenoids show biological activity unrelated to vitamin A that has been considered to arise directly from the behavior of the parent compound, particularly as an antioxidant. However, the very property that confers antioxidant activity on some carotenoids in plants also confers susceptibility to oxidative transformation. As an alternative, it has been suggested that carotenoid oxidative breakdown or metabolic products could be the actual agents of activity in animals. However, an important and neglected aspect of the behavior of the highly unsaturated carotenoids is their potential to undergo addition of oxygen to form copolymers. Recently we reported that spontaneous oxidation of ß-carotene transforms it into a product dominated by ß-carotene-oxygen copolymers. We now report that the polymeric product is biologically active. Results suggest an overall ability to prime innate immune function to more rapidly respond to subsequent microbial challenges. An underlying structural resemblance to sporopollenin, found in the outer shell of spores and pollen, may allow the polymer to modulate innate immune responses through interactions with the pattern recognition receptor system. Oxygen copolymer formation appears common to all carotenoids, is anticipated to be widespread, and the products may contribute to the health benefits of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables.

  12. Energy transfer from carotenoids to bacteriochlorophylls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, H.A.; Polívka, Tomáš

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2008 - (Hunter, C.; Daldal, F.; Thurnauer, M.; Beatty, J.), s. 218-230 ISBN 978-1-4020-8814-8. - (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. 28) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * Energy transfer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  13. Excited state properties of aryl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Chábera, P.; Župčanová, Anita; Hříbek, P.; Arellano, J.B.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 13 (2010), s. 3112-3120. ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited-states * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  14. Carotenoid excited states - beyond the standard model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš

    Göttingen : University of Göttingen, 2007. s. 25. [CERC3 Young Chemists Workshop "Time-resolved methods for studies of chemical reactions". 25.04.2007-27.04.2007, Göttingen] Keywords : Carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  15. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S2|S0) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  16. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    During the in situ extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated a

  17. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards ( Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  18. Centralspindlin in Rappaport's cleavage signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Cleavage furrow in animal cell cytokinesis is formed by cortical constriction driven by contraction of an actomyosin network activated by Rho GTPase. Although the role of the mitotic apparatus in furrow induction has been well established, there remain discussions about the detailed molecular mechanisms of the cleavage signaling. While experiments in large echinoderm embryos highlighted the role of astral microtubules, data in smaller cells indicate the role of central spindle. Centralspindlin is a constitutive heterotetramer of MKLP1 kinesin and the non-motor CYK4 subunit and plays crucial roles in formation of the central spindle and recruitment of the downstream cytokinesis factors including ECT2, the major activator of Rho during cytokinesis, to the site of division. Recent reports have revealed a role of this centralspindlin-ECT2 pathway in furrow induction both by the central spindle and by the astral microtubules. Here, a unified view of the stimulation of cortical contractility by this pathway is discussed. Cytokinesis, the division of the whole cytoplasm, is an essential process for cell proliferation and embryonic development. In animal cells, cytokinesis is executed using a contractile network of actin filaments driven by a myosin-II motor that constricts the cell cortex (cleavage furrow ingression) into a narrow channel between the two daughter cells, which is resolved by scission (abscission) [1-3]. The anaphase-specific organization of the mitotic apparatus (MA, spindle with chromosomes plus asters) positions the cleavage furrow and plays a major role in spatial coupling between mitosis and cytokinesis [4-6]. The nucleus and chromosomes are dispensable for furrow specification [7-10], although they contribute to persistent furrowing and robust completion in some cell types [11,12]. Likewise, centrosomes are not essential for cytokinesis, but they contribute to the general fidelity of cell division [10,13-15]. Here, classical models of cleavage furrow

  19. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomey Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration.

  20. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123

  1. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  2. Evidence of Epigenetic Mechanisms Affecting Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Jacobo; Beltrán, Jesús; Nuñez, Jonathan; Chavarriaga, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are able to regulate plant development by generating non-Mendelian allelic interactions. An example of these are the responses to environmenal stimuli that result in phenotypic variability and transgression amongst important crop traits. The need to predict phenotypes from genotypes to understand the molecular basis of the genotype-by-environment interaction is a research priority. Today, with the recent discoveries in the field of epigenetics, this challenge goes beyond analyzing how DNA sequences change. Here we review examples of epigenetic regulation of genes involved in carotenoid synthesis and degradation, cases in which histone- and/or DNA-methylation, and RNA silencing at the posttranscriptional level affect carotenoids in plants. PMID:27485227

  3. Macular and serum carotenoid concentrations in patients with malabsorption syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew S; Zhao, Da You; Bernstein, Paul S

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are believed to protect the human macula by absorbing blue light and quenching free radicals. Intestinal malabsorption syndromes such as celiac and Crohn's disease are known to cause deficiencies of lipid-soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that subjects with nutrient malabsorption syndromes will demonstrate lower carotenoid levels in the macula and blood, and that these lower levels may correlate with early-onset maculopathy. Resonance Raman spectrographic (RRS) measurements of macular carotenoid levels were collected from subjects with and without a history of malabsorption syndromes. Carotenoids were extracted from serum and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subjects with malabsorption (n = 22) had 37% lower levels of macular carotenoids on average versus controls (n = 25, P maculopathy were not observed. We conclude that intestinal malabsorption results in lower macular carotenoid levels. PMID:19081745

  4. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  5. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevičius, Vytautas; Abramavicius, Darius; Polívka, Tomáš; Galestian Pour, Arpa; Hauer, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  6. Study of transitory forms of carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explain the biological role of the carotenoids their transitory forms were studied with an apparatus measuring the small (∼10-3) short-lived (100 ns to 1 ms) optical density variations obtained by excitation with a ruby laser. Two forms were studied: a) Triplet state 3Car. - This state (t1/2∼6 μs) is obtained not by direct excitation but by T-T energy transfer from chlorophyll, in different media (chloroplasts, pigments in solution or in micelle). Two arguments can be advanced to explain in terms of triplet energy transfer an essential biological role of carotenoids, protection against photodynamic effects: - the energy level of 3Car is lower than that of the singlet of oxygen; - in vivo the T-T transfer from chlorophyll to the carotenoids is very fast: 30 ns.. b) Radical cation Car+. - This form is obtained by electron transfer from carotene to the triplet of Toluidine Blue, in ethanol. Car+ (t1/2∼200 μs) shows a strong absorption band at 910 nm. The properties of Car+ are discussed in relation to other polyene derivatives and to hydrocarbon ions. Car+ could be involved in certain biological electron transfers. (author)

  7. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged. ...

  8. Structure of the principal carotenoid pigment of Cellulomonas biazotea.

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, O B; Montes, A R; Andrewes, A G

    1980-01-01

    The yellow-pigmented Cellulomonas biazotea, ATCC 486, contains a mixture of carotenoids. The principal compound is a decapreno carotenoid (C50H72O2) tentatively characterized as 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-gamma,gamma-carotene on the basis of electronic absorption, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometries. The carotenoid is presumed to be identical to sarcinaxanthin from Sarcina lutea pro-synon. Micrococcus luteus and, therefore, is isomeric with decaprenoxanthi...

  9. Dietary carotenoids in normal and pathological tissues of corpus uteri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Wołczyński

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids and retinyl esters are the source of vitamin A in the human body and its natural derivatives takes part in the regulation of cell replication and differentiation in the human endometrium, may induce the leiomyoma growth and has a role in differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the presence of carotenoids in tissues from the normal uterus and from various tumors of the uterine corpus, as well as to compare the total content, major carotenoids and % of carotenoids belonging to the provitamin A group between the tissues examined. Using three independent methods of chromatography (CC, TLC, HPLC we analysed 140 human samples. We identified 13 carotenoids belonging to the eg. provitamin A group and epoxy carotenoids. In all the samples beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin were isolated. In normal tissues, the mean carotenoid content was the highest in the follicular phase endometrium (9.9 microg/g, while the highest percentage of carotenoids belonging to provitamin A group was found in the luteal phase (18.2%. In the pathological group, the highest mean values were demonstrated for epithelial lesions (8.0 microg/g, and within this group - in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (10.8 microg/g. In both groups, violaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein epoxide and mutatoxanthin were the predominant carotenoids. We have demonstrated that all uterine tissues show a concentration of beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, being the source of vitamin A. The highest total values of carotenoids obtained in the group of endometrioid adenocarcinoma seem to confirm certain enzymatic defects in carotenoid metabolism in the course of the neoplastic process or some metabolic modifications. The finding of astaxanthin - the major antioxidant among carotenoids - in 63% of tissues examined is also significant.

  10. Kinetics of hairpin ribozyme cleavage in yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Donahue, C P; Fedor, M J

    1997-01-01

    Hairpin ribozymes catalyze a self-cleavage reaction that provides a simple model for quantitative analyses of intracellular mechanisms of RNA catalysis. Decay rates of chimeric mRNAs containing self-cleaving ribozymes give a direct measure of intracellular cleavage kinetics in yeast. Intracellular ribozyme-mediated cleavage occurs at similar rates and shows similar inhibition by ribozyme mutations as ribozyme-mediated reactions in vitro, but only when ribozymes are located in a favorable mRNA...

  11. Specific appetite for carotenoids in a colorful bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Senar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since carotenoids have physiological functions necessary for maintaining health, individuals should be selected to actively seek and develop a specific appetite for these compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Great tits Parus major in a diet choice experiment, both in captivity and the field, preferred carotenoid-enriched diets to control diets. The food items did not differ in any other aspects measured besides carotenoid content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific appetite for carotenoids is here demonstrated for the first time, placing these compounds on a par with essential nutrients as sodium or calcium.

  12. Carboidratos e carotenoides totais em duas variedades de mangarito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sato Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de carboidratos e carotenoides em rizomas mãe e filhos das variedades de mangarito (Xanthosoma riedelianum pequeno e gigante. Amostras dos rizomas coletadas ao longo do ciclo cultural e após 90 dias de armazenamento foram avaliadas quanto aos teores de carboidratos e carotenoides totais. Os rizomas apresentaram aumento no teor de carboidratos, e o rizoma-mãe da variedade pequeno apresentou acréscimos lineares no teor de carotenoides, ao longo do cultivo. O armazenamento reduz os teores de carboidratos e de carotenoides totais em todos os rizomas.

  13. Cyclisation and aromatisation of carotenoids during sediment diagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Koster, J; Baas, M.; Koopmans, M.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; Geenevasen, J.A.J.; Kruk, C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel diaryl isoprenoid with an additional aromatic ring, formed from the diaromatic carotenoid isorenieratene by cyclisation and aromatisation during sediment diagenesis, is identified in carbonaceous sedimentary rocks.

  14. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa: comparative genomic analysis, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms. Despite much research on carotenoid biosynthesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there is a lack of information on the carotenoid pathway in Brassica rapa. To better understand its carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, we performed a systematic analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes at the genome level in B. rapa. Results We identified 67 carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa, which were ort...

  15. Cleavage speed and implantation potential of early-cleavage embryos in IVF or ICSI cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meng-Ju; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Lin, Ming-Huei; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether there is a correlation among early embryo cleavage, speed of cleavage, and implantation potential for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective study examined 112 cycles of IVF and 82 cycles of ICSI in patients less than 40 years of age. Early cleavage was defined as embryonic mitosis occurring 25–27 h after insemination. These day-3 embryos were then grouped according to cleavage speed (rapid, normal, and slow) ...

  16. Pre-mRNA 3’ Cleavage is Reversibly Inhibited In Vitro by Cleavage Factor Dephosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    During 3' end formation most pre-mRNAs undergo endonucleolytic cleavage and polyadenylation in the 3' untranslated region. Very little is known concerning the role that post-translational modifications play in the function and regulation of the factors required for 3' cleavage. Using the reconstituted pre-mRNA cleavage reaction, we find that non-specific dephosphorylation of HeLa cell nuclear extract leads to the loss of 3' cleavage activity. A variety of serine/threonine phosphatases inhibit...

  17. Effect of carotenoid structure on excited-state dynamics of carbonyl carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chábera, P.; Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2009), s. 8795-8703. ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : excited-state dynamics * carbonyl carotenoids * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2009

  18. Fracto—emissions in Catastrophic Cleavage Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HonglaiTAN; WeiYANG

    1996-01-01

    Fracto-emissions accompanying crack propagation are observed in the recent experiments.The energy impulses during and after fracture stimulate the fracto-emissions.Model concerning atomic scale cleavage processes is proposed to formulate a catastrophic fracure theory relevant to these phenomena.A criterion for catastrophic jump of the cleavage potential is applied to representative crystals.

  19. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ω70 promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs

  20. The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus, we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5-1.5 µg/retina, but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific

  1. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  2. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov–Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage. (paper)

  3. Genotype and Environment Effects on Carotenoid Content of Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are secondary plant metabolites in vegetables reported to confer various positive health-promoting effects when consumed. Brassica oleracea L. vegetables are recognized as excellent sources of dietary carotenoids. Broccoli has emerged as the most important B. oleracea crop in the US an...

  4. Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in winter squash during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...

  5. Chemical and Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoids and Related Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Lutnæs, Bjart Frode

    2004-01-01

    Structure elucidation of charge delocalised carotenoid mono- and dications by NMR and VIS/NIR spectroscopy. Studies of the nucleophilic reactions of these cations. Studies of the β,β-carotene-iodine complex. Isolation and anmalysis of new carotenoid glucoside esters from extremophilic bacteria.

  6. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged. Results: Alcalase extraction produced (234.00±2.00 mg/L carotenoid and NaOH extraction produced (170.00±1.53 mg/L carotenoid. Based on the samples analyzed, alcalase enzyme showed more efficiency than NaOH extraction to achieve carotenoids from shrimp waste. Conclusions: It can be concluded that using alcalase enzyme for carotenoids extraction can produce higher carotenoids concentration than NaOH extraction method. So alcalase enzyme method can be used for achieving this kind of antioxidant.

  7. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  8. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health. PMID:27485228

  9. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki; Parisa Sadighara; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mahmood Alimohammadi; Naiema Vakili Saatloo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal) treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged.Results:Alcalase extraction produced (234.00±2.00) mg/L carotenoid and NaOH extraction produced (170.00±1.53) mg/L carotenoid. Based on the samples analyzed, alcalase enzyme showed more efficiency than NaOH extraction to achieve carotenoids from shrimp waste.Conclusions:It can be concluded that using alcalase enzyme for carotenoids extraction can produce higher carotenoids concentration than NaOH extraction method. So alcalase enzyme method can be used for achieving this kind of antioxidant.

  10. Importancia nutricional de los pigmentos carotenoides

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez Martínez, Antonio Jesús; Vicario Romero, Isabel; Heredia Mira, Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Los pigmentos carotenoides son compuestos responsables de la coloración de gran número de alimentos vegetales y animales, como zanahorias, zumo de naranja, tomates, salmón y yema del huevo. Desde hace muchos años, se sabe que algunos de estos compuestos, como a y b-caroteno, así como la b-criptoxantina, son provitaminas A. No obstante, estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto las propiedades antioxidantes de estos pigmentos, así como su eficacia en la prevención de ciertas enfermedades del...

  11. Carotenoids and health signalling in animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Svobodová, J.; Maršík, Petr; Albrecht, Tomáš

    Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, 2011 - (Yamaguchi, M.), s. 189-234 ISBN 978-1-61209-713-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GAP505/10/1871; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : carotenoids * condition * diseases * health * ornamentation * oxidative stress * parasites * sexual signalling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=22091

  12. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT and...... detection at 450 nm. Food intakes were estimated by the national dietary surveys (1995) from 7 days' food registration (n = 1837 adults), which allows the whole diet to be described by the mean intake and intake distribution of 207 raw or semiprepared foods. By multiplication with the mean content in the...

  13. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  14. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Sakagami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.

  15. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Plants: Enzymes and Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Saavedra, Carolina; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most important biocolor isoprenoids responsible for yellow, orange and red colors found in nature. In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. Carotenoids also play important roles in human health and nutrition acting as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Biochemical and biophysical approaches in different plants models have provided significant advances in understanding the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in plants as well as the key points of regulation in their biosynthesis. To date, different plant models have been used to characterize the key genes and their regulation, which has increased the knowledge of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in plants. In this chapter a description of each step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway is presented and discussed. PMID:27485218

  16. On the role of labile oxocomplexes in carotenoids antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early stages of the interaction of carotenoids and molecular oxygen are studied and role of its interaction in the processes responsible for radiation resistance of carotenoids, superoxide dismutase activity to the singlet oxygen quenching. Ethanol and aqueous solutions of the carotenoids (phosphate buffer with pH 7.5) were exposed to accelerated electron flux at pulse regime and dose rate (0.7-2.0)x1017 eV/ml imp in the dark and in case of combined effect of radiation and light. It is concluded that at the early stages of processes with the participation of carotenoids the formation of reversible complexes with charge transfer plays the important role. Properties and reaction capability of these complexes are determined by the peculiarities in chemical structure of carotenoid molecules

  17. Variation in Content of Carotenoids and Vitamin C in Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MATĚJKOVÁ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrots are the most popular and wide-spread of all root vegetables, and are the principal source of carotenoids in human diet. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between cultivars and the effect of storage regarding the carotenoid and vitamin C content in carrots. Six carrot cultivars were used in this study, ranging from early to late ones. Observed carotenoid content ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 134 mg kg-1. Significantly higher levels of carotenoids were found in late and moderately late cultivars in comparison to early ones. Vitamin C content in these cultivars ranged from 54 mg kg-1 to 132 mg kg-1. Significantly higher contents of vitamin C were also found in the late cultivars. 30-day storage resulted in a significant reduction in vitamin C content, on average of 47%. There was also a reduction in the carotenoids content, but to a lesser extent, on average of 11%.

  18. Experiments on schistosity and slaty cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George Ferdinand

    1904-01-01

    Schistosity as a structure is important, and it is a part of the business of geologists to explain its origin. Slaty cleavage has further and greater importance as a possible tectonic feature. Scarcely a great mountain range exists, or has existed, along the course of which belts of slaty rock are not found, the dip of the cleavage usually approaching verticality. Are these slate belts equivalent to minutely distributed step faults of great total throw, or do they indicate compression perpendicular to the cleavage without attendant relative dislocation? Evidently the answer to this question is of first importance in the interpretation of orogenic phenomena.

  19. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  20. Raman measurement of carotenoid composition in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2004-07-01

    The carotenoids lycopene and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants in skin and are thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and singlet oxygen. The role of carotenoid species in skin health is of strong current interest. We demonstrate the possibility to use Resonance Raman spectroscopy for fast, non-invasive, highly specific, and quantitative detection of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue and green laser excitation, we were able to characterize quantitatively the relative concentrations of each carotenoid species in-vivo. In the selective detection, we take advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profiles for beta-carotene and lycopene molecules, and obtain a quantitative assessment of individual long-chain carotenoid species in the skin rather than their cumulative levels. Preliminary dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects. The technique holds promise for rapid screening of carotenoid compositions in human skin in large populations and may be suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  1. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. PMID:26446559

  2. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway: thinking in all dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumskaya, Maria; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2013-07-01

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway serves manifold roles in plants related to photosynthesis, photoprotection, development, stress hormones, and various volatiles and signaling apocarotenoids. The pathway also produces compounds that impact human nutrition and metabolic products that contribute to fragrance and flavor of food and non-food crops. It is no surprise that the pathway has been a target of metabolic engineering, most prominently in the case of Golden Rice. The future success and predictability of metabolic engineering of carotenoids rests in the ability to target carotenoids for specific physiological purposes as well as to simultaneously modify carotenoids along with other desired traits. Here, we ask whether predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway is indeed possible. Despite a long history of research on the pathway, at this point in time we can only describe the pathway as a parts list and have almost no knowledge of the location of the complete pathway, how it is assembled, and whether there exists any trafficking of the enzymes or the carotenoids themselves. We discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the "complete" pathway and make the argument that predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway (and other pathways) will require investigation of the three dimensional state of the pathway as it may exist in plastids of different ultrastructures. Along with this message we point out the need to develop new types of visualization tools and resources that better reflect the dynamic nature of biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23683930

  3. The Capability of Rhodotorula slooffiae to Produce Carotenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sadat Naghavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhodotorula is characterized by the absence of ballistoconidia, fermentation ability, and starch-like compounds. Biology of the species is not well-identified; therefore molecular identification is required. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region can be used for the identification of the majority of Basidiomycetous species. Carotenoids which are natural pigments can be synthesized by some genera of yeasts such as Rhodotorula. The increase of demand for carotenoids obtained from natural sources has promoted major efforts to recognize potential microbial sources. The aims of this study were to identify a strain isolated from leather wastewater and to investigate its carotenoid production ability. The effect of 2 different medium (Semi-synthetic medium (MMS and yeast malt extract medium (YM on biomass and carotenoid production was studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region in addition to morphological and biochemical characterization to identify the strain was carried out. To isolate the carotenoid pigment, cells were suspended in acetone and broken using a homogenizer, followed by centrifugation and supernatant was separated; thus pigments were measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nM using the extinction coefficient E1%450=2500. Results: Identification processes represented strain SG006 as a Rhodotorula slooffiae. The sequence was deposited in the Gene Bank database with accession number JX997835. The results showed that SG006 are able to produce carotenoid and MMS medium promoted carotenoid production. Conclusion: We found that Rhodotorula slooffiae showed the ability to produce carotenoid. However, further work is needed to optimize of the amount of product and to characterize the carotenoids.

  4. Cleavage site analysis in picornaviral polyproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Nikolaj; Hansen, Jan; Blaas, Dieter;

    1996-01-01

    Picornaviral proteinases are responsible for maturation cleavages of the viral polyprotein, but also catalyze the degradation of cellular targets. Using graphical visualization techniques and neural network algorithms, we have investigated the sequence specificity of the two proteinases 2Apro and 3......Cpro. The cleavage of VP0 (giving rise to VP2 and VP4), which is carried out by a so-far unknown proteinase, was also examined. In combination with a novel surface exposure prediction algorithm, our neural network approach successfully distinguishes known cleavage sites from nocleavage sites and yields...... a more consistent definition of features common to these sites. The method is able to predict experimentally determined cleavage sites in cellular proteins. We present a list of mammalian and other proteins that are predicted to be possible targets for the viral proteinases. Whether these proteins...

  5. Centrosomes: CNN's Broadcast Reaches the Cleavage Furrow

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, William

    2009-01-01

    Centrosomin (CNN), a core Drosophila centrosome protein, interacts with the newly identified protein Centrocortin to promote cleavage furrow formation in the early embryo. Significantly, this activity is distinct from CNN's well-established role in centrosome-based microtubule organization.

  6. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2010), s. 19-28. ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/08/1281 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carotenoids * Ornamentation * Oxidative stress * Testosterone * Trade-off Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.250, year: 2010

  7. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Chonglong Wang; Jung-Hun Kim; Seon-Won Kim

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production ...

  8. Potential implications for epigenetic regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during root and shoot development

    OpenAIRE

    Cazzonelli, Christopher Ian; Yin, Kuide; Pogson, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    Major regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis have remained rather elusive even though the flux through the branch in the carotenoid pathway can affect plant development in response to environmental stimuli, such as light. Our recent investigations demonstrated that the production of the most abundant carotenoid in plants, lutein, is regulated by carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) activity at a rate-limiting step of this branch point in carotenoid biosynthesis. CRTISO is required to isomerase cis-ca...

  9. Carboidratos e carotenoides totais em duas variedades de mangarito

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Sato Ferreira; Mário Puiatti; Ariana Mota Pereira; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Aline da Silva Bhering; Teresa Drummond Correia Mendes

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de carboidratos e carotenoides em rizomas mãe e filhos das variedades de mangarito (Xanthosoma riedelianum) pequeno e gigante. Amostras dos rizomas coletadas ao longo do ciclo cultural e após 90 dias de armazenamento foram avaliadas quanto aos teores de carboidratos e carotenoides totais. Os rizomas apresentaram aumento no teor de carboidratos, e o rizoma-mãe da variedade pequeno apresentou acréscimos lineares no teor de carotenoides, ao long...

  10. Cloning and Characterization of a Lycium chinense Carotenoid Isomerase Gene Enhancing Carotenoid Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招娣; 季静; 王罡

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid isomerase(CRTISO)is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-lycopene to all-trans lycopene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the CRTISO gene from Lycium chinense (LcCRTISO) for the first time. The open reading frame of LcCRTISO was 1 815 bp encoding a protein of 604 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66.24 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the LcCRTISO had a high level of simi-larity to other CRTISO. Phylogenetic analysis displayed that LcCRTISO kept a closer relationship with the CRTISO of plants than with those of other species. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that LcCRTISO gene was expressed in all tissues tested with the highest expression in maturing fruits. The overexpression of LcCRTISO gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase of total carotenoids in the leaves withβ-carotene and lutein being the predominants. The results obtained here clearly suggested that the LcCRTISO gene was a promising candidate for carotenoid production.

  11. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  12. Macular carotenoids and age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Eamonn; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John; Au Eong, Kah-Guan; Beatty, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are concentrated at the macula, where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP), and where they are believed to play a major role in protecting retinal tissues against oxidative stress. Whilst the exact pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy (ARM) remains unknown, the disruption of cellular processes by oxidative stress may play an important role. Manipulation of dietary intake of L and Z has been shown to augment MP, thereby raising hopes that dietary supplementation with these carotenoids might prevent, delay, or modify the course of ARM. This article discusses the scientific rationale supporting the hypothesis that L and Z are protective against ARM, and presents the recent evidence germane to this theory. PMID:17160199

  13. Introduction of new carotenoids into the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus by combining the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways of Erwinia herbicola and Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, C N; Hundle, B S; Hearst, J E; Lang, H.P.; Gardiner, A.T.; Takaichi, S; Cogdell, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Carotenoids have two major functions in bacterial photosynthesis, photoprotection and accessory light harvesting. The genes encoding many carotenoid biosynthetic pathways have now been mapped and cloned in several different species, and the availability of cloned genes which encode the biosynthesis of carotenoids not found in the photosynthetic genus Rhodobacter opens up the possibility of introducing a wider range of foreign carotenoids into the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus than would ...

  14. Regulation of orange carotenoid protein activity in cyanobacterial photoprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurotte, A.; Lopez Igual, R.; Wilson, A.; Comolet, L.; Bourcier de Carbon, C.; Xiao, F.; Kirilovsky, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism.

  15. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Yueming Jiang; Amin Ismail; Kin-Weng Kong; Hock-Eng Khoo; K. Nagendra Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables d...

  16. Biochemical Study on the Carotenoids in the Anemonefish, Amphiprion spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Atsushi; KAMATA, Tadashi; Simpson, Kenneth L.; タナカ, ヨシト; ヤマモト, アツシ; カマタ, タダシ; 田中, 淑人; 山本, 任; 釜田, 忠; シンプソン, ケネス L.

    1992-01-01

    The carotenoid compositions of four species of wild anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, A. biacleatus, A. frenatus and A. clarkii, were analyzed. Alltrans-zeaxanthin was found to be a dominant pigment followed by cis-isomers of zeaxanthin in all four species of anemonefish. Astaxanthin was also isolated as a major carotenoid in these species except A. clarkii, in which no astaxanthin was detected. Astaxanthin, however, was isolated from the eggs of A. clarkii. A feeding experiment was co...

  17. Macular and serum carotenoid concentrations in patients with malabsorption syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Matthew S.; Zhao, Da You; Bernstein, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are believed to protect the human macula by absorbing blue light and quenching free radicals. Intestinal malabsorption syndromes such as celiac and Crohn’s disease are known to cause deficiencies of lipid-soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that subjects with nutrient malabsorption syndromes will demonstrate lower carotenoid levels in the macula and blood, and that these lower levels may correlate with early-onset maculopathy. Resonance Raman spectrographi...

  18. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alessandra Gammone; Graziano Riccioni; Nicolantonio D'Orazio

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus,...

  19. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tünde N; Chukhutsina, Volha; Domonkos, Ildikó; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, Mihály; Lénárt, Zsófia; Garab, Győző; Kovács, László; Gombos, Zoltán; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are important for light harvesting, photoprotection and structural stability of a variety of pigment-protein complexes. Here, we investigated the consequences of altered carotenoid composition for the functional organization of photosynthetic complexes in wild-type and various mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Although it is generally accepted that xanthophylls do not play a role in cyanobacterial photosynthesis in low-light conditions, we have found that the absence of xanthophylls leads to reduced oligomerization of photosystems I and II. This is remarkable because these complexes do not bind xanthophylls. Oligomerization is even more disturbed in crtH mutant cells, which show limited carotenoid synthesis; in these cells also the phycobilisomes are distorted despite the fact that these extramembranous light-harvesting complexes do not contain carotenoids. The number of phycocyanin rods connected to the phycobilisome core is strongly reduced leading to high amounts of unattached phycocyanin units. In the absence of carotenoids the overall organization of the thylakoid membranes is disturbed: Photosystem II is not formed, photosystem I hardly oligomerizes and the assembly of phycobilisomes remains incomplete. These data underline the importance of carotenoids in the structural and functional organization of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic machinery. PMID:26045333

  20. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Does Cleavage Work at Work? Men, but Not Women, Falsely Believe Cleavage Sells a Weak Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Chrislock, Karyna; Petersik, Korinne; Vijay, Madhuri; Turek, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly…

  2. Triplet excited state spectra and dynamics of carotenoids from the thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-13

    Light-harvesting complex 2 from the anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements show that carotenoids play a negligible role as supportive energy donors and transfer excitation to bacteriochlorophyll-a with low energy transfer efficiency of ~30%. HPLC analysis determined that the dominant carotenoids in the complex are rhodopin and spirilloxanthin. Carotenoid excited triplet state formation upon direct (carotenoid) or indirect (bacteriochlorophyll-a Q{sub x} band) excitation shows that carotenoid triplets are mostly localized on spirilloxanthin. In addition, no triplet excitation transfer between carotenoids was observed. Such specific carotenoid composition and spectroscopic results strongly suggest that this organism optimized carotenoid composition in the light-harvesting complex 2 in order to maximize photoprotective capabilities of carotenoids but subsequently drastically suppressed their supporting role in light-harvesting process.

  3. Spectroscopic properties of the carotenoid 3´-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kerfeld, C.A.; Pascher, T.; Sundström, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2007), s. 3994-4003. ISSN 0006-2960 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * Spectroscopic properties Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2007

  4. Selective cleavage of pepsin by molybdenum metallopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yenjai, Sudarat; Malaikaew, Pinpinat; Liwporncharoenvong, Teerayuth [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Buranaprapuk, Apinya, E-mail: apinyac@swu.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2012-03-02

    Graphical abstract: Molybdenum metallopeptidase: the Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations has the ability to cleave protein under mild conditions (37 Degree-Sign C, pH 7) without reducing agents. The reaction required only low concentration of ammonium heptamolybdatetetrahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) (0.125 mM). The reaction undergoes possibly via a hydrolytic mechanism. This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a molybdenum cluster. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cleavage reaction undergoes at mild conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No need of reducing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only low concentration of Mo(VI) cluster and short time of incubation are needed. -- Abstract: In this study, the cleavage of protein by molybdenum cluster is reported for the first time. The protein target used is porcine pepsin. The data presented in this study show that pepsin is cleaved to at least three fragments with molecular weights of {approx}23, {approx}19 and {approx}16 kDa when the mixture of the protein and ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) was incubated at 37 Degree-Sign C for 24 h. No self cleavage of pepsin occurs at 37 Degree-Sign C, 24 h indicating that the reaction is mediated by the metal ions. N-terminal sequencing of the peptide fragments indicated three cleavage sites of pepsin between Leu 112-Tyr 113, Leu 166-Leu 167 and Leu 178-Asn 179. The cleavage reaction occurs after incubation of the mixture of pepsin and (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O) only for 2 h. However, the specificity of the cleavage decreases when incubation time is longer than 48 h. The mechanism for cleavage of pepsin is expected to be hydrolytic chemistry of the amide bonds in the protein

  5. Selective cleavage of pepsin by molybdenum metallopeptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Molybdenum metallopeptidase: the Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations has the ability to cleave protein under mild conditions (37 °C, pH 7) without reducing agents. The reaction required only low concentration of ammonium heptamolybdatetetrahydrate ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) (0.125 mM). The reaction undergoes possibly via a hydrolytic mechanism. This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a molybdenum cluster. Highlights: ► This is the first demonstration of protein cleavage by a Mo(VI) cluster with six molybdenum cations. ► The cleavage reaction undergoes at mild conditions. ► No need of reducing agents. ► Only low concentration of Mo(VI) cluster and short time of incubation are needed. -- Abstract: In this study, the cleavage of protein by molybdenum cluster is reported for the first time. The protein target used is porcine pepsin. The data presented in this study show that pepsin is cleaved to at least three fragments with molecular weights of ∼23, ∼19 and ∼16 kDa when the mixture of the protein and ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) was incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. No self cleavage of pepsin occurs at 37 °C, 24 h indicating that the reaction is mediated by the metal ions. N-terminal sequencing of the peptide fragments indicated three cleavage sites of pepsin between Leu 112-Tyr 113, Leu 166-Leu 167 and Leu 178-Asn 179. The cleavage reaction occurs after incubation of the mixture of pepsin and (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) only for 2 h. However, the specificity of the cleavage decreases when incubation time is longer than 48 h. The mechanism for cleavage of pepsin is expected to be hydrolytic chemistry of the amide bonds in the protein backbone.

  6. Diversity, physiology, and evolution of avian plumage carotenoids and the role of carotenoid-protein interactions in plumage color appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFountain, Amy M; Prum, Richard O; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    The diversity of vibrant plumage colors in birds has evolved as a direct result of social and environmental pressures. To fully understand these underlying pressures it is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms for the creation of novel plumage colors which include the metabolic transformations of dietary carotenoids and spectral tuning of the molecules within the feather protein environment. Recent advances in this field have greatly expanded the number and breadth of avian species for which plumage pigmentation has been characterized, making it possible to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of carotenoid usage in plumage. Resonance Raman and classical Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed with great effect in the study of carotenoids in situ. The application of these methods have two benefits: to identify carotenoids in feathers that are unavailable for destructive sampling; and to study the spectral tuning resulting from the interaction between the carotenoids and the proteins to which they are bound. This review presents a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the molecular factors controlling the coloration of avian carotenoid plumage obtained through the application of both bioanalytical and spectroscopic methodologies. PMID:25637658

  7. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS

  8. Eurosceptism: the Birth of a New Cleavage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Viviani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Euroscepticism is an ambivalent and polysemic concept, consisting of the theme of the European identity, the construction of European Union as new polity, the development of an opposition as expression of new social cleavage, and finally the perspective of an ideological politicization of the european integration by national and supranational political actors. The article attempts to make light on the nature and on the dynamics of development of the euroscepticism through a sequence of analysis that starts from the identity of Europe (what we mean by euroscepticism, then addresses the social dimension of Europe (what we mean by the new european cleavage, and it finally examines the political dimension (the risks and opportunities of politicization by political parties of the european cleavage.

  9. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina;

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  10. Cleavage of cytoplasm within the oligonucleate zoosporangia of allomyces macrogynus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yunjeong; Song, Youngsun; Kim, Namhun; Youn, Hyunjoo; Kang, Minkook; Song, Yurim; Cho, Chungwon

    2014-01-01

    Allomyces macrogynus produces zoosporangia that discharge uninucleate zoospores after cleavage of multinucleate cytoplasm. Cleavage of cytoplasm within the oligonucleate zoosporangia of A. macrogynus was visualized by constructing three-dimensional models based on electron micrographs and confocal images. In oligonucleate zoosporangia, three adjacent nuclei can form three cleavage planes with a line of intersection of the planes. The position and boundary of the cleavage planes are thought to be determined by the relative positions of the nuclei. The establishment of three cleavage planes by cleavage membranes occurred sequentially, and the nuclear axis connecting the centers of two nuclei affected the development of cleavage membranes on each cleavage plane. In multinucleate zoosporangia, groups of three neighboring nuclei near the cell cortex may initiate the sequential establishment of cleavage planes and then may interact with the nuclei further from the cortex until the interactions of nuclei are propagated to the central region of the cytoplasm. PMID:24871589

  11. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JavierRaso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  12. Recent patents on the extraction of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented during the last decade related to the extraction of carotenoids from various forms of organic matter (fruit, vegetables, animals), with an emphasis on the methods and mechanisms exploited by these technologies, and on technical solutions for the practical problems related to these technologies. I present and classify 29 methods related to the extraction processes (physical, mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic). The large number of processes for extraction by means of supercritical fluids and the growing number of large-scale industrial plants suggest a positive trend towards using this technique that is currently slowed by its cost. This trend should be reinforced by growing restrictions imposed on the use of most organic solvents for extraction of food products and by increasingly strict waste management regulations that are indirectly promoting the use of extraction processes that leave the residual (post-extraction) matrix substantially free from solvents and compounds that must subsequently be removed or treated. None of the reviewed approaches is the best answer for every extractable compound and source, so each should be considered as one of several alternatives, including the use of a combination of extraction approaches. PMID:20653552

  13. Prediction of proprotein convertase cleavage sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duckert, Peter; Brunak, Søren; Blom, Nikolaj

    2004-01-01

    has created additional focus on proprotein processing. We have developed a method for prediction of cleavage sites for PCs based on artificial neural networks. Two different types of neural networks have been constructed: a furin-specific network based on experimental results derived from the...

  14. Cleavage site analysis in picornaviral polyproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Nikolaj; Hansen, Jan; Blaas, Dieter; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    are indeed cleaved awaits experimental verification. Additionally, we report several errors detected in the protein databases. A computer server for prediction of cleavage sites by picornaviral proteinases is publicly available at the e-mail address NetPicoRNA@cbs.dtu.dk or via WWW at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetPicoRNA...

  15. Reductive cleavage of the peptide bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, J.; Garrison, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    In many biological research efforts, long chain organic molecules are studied by breaking large molecules into smaller components. Cleavage technique of recent interest is the use of solvated electrons. These are formed when aqueous solutions are bombarded with gamma radiation. Solvated electron is very reactive and can reduce most any species present, even to form free radicals.

  16. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Kalyani, Dayanand;

    2015-01-01

    these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed...

  17. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-10-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:26437420

  18. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. PMID:26775958

  19. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  20. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter. PMID:27485230

  1. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takeshi; Buckup, Tiago; Krause, Marie S; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Motzkus, Marcus

    2016-04-20

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2 to the optically dark state S1. Extending this picture, some additional dark states (3A and 1B) and their interaction with the S2 state have also been suggested to play a major role in the ultrafast deactivation of carotenoids and their properties. Here, we investigate the interaction between such dark and bright electronic excited states of open chain carotenoids, particularly its dependence on the number of conjugated double bonds (N). We focus on the ultrafast wave packet motion on the excited potential surface, which is modified by the interaction between bright and dark electronic states. Such a coupling between electronic states leads to a shift of the vibrational frequency during the excited-state evolution. In this regard, pump-degenerate four-wave mixing (pump-DFWM) is applied to a series of carotenoids with different numbers of conjugated double bonds N = 9, 10, 11 and 13 (neurosporene, spheroidene, lycopene and spirilloxanthin, respectively). Moreover, we demonstrate in a closed-chain carotenoid (lutein) that the coupling strength and therefore the vibrational shift can be tailored by changing the energy degeneracy between the 1B and 1B states via solvent interaction. PMID:27055720

  2. An update on microbial carotenoid production: application of recent metabolic engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amitabha; Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Lee, Sook-Hee; Kim, Jae-Yean; Oh, Deok-Kun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2007-12-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous pigments synthesized by plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria. Industrially, carotenoids are used in pharmaceuticals, neutraceuticals, and animal feed additives, as well as colorants in cosmetics and foods. Scientific interest in dietary carotenoids has increased in recent years because of their beneficial effects on human health, such as lowering the risk of cancer and enhancement of immune system function, which are attributed to their antioxidant potential. The availability of carotenoid genes from carotenogenic microbes has made possible the synthesis of carotenoids in non-carotenogenic microbes. The increasing interest in microbial sources of carotenoid is related to consumer preferences for natural additives and the potential cost effectiveness of creating carotenoids via microbial biotechnology. In this review, we will describe the recent progress made in metabolic engineering of non-carotenogenic microorganisms with particular focus on the potential of Escherichia coli for improved carotenoid productivity. PMID:17912511

  3. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.;

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored...... thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid...... structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-atocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid...

  4. Near-infrared transient absorption study of the orange carotenoid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Chábera, P.; Sundström, V.; Kerfeld, C.A.

    Nové Hrady : Academic and University Center, 2008. s. 34. [ESF Workshop on Novel Methods in Exploring Carotenoid Excited State Dynamics. 21.09.2008-25.09.2008, Nové Hrady] Keywords : carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  5. Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.D.; Valinger, D.; Vegvari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC)

  6. Development of carotenoid-enriched vegetables with increased nutritional quality and visual appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a class of red, orange and yellow pigments widely distributed in nature. Biotech approach has been proved to be effective in successfully engineering of carotenoid content in food crops with better health and visual appearance....

  7. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that express the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene...

  8. Cross talk between the +73/294 interaction and the cleavage site in RNase P RNA mediated cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Brännvall, Mathias; Kikovska, Ema; Kirsebom, Leif A.

    2004-01-01

    To monitor functionally important metal ions and possible cross talk in RNase P RNA mediated cleavage we studied cleavage of substrates, where the 2′OH at the RNase P cleavage site (at −1) and/or at position +73 had been replaced with a 2′ amino group (or 2′H). Our data showed that the presence of 2′ modifications at these positions affected cleavage site recognition, ground state binding of substrate and/or rate of cleavage. Cleavage of 2′ amino substituted substrates at different pH showed ...

  9. Carotenoid limitation of sexual coloration along an environmental gradient in guppies

    OpenAIRE

    Grether, G. F; Hudon, J; Millie, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids produce most of the brilliant orange and yellow colours seen in animals, but animals cannot synthesize these pigments and must rely on dietary sources. The idea that carotenoids make good signals because they are a scarce limiting resource was proposed two decades ago and has become the leading hypothesis for the role of carotenoids in animal communication. To our knowledge, until now, however, there has been no direct evidence that carotenoids are a limiting resource in nature. W...

  10. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  11. Enhancement of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Transplastomic Tomatoes by Induced Lycopene-to-Provitamin A Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Apel, W.; R. Bock

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential pigments of the photosynthetic apparatus and an indispensable component of the human diet. In addition to being potent antioxidants, they also provide the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits, carotenoids accumulate in specialized plastids, the chromoplasts. How the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated and what limits total carotenoid accumulation in fruit chromoplasts is not well understood. Here, we have introduced the ...

  12. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  13. Noninvasive measurements of carotenoids in bovine udder by reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, the antioxidative status in cattle has been discussed as an indicator for stress conditions resulting from disease or exertion. Until now, invasive approaches have been necessary to obtain blood samples or biopsy materials and gain insights into the antioxidative status of cattle. Due to these efforts and the costs of the analyses, serial sampling is feasible in an experimental setting, but not for measurements on a routine basis. The present study focuses on the feasibility of an innovative, noninvasive spectroscopic technique that allows in vivo measurements of carotenoids in the skin by reflection spectroscopy. To this end, in a first trial, repeated measurements of the carotenoid concentration of the udder skin were performed on 25 healthy cattle from different breeds. Carotenoid concentrations showed highly significant differences between individual animals (Ptest) differed significantly (P<0.005), with higher concentrations observed in robust cows.

  14. Evaluation of Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Carotenoids for Different Vegetable Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Stancuta Scrob; Sevastita Muste; Crina Muresan; Anca Farcas; Sonia Socaci; Romina Vlaic

    2013-01-01

    In this study, different solvents were used to achieve the maximum extractibility of total carotenoids. The extracted total carotenoids were estimated using UV- visible spectrophotometer. Carotenoids from vegetable matrix can be used as a food colorant, food additive, cosmetics, antioxidants and nutraceuticals.

  15. The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods.

  16. Autoproteolytic Cleavage and Activation of Human Acid Ceramidase*

    OpenAIRE

    Shtraizent, Nataly; Eliyahu, Efrat; Park, Jae-Ho; He, Xingxuan; Shalgi, Ruth; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2008-01-01

    Herein we report the mechanism of human acid ceramidase (AC; N-acylsphingosine deacylase) cleavage and activation. A highly purified, recombinant human AC precursor underwent self-cleavage into α and β subunits, similar to other members of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. This reaction proceeded with first order kinetics, characteristic of self-cleavage. AC self-cleavage occurred most rapidly at acidic pH, but also at neutral pH. Site-directed mutagene...

  17. Identification of carotenoids from the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eYatsunami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoids produced by extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica were extracted and identified by their chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic characteristics (UV-Vis and mass spectrometry. The composition (mol% was 68.1% bacterioruberin, 22.5% monoanhydrobacterioruberin, 9.3% bisanhydrobacterioruberin, < 0.1% isopentenyldehydrorhodopin, and trace amounts of lycopene and phytoene. The in vitro scavenging capacity of a carotenoid, bacterioruberin, extracted from Ha. japonica cells against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of bacterioruberin was much higher than that of β-carotene.

  18. Estabilidad del Carotenoide Licopeno en Tomates en Conserva Lycopene Carotenoide Stability in Canned Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia L Ordóñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la estabilidad del carotenoide licopeno durante el proceso de elaboración de conservas de tomates peritas y evaluar la misma durante su almacenamiento como producto terminado. Se trabajó con muestras provenientes de elaboraciones industriales extraídas en distintos puntos del proceso: tomates frescos, en la boquilla de alimentación de la línea; tomate pelado, a la salida de la peladora termofísica y producto terminado a la salida del esterilizador-enfriador, de distintos lotes de elaboración y en tres ocasiones durante la temporada 2007. El producto terminado, envasado en hojalata, fue evaluado durante un año, cada tres meses. El licopeno fue extraído con una mezcla de hexano-acetona-etanol y determinado por espectrofotometría visible a 472nm. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente mostrando que la esterilización industrial produce liberación celular del licopeno.The objective of this work was to determine lycopene carotenoid stability during manufacturing process in canned peeled whole tomatoes and during its storage as final product. Samples were taken during industrial manufacturing at different process points: fresh tomatoes when they were feeding to process line, peeled tomatoes from thermophysical peeler and finished product after it passed the cooker-cooler. Samples were obtained from different manufacturing lots at three times during the 2007 harvesting season. Canned tomatoes were analyzed every three months, during one year. Lycopene was extracted with hexane-acetone-ethyl alcohol and measured by spectrophotometry at 472 nm. Statistical analysis of the results shows that industrial sterilization produces cell release of lycopene.

  19. Calcium waves along the cleavage furrows in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos and its inhibition by heparin

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Calcium signaling is known to be associated with cytokinesis; however, the detailed spatio-temporal pattern of calcium dynamics has remained unclear. We have studied changes of intracellular free calcium in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos using fluorescent calcium indicator dyes, mainly Calcium Green-1. Cleavage formation was followed by calcium transients that localized to cleavage furrows and propagated along the furrows as calcium waves. The calcium transients at the cleavage furrows were o...

  20. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  1. Molecular Factors Controlling Photosynthetic Light Harvesting by Carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2010), s. 1125-1134. ISSN 0001-4842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * energy transfer * photosynthesis * light-harvesting Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 21.840, year: 2010

  2. Dark excited states of carotenoids: Consensus and controversy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Sundström, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 477, 1-3 (2009), s. 1-11. ISSN 0009-2614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited states * relaxation pathways * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.291, year: 2009

  3. Femtosecond carotenoid to retinal energy transfer in xanthorhodopsin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Balashov, S.P.; Chábera, P.; Imasheva, E.S.; Yartsev, A.; Sundström, V.; Lanyi, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2009), s. 2268-2277. ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : energy transfer * carotenoids * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2009

  4. Photon echo spectroscopy reveals structure-dynamics relationships in carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christensson, N.; Polívka, Tomáš; Yartsev, A.; Pullerits, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 24 (2009), s. 1-14. ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : electron correlations * energy gap * excited states * carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  5. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  6. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóth, T. N.; Chukhutsina, V.; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, M.; Lenart, Z.; Garab, G.; Kovács, L.; Gombos, Z.; van Amerongen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1847, č. 10 (2015), s. 1153-1165. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Carotenoid deficiency * Cyanobacterial photosynthesis * Phycobilisome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  7. Na+-Translocating Rhodopsin from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 Does Not Contain Carotenoid Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsova, Y V; Arutyunyan, A M; Bogachev, A V

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoid-binding properties of Na+-translocating rhodopsin (NaR) from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 were studied. Carotenoids were extracted from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 cells. It was found that zeaxanthin is the predominant carotenoid of this bacterium. Incubation of recombinant NaR purified from Escherichia coli cells with carotenoids from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 did not result in any changes in optical absorption or circular dichroism spectra, indicating the absence of binding of the carotenoids by NaR. The same results were obtained using salinixanthin as the carotenoid. These data along with genome analysis of Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and other flavobacteria indicate that NaR from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and possibly the other flavobacterial Na+-translocating rhodopsins do not contain a carotenoid antenna. PMID:27293099

  8. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  9. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  10. Regioselectivity in the Reductive Bond Cleavage of Diarylalkylsulfonium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeier, Jack; Mansurul Hoque, AKM; D. Saeva, Franklin;

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was stimulated by reports that one-electron reductions of monoaryldialkylsulfonium salts never give aryl bond cleavage whereas reductions of diarylmonoalkylsulfonium salts preferentially give aryl bond cleavage. We studied the product ratios from the reductive cleavage of di-4......- tolylethylsulfonium and di-4-tolyl-2-phenylethylsulfonium salts by a variety of one-electron reducing agents ranging in potential from -0.77 to +2.5 eV (vs SCE) and including thermal reductants, indirect electrolyses mediated by a series of cyanoaromatics, and excited singlet states. We report that the cleavage...... products vary from regiospecific alkyl cleavage to predominant aryl cleavage as a function of the potential of the reducing agent. We conclude that differences between the reductive cleavages of mono- and diarylsulfonium salts are direct consequences of the structures of the sulfuranyl radical...

  11. Testing the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the polychromatic Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susan M; Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Brown, Alexandria C; McGraw, Kevin J; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments derived from their diet for coloration and immunity. The carotenoid trade-off hypothesis predicts that, under conditions of carotenoid scarcity, individuals may be forced to allocate limited carotenoids to either coloration or immunity. In polychromatic species, the pattern of allocation may differ among individuals. We tested the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, a species with two ontogenetic color morphs, barred and gold, the latter of which is the result of carotenoid expression. We performed a diet-supplementation experiment in which cichlids of both color morphs were assigned to one of two diet treatments that differed only in carotenoid content (beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). We measured integument color using spectrometry, quantified carotenoid concentrations in tissue and plasma, and assessed innate immunity using lysozyme activity and alternative complement pathway assays. In both color morphs, dietary carotenoid supplementation elevated plasma carotenoid circulation but failed to affect skin coloration. Consistent with observable differences in integument coloration, we found that gold fish sequestered more carotenoids in skin tissue than barred fish, but barred fish had higher concentrations of carotenoids in plasma than gold fish. Neither measure of innate immunity differed between gold and barred fish, or as a function of dietary carotenoid supplementation. Lysozyme activity, but not complement activity, was strongly affected by body condition. Our data show that a diet low in carotenoids is sufficient to maintain both coloration and innate immunity in Midas cichlids. Our data also suggest that the developmental transition from the barred to gold morph is not accompanied by a decrease in innate immunity in this species. PMID:20151818

  12. Evaluation of carotenoid contents in irradiated buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jaqueline M. da; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Keila S.C.; Lima, Antonio L.S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: maysa@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O.; Pacheco, Sidney [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br; Ferreira, Rubemar S. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste CRCN-CO/CNEN, Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); E-mail: rferreira@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical Brazilian fruit, can be found at north, northeast and center-west regions in Brazil. It has a high nutritional value and is considered an excellent source of vitamin A precursors, called carotenoids, showing a majority of {beta}-carotene. It can be used in many regional dishes. In this study, Buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation, deriving from a cavity type research irradiator which has a Cs-137 radiation source, with the doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. The objective is to evaluate the irradiation effects on nutritional quality maintenance and conservation of Buriti, focusing in optimizer the processing conditions and increase consumption as a way to fight vitamin A deficiency. Clinical, biological and dietetic studies have indicated that the lack of vitamin A is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to the agriculture through the reduction of post harvesting losses. The irradiated fruits and the control group were evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (a and b-carotene and luteine) determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). ANOVA was used to treat the results. The results show that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids, with a concentration of 44500 {mu}g/100 g in the pulp (70% of {beta}-carotene). The reduction of carotenoids contents due to the irradiation process does not compromise its nutritional quality that is still very above of recommendations, being the dose of 0.5 kGy more appropriate. (author)

  13. The antioxidant potential of carotenoid extract from Phaffia rhodozyma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carotenoids are components playing an important role in biological systems, starting with light protection, immunoenhancement, protection against carcinogens and finishing with antioxidant activity. Food additives market is based mainly on synthetic additives; however, higher consumer awareness has resulted in an increased use of natural substances. One of the potentially antioxidant compounds could be a lipid soluble carotenoid – astaxanthin (xanthophyll, found in the microbial world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of carotenoid extract from Phaffia rhodozyma extract. Material and methods. Carotenoids extracted from Phaffia rhodozyma and the astaxanthin standard was selected for the investigations. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging activity (DPPH• and ABTS•+ radicals and in lipid oxidative stability measurements (Rancimat, Oxidograph and Schaal oven tests. Results. It was found that the examined extracts presented a significantly higher ability to scavenge the DPPH• radical in comparison to the ABTS•+ radical. Evaluations of linoleic acid emulsion oxidative stability showed a higher antioxidant effect of the Phaffia rhodozyma extract than that of astaxanthin during 19 h of incubation. That potential however, was not detected in linoleic acid emulsion incubated for 96 h, where both additives accelerated oxidation process. In bulk sunflower oil a protective effect of Phaffia rhodozyma extract was observed. In both Rancimat and Oxidograph tests antioxidant activity measured using the induction period was evaluated. However, results of the Schaal oven test indicated that a 144 h incubation of sunflower oil offered a significantly better protection of the lipid against oxidation when the Phaffia rhodozyma extract was added. Conclusions. On the basis of recorded results it was found that the Phaffia rhodozyma carotenoid extract showed moderate antioxidant properties

  14. Evaluation of carotenoid contents in irradiated buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.), a typical Brazilian fruit, can be found at north, northeast and center-west regions in Brazil. It has a high nutritional value and is considered an excellent source of vitamin A precursors, called carotenoids, showing a majority of β-carotene. It can be used in many regional dishes. In this study, Buriti in natura was treated with gamma irradiation, deriving from a cavity type research irradiator which has a Cs-137 radiation source, with the doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. The objective is to evaluate the irradiation effects on nutritional quality maintenance and conservation of Buriti, focusing in optimizer the processing conditions and increase consumption as a way to fight vitamin A deficiency. Clinical, biological and dietetic studies have indicated that the lack of vitamin A is the main cause of night blindness and xerophthalmia. The use of food irradiation is growing and represents an economic benefit to the agriculture through the reduction of post harvesting losses. The irradiated fruits and the control group were evaluated through the total carotenoids analysis, by spectrophotometry, and the carotenoids (a and b-carotene and luteine) determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). ANOVA was used to treat the results. The results show that buriti is an excellent source of total carotenoids, with a concentration of 44500 μg/100 g in the pulp (70% of β-carotene). The reduction of carotenoids contents due to the irradiation process does not compromise its nutritional quality that is still very above of recommendations, being the dose of 0.5 kGy more appropriate. (author)

  15. Regulated Cleavage of Prothrombin by Prothrombinase: REPOSITIONING A CLEAVAGE SITE REVEALS THE UNIQUE KINETIC BEHAVIOR OF THE ACTION OF PROTHROMBINASE ON ITS COMPOUND SUBSTRATE*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Harlan N.; Micucci, Joseph A.; Krishnaswamy, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Prothrombinase converts prothrombin to thrombin via cleavage at Arg320 followed by cleavage at Arg271. Exosite-dependent binding of prothrombin to prothrombinase facilitates active site docking by Arg320 and initial cleavage at this site. Precise positioning of the Arg320 site for cleavage is implied by essentially normal cleavage at Arg320 in recombinant prothrombin variants...

  16. Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenogenic genes in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Liang, Minhua; Shi, Liyu; Shao, Jiarong; Song, Chunbo; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2017-01-01

    To understand better the regulatory mechanism of the carotenoid accumulation, the expression profile of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were compared between two peach cultivars with different colors during fruit development. Meanwhile, the change pattern of carotenoid content and expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in peaches after harvest in response to blue light were also investigated. As compared to the yellow fleshed-cultivar 'Jinli', lower carotenoid levels were observed in skin and pulp in white peach cultivar 'Hujing', which might be explained by differentially expression of PpCCD4 gene. With respect to 'Jinli', the carotenoid accumulation during fruit development in fruit skin was partially linked with the transcriptional regulation of PpFPPS, PpGGPS, PpLCYB and PpCHYB. However, in the pulp, the accumulation might be also associated with the increased transcriptions of PpPDS, along with the above four genes. Blue light treatment induced carotenoid accumulation in 'Jinli' peaches during storage. In addition, the treated-fruit displayed higher expression of all the eight genes analysed with a lesser extent on PpCCD4, which suggested that the much more increased carotenoid synthesis rate could result in the higher carotenoid content in blue light-treated fruit. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit. PMID:27507458

  17. Utilization of Microemulsions from Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz to Improve Carotenoid Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nai-Hsing; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids have been known to reduce the risk of several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular. However, carotenoids are unstable and susceptible to degradation. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (R. nasutus), a Chinese medicinal herb rich in carotenoids, was reported to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer. This study intends to isolate carotenoids from R. nasutus by column chromatography, identify and quantify by HPLC-MS, and prepare carotenoid microemulsions for determination of absolute bioavailability in rats. Initially, carotenoid fraction was isolated using 250 mL ethyl acetate poured into an open-column packed with magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w). Fourteen carotenoids including internal standard β-apo-8'-carotenal were resolved within 62 min by a YMC C30 column and gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (82:14:4, v/v/v) and methylene chloride. Highly stable carotenoid microemulsions were prepared using a mixture of Capryol(TM)90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water, with the mean particle being 10.4 nm for oral administration and 10.7 nm for intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of carotenoids in microemulsions and dispersion was 0.45% and 0.11%, respectively, while a much higher value of 6.25% and 1.57% were shown for lutein, demonstrating 4-fold enhancement in bioavailability upon incorporation of R. nasutus carotenoids into a microemulsion system. PMID:27150134

  18. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Rickey D; Gervasi, Stephanie S; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J; Bradley, Paul W; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates. PMID:27293690

  19. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Yong; Xu, Qiang; Owsiany, Katherine; Welsch, Ralf; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lu, Shan; Van Eck, Joyce; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Failla, Mark; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2012-03-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene. We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level, but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage. In contrast, no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellow-flesh variety during the same period of storage. The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures, as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells. Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e. heat shock proteins, glutathione-S-transferases, and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation. Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated. Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage. PMID:22155949

  20. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  1. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  2. A Historical Trend of Ethnic Cleavages in Contemporary Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Mohammadzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is evaluation social and historical content of social cleavage in contemporary Iran. Analytical framework rooted in Rokan theory. Rokan believed that social cleavage appearance post of revolutions. Method of study was historical comparatives.The method of this research is comparative historical in which we used of historical documents and data. In this field, I have compared data of indexes of socio-economic of ethnic states.Assessment of data and documents show that social cleavages and particularly ethnic cleavages rise after Reza shah revolution. He established centralized and dictated government and divided society of Iran and institutionalization the inequality in social structure. Sense of deprivation about inequality and suited circumstance activated ethnic cleavage in Iran. Decrease of inequality and justice could decrease of social deprivation and deactivated social cleavages.

  3. Effects of organic and conventional growth systems on the content of carotenoids in carrot roots, and on intake and plasma status of carotenoids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Bysted, Anette; Madsen, K. H.;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for organic food products has increased during the last decades due to their probable health effects, among others. A higher content of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids in organic food products has been claimed, though not documented, to contribute to increased...... health effects of organic foods. The aim was to study the impact of organic and conventional agricultural systems on the content of carotenoids in carrots and human diets. In addition, a human cross-over study was performed, measuring the plasma status of carotenoids in humans consuming diets made from...... crops from these agricultural systems. RESULTS: The content of carotenoids in carrot roots and human diets was not significantly affected by the agricultural production system or year, despite differences in fertilisation strategy and levels. The plasma status of carotenoids increased significantly...

  4. SVM-based prediction of caspase substrate cleavage sites

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Lawrence JK; Tan, Tin Wee; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2006-01-01

    Background Caspases belong to a class of cysteine proteases which function as critical effectors in apoptosis and inflammation by cleaving substrates immediately after unique sites. Prediction of such cleavage sites will complement structural and functional studies on substrates cleavage as well as discovery of new substrates. Recently, different computational methods have been developed to predict the cleavage sites of caspase substrates with varying degrees of success. As the support vector...

  5. Modeling and Inferring Cleavage Patterns in Proliferating Epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ankit B.; Gibson, William T.; Gibson, Matthew C; Radhika Nagpal

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of cleavage plane orientation is one of the key mechanisms driving epithelial morphogenesis. Still, many aspects of the relationship between local cleavage patterns and tissue-level properties remain poorly understood. Here we develop a topological model that simulates the dynamics of a 2D proliferating epithelium from generation to generation, enabling the exploration of a wide variety of biologically plausible cleavage patterns. We investigate a spectrum of models that incorp...

  6. Colorful World of Microbes: Carotenoids and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwaha Kirti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cells accumulate pigments under certain culture conditions, which have very important industrial applications. Microorganisms can serve as sources of carotenoids, the most widespread group of naturally occurring pigments. More than 750 structurally different yellow, orange, and red colored molecules are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes with an estimated market of $ 919 million by 2015. Carotenoids protect cells against photooxidative damage and hence found important applications in environment, food and nutrition, disease control, and as potent antimicrobial agents. In addition to many research advances, this paper reviews concerns with recent evaluations, applications of microbial pigments, and recommendations for future researches with an understanding of evolution and biosynthetic pathways along with other relevant aspects.

  7. Resonance Raman measurements of carotenoids using light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeson, S D; Eyring, N J; Fralick, J F; Stevenson, D N; Ferguson, S B

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact commercial instrument for measuring carotenoids in skin tissue. The instrument uses two light emitting diodes (LEDs) for dual-wavelength excitation and four photomultiplier tubes for multichannel detection. Bandpass filters are used to select the excitation and detection wavelengths. The f/1.3 optical system has high optical throughput and single photon sensitivity, both of which are crucial in LED-based Raman measurements. We employ a signal processing technique that compensates for detector drift and error. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the LED Raman instrument compares favorably to laser-based Raman spectrometers. This compact, portable instrument is used for non-invasive measurement of carotenoid molecules in human skin with a repeatability better than 10%.

  8. Absorption of Carotenoids and Mechanisms Involved in Their Health-Related Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids participate in the normal metabolism and function of the human body. They are involved in the prevention of several diseases, especially those related to the inflammation syndrome. Their main mechanisms of action are associated to their potent antioxidant activity and capacity to regulate the expression of specific genes and proteins. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid metabolites may explain several processes where the participation of their parent carotenoids was unclear. The health benefits of carotenoids strongly depend on their absorption and transformation during gastrointestinal digestion. The estimation of the 'bioaccessibility' of carotenoids through in vitro models have made possible the evaluation of the effect of a large number of factors on key stages of carotenoid digestion and intestinal absorption. The bioaccessibility of these compounds allows us to have a clear idea of their potential bioavailability, a term that implicitly involves the biological activity of these compounds. PMID:27485232

  9. Analysis on Carotenoids Content and Other Quality Traits of 185 Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHOU; Yuanyuan WU; Wenyin ZHENG; Wenming ZHANG; Wenshang GUO; Danian YAO

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide the reference of improving the nutritional quality traits in carotenoids and screening its resources of wheat varieties, 185 wheat varieties or lines were selected as materials to test the carotenoids content, lipoxygenase activ-ity, whiteness, yel owness and some other quality traits of whole mil in wheat.The results showed that there were highly significant variations in lipoxygenase activity , carotenoids content, whiteness and yel owness among those sample of wheat vari-eties; carotenoids content was significantly and positively correlated with yel owness. Cluster analysis was performed based on carotenoids content clustered al the vari-eties or lines into three major groups. Additional y, carotenoids were discussed in the application of nutritional quality improvement in wheat.

  10. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Pacheco; Fernanda Marques Peixoto; Renata Galhardo Borguini; Luzimar da Silva de Mattos do Nascimento; Claudio Roberto Ribeiro Bobeda; Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araújo Santiago; Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum...

  11. Carotenoids and skin coloration in a social raptor

    OpenAIRE

    Blas, Julio; Cabezas, Sonia; Figuerola, Jordi; López, Lidia; Tanferna, Alessandro; Hiraldo, F.; Sergio, Fabrizio; Negro, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    [IN] The outcome of social and sexual competition in animals is typically mediated through the expression of body traits. Conspicuous characters such as yellow, orange, and red colorations in skin, scales, and feathers are often posited as quality-dependent signals, because such colors are made of dietary carotenoids and their use for signaling conflicts with health functions. Raptors often lack brightly colored feathers but most diurnal species display intense orange and yellow hues in the c...

  12. Identification and Quantification of Major Carotenoids in Some Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2009-01-01

    An HPLC study of 6 raw vegetables (Okra, green beans, eggplant zucchini, carrot and tomato) most frequently consumed worldwide was carried out to determine their carotenoid composition. The samples were purchased from supermarket in the city of Boston, USA. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin and lutein were contained in all samples except tomato for neoxanthin, carrot and tomato for violaxanthin and carrot for lutein. β-carotene was contained in all samples while α-carotene was contained only...

  13. Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Ermakov, Igor V.; M Sharifzadeh; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, W.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the beneficial effects of carotenoid antioxidants in the human body. Several studies, for example, support the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. If present in high concentrations in the macular region of the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin provide pigmentation in this most light sensitive retinal spot, and as a result of light filtering and/or antioxidant action, delay the onset of macular degeneration with incr...

  14. Structures and Properties of Stabilized Vitamin and Carotenoid Dry Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Victor E.; Gerber, Francoise

    1991-01-01

    The development of special formulated forms of vitamin and carotenoid dry powders solved most of the technical problems encountered in handling the original pure crystalline or oily compounds. Various procedures to obtain stabilized products have been introduced on an industrial scale for feed , food and pharmaceutical purposes. Proven modes of manufacture of formulated dry powders includes the numerous spraying processes for emulsions, dispersions or solutions, and the production of adsorbat...

  15. Study of RP HPLC Retention Behaviours in Analysis of Carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, M; Kováčová, J; Gadzała-Kopciuch, R M; Studzińska, S; Bocian, Sz; Lehotay, J; Buszewski, B

    2014-01-01

    For determination of selected carotenoids, various types of columns for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with different properties have been used. The characteristics of the laboratory-used packing material containing monomeric alkyl-bonded phases (C18, C30) and phenyl as well as phenyl-hexyl stationary phases were studied. The retention data of the examined compounds were used to determine the hydrophobicity and silanol activity of stationary phases applied in the study. The presence of the polar and carboxyl groups in the structure of the bonded ligand strongly influences the polarity of the stationary phase. Columns were compared according to methylene selectivity using a series of benzene homologues. The measurements were done using a methanol-water mobile phase. Knowledge of the properties of the applied stationary phase provided the possibility to predict the RP HPLC retention behaviours in analysis of carotenoids including lutein, lycopene and β-carotene. The composition of the mobile phase, the addition of triethylamine and the type of stationary phase had been taken into account in designing the method of carotenoid identification. Also a monolithic column characterised by low hydrodynamic resistance, high porosity and high permeability was applied. The presented results show that the coverage density of the bonded ligands on silica gel packings and length of the linkage strongly influence the carotenoid retention behaviours. In our study, the highest retention parameters for lutein, lycopene and β-carotene were observed for C30 and C18 stationary phase. This effect corresponds with pore size of column packing greater than 100 Å and carbon content higher than 11 %. PMID:25089049

  16. THE CAROTENOID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY: THINKING IN ALL DIMENSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shumskaya, Maria; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2013-01-01

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway serves manifold roles in plants related to photosynthesis, photoprotection, development, stress hormones, and various volatiles and signalling apocarotenoids. The pathway also produces compounds that impact human nutrition and metabolic products that contribute to fragrance and flavour of food and non-food crops. It is no surprise that the pathway has been a target of metabolic engineering, most prominently in the case of Golden Rice. The future success and...

  17. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  18. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Analysis of the cleavage site of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein: requirement of precursor cleavage for glycoprotein incorporation.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubay, J W; Dubay, S R; Shin, H. J.; Hunter, E

    1995-01-01

    Endoproteolytic cleavage of the glycoprotein precursor to the mature SU and TM proteins is an essential step in the maturation of retroviral glycoproteins. Cleavage of the precursor polyprotein occurs at a conserved, basic tetrapeptide sequence and is carried out by a cellular protease. The glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 contains two potential cleavage sequences immediately preceding the N terminus of the TM protein. To determine the functional significance of these t...

  20. Nematode parasites reduce carotenoid-based signalling in male red grouse

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Mougeot, François; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Gary R. Bortolotti

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids determine the yellow–red colours of many ornaments, which often function as signals of quality. Carotenoid-based signalling may reliably advertise health and should be particularly sensitive to parasite infections. Nematodes are among the commonest parasites of vertebrates, with well-documented negative effects on their hosts. However, to date, little is known about the effects that these parasites may have on carotenoid-based signalling. Tetraonid birds (grouse) exhibit supra-orb...

  1. Carotenoids in Eggs and Plasma of Red-Legged Partridges: Effects of Diet and Reproductive Output

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Negro, Juan J.; Surai, Peter F; Prieto, Paloma

    2003-01-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary constituents in birds. They serve as pigments and play numerous physiological roles in both the laying hen and developing embryo. However, factors determining the absorption of carotenoids and their allocation to different functions are numerous and complex, and causal relationships are generally poorly known. Our objective was to determine the degree to which carotenoid levels in egg yolks and the plasma of hens were influenced by differences in diet and ...

  2. Theoretical studies of the electrochromic response of carotenoids in photosynthetic membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakitani, T; Honig, B.; Crofts, A R

    1982-01-01

    Molecular orbital calculations are carried out on a number of carotenoids in the presence of an external charge and a constant electric field. The external charge is used to represent the strong permanent field that is believed to polarize carotenoids in photosynthetic membranes and thus to account for their linear response to the transmembrane potential. Our calculations show that the in vitro leads to in vivo spectral shifts of carotenoids (approximately 25 nm) can be produced by a charge i...

  3. The nature and the content of carotenoid pigments from faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gino ROSCA; Sanda CRAPATUREANU; Socaciu, Carmen; Gavrila NEAMTU

    1995-01-01

    Faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L. harvested in October and November have a high and various content of carotenoids. The content of lutein and zeaxanthin is much higher in faded leaves than in the green ones, that is why they are recommended as an important natural source for extraction (at an industrial level) of the mentioned carotenoids. Faded leaves have a low biological value, because they have a low content of provitaminic A carotenoids. They have also a low content of hydrocarbo...

  4. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    OpenAIRE

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. ...

  5. Plasma carotenoid levels in passerines are related to infection by (some parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JordiFiguerola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plumage coloration plays an important role in intra and inter-sexual competition in birds. Many of the yellow, orange or red colours present in birds are carotenoid dependent. Carotenoids can not be synthetized de novo by birds and consequently should be obtained through their diet, and access to carotenoids may differ between individuals and species. In addition to ornamentation, carotenoids are important for bird physiology and it has been proposed that a trade-off in their allocation to these two functions occurs. Under this scenario parasites may play a central role in maintaining the honesty of plumage as a signaling system by increasing the demands for carotenoids for infection or damage control and/or by reducing carotenoid absorption in the intestines. We analyzed the relationship between (1 carotenoid concentrations in plasma and (2 blood and intestinal parasite richness and abundance in 22 species of passerines sampled in spring. Loads of different groups of parasites were unrelated so conclusions drawn from examining a particular group of parasites cannot be extrapolated to the whole community of pathogens and parasites inhabiting a host. At intraspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related to the richness of intestinal parasites and the abundance of some groups of intestinal parasites, at interspecific level plasma carotenoid concentration was negatively related with the abundance of intestinal parasites. No relationship at intra- nor interpecific level was found between carotenoids and blood parasites. The results suggest that intestinal parasites play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of carotenoid-derived sexually selected ornamentations probably through a negative impact on the uptake of carotenoids at the gut.

  6. Absorption of Vitamin A and Carotenoids by the Enterocyte: Focus on Transport Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Reboul

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A carotenoid status in these individuals. A more accurate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of intestinal vitamin A absorption is a key step in this direction. It was long thought that β-carotene (the main provitamin A carotenoid in human diet), and thus all carotenoids, were abs...

  7. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Fiedor; Květoslava Burda

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present i...

  8. Serum Carotenoids Reduce Progression of Early Atherosclerosis in the Carotid Artery Wall among Eastern Finnish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Jouni Karppi; Sudhir Kurl; Kimmo Ronkainen; Jussi Kauhanen; Laukkanen, Jari A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between conce...

  9. Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes.

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Armstrong; Alberti, M; Hearst, J E

    1990-01-01

    Carotenoids comprise one of the most widespread classes of pigments found in nature. The first reactions of C40 carotenoid biosynthesis proceed through common intermediates in all organisms, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of early enzymes from this pathway. We report here the nucleotide sequence of three genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Erwinia herbicola, a nonphotosynthetic epiphytic bacterium, which encode homologs of the CrtB, CrtE, and CrtI proteins of Rhod...

  10. Investigations of carotenoids in fungi. III. Fructifications of some species from the genus Suillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using column and thin-layer chromatography the occurrence of carotenoids and their content was determined in fructifications of 5 species from the genus Suillus. 21 carotenoids were found, among them 3 which had not hitherto been detected in fungi (auroxanthin, 3,4-dihydroxy-α-carotene and myxoxantophyll. Moreover quantitative and qualitative differences were found in the content of carotenoids in fructifications of Boletus luteus which may be of importance in their taxonomy.

  11. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXXII. Carotenoids occurring in the thalli of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cartenoids in nineteen species of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa was studied by column and thinlayer chromatography. This investigations revealed the presence of the following carotenoids: neurosporene, α-carotene, β-carotene, rubixanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, torularhodin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, echinenone, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, β-carotene epoxide, antheraxanthin, lutein epoxide, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, flavoxanthin, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-apo-10'-carotenal and apo-12'-violaxanthal. Five of these, torularhodin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal and β-apo-10'-carotenal, are reported for the first time from lichens. The total carotenoid content of the material ranged from 15.88 (Pyxine cocoes to 135.44 µg g-1 dry weight (Telaschistes chrysophthalmus.

  12. Resonant Raman detectors for noninvasive assessment of carotenoid antioxidants in human tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia R.; Ermakov, Igor V.; Bernstein, P. S.

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoid antioxidants form an important part of the human body's anti-oxidant system and are thought to play an important role in disease prevention. Studies have shown an inverse correlation between high dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of certain cancers, heart disease and degenerative diseases. For example, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which are present in high concentrations in the human retina, are thought to prevent age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the Western world. We have developed various clinical prototype instruments, based on resonance Raman spectroscopy, that are able to measure carotenoid levels directly in the tissue of interest. At present we use the Raman technology to quantify carotenoid levels in the human retina, in skin, and in the oral cavity. We use resonant excitation of the π-conjugated molecules in the visible wavelength range and detect the molecules' carbon-carbon stretch frequencies. The spectral properties of the various carotenoids can be explored to selectively measure in some cases individual carotenoid species linked ot the prevention of cancer, in human skin. The instrumentation involves home-built, compact, high-throughput Raman systems capable of measuring physiological carotenoid concentrations in human subjects rapidly and quantitatively. The instruments have been demonstrated for field use and screening of tissue carotenoid status in large populations. In Epidemiology, the technology holds promise as a novel, noninvasive and objective biomarker of fruit and vegetable uptake.

  13. The nature and the content of carotenoid pigments from faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino ROSCA

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Faded leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum L. harvested in October and November have a high and various content of carotenoids. The content of lutein and zeaxanthin is much higher in faded leaves than in the green ones, that is why they are recommended as an important natural source for extraction (at an industrial level of the mentioned carotenoids. Faded leaves have a low biological value, because they have a low content of provitaminic A carotenoids. They have also a low content of hydrocarbon carotenoids, but a high hydroxylic and epoxydic content.

  14. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  15. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  16. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  17. Enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis in transplastomic tomatoes by induced lycopene-to-provitamin A conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Wiebke; Bock, Ralph

    2009-09-01

    Carotenoids are essential pigments of the photosynthetic apparatus and an indispensable component of the human diet. In addition to being potent antioxidants, they also provide the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits, carotenoids accumulate in specialized plastids, the chromoplasts. How the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated and what limits total carotenoid accumulation in fruit chromoplasts is not well understood. Here, we have introduced the lycopene beta-cyclase genes from the eubacterium Erwinia herbicola and the higher plant daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) into the tomato plastid genome. While expression of the bacterial enzyme did not strongly alter carotenoid composition, expression of the plant enzyme efficiently converted lycopene, the major storage carotenoid of the tomato fruit, into provitamin A (beta-carotene). In green leaves of the transplastomic tomato plants, more lycopene was channeled into the beta-branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, resulting in increased accumulation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and correspondingly reduced accumulation of the alpha-branch xanthophyll lutein. In fruits, most of the lycopene was converted into beta-carotene with provitamin A levels reaching 1 mg per g dry weight. Unexpectedly, transplastomic tomatoes also showed a >50% increase in total carotenoid accumulation, indicating that lycopene beta-cyclase expression enhanced the flux through the pathway in chromoplasts. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and demonstrate the potential of plastids genome engineering for the nutritional enhancement of food crops. PMID:19587100

  18. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods:Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results: The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein,β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions:The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects.

  19. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  20. Chemical cleavage of fucoxanthin from Undaria pinnatifida and formation of apo-fucoxanthinones and apo-fucoxanthinals identified using LC-DAD-APCI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiang; Sun, Xiaowen; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Dongfeng

    2016-11-15

    As the most abundant carotenoid in nature, fucoxanthin is susceptible to oxidation under some conditions, forming cleavage products that possibly exhibit both positive and negative health effects in vitro and in vivo. Thus, to produce relatively high amounts of cleavage products, chemical oxidation of fucoxanthin was performed. Kinetic models for oxidation were probed and reaction products were identified. The results indicated that both potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HClO/ClO(-)) treatment fitted a first-order kinetic model, while oxidation promoted by hydroxyl radical (OH) followed second-order kinetics. With the help of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, a total of 14 apo-fucoxanthins were detected as predominant cleavage products, with structural and geometric isomers identified among them. Three apo-fucoxanthinones and eleven apo-fucoxanthinals, of which five were cis-apo-fucoxanthinals, were detected upon oxidation by the three oxidizing agents (KMnO4, HClO/ClO(-), and OH). PMID:27283644

  1. Presence of Meiotic Spindles Indicates Early Cleavage of Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the detection of the meiotic spindle could anticipate the appearance of early cleavage.Methods Oocytes were obtained from stimulated ovaries of consenting patients undergoing oocytes retrieval for ICSI.Spindles were imaged with the Polscope.After ICSI,oocytes with or without spindles were cultured for examination of early cleavage and embryo development.A total of 328 oocytes from 50 cycles were examined with the Polscope and inseminated by ICSI.Results Spindles were imaged in 81.7% of oocytes.After ICSI,more oocytes with spindles (78.4%) fertilized normally than oocytes without spindles (53.3%)(P<0.001).At 25-27 h post ICSI.more fertilized oocytes developed from oocytes with spindles (81.9%) were detected early cleavage than those from oocytes without spindles(28.1%)(P<0.001).Significantly more embryos with early cleavage (82.2%) developed to high quality embryos at d 3 compared with the embryos without early cleavage(48.3%)(P=0.001).The value of rs related to the relationship between spindles and early cleavage was 0.420(P<0.0001).Conclusion The existing of the early cleavage may have a predictive value on the opportunity of high quality embryos and the existing of the spindle may have a predictive value in the appearance of early cleavage.

  2. Deletion Mapping of the Encephalomyocarditis Virus Primary Cleavage Site

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Harry; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2001-01-01

    The cotranslational, primary self-cleavage reaction of cardiovirus polyprotein relies on a highly conserved, short segment of amino acids at the 2A-2B protein boundary. The amino terminus of the required element for encephalomyocarditis virus has now been mapped to include Tyr126 of the 2A protein, the 18th amino acid before the cleavage site.

  3. Si(111) cleavage and the (2 x 1) reconstruction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E. M.; Halicioglu, T.; Tiller, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    Using a computer simulation technique with a semiempirical potential, a Si crystal was cleaved along the (111) plane. The pi-bonded chain structural features of the Si(111) cleavage surface are observed and found to be a consequence of the dynamics of this cleavage process and seem not to be influenced by the final energetics.

  4. A photoinduced cleavage of DNA useful for determining T residues.

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncsits, A; Török, I

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of 5'-[32P]-phosphate labeled DNA fragments with ultraviolet light in the presence of primary amines followed by piperidine treatment resulted in base-specific cleavage of the DNA chain at T residues, accompanied by a less intensive G reaction. This simple, T greater than G cleavage offers an alternative method for determining T residues in chemical DNA sequencing.

  5. Cleavage factor Im (CFIm) as a regulator of alternative polyadenylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jessica G; Norbury, Chris J

    2016-08-15

    Most mammalian protein coding genes are subject to alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), which can generate distinct mRNA 3'UTRs with differing regulatory potential. Although this process has been intensely studied in recent years, it remains unclear how and to what extent cleavage site selection is regulated under different physiological conditions. The cleavage factor Im (CFIm) complex is a core component of the mammalian cleavage machinery, and the observation that its depletion causes transcriptome-wide changes in cleavage site use makes it a key candidate regulator of APA. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of the CFIm complex, and explores the evidence surrounding its potential contribution to regulation of APA. PMID:27528751

  6. Carotenoids production: microorganisms as source of natural dyes Produção de carotenoides: microrganismos como fonte de pigmentos naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are natural dyes synthesized by plants, algae and microorganisms. Application in many sectors can be found, as food dyeing and supplementation, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and animal feed. Recent investigations have shown their ability to reduce the risks for many degenerative diseases like cancer, heart diseases, cataract and macular degeneration. An advantage of microbial carotenoids is the fact that the cultivation in controlled conditions is not dependent of climate, season or soil composition. In this review the advances in bio-production of carotenoids are presented, discussing the main factors that influence the microbial production of these dyes in different systems.

  7. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, X.; Zhang, W.; Dubcovsky, J; Tian, L.

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeolo...

  8. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These

  9. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni) Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni)

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa; Daniele Cristina Wondracek; Renata Miranda Lopes; Roberto Fontes Vieira; Francisco Ricardo Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    O canistel (P. campechiana) é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoi...

  10. Phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns in microbial carotenoid biosynthesis are revealed by comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Klassen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i Proteobacteria; (ii Firmicutes; (iii Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i horizontal gene transfer; (ii gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv positive selection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident

  11. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds. PMID:26544885

  12. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenawaty Limantara3

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Sargassum sp, and Caulerpa sp. Carotenoids from algae has been proven as a powerful antioxidant and may prevent some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and cancer. Carotenoid also has been applied as a natural dye and dietary supplements. Biotechnology has been developed to increase the production of carotenoids from micro- and macroalgae. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae, either in open or closed system are shown to increase carotenoid production. During cultivation, some stress conditions can be specifically manipulated to optimize carotenoid production from microalgae.

  13. Use of Cleavage as an Aid in the Optical Determination of Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ernest G.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the use of cleavage as an aid to microscopic determination of unknown minerals by immersion methods. Cleavages are examined in relation to fragment shapes, types of extinction, and cleavage-optical relationships. (Author/DS)

  14. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Neil D

    2016-03-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  15. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  16. Dietary Carotenoids and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Seven Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.; Feskanich, D.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental β-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with l

  17. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed. PMID:26617045

  18. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, M.G.; Oliveira, L.; Camoes, M.F.G.F.C.; Nunes, B.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the ana

  19. CAROTENOID RETENTION IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED BIOFORTIFIED GREEN CORN STORED UNDER RETAIL MARKETING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Alves Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Storing processed food products can cause alterations in their chemical compositions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed normal and vitamin A precursor (proVA-biofortified green corn ears that were packaged in polystyrene trays covered with commercial film or in multilayered polynylon packaging material and were stored. Throughout the storage period, the carotenoids were extracted from the corn kernels using organic solvents and were quantified using HPLC. A completely factorial design including three factors (cultivar, packaging and storage period was applied for analysis. The green kernels of maize cultivars BRS1030 and BRS4104 exhibited similar carotenoid profiles, with zeaxanthin being the main carotenoid. Higher concentrations of the carotenoids lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, the total carotenoids and the total vitamin A precursor carotenoids were detected in the green kernels of the biofortified BRS4104 maize. The packaging method did not affect carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed green corn ears during the storage period.

  20. In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from sun-dried chilli peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessandro; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Tundis, Rosa; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora; Loizzo, Monica R

    2014-03-01

    Chilli peppers have been recognized as an excellent source of antioxidants as they are rich in bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids which are known to exert various beneficial effects in vivo. Absorption is an important factor in the determination of the potential biological effects of carotenoids. The bioaccessibility of a food constituent such as a carotenoid represents its potential to be absorbed in humans. There is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from dried peppers. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to determine the carotenoid content of 20 varieties of red, orange or yellow coloured sun-dried chilli peppers belonging to either of four Capsicum species (annuum, baccatum, chinense and chacoense); and second, to quantify the carotenoid micellarization (bioaccessibility) following an in vitro digestion procedure. Red peppers had a higher carotenoid content and bioaccessibility than either the orange peppers or yellow pepper. Xanthophylls showed greater bioaccessibility than carotenes. Our findings confirm that dried chilli peppers are a good source of carotenoids. PMID:24272195

  1. Excited-state properties of phenolic carotenoids from green sulphur bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Chábera, P.; Pšenčík, J.; Župčanová, Anita; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    Nové Hrady : Academic and University Center, 2008. s. 43. [ESF Workshop on Novel Methods in Exploring Carotenoid Excited State Dynamics. 21.09.2008-25.09.2008, Nové Hrady] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  2. More than meets the eye: from carotenoid biosynthesis to new insights into apocarotenoid signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoid compounds synthesized almost exclusively in plants and are involved in a myriad of roles including the provision of flower and fruit pigmentation for the attraction of pollinators and seed dispersing organisms. While carotenoids are essential throughout plant de...

  3. Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto ("Bixa orellana") seeds using column chromatography. The experiment has several key advantages over previous pigment separation experiments. First, unlike other experiments significant quantities of the carotenoid (typically 20 to 25 mg) can be isolated from small quantities of plant…

  4. Production and glucosylation of C50 and C 40 carotenoids by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Sabine A E; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Netzer, Roman; Stafnes, Marit; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-02-01

    The yellow-pigmented soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 is accumulating the cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. Carotenoid pathway engineering was previously shown to allow for efficient lycopene production. Here, engineering of C. glutamicum for production of endogenous decaprenoxanthin as well as of the heterologous C50 carotenoids C.p.450 and sarcinaxanthin is described. Plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for lycopene cyclization and hydroxylation from C. glutamicum, Dietzia sp., and Micrococcus luteus, in a lycopene-producing platform strain constructed here, resulted in accumulation of these three C50 carotenoids to concentrations of about 3-4 mg/g CDW. Chromosomal deletion of a putative carotenoid glycosyltransferase gene cg0730/crtX in these strains entailed production of non-glucosylated derivatives of decaprenoxanthin, C.p.450, and sarcinaxanthin, respectively. Upon introduction of glucosyltransferase genes from M. luteus, C. glutamicum, and Pantoea ananatis, these hydroxylated C50 carotenoids were glucosylated. We here also demonstrate production of the C40 carotenoids β-carotene and zeaxanthin in recombinant C. glutamicum strains and co-expression of the P. ananatis crtX gene was used to obtain glucosylated zeaxanthin. Together, our results show that C. glutamicum is a potentially valuable host for production of a wide range of glucosylated C40 and C50 carotenoids. PMID:24270893

  5. Regulatory control of high levels of carotenoid accumulation in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers contain a wide range of carotenoid content. To decipher the key factors controlling carotenoid levels in tubers, four potato lines (Atlantic, Désirée, 91E22, and POR03) were examined by a combination of biochemical, molecular, and genomics approaches. These lines...

  6. Carotenoids located in human lymphocyte subpopulations and natural killer cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the

  7. Context-dependent effects of carotenoid supplementation on reproduction in zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Briga, Michael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-dependent sexual coloration is one of the best-studied sexual signals, but how the honesty of such signals is maintained remains uncertain. The main hypotheses focus on acquisition limits and physiological use of carotenoids in immune function and regulating oxidative stress. A hypothesis

  8. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue. PMID:15253871

  9. Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoes, J.C.; Sandmann, G.; Visser, H.; Diaz, M.; Mossel, van M.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The crtYB locus was used as an integrative platform for the construction of specific carotenoid biosynthetic mutants in the astaxanthin-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The crtYB gene of X. dendrorhous, encoding a chimeric carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme, could be inactivated by both si

  10. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in solar saltern microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Wit, Rutger; Keely, Brendan J.; Maxwell, James R.

    1994-11-01

    The distributions of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their degradation products have been studied in two microbial mat systems developed in the calcite and calcite/gypsum evaporite domains of a solar saltern system. Phormidium valderianum and Microcoleus chthonoplastes are the dominant cyanobacterial species, respectively, and large amounts of Chloroflexus-like bacteria occur in the carbonate/gypsum mat. In both systems, the major pigments are chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, which originate from these mat-building cyanobacteria. This common feature contrasts with differences in other pigments that are specific for each mat community. Thus, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, reflecting diatom inputs, are only found in the calcite mat, whereas the calcite/gypsum mat contains high concentrations of bacteriochlorophylls c produced by the multicellular green filamentous bacteria. In both cases, the depth concentration profiles (0-30 and 0-40 mm) show a relatively good preservation of the cyanobacterial carotenoids, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, myxoxanthophyll, and echinenone. This contrasts with the extensive biodegradation of cyanobacterial remains observed microscopically. Fucoxanthin in the calcite mat is also transformed at a faster rate than the cyanobacterial carotenoids. Chlorophyll a, the major pigment in both mats, exhibits different transformation pathways. In the calcite/gypsum mat, it is transformed via C-13 2 carbomethoxy defunctionalization prior to loss of the phytyl chain, leading to the formation of pyrophaeophytin a and, subsequently, pyrophaeophorbide a. On the other hand, the occurrence of the enzyme chlorophyllase, attributed to diatoms in the calcite mat, gives rise to extensive phytyl hydrolysis, with the formation of chlorophyllide a, pyrophaeophorbide a and, in minor proportion, phaeophorbide a. Studies of the sources of the photosynthetic pigments and of their transformation pathways in such simplified ecosystems provide a

  11. Specific Cleavage of the Nucleoprotein of Fish Rhabdovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G-Z; Yi, Y-J; Chen, Z-Y; Zhang, Q-Y

    2015-11-01

    Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) is one of myriad rhabdoviruses recorded in fish. Preliminary data show that inhibition of the SCRV nucleoprotein (N) could significantly reduce the progeny virus titers in infected Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. Here, the authors propose that cleavage of the viral 47-kDa N protein is caspase-mediated based on caspase inhibition experiments, transient expression in EPC transfection, and analysis of cleavage sites. Cleavage of the SCRV N protein in culture was prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK (z-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone). Subsequently, N was transiently expressed in EPC cells, the results of which indicated that the specific cleavage of N also occurred in the cells transfected with N-GFP plasmid. Several truncated fragments of the N gene were constructed and transiently transfected into EPC cells. Immunoblotting results indicated that D324 and D374 are the cleavage sites of N by caspases. The authors also found that z-VAD-FMK could inhibit the cytopathic effect in SCRV-infected EPC cells but not affect the production of infectious progeny, suggesting that the caspase-mediated cleavage of N protein is not required for in vitro SCRV replication. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the cleavage of rhabdovirus proteins. PMID:25689989

  12. Bundled slaty cleavage in laminated argillite, north-central minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Exceptional bundled slaty cleavage (defined herein) has been found in drill cores of laminated, folded, weakly metamorphosed argillite at several localities in the early Proterozoic Animikie basin of north-central Minnesota. The cleavage domains are more closely spaced within the cleavage bundles than outside them, the mean tectosilicate grain size of siltstone layers, measured normal to cleavage, is less in the cleavage bundles than outside them, and the cleavage bundles are enriched in opaque phases and phyllosilicates relative to extra-bundle segments. These facts suggest that pressure solution was a major factor in bundle development. If it is assumed that opaque phases have been conserved during pressure solution, the modal differences in composition between intra-bundle and extra-bundle segments of beds provide a means for estimating bulk material shortening normal to cleavage. Argillite samples from the central part of the Animikie basin have been shortened a minimum of about 22%, as estimated by this method. These estimates are similar to the shortening values derived from other strain markers in other rock types interbedded with the argillite, and are also consistent with the regional pattern of deformation. ?? 1987.

  13. Measurement of temperature rise during Si cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient temperature change has been measured during the cleavage of Si(100) wafers both in air and in vacuum (5xl06 torr). A fine thermocouple(TC) (E type) formed by wires of diameter 25 μm was placed in a groove cut on the (100) surface where the crack was to occur. A tiny drop of thermal transfer compound was applied to enhance the thermal conduction between TC and sample surface. The thermocouple signal was recorded by a digital storage adaptor after an amplification of 10,000 by a special low noise amplifier. The width of the pulse appeared to be narrower in vacuum than in air. The difference is ascribed to effects of adsorption. Great care was taken to avoid spurious effects. The technique was tested by experiments on perspex and glass, where the results show reasonable agreement with those from previous work. Theoretical analysis of the measurements shows that the freshly cleaved surface can temporarily attain high temperatures, which is very significant for formation of surface structures

  14. A cleavage toughness master curve model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of fusion power will require a fracture toughness database, derived largely from small specimen tests, closely integrated with methods to assess first wall and blanket structural integrities. A master curve-shift (MC-ΔT) method has been proposed as an engineering expedient to treat the effects of structural geometry, irradiation, loading rates and safety margins. However, a number of issues related to the MC-ΔT method remain to be resolved, including the universality of MC shapes. A new micromechanical model of fracture toughness in the cleavage transition regime is proposed that combines analytical representations of finite element analysis simulations of crack-tip stress fields with a local critical stress-critical stressed area (σ*-A*) fracture criterion. This model, has been successful in predicting geometry effects, as well as high loading rate and irradiation hardening-induced Charpy shifts. By incorporating a modest temperature dependence in σ*(T), an inconsistency between model predictions and an observed universal-type MC shape is resolved

  15. Arabidopsis OR proteins are the major post-transcriptional regulators of phytoene synthase in mediating carotenoid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are indispensable natural pigments to plants and humans. Phytoene synthase (PSY), the rate-limiting enzyme in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, and ORANGE (OR), a regulator of chromoplast differentiation and enhancer of carotenoid biosynthesis, represent two key proteins that control caro...

  16. Clorofilas y carotenoides: del screening a la bioactividad tisular

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    La funcionalidad de clorofilas y carotenoides surge a partir de los efectos derivados de su función, su acción y su asociación. Con estos pigmentos fotosintéticos se ha realizado un amplio screening de sus propiedades funcionales en sistemas in vitro y condiciones modelo, destacando su capacidad antioxidante y anti-mutagénica así como la inducción de eventos ligados a la diferenciación y proliferación celular. Como con la mayoría de compuestos funcionales, el establecimiento concreto de la bi...

  17. Carotenoid and vitamin content of Karat and other Micronesian banana cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Schierle, Joseph; Aalbersberg, William; Hofmann, Peter; Humphries, Julia; Huang, Alvin; Lorens, Adelino; Levendusky, Amy; Daniells, Jeff; Marks, Geoffrey C; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2006-01-01

    We previously found high carotenoid levels in Karat and other Micronesian bananas, indicating potential importance for alleviating vitamin A deficiency and other nutritionally related health problems in the Federated States of Micronesia. Past work focused on carotenoid and mineral analyses, whereas here we investigated 16 cultivars (most not previously analysed) for a broader micronutrient profile, including seven vitamins. Karat carotenoid levels were higher than in previous analyses, confirming Karat as exceptionally carotenoid-rich. We identified an additional 10 carotenoid-rich cultivars, expanding the range having potential for alleviating vitamin A deficiency. A striking finding is the high riboflavin level in Karat, including high levels of uncharacterized flavonoids. Niacin and alpha-tocopherol are at levels that may contribute importantly to dietary intake within normal patterns of consumption. These data present a more complete basis for promoting the nutritional benefits of these banana cultivars where they are consumed in the Pacific, and potential benefits for promoting elsewhere. PMID:17135031

  18. The effect of cellular carotenoid levels in micrococcus luteus on resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a biological system was developed to link the cellular carotenoid levels to Gamma radiation resistance in bacteria for the frst time. thus, in a non-photosynrhetic bacterium, in Micrococcus Luteus an inverse relationship was found between the increase in diphenylamine (DPA) concentration (5.25 μg/ml culture) and the polar cellular carotenoid pigments (C-45 and C-50 carotenoids and their glucosides). It was also found that irradiation of cells with different carotenoid concentrations with doses of γ-radiation in the range of (0.2500 gray) under oxic, air and hypoxic conditions showed that carotenoid pigments offer no significant protection as they usually do in case of visible light. (author).15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Shindo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria have not been examined as extensively as land bacteria. We screened carotenoids from orange or red pigments-producing marine bacteria belonging to rare or novel species. The new acyclic carotenoids with a C30 aglycone, diapolycopenedioc acid xylosylesters A–C and methyl 5-glucosyl-5,6-dihydro-apo-4,4′-lycopenoate, were isolated from the novel Gram-negative bacterium Rubritalea squalenifaciens, which belongs to phylum Verrucomicrobia, as well as the low-GC Gram-positive bacterium Planococcus maritimus strain iso-3 belonging to the class Bacilli, phylum Firmicutes, respectively. The rare monocyclic C40 carotenoids, (3R-saproxanthin and (3R,2′S-myxol, were isolated from novel species of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. In this review, we report the structures and antioxidant activities of these carotenoids, and consider relationships between bacterial phyla and carotenoid structures.

  20. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Maresca, Julia A; Yunker, Colleen E;

    2004-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a strict anaerobe and an obligate photoautotroph. On the basis of sequence similarity with known enzymes or sequence motifs, nine open reading frames encoding putative enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis were identified in the genome sequence of C....... tepidum, and all nine genes were inactivated. Analysis of the carotenoid composition in the resulting mutants allowed the genes encoding the following six enzymes to be identified: phytoene synthase (crtB/CT1386), phytoene desaturase (crtP/CT0807), zeta-carotene desaturase (crtQ/CT1414), gamma......-carotene desaturase (crtU/CT0323), carotenoid 1',2'-hydratase (crtC/CT0301), and carotenoid cis-trans isomerase (crtH/CT0649). Three mutants (CT0180, CT1357, and CT1416 mutants) did not exhibit a discernible phenotype. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. tepidum is similar to that in cyanobacteria and plants...

  1. Localized Calcium Signals along the Cleavage Furrow of the Xenopus Egg Are Not Involved in Cytokinesis

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Issei

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that a localized calcium (Ca) signal at the growing end of the cleavage furrow triggers cleavage furrow formation in large eggs. We have examined the possible role of a Ca signal in cleavage furrow formation in the Xenopus laevis egg during the first cleavage. We were able to detect two kinds of Ca waves along the cleavage furrow. However, the Ca waves appeared after cleavage furrow formation in late stages of the first cleavage. In addition, cleavage was not affected by ...

  2. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor (Madison, WI); Olive, David Michael (Madison, WI); Prudent, James Robert (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  3. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  4. Prediction of proteasome cleavage motifs by neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesimir, C.; Nussbaum, A.K.; Schild, H.;

    2002-01-01

    We present a predictive method that can simulate an essential step in the antigen presentation in higher vertebrates, namely the step involving the proteasomal degradation of polypeptides into fragments which have the potential to bind to MHC Class I molecules. Proteasomal cleavage prediction...... the prediction of MHC Class I ligand boundaries more accurate: 65% of the cleavage sites and 85% of the non-cleavage sites are correctly determined. Moreover, we show that the neural networks trained on the constitutive proteasome data learns a specificity that differs from that of the networks...

  5. Assembly of functional photosystem complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporating carotenoids from the spirilloxanthin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuang C; Mothersole, David J; Dilbeck, Preston; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Pu; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Grayson, Katie J; Jackson, Philip J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Li, Ying; Holten, Dewey; Neil Hunter, C

    2015-02-01

    Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry. Premature termination of this new pathway by inactivating crtC or crtD produced strains with lycopene or rhodopin as major carotenoids. All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC-LH1-PufX complexes. The efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer for 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin (15 conjugated CC bonds; N=15) in LH2 complexes is low, at 35%. High energy transfer efficiencies were obtained for neurosporene (N=9; 94%), spheroidene (N=10; 96%) and spheroidenone (N=11; 95%), whereas intermediate values were measured for lycopene (N=11; 64%), rhodopin (N=11; 62%) and spirilloxanthin (N=13; 39%). The variety and stability of these novel Rba. sphaeroides antenna complexes make them useful experimental models for investigating the energy transfer dynamics of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis. PMID:25449968

  6. The Or Gene Enhances Carotenoid Accumulation and Stability During Post-Harvest Storage of Potato Tubers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Mark Failla; Theodore W.Thannhauser; Yong Yang; Qiang Xu; Katherine Owsiany; Ralf Welsch; Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai; Shan Lu; Joyce Van Eck; Xiu-Xin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality.To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability,we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene.We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level,but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage.In contrast,no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellowflesh variety during the same period of storage.The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures,as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase,a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.Furthermore,the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells.Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e.heat shock proteins,glutathione-S-transferases,and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation.Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated.Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage.

  7. Utilization of Microemulsions from Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz to Improve Carotenoid Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nai-Hsing; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids have been known to reduce the risk of several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular. However, carotenoids are unstable and susceptible to degradation. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (R. nasutus), a Chinese medicinal herb rich in carotenoids, was reported to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer. This study intends to isolate carotenoids from R. nasutus by column chromatography, identify and quantify by HPLC-MS, and prepare carotenoid microemulsions for determination of absolute bioavailability in rats. Initially, carotenoid fraction was isolated using 250 mL ethyl acetate poured into an open-column packed with magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w). Fourteen carotenoids including internal standard β-apo-8′-carotenal were resolved within 62 min by a YMC C30 column and gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (82:14:4, v/v/v) and methylene chloride. Highly stable carotenoid microemulsions were prepared using a mixture of CapryolTM90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water, with the mean particle being 10.4 nm for oral administration and 10.7 nm for intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of carotenoids in microemulsions and dispersion was 0.45% and 0.11%, respectively, while a much higher value of 6.25% and 1.57% were shown for lutein, demonstrating 4-fold enhancement in bioavailability upon incorporation of R. nasutus carotenoids into a microemulsion system. PMID:27150134

  8. Developing an emulsifier system to improve the bioaccessibility of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Elisabet; Rincón, Francisco; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-11-12

    Food emulsion designs, with the aim of delivering lipophilic bioactive compounds, should include an estimate of their bioaccessibility to support the claimed effect. With this goal in mind, in vitro digestion models and experimental design of mixtures were used as analytical tools to measure this parameter and to optimize the formulation of an O/W emulsion, including carotenoids as functional ingredients. Two experimental stages were applied. First, a screening phase was completed to detect the critical factors that exerted a significant effect on the response (bioaccessibility). During this phase, we observed that the response was modified mainly by secondary effects such as synergies and antagonisms of the emulsifying mixture. A group of four emulsifiers was selected at this phase to perform the second experimental stage, the optimization phase. This allowed us to obtain the mixture that produced the maximum carotenoid bioaccessibility. This formulation had emulsifying properties of the liposugars, acyl- and polyacyl-glycerides, as well as the synergistic effect arising from the combination of materials; this maximized the response. The analytical approach applied in this work is of interest for food designers for screening and controlling the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds in a given matrix and, consequently, selecting the formulation conditions for higher bioaccessibilities. PMID:18937490

  9. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Mast, Andrea L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  10. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Mast, Andrea L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  11. Implementation of a combinatorial cleavage and deprotection scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Rasmussen, Palle H.

    1996-01-01

    Phthalhydrazide libraries are synthesized in solution from substituted hydrazines and phthalimides in several different library formats including single compounds, indexed sub-libraries and a full library. When carried out during solid-phase synthesis, this combinatorial cleavage and deprotection...

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the cleavage surface of bismuth crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of in situ studies of the surface structure of the cleavages of bismuth crystals by the method of scanning tunneling microscopy are presented. It is established that cleavage 'opens' the (111) surface with atomically smooth terraces of diatomic steps whose heights are equal to 0.4 nm or a multiple of this value. If the cleavage is made at room temperature, the boundaries of the terraces are usually curved and diffuse owing to the thermal motion with the activation energy of ∼700 K. The cleavage at liquid nitrogen or helium temperatures provides the formation of straight boundaries along the atomic rows on the surface. Twin interlayers of the quantized width of ∼7 nm are revealed. This width value indicates that the atomic planes on both sides of such interlayers intergrow with the interlayer planes inclined to them at a small angle

  13. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  14. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Kaiyu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhou, Hui-Ren [Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (United States); Food Science and Human Nutrition (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  15. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥ 25 ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥ 10 ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥ 300 ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism. Highlights: ► Deoxynivalenol (DON) anisomycin, satratoxin G (SG) and ricin are ribotoxins. ► Ribotoxins induce 18s and 28s rRNA cleavage in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. ► Ribotoxins induce rRNA cleavage via

  16. A Historical Trend of Ethnic Cleavages in Contemporary Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Mohammadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is evaluation social and historical content of social cleavage in contemporary Iran. Analytical framework rooted in Rokan theory. Rokan believed that social cleavage appearance post of revolutions. Method of study was historical comparatives.The method of this research is comparative historical in which we used of historical documents and data. In this field, I have compared data of indexes of socio-economic of ethnic states.Assessment of data and documents show that so...

  17. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  18. Mutational analysis of the encephalomyocarditis virus primary cleavage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, H.; Palmenberg, A C

    1996-01-01

    Sixteen substitution mutations of the conserved DvExNPGP sequence, implicated in cardiovirus and aphthovirus primary polyprotein cleavage, were created in encephalomyocarditis virus cDNA, expressed, and characterized for processing activity. Nearly all the mutations severely decreased the efficiency of the primary cleavage reaction during cell-free synthesis of viral precursors, indicating a stringent requirement for the natural sequence in this processing event. When representative mutations...

  19. Cleavage of a viral polyprotein by a cellular proteolytic activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Y. C.; Shih, D S

    1986-01-01

    The 200,000-dalton polyprotein encoded by the bottom component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus was synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, and this in vitro-synthesized protein was isolated from the lysate reaction mixture by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Incubation of the isolated polyprotein with buffer caused no change in the protein, but incubation with reticulocyte lysates or with fractionated lysate proteins resulted in cleavage of the protein into the expected cleavage produc...

  20. Evidence for intramolecular self-cleavage of picornaviral replicase precursors.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmenberg, A C; Rueckert, R R

    1982-01-01

    It has previously been shown that when encephalomyocarditis viral RNA is translated in cell-free extracts of rabbit reticulocytes, it synthesizes a virus-coded protease, p22, which is derived by cleavage of a precursor protein, C. Protein C is shown here to be cleaved by two different mechanisms, which were distinguished by their sensitivity to dilution. One mechanism was sensitive to dilution; the other was not. The biphasic cleavage behavior was unchanged by diluting incubation mixtures wit...

  1. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyme, Summer B.; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G.; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9–gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9–gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  2. Carotenoid-based coloration, condition, and immune responsiveness in the nestlings of a sexually dimorphic bird of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternalski, Audrey; Mougeot, François; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In many birds, nestlings exhibit brightly colored traits that are pigmented by carotenoids. Carotenoids are diet limited and also serve important health-related physiological functions. The proximate mechanisms behind the expression of these carotenoid-pigmented traits are still poorly known, especially in nestlings with sexual size dimorphism. In these nestlings, intrabrood competition levels and growth strategies likely differ between sexes, and this may in turn influence carotenoid allocation rules. We used dietary carotenoid supplementation to test whether wild marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) nestlings were carotenoid limited and whether carotenoid allocation strategies varied between sexes, which differ in their size and growth strategies. When supplemented, nestlings used the supplemental carotenoids to increase their coloration independently of their sex. We showed that the condition dependence of the carotenoid level and the response to an immune challenge (phytohemagglutinin test) differed between sexes, possibly because sexual size dimorphism influences growth strategies and/or intrabrood competition levels and access to different types of food. In this species, which often feeds on mammals, a trade-off likely exists between food quantity (energy) and quality (carotenoid content). Finally, carotenoid-based coloration expressed in marsh harrier nestlings appeared to be indicative of immune responsiveness rather than condition, therefore potentially advertising to parents nestling quality or value rather than nutritional need. PMID:22705486

  3. Absorption of Vitamin A and Carotenoids by the Enterocyte: Focus on Transport Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Reboul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A carotenoid status in these individuals. A more accurate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of intestinal vitamin A absorption is a key step in this direction. It was long thought that β-carotene (the main provitamin A carotenoid in human diet, and thus all carotenoids, were absorbed by a passive diffusion process, and that preformed vitamin A (retinol absorption occurred via an unidentified energy-dependent transporter. The discovery of proteins able to facilitate carotenoid uptake and secretion by the enterocyte during the past decade has challenged established assumptions, and the elucidation of the mechanisms of retinol intestinal absorption is in progress. After an overview of vitamin A and carotenoid fate during gastro-duodenal digestion, our focus will be directed to the putative or identified proteins participating in the intestinal membrane and cellular transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte (i.e., Scavenger Receptors or Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins, among others. Further progress in the identification of the proteins involved in intestinal transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte is of major importance for optimizing their bioavailability.

  4. Pressurized Hot Ethanol Extraction of Carotenoids from Carrot By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Turner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS. The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2–10 min and the temperature (60–180 °C. β-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extraction method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of β-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction.

  5. Statistical optimisation of cell growth and carotenoid production by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani R. Maldonade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential statistical methods were used to maximise carotenoid production by a strain of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, isolated from the Brazilian ecosystem. Initially, a factorial 2(5-1 experimental design was used, and the variables were pH and the levels of glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4. The nitrogen source (yeast extract was the most important variable in enhancing carotenoid production; MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4 had a negative influence. The initial pH had no significant effect on carotenoid and cell productions. We further investigated the effects of glucose and yeast extract effects, using a second-order central composite design (CCD to optimise carotenoid production, which was adequately approximated with a full quadratic equation obtained from a two-factor-2-level design. The analysis of quadratic surfaces showed that after 5 days of cultivation at 25ºC, the maximum carotenoid concentration (745 µg l-1 was obtained with 15 g l-1 of yeast extract and 20 g l-1 of glucose. The maximum carotenoid production (152 µg g-1 was obtained with 5 g l-1 yeast extract and 10 g l-1 glucose. Carotenoid formation was more sensitive to changes in yeast extract concentration than to changes in glucose concentration. Maximum cell production was achieved with 15-17 g l-1 of yeast extract and 15-20 g l-1 of glucose.

  6. Carotenoids play a positive role in the degradation of heterocycles by Sphingobium yanoikuyae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial oxidative degradation is a potential way of removing pollutants such as heterocycles from the environment. During this process, reactive oxygen species or other oxidants are inevitably produced, and may cause damage to DNA, proteins, and membranes, thereby decreasing the degradation rate. Carotenoids can serve as membrane-integrated antioxidants, protecting cells from oxidative stress. FINDINGS: Several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were cloned and characterized from a carbazole-degrading bacterium Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5. In addition, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid synthesized by strain XLDN2-5 was identified as zeaxanthin that was synthesized from β-carotene through β-cryptoxanthin. The amounts of zeaxanthin and hydrogen peroxide produced were significantly and simultaneously enhanced during the biodegradation of heterocycles (carbazole < carbazole + benzothiophene < carbazole + dibenzothiophene. These higher production levels were consistent with the transcriptional increase of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, one of the key enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 can enhance the synthesis of zeaxanthin, one of the carotenoids, which may modulate membrane fluidity and defense against intracellular oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the positive role of carotenoids in the biodegradation of heterocycles, while elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the Sphingobium genus.

  7. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties. PMID:26593526

  8. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini F. Strati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices.

  9. Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoid-to-Bacteriochlorophyll Energy Transfer in LHRC Photosynthetic Complex from Roseiflexus castenholzii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Collins, Aaron M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); LaFountain, Amy M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Enriquez, Miriam M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Frank, Harry A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blankenship, R. E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Carotenoids present in the photosynthetic light-harvesting reaction center (LHRC) complex from chlorosome lacking filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Roseiflexus castenholzii were purified and characterized for their photochemical properties. The LHRC from anaerobically grown cells contains five different carotenoids, methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin, γ-carotene, and its three derivatives, whereas the LHRC from aerobically grown cells contains only three carotenoid pigments with methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin being the dominant one. The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of excited singlet states of the carotenoids were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy in organic solvent and in the intact LHRC complex. Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy performed in the near-infrared (NIR) on purified carotenoids combined with steady-state absorption spectroscopy led to the precise determination of values of the energies of the S1(21Ag-) excited state. Global and single wavelength fitting of the ultrafast spectral and temporal data sets of the carotenoids in solvents and in the LHRC revealed the pathways of de-excitation of the carotenoid excited states.

  10. Outdoor cultivation of microalgae for carotenoid production: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, José A; García-González, Mercedes; Guerrero, Miguel G

    2007-04-01

    Microalgae are a major natural source for a vast array of valuable compounds, including a diversity of pigments, for which these photosynthetic microorganisms represent an almost exclusive biological resource. Yellow, orange, and red carotenoids have an industrial use in food products and cosmetics as vitamin supplements and health food products and as feed additives for poultry, livestock, fish, and crustaceans. The growing worldwide market value of carotenoids is projected to reach over US$1,000 million by the end of the decade. The nutraceutical boom has also integrated carotenoids mainly on the claim of their proven antioxidant properties. Recently established benefits in human health open new uses for some carotenoids, especially lutein, an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of a variety of degenerative diseases. Consumers' demand for natural products favors development of pigments from biological sources, thus increasing opportunities for microalgae. The biotechnology of microalgae has gained considerable progress and relevance in recent decades, with carotenoid production representing one of its most successful domains. In this paper, we review the most relevant features of microalgal biotechnology related to the production of different carotenoids outdoors, with a main focus on beta-carotene from Dunaliella, astaxanthin from Haematococcus, and lutein from chlorophycean strains. We compare the current state of the corresponding production technologies, based on either open-pond systems or closed photobioreactors. The potential of scientific and technological advances for improvements in yield and reduction in production costs for carotenoids from microalgae is also discussed. PMID:17277962

  11. Serum carotenoids reduce progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery wall among Eastern Finnish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Karppi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several previous epidemiologic studies have shown that high blood levels of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis, but results have been inconsistent. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall, and serum levels of carotenoids. METHODS: We studied the effect of carotenoids on progression of early atherosclerosis in a population-based study. The association between concentrations of serum carotenoids, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall was explored in 840 middle-aged men (aged 46-65 years from Eastern Finland. Ultrasonography of the common carotid arteries were performed at baseline and 7-year follow-up. Serum levels of carotenoids were analyzed at baseline. Changes in mean and maximum intima media thickness of carotid artery wall were related to baseline serum carotenoid levels in covariance analyses adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: In a covariance analysis with adjustment for age, ultrasound sonographer, maximum intima media thickness, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, serum LDL cholesterol, family history of coronary heart disease, antihypertensive medication and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, 7-year change in maximum intima media thickness was inversely associated with lycopene (p = 0.005, α-carotene (p = 0.002 and β-carotene (p = 0.019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that high serum concentrations of carotenoids may be protective against early atherosclerosis.

  12. Validating Resonance Raman Spectroscopy: a Non-invasive Assessment of Skin Carotenoids as a Biomarker of Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Sheryl Swain

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adult studies have found a strong correlation between serum carotenoids and skin carotenoids measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS). No published studies have examined correlations between skin and serum carotenoids among children. Objectives: (1) To validate skin RRS methodology against serum carotenoid measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography and (2) to determine if RRS skin carotenoids can be used as a valid biomarker of total fruit and vegetable (FV) inta...

  13. Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Michał; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method. PMID:22428130

  14. Noninvasive laser Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; McClane, Robert W.

    2001-05-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel non- invasive optical technology to measure carotenoid antioxidants in human skin of healthy volunteers. Using blue-green laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra are obtained which are superimposed on a large skin autofluorescence background. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 30 seconds, and the required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Our technique can be used for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations and may have applications for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  15. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Maass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the first pathway-specific enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY is a prime regulatory target. This includes a number of biotechnological approaches that have successfully increased the carotenoid content in agronomically relevant non-green plant tissues through tissue-specific PSY overexpression. We investigated the differential effects of constitutive AtPSY overexpression in green and non-green cells of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This revealed striking similarities to the situation found in orange carrot roots with respect to carotenoid amounts and sequestration mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis seedlings, carotenoid content remained unaffected by increased AtPSY levels although the protein was almost quantitatively imported into plastids, as shown by western blot analyses. In contrast, non-photosynthetic calli and roots overexpressing AtPSY accumulated carotenoids 10 and 100-fold above the corresponding wild-type tissues and contained 1800 and 500 microg carotenoids per g dry weight, respectively. This increase coincided with a change of the pattern of accumulated carotenoids, as xanthophylls decreased relative to beta-carotene and carotene intermediates accumulated. As shown by polarization microscopy, carotenoids were found deposited in crystals, similar to crystalline-type chromoplasts of non-green tissues present in several other taxa. In fact, orange-colored carrots showed a similar situation with increased PSY protein as well as carotenoid levels and accumulation patterns whereas wild white-rooted carrots were similar to Arabidopsis wild type roots in this respect. Initiation of carotenoid crystal formation by increased PSY protein amounts was further confirmed by overexpressing crtB, a bacterial PSY gene, in white carrots, resulting in increased carotenoid amounts deposited in crystals. CONCLUSIONS: The sequestration of carotenoids into crystals can be driven by the

  16. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XII. Some species from the Pyrenean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By means of column and thin-layer chromatography, the authors investigated the presence of various carotenoids in thalli of 12 species of lichens from the Pyrenean Peninsula. The following carotenoids were found: lycophyll, lycoxanthin, β-carotene, α-, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, adonixanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, mutatochrome, mutatoxanthin and rhodoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 2.299 (Cetraria cucullata to 39.402 mg•g-1 dry weight (Pseudoevernia furfuraceae.

  17. The New Carotenoid Pigment Moraxanthin Is Associated with Toxic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mangoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The new pigment “moraxanthin” was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. The pigment, obtained from a 10 L culture of C. cf. verruculosa, was isolated and harvested by HPLC and its structure determined from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The data identified this pigment as a new acylated form of vaucheriaxanthin called moraxanthin after the berry like algal cell. Its presence in pure cultures and in natural bloom samples indicates that moraxanthin is specific to C. cf. verruculosa and can be used as a marker of its presence when HPLC is used to analyze natural blooms samples.

  18. Anti-obesity activity of the marine carotenoid fucoxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food. PMID:25871295

  19. Anti-Obesity Activity of the Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food.

  20. Small molecule activators of pre-mRNA 3′ cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Kevin; Khleborodova, Asya; Pan, Jingyi; Ryan, Xiaozhou P.

    2009-01-01

    3′ Cleavage and polyadenylation are obligatory steps in the biogenesis of most mammalian pre-mRNAs. In vitro reconstitution of the 3′ cleavage reaction from human cleavage factors requires high concentrations of creatine phosphate (CP), though how CP activates cleavage is not known. Previously, we proposed that CP might work by competitively inhibiting a cleavage-suppressing serine/threonine (S/T) phosphatase. Here we show that fluoride/EDTA, a general S/T phosphatase inhibitor, activates in ...

  1. Mechanism of intramembrane cleavage of alcadeins by γ-secretase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Piao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcadein proteins (Alcs; Alcα, Alcβand Alcγ are predominantly expressed in neurons, as is Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ precursor protein (APP. Both Alcs and APP are cleaved by primary α- or β-secretase to generate membrane-associated C-terminal fragments (CTFs. Alc CTFs are further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alc peptide along with the release of intracellular domain fragment (Alc ICD from the membrane. In the case of APP, APP CTFβ is initially cleaved at the ε-site to release the intracellular domain fragment (AICD and consequently the γ-site is determined, by which Aβ generates. The initial ε-site is thought to define the final γ-site position, which determines whether Aβ40/43 or Aβ42 is generated. However, initial intracellular ε-cleavage sites of Alc CTF to generate Alc ICD and the molecular mechanism that final γ-site position is determined remains unclear in Alcs. METHODOLOGY: Using HEK293 cells expressing Alcs plus presenilin 1 (PS1, a catalytic unit of γ-secretase and the membrane fractions of these cells, the generation of p3-Alc possessing C-terminal γ-cleavage site and Alc ICD possessing N-terminal ε-cleavage site were analysed with MALDI-TOF/MS. We determined the initial ε-site position of all Alcα, Alcβ and Alcγ, and analyzed the relationship between the initially determined ε-site position and the final γ-cleavage position. CONCLUSIONS: The initial ε-site position does not always determine the final γ-cleavage position in Alcs, which differed from APP. No additional γ-cleavage sites are generated from artificial/non-physiological positions of ε-cleavage for Alcs, while the artificial ε-cleavage positions can influence in selection of physiological γ-site positions. Because alteration of γ-secretase activity is thought to be a pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease, Alcs are useful and sensitive substrate to detect the altered cleavage of substrates by γ-secretase, which may

  2. Pripper: prediction of caspase cleavage sites from whole proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmi Jussi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspases are a family of proteases that have central functions in programmed cell death (apoptosis and inflammation. Caspases mediate their effects through aspartate-specific cleavage of their target proteins, and at present almost 400 caspase substrates are known. There are several methods developed to predict caspase cleavage sites from individual proteins, but currently none of them can be used to predict caspase cleavage sites from multiple proteins or entire proteomes, or to use several classifiers in combination. The possibility to create a database from predicted caspase cleavage products for the whole genome could significantly aid in identifying novel caspase targets from tandem mass spectrometry based proteomic experiments. Results Three different pattern recognition classifiers were developed for predicting caspase cleavage sites from protein sequences. Evaluation of the classifiers with quality measures indicated that all of the three classifiers performed well in predicting caspase cleavage sites, and when combining different classifiers the accuracy increased further. A new tool, Pripper, was developed to utilize the classifiers and predict the caspase cut sites from an arbitrary number of input sequences. A database was constructed with the developed tool, and it was used to identify caspase target proteins from tandem mass spectrometry data from two different proteomic experiments. Both known caspase cleavage products as well as novel cleavage products were identified using the database demonstrating the usefulness of the tool. Pripper is not restricted to predicting only caspase cut sites, but it gives the possibility to scan protein sequences for any given motif(s and predict cut sites once a suitable cut site prediction model for any other protease has been developed. Pripper is freely available and can be downloaded from http://users.utu.fi/mijopi/Pripper. Conclusions We have developed Pripper, a tool for

  3. Cell-surface acceleration of urokinase-catalyzed receptor cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Ploug, M; Behrendt, N;

    1997-01-01

    or indirectly mediated by uPA itself. In a soluble system, uPA can cleave purified uPAR, but the low efficiency of this reaction has raised doubts as to whether uPA is directly responsible for uPAR cleavage on the cells. We now report that uPA-catalyzed cleavage of uPAR on the cell surface is...... strongly favored relative to the reaction in solution. The time course of uPA-catalyzed cleavage of cell-bound uPAR was studied using U937 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Only 30 min was required for 10 nM uPA to cleave 50% of the cell-bound uPAR. This uPA-catalyzed cleavage reaction...... was inhibited by a prior incubation of the cells with uPA inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, demonstrating a requirement for specific receptor binding of the active uPA to obtain the high-efficiency cleavage of cell-bound uPAR. Furthermore, amino-terminal sequence analysis revealed that u...

  4. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-06-01

    Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

  5. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography versus high performance liquid chromatography: stationary phase selectivity for generic carotenoid screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Aim of study was to find the most suitable LC column for generic carotenoid screening. To represent the diversity of carotenoids in nature and to optimize chromatographic separation, a set of carotenoid standards was carefully chosen to account for the various classes of carotenoids. The HPLC C30 column has since long been the 'golden standard' in the chromatographic separation of carotenoids. Since approximately one decade, new UHPLC technology has led to much shorter analysis times, smaller peak widths and higher chromatographic resolution. However, there are currently no UHPLC columns on the market containing the specific stationary phase chemistry of the HPLC C30 column. Therefore during this study, we investigated the separation of carotenoids on a set of UHPLC columns and compared it to their separation on the HPLC C30 column. Comparison of carotenoids separations on the different stationary phases with objective column comparison parameters clearly indicated that the HPLC C30 column is an overall better performer in the separation of carotenoids. This is due to the lack of UHPLC column chemistries that are adapted for carotenoid analysis. However, analysis time on the HPLC C30 column takes about four times longer compared to UHPLC analysis. Therefore, with the range of columns that are commercially available nowadays, a choice has to be made between very high selectivity (HPLC C30 column) and analysis times that are adapted to modern laboratory requirements (UHPLC technology). Therefore, carotenoid separations would be even more performing if an appropriate UHPLC C30 column would be available. PMID:24534422

  6. The effects of sun exposure on carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina of the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew B Toomey; Kevin J McGraw

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diet-derived carotenoid pigments are concentrated in the retinas of birds and serve a variety of func-tions, including photoprotection. In domesticated bird species (e.g., chickens and quail), retinal carotenoid pigmenta-tion has been shown to respond to large manipulations in light exposure and provide protection against photodam-age. However, it is not known if or how wild birds respond to ecologically relevant variation in sun exposure. Methods: We manipulated the duration of natural sunlight exposure and dietary carotenoid levels in wild-caught captive House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), then measured carotenoid accumulation and oxidative stress in the retina. Results: We found no signiifcant effects of sun exposure on retinal levels of carotenoids or lipid peroxidation, in rep-licate experiments, in winter (Jan–Mar) and spring/summer (May–June). Dietary carotenoid supplementation in the spring/summer experiment led to signiifcantly higher retinal carotenoid levels, but did not affect lipid peroxidation. Carotenoid levels differed signiifcantly between the winter and spring/summer experiments, with higher retinal and lower plasma carotenoid levels in birds from the later experiment. Conclusion: Our results suggest that variation in the duration of exposure to direct sunlight have limited inlfuence on intraspeciifc variation in retinal carotenoid accumulation, but that accumulation may track other seasonal–envi-ronmental cues and physiological processes.

  7. Efficient light-harvesting using non-carbonyl carotenoids: Energy transfer dynamics in the VCP complex from Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Violaxanthin-chlorophyll a protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis oceanica is a Chl a-only member of the LHC family of light-harvesting proteins. VCP binds carotenoids violaxanthin (Vio), vaucheriaxanthin (Vau), and vaucheriaxanthin-ester (Vau-ester). Here we report on energy transfer pathways in the VCP complex. The overall carotenoid-to-Chla energy transfer has efficiency over 90%. Based on their energy transfer properties, the carotenoids in VCP can be divided into two groups; blue carotenoids with the lowest energy absorption band around 480nm and red carotenoids with absorption extended up to 530nm. Both carotenoid groups transfer energy efficiently from their S2 states, reaching efficiencies of ~70% (blue) and ~60% (red). The S1 pathway, however, is efficient only for the red carotenoid pool for which two S1 routes characterized by 0.33 and 2.4ps time constants were identified. For the blue carotenoids the S1-mediated pathway is represented only by a minor route likely involving a hot S1 state. The relaxed S1 state of blue carotenoids decays to the ground state within 21ps. Presence of a fraction of non-transferring red carotenoids with the S1 lifetime of 13ps indicates some specific carotenoid-protein interaction that must shorten the intrinsic S1 lifetime of Vio and/or Vau whose S1 lifetimes in methanol are 26 and 29ps, respectively. The VCP complex from N. oceanica is the first example of a light-harvesting complex binding only non-carbonyl carotenoids with carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency over 90%. PMID:26744091

  8. Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R; Cooper, Edwin L

    2004-01-01

    Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female preference for orange males. We used the classic immunological technique of tissue grafting to assay a component of the immune response of guppies raised on two different dietary levels of carotenoids. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of unrelated fishes, creating reciprocal allografts. Transplanted scales were scored on a six-point rejection scale every day for 10 days. Five days later, the same pairs of fishes received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with low-carotenoid-diet males, high-carotenoid-diet males mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the second allograft but not to the first allograft. High-carotenoid-diet females, however, showed no improvement in graft rejection compared with low-carotenoid-diet females. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for sex-specific effects of carotenoid consumption on the immune system of a species with carotenoid-based sexual coloration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mate preference for carotenoid coloration is maintained by the benefits to females of choosing healthy mates, but they cast doubt on the idea that the benefits of carotenoid consumption, per se, could account for the origin of the preference. The sex-specificity of carotenoid effects on allograft rejection in guppies provides indirect support for the general hypothesis that males pay an immunological cost for sexual ornamentation. PMID:15002770

  9. Developmental effects on phenolic, flavonol, anthocyanin, and carotenoid metabolites and gene expression in potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato phytonutrients include phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Developmental effects on phytonutrient concentrations and gene expression was studied in white, yellow and purple potatoes. Purple potatoes contained the most total phenolics, which decreased during development (1...

  10. Carotenoids in certain higher plants from various ecological niches of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Czeczuga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoids content in Posidonia oceanica, Nelumbium nuciferum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Zygophyllum album from different ecological niches in Egypt was studied. Considerable differences, both qualitative and quantitative among four investigated plant species were found.

  11. Carotenoids in certain higher plants from various ecological niches of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    B. Czeczuga

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoids content in Posidonia oceanica, Nelumbium nuciferum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Zygophyllum album from different ecological niches in Egypt was studied. Considerable differences, both qualitative and quantitative among four investigated plant species were found.

  12. Elaboration of microparticles of carotenoids from natural and synthetic sources for applications in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Josiane K; Borges, Caroline D; Zambiazi, Rui C; da Rosa, Cleonice G; da Silva, Médelin M

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation upon exposure to oxygen, light and heat, which can result in loss of color, antioxidant activity, and vitamin activity. Microencapsulation helps retain carotenoid stability and promotes their release under specific conditions. Thus, the aim of the study was to encapsulate palm oil and β-carotene with chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate or chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose and to assess the performance of these microparticles in food systems by analyzing their release profile under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. Encapsulation efficiency was greater than 95%, and the yield of microparticles coated with chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate was approximately 55%, while that of microparticles coated with chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose was 87%. Particles encapsulated with chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose exhibited ideal release behavior in water and gastric fluid, but showed low release in the intestinal fluid. However, when applied to food systems these particles showed enhanced carotenoid release but showed low release of carotenoids upon storage. PMID:26920301

  13. Carotenoids in certain lichens of Białowieża Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Column-, and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 29 lichen species from Białowieża Forest: α-carotene, β-carotene, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene monoepoxide, lutein epoxide, antheraxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, α-doradexanthin, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, neoxani thin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 16.83 (Cladonia rangiferina to 92.98 µg g dry wt (Xanthoria parietina. There were differences in carotenoid composition, concentration of each carotenoid, and in the total content in the thalli of four species collected from niches with different insolation.

  14. Increasing Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Yellow Peppers Using Excipient Emulsions: Impact of Lipid Type and Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Bi, Jinfeng; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-30

    Many phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables exert biological activities that may be beneficial to human health, but these benefits are not fully realized because of their poor oral bioavailability. The objective of this research was to establish the potential of excipient emulsions to increase carotenoid bioaccessibility from raw and cooked yellow peppers using a gastrointestinal model that included oral, gastric, and intestine phases. The influence of oil type (medium chain triglycerides, MCT; long chain triglycerides, LCT; and, indigestible orange oil, OO) on microstructural changes, particle properties, lipid digestibility, and carotenoid bioaccessibility was investigated. Oil type had a major impact, with carotenoid bioaccessibility decreasing in the following order: LCT > MCT > OO > control (no oil). Conversely, thermal treatment (raw versus boiled) had little influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility. These results will facilitate the rational design of excipient emulsions that boost the bioavailability of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26357977

  15. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases.

  16. Influence of different drying methods on carotenoids and capsaicinoids of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Ayhan; Dincer, Cuneyt; Ozdemir, Kubra Sultan; Feng, Hao; Kushad, Mosbah

    2011-12-01

    Influence of Refractance Window™ Drying (RWD), a novel contact drying method, on carotenoids, capsaicinoids, Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE) and Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno) was investigated in comparison with freeze drying (FD), oven drying (OD), and natural convective drying (NCD) methods. Eight carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, capsolutein, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) and five capsaicinoid analogues (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, isodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin) were identified in paprika. All these components were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the RWD, FD and OD methods. However, due to ongoing synthesis, the NCD method resulted in higher carotenoids, except violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin, and capsaicinoids content than those of the others, even puree. Mutatoxanthin, naturally occurring pigment in red pepper, could only be detected in FD paprika. The highest RAE and SHU values, which were derived from the data of carotenoids and capsaicinoids, respectively, were also determined in NCD paprika. PMID:25212310

  17. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.; Justesen, U.; Hegelund, E.

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content of...

  18. Effect of a phenyl group on excited-state properties of carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fuciman, M.; Hříbek, P.; Chábera, P.; Pšenčík, J.; Župčanová, Anita; Vácha, František; Polívka, Tomáš

    Göteborg : Chalmers University of Technology, 2008. s. 221. [IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry /22./. 27.07.2008-01.08.2008, Göteborg] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. X-ray Crystal Structure and Time-resolved Spectroscopy of the Blue Carotenoid Violerythrin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, H.A.; Enriquez, M.M.; Niedzwiedzki, D.M.; Liaaen-Jensen, S.; Hemming, J.; Helliwell, J.R.; Helliwell, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 26 (2010), s. 8760-8769. ISSN 1520-6106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited states * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.603, year: 2010

  20. PLASMA AND LUNG MACROPHAGE CAROTENOID RESPONSIVENESS TO SUPPLEMENTATION AND OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN:: A randomized trial. SETTING:: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after...

  1. Astaxanthin protecting membrane integrity against photosensitized oxidation through synergism with other carotenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Hui-Hui; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min;

    2015-01-01

    using optical microscopy and digital image heterogeneity analysis. The lowest initial rate of GUV budding after the lag phase was seen for GUVs with astaxanthin as the least reducing carotenoid, while the lowest final level of entropy appeared for those with lycopene or β-carotene as a more reducing...... carotenoid. The combination of astaxanthin and lycopene gave optimal protection against budding with respect to both a longer lag phase and lower final level of entropy by combining good electron acceptance and good electron donation. Quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids close to chlorophyll...... a in the membrane interior in parallel with scavenging of superoxide radicals by astaxanthin anchored in the surface may explain the synergism between carotenoids involving both type I and type II photosensitization by chlorophyll a....

  2. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.;

    2001-01-01

    After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total...... content of carotenoids varied from 176.6 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the lightest green genotype to 226.3 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten in the darkest green genotype. The highest content of beta -carotene (83.1 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten) was found in the dark green genotype. The content...

  3. Analysis of carotenoid compounds in aphids by Raman imaging and mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Pierre Brat, Jean Christophe Valmalette, Christian Mertz, George de Sousa, Aviv Dombrovsky, Maria Capovilla & Alain Robichon ### Abstract Carotenoids are compounds synthesized in plants, bacteria and fungi, closely associated to the chlorophyll to perform photosynthesis. A spectacular evolutionary achievement allowed the aphid to produce carotenoids obviously by lateral transfer of genes from fungi. We have recently documented that these molecules are involved in photo c...

  4. Antitumor Effects of Saffron-Derived Carotenoids in Prostate Cancer Cell Models

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. extracts (saffron) are rich in carotenoids. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of carotenoids has antitumor effects suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles. We have recently reported that saffron (SE) and crocin (CR) exhibit anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. It has also been demonstrated that crocetin esters are produced after SE gastrointestinal digestion by CR hydrolysis. The aim of the...

  5. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Tajik; Fatemeh zarinkamar; Vahid Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. The stigmas contain three major compounds, crocins (carotenoid compound responsible for color), picrocrocin (responsible for taste) and safranal (responsible for odor). It has been used for medicinal purposes, as a spice and condiment for food and as a dye since ancient times. Numerous studies have shown crocins as main carotenoid...

  6. The Effect of the Crocus Sativus L. Carotenoid, Crocin, on the Polymerization of Microtubules, in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Zarei Jaliani; Gholam Hossein Riazi; Seyyed Mahmoud Ghaffari; Oveis Karima; Abbas Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Crocin, as the main carotenoid of saffron, has shown anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Crocin might interact with cellular proteins and modulate their functions, but the exact target of this carotenoid and the other compounds of the saffron have not been discovered yet. Microtubular proteins, as one of the most important proteins inside the cells, have several functions in nearly all kinds of cellular processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether croci...

  7. Investigating carotenoid loss after drying and storage of orange-fleshed sweet potato

    OpenAIRE

    Bechoff, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    Biofortified orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is being promoted to tackle vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem affecting children and pregnant/lactating women in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to quantify and understand the factors influencing carotenoid losses in dried OFSP. Losses were determined in chips after drying and storage. A preliminary study demonstrated that carotenoid levels were not significantly different following either solar or sun drying. Car...

  8. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Fuh-Juin Kao; Yu-Shan Chiu; Wen-Dee Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boi...

  9. Serum carotenoid levels and risk of lung cancer death in US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer-induced death in the USA. Although much attention has been focused on the anti-carcinogenic effect of consuming carotenoid-containing food or supplements, the results have been inconsistent. We investigated whether serum carotenoid levels were associated with the mortality risk of lung cancer in US adults using data from a nationally representative sample. The data were obtained from the Third Nutrition...

  10. CAROTENOID RETENTION IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED BIOFORTIFIED GREEN CORN STORED UNDER RETAIL MARKETING CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Alves Barbosa; Maria Cristina Dias Paes; Paulo Evaristo de Oliveira Guimarães; Joelma Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Storing processed food products can cause alterations in their chemical compositions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate carotenoid retention in the kernels of minimally processed normal and vitamin A precursor (proVA)-biofortified green corn ears that were packaged in polystyrene trays covered with commercial film or in multilayered polynylon packaging material and were stored. Throughout the storage period, the carotenoids were extracted from the corn kernels using organic so...

  11. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H.; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway leading to all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not certain whether isomerization was achieved by Z-ISO alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independent...

  12. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of car...

  13. Singlet molecular oxygen-quenching activity of carotenoids: relevance to protection of the skin from photoaging

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Junji; Minami, Yuko; Bando, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are known to be potent quenchers of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1Δg)]. Solar light-induced photooxidative stress causes skin photoaging by accelerating the generation of reactive oxygen species via photodynamic actions in which O2 (1Δg) can be generated by energy transfer from excited sensitizers. Thus, dietary carotenoids seem to participate in the prevention of photooxidative stress by accumulating as antioxidants in the skin. An in vivo study using hairless mice clarified tha...

  14. Dark excited states of carotenoid in light harvesting complex probing with femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational dynamics of dark excited states in carotenoids have been investigated using tunable Raman pump pulses. The S1 state has same vibrational dynamics in light-harvesting complex (LH1 and solution. The S* state in LH1 has similar vibrational modes with the triplet state of carotenoid. However, the so-called S* state in solution does not have the modes and is concluded to be different from the S* state in LH1.

  15. CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOID PIGMENTS IN THE PEEL AND FLESH OF COMMERCIAL APPLE FRUITS VARIETIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2014-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) has always been considered a fruit with low chlorophyll and carotenoid contents; however these pigments contribute also to the external (peel) and internal (flesh) fruit colouration, as well as to the health benefits associated with the regular consumption of this fruit. In the present work we studied the chlorophyll and carotenoid composition of the peel and flesh of thirteen marketed apple varieties presenting different external colouration (gr...

  16. Effects of carotenoids on damage of biological lipids induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenoids are considered to be involved in the radioresistant mechanisms of radioresistant bacteria. In these bacterial cells, carotenoids are present in biological lipids, and therefore may be related to the radiation-induced damage of lipids. However, only limited data are available for the role of carotenoids in such damage. In this study, we irradiated an α-linolenic acid–benzene solution with gamma rays and analyzed the resulting oxidative degradation and peroxidation damage in the presence or absence of two typical carotenoids: β-carotene and astaxanthin. The analyses revealed that oxidative degradation and peroxidation of α-linolenic acid, as evaluated by the amount of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formed, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 8.5×10−3 M β-carotene inhibited gamma radiation-induced oxidative degradation of α-linolenic acid, whereas 5.0×10−5 and 5.0×10−6 M β-carotene, and 5.0×10−7 and 5.0×10−8 M astaxanthin promoted degradation. In contrast, neither β-carotene nor astaxanthin affected peroxidation of α-linolenic acid. These results suggest that an optimum concentration of carotenoids in radioresistant bacteria protects biological lipid structures from radiation-induced damage. - Highlights: • Gamma radiation dose-dependently increases degradation levels of α-linolenic acid. • Gamma radiation dose-dependently increases peroxidation levels of α-linolenic acid. • An optimum concentration of carotenoids inhibits degradation of α-linolenic acid. • Relatively low concentrations of carotenoids promote degradation of α-linolenic acid. • Carotenoids do not affect the peroxidation level of α-linolenic acid

  17. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Siitari, Heli; Slater, Fred M; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-02-01

    Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female's diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal differences in carotenoid availability may thus be reflected in yolk concentrations. To assess whether yolk carotenoid concentrations or carotenoid profiles show any large-scale geographical trends or differences among habitats, we collected yolk samples from 16 European populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. We found that the concentrations and proportions of lutein and some other xanthophylls in the egg yolks decreased from Central Europe northwards. The most southern population (which is also the one found at the highest altitude) also showed relatively low carotenoid levels. Concentrations of β-carotene and zeaxanthin did not show any obvious geographical gradients. Egg yolks also contained proportionally more lutein and other xanthophylls in deciduous than in mixed or coniferous habitats. We suggest that latitudinal gradients in lutein and xanthophylls reflect the lower availability of lutein-rich food items in the northern F. hypoleuca populations and in montane southern populations, which start egg-laying earlier relative to tree phenology than the Central European populations. Similarly, among-habitat variation is likely to reflect the better availability of lutein-rich food in deciduous forests. Our study is the first to indicate that the concentration and profile of yolk carotenoids may show large-scale spatial variation among populations in different parts of the species' geographical range. Further studies are needed to test the fitness effects of this geographical variation. PMID:20848135

  18. The relationship between macular pigment optical density and its constituent carotenoids in diet and serum

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, John; Stack, J; O'Connell, E; BEATTY, S

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two dietary carotenoids that accumulate at the macula, where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP). There is a biologically plausible rationale, with some supporting evidence, that MP may protect against age-related maculopathy (ARM). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between dietary intake of L and Z, serum concentrations of these carotenoids, and MP optical density in 828 healthy Irish subjects. METHODS: Dietar...

  19. ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND LYCOPENE IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) AND THEIR RETENTION IN TOMATO JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Mareček; Miriam Líšková; Dagmar Kozelová; Alena Andrejiová; Andrea Mendelová

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigated the effect of variety and processing on the content of carotenoids and lycopene in fruits and Tomato juice from the fruit after heat treatment. The experiment included four varieties are edible tomato for industrial processing (Báb, Žiara PK, Šampion and Roti PK). The concentration of total carotenoids and lycopene were determined spectrophotometrically on UV-VIS spectrophotometer Jenway at a wavelength of 445 and 472 nm. The highest average conten...

  20. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G.M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the...

  1. The carotenoid content in certain plants from Abisko National Park (Swedish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Czeczuga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By means of columnar and thin-layer chromatography, the presence of carotenoids in Lichens (2 species, Sphagnaceae (l species, Lycopodiaceae (l species and in 23 species of the higher plants from Abisko National Park (Swedish Lapland was studied. 34 carotenoids were identified and total content ranged from 0.05 mg/g to 0.85 mg/g dry mass.

  2. Short RNA guides cleavage by eukaryotic RNase III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lamontagne

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, short RNAs guide a variety of enzymatic activities that range from RNA editing to translation repression. It is hypothesized that pre-existing proteins evolved to bind and use guide RNA during evolution. However, the capacity of modern proteins to adopt new RNA guides has never been demonstrated. Here we show that Rnt1p, the yeast orthologue of the bacterial dsRNA-specific RNase III, can bind short RNA transcripts and use them as guides for sequence-specific cleavage. Target cleavage occurred at a constant distance from the Rnt1p binding site, leaving the guide RNA intact for subsequent cleavage. Our results indicate that RNase III may trigger sequence-specific RNA degradation independent of the RNAi machinery, and they open the road for a new generation of precise RNA silencing tools that do not trigger a dsRNA-mediated immune response.

  3. Analytical model for intergrain expansion and cleavage: random grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of rigid-body grain boundary relaxation and cleavage in tungsten is performed using a pair-wise Morse interatomic potential in real and reciprocal spaces. Cleavage energies and grain boundary dilatation of random grain boundaries were formulated and computed using atomic layer interaction energies. These values were determined using a model for a relaxed random grain boundary that consists of rigid grains on either side of the boundary plane that are allowed to float to reach the equilibrium position. Expressions are given that describe in real space the energy of interatomic interaction on random grain boundaries with twist orientation. It was shown that grain-boundary expansion and cleavage energies of the most widespread random grain boundaries are mainly determined by grain boundary atomic density

  4. A new cultural cleavage in post-modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The attitudes towards gender and homosexuality tend to be linked at the micro level (individuals, which explains the political saliency of this newly emerging cleavage. At the macro level (country, the main finding is that the value orientations towards gender and homosexuality are strongly embedded in the basic cultural or civilisation differences among countries. As developing countries modernise and enter post-modernity, they will also experience the gender cleavage, especially when they adhere to an individualistic culture. Cultural cleavages in the post-modern society, whether in rich or developing countries, can only be properly researched by the survey method. It opens up a large area for both micro and macro analyses in the social sciences.

  5. Three-dimensional interpretation of cleavage fracture tests of cladded specimens with local approach to cleavage fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricite de France has conducted during these last years an experimental and numerical research programme in order to evaluate fracture mechanics analyses used in nuclear reactor pressure vessels integrity assessment, regarding the risk of brittle fracture. Two cladded specimens made of ferritic steel A508 Cl3 with stainless steel cladding, and containing shallow subclad flaws, have been tested in four point bending at very low temperature to obtain cleavage failure. The crack instability was obtained in base metal by cleavage fracture, without crack arrest. The tests have been interpreted by local approach to cleavage fracture (Beremin model) using three-dimensional finite element computations. After the elastic-plastic computation of stress intensity factor KJ along the crack front, the probability of cleavage failure of each specimen is evaluated using m, σu Beremin model parameters identified on the same material. The failure of two specimens is conservatively predicted by both analyses. The elastic-plastic stress intensity factor KJ in base metal is always greater than base metal fracture toughness K1c. The calculated probabilities of cleavage failure are in agreement with experimental results. The sensitivity of Beremin model to numerical aspects is finally exposed. (orig.)

  6. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  8. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. PMID:26432407

  9. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Some photo-excited carotenoids have photosensitizing ability. ► They are able to produce ROS. ► Photo-excited fucoxanthin can produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. -- Abstract: Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as β-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease.

  10. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties.

  11. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. PMID:27132832

  12. Carotenoids profile and total polyphenols in fruits of Pereskia aculeata Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia aculeata Mill. (Ora-pro-nóbis is a native cactaceae from tropical America, whose leaves have high protein content. In Brazil it is found in all territorial extension between the states of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. Most studies have focused on chemical characterization of the leaves of this specie. The objective was to assess the carotenoids profile and the total polyphenols present in the fruits of P. aculeate. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PAD (high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array detector, total polyphenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin methods. Trans-β-carotene was the main carotenoid, followed by α-carotene, lutein and other minor carotenoids. It was found 64.9 ± 1.1 mg.100g-1 of gallic acid equivalent, 14.8 ± 0.2 mg.100g-1 of catechin equivalent. Carotenoid identification of P. aculeate fruits are presented here by the first time and indicate that these fruits can be researched as source of bioactive substances, especially antioxidant and provitamin A carotenoids.

  13. Positive carotenoid balance correlates with greater reproductive performance in a wild bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Safran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoids can confer somatic and reproductive benefits, but most evidence is from captive animal experimentation or single time-point sampling. Another perhaps more informative means by which to assess physiological contributions to animal performance is by tracking an individual's ability to increase or sustain carotenoids or other health-related molecules over time, as these are likely to be temporally variable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster, we analyzed within-individual changes in carotenoid concentrations by repeatedly sampling the carotenoid profiles of individuals over the course of the breeding season. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid concentrations of individuals are temporally dynamic and that season-long balance of these molecules, rather than single time-point samples, predict reproductive performance. This was true even when controlling for two important variables associated with reproductive outcomes: (1 timing of breeding and (2 sexually selected plumage coloration, which is itself positively correlated with and concomitantly changes with circulating carotenoid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While reproduction itself is purported to impose health stress on organisms, these data suggest that free-ranging, high-quality individuals can mitigate such costs, by one or several genetic, environmental (diet, or physiological mechanisms. Moreover, the temporal variations in both health-linked physiological measures and morphological traits we uncover here merit further examination in other species, especially when goals include the estimation of signal information content or the costs of trait expression.

  14. Positive Carotenoid Balance Correlates with Greater Reproductive Performance in a Wild Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Rebecca J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Wilkins, Matthew R.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Marling, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids can confer somatic and reproductive benefits, but most evidence is from captive animal experimentation or single time-point sampling. Another perhaps more informative means by which to assess physiological contributions to animal performance is by tracking an individual's ability to increase or sustain carotenoids or other health-related molecules over time, as these are likely to be temporally variable. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study of North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster), we analyzed within-individual changes in carotenoid concentrations by repeatedly sampling the carotenoid profiles of individuals over the course of the breeding season. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid concentrations of individuals are temporally dynamic and that season-long balance of these molecules, rather than single time-point samples, predict reproductive performance. This was true even when controlling for two important variables associated with reproductive outcomes: (1) timing of breeding and (2) sexually selected plumage coloration, which is itself positively correlated with and concomitantly changes with circulating carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions/Significance While reproduction itself is purported to impose health stress on organisms, these data suggest that free-ranging, high-quality individuals can mitigate such costs, by one or several genetic, environmental (diet), or physiological mechanisms. Moreover, the temporal variations in both health-linked physiological measures and morphological traits we uncover here merit further examination in other species, especially when goals include the estimation of signal information content or the costs of trait expression. PMID:20195540

  15. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  16. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  17. Modern Breeding and Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Carotenoid Accumulation in Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, M L; Schmidt, M A

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants. The production and consumption of these carotenoids from natural sources, especially from seeds, constitutes an important step towards fortifying the diet of malnourished people in developing nations. Therefore, attempts to metabolically manipulate β-carotene production in plants have received global attention, especially after the generation of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa). The endosperms of Golden Rice seeds synthesize and accumulate large quantities of β-carotene (provitamin A), yielding a characteristic yellow color in the polished grains. Classical breeding efforts have also focused in the development of cultivars with elevated seed carotenoid content, with maize and other cereals leading the way. In this communication we will summarize transgenic efforts and modern breeding strategies to fortify various crop seeds with nutraceutical carotenoids. PMID:27485229

  18. Self-Assembly of Carotenoids During Solution Casting of Solar Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, Dusantha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Etampawala, Thusitha; Dadmun, Mark; Chandrika, Udumalagala; Jayaweera, Pradeep

    2015-03-01

    Self assembly of carotenoids is a common phenomenon in nature and seems to be closely related to the functions of these natural dyes in solar devices. The large absorption coefficients in the visible region of carotenoids make them a well suited natural resource for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The performance of carotenoid based solar devices mainly depends on the photo-electrochemical properties of the active material (carotenoids) and their self-assembled morphology within solar devises. These associations of molecules will affect the light absorption, emission and energy harvesting abilities of these solar devices. Two types of highly conjugated natural carotenoids having mono and dicarboxy terminal groups, namely bixin and norbixin, were extracted from annatto seeds. In the current study, small angle neutron scattering experiments were carried out to examine the modes of assemblies of bixin and norbixin during solution processing of DSSCs. Spherical shape aggregates with rough interfaces were observed in acetone medium, which is a good solvent for hydrocarbon chain. The shape of the aggregates slightly deviates from spherical to slightly elongated shape at high volume fractions of carotenoids. Bixin and norbixin show different association behaviors as a function of their concentration.

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  20. Coordinated Regulation of Gene Expression for Carotenoid Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Hu Sun; Cheng-Qian Liu; Yuan-Yuan Hui; Wen-Kai Wu; Zhi-Gang Zhou; Shan Lu

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are important plant pigments for both light harvesting and photooxidation protection.Using the model system of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii,we characterized the regulation of gene expression for carotenoid metabolism by quantifying changes in the transcript abundance of dxs,dxr and ipi in the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate pathway and of ggps,psy,pds,lcyb and bchy,directly involved in carotenoid metabolism,under different photoperiod,light and metabolite treatments.The expression of these genes fluctuated with light/dark shifting.Light treatment also promoted the accumulation of transcripts of all these genes.Of the genes studied,dxs,ggps and lcyb displayed the typical circadian pattern by retaining a rhythmic fluctuation of transcript abundance under both constant light and constant dark entrainments.The expression of these genes could also be regulated by metabolic intermediates.For example,ggps was significantly suppressed by a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate supplement and ipi was upregulated by isopentenyl pyrophosphate.Furthermore,CrOr,a C.reinhardtii homolog of the recently characterized Or gene that accounts for carotenoid accumulation,also showed co-expression with carotenoid biosynthetic genes such as pds and lcyb.Our data suggest a coordinated regulation on carotenoid metabolism in C.reinhardtii at the transcriptional level.

  1. Synthesis, antioxidant and DNA cleavage activities of novel indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, J S; Sasidhar, B S; Parveen, R

    2010-09-01

    A new series of novel indole derivatives containing barbitone moiety (5a-i) are synthesized by simple and efficient condensation of chalcones (3a-i) with barbituric acid (4). The synthesized compounds are screened for their antioxidant (free radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power) and DNA cleavage activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized compounds (5a), (5d) and (5g) exhibited excellent antioxidant activity and all the tested compounds in the series have exhibited promising DNA cleavage activities. The structures of the synthesized compounds are assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. PMID:20594623

  2. Sensitive and fast mutation detection by solid phase chemical cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Lotte; Justesen, Just; Kruse, Torben A

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a solid phase chemical cleavage method (SpCCM) for screening large DNA fragments for mutations. All reactions can be carried out in microtiterwells from the first amplification of the patient (or test) DNA through the search for mutations. The reaction time is significantly...... reduced compared to the conventional chemical cleavage method (CCM), and even by using a uniformly labelled probe, the exact position and nature of the mutation can be revealed. The SpCCM is suitable for automatization using a workstation to carry out the reactions and a fluorescent detection-based DNA...

  3. Determination of free and esterified carotenoid composition in rose hip fruit by HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lijie; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Oredsson, Stina; Głąb, Bartosz; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Olsson, Marie E

    2016-11-01

    Rose hip fruit, which contains high concentration of carotenoids is commonly used for different food products in Europe and it is considered to have medical properties. In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS method was developed and applied to identify and quantify the carotenoids in rose hip fruit of four rose species, including both unsaponified and saponified extract. In the unsaponified extract 23 carotenoid esters were detected, in which either rubixanthin ester or violaxanthin ester was the dominant component of the ester composition. In the saponified extract 21 carotenoids, including 11 xanthophylls and 10 carotenes were detected. This is the first time the total carotenoid composition, including the carotenoid esters in rose hip fruit were identified and quantified. This work reveals the potential of rose hip fruit to be utilized as a healthy dietary material and give chemical information for the possible future development in the pharmacology field. PMID:27211680

  4. Studies on Variation of Carotenoid-Proteins Content in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Storage Root Reveal Implications for Breeding and the Use of Induced Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenoid-Protein content in cassava storage root (CSR) is low but variable, and characterization of this variability is lacking. Accumulation of carotenoids occurs in chromoplast and depends on a broad class of proteins named carotenoid associated proteins (CAP), lipids and the biosynthesis of carotenoids. Twenty-nine landraces and progeny of 200 individuals were accessed for CAP and carotenoid content varied in two ways. First, related to landrace diversity, total buffer extractable proteins (TBEP), buffer insoluble proteins (BIP) and total carotenoid and β-carotene content were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the tested genotypes. Secondly, analyses related to storage root tissue age were assessed by TBEP. This showed protein content decreased and total carotenoid content increased as secondary growth proceeds. Further carotenoid-proteins complex (CPC) identified in carotenoid contrasting landraces showed different proteins profile in SDS-PAGE with proteins size of 18 and 33 kDa in low carotenoid (IAC12.829) and 18-20-30-33 kDa in a high total carotenoid landrace (Cas74.1). Progeny analysis for TBEP and total carotenoid content confirmed the interdependence of carotenoid-proteins association by correlation analysis, estimated heritability of individual traits and grouping clones for carotenoid-proteins content. Results allow us to conclude that: natural carotenoid-protein content varies due to differential genetic background and storage root tissue age; carotenoid-protein complex showed variation in protein and carotenoid types; estimated heritability of proteins and carotenoids traits showed different values. The establishment of a genetic component allows future strategies including traditional breeding and the use of induced mutations to create novel variation for the nutritional improvement of cassava tubers. (author)

  5. Cytosolic and Plastoglobule-targeted Carotenoid Dioxygenases from Crocus sativus Are Both Involved in β-Ionone Release*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Angela; Rambla, José Luís; Santaella, Marcella; Gómez, M. Dolores; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Saffron, the processed stigma of Crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice. However, little is known about the synthesis of aroma compounds during the development of the C. sativus stigma. The developing stigma is nearly odorless, but before and at anthesis, the aromatic compound β-ionone becomes the principal norisoprenoid volatile in the stigma. In this study, four carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) genes, CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, CsCCD4a, and CsCCD4b, were isolated from C. sativus. Expression analysis showed that CsCCD1a was constitutively expressed, CsCCD1b was unique to the stigma tissue, but only CsCCD4a and -b had expression patterns consistent with the highest levels of β-carotene and emission of β-ionone derived during the stigma development. The CsCCD4 enzymes were localized in plastids and more specifically were present in the plastoglobules. The enzymatic activities of CsCCD1a, CsCCD1b, and CsCCD4 enzymes were determined by Escherichia coli expression, and subsequent analysis of the volatile products was generated by GC/MS. The four CCDs fell in two phylogenetically divergent dioxygenase classes, but all could cleave β-carotene at the 9,10(9′,10′) positions to yield β-ionone. The data obtained suggest that all four C. sativus CCD enzymes may contribute in different ways to the production of β-ionone. In addition, the location and precise timing of β-ionone synthesis, together with its known activity as a fragrance and insect attractant, suggest that this volatile may have a role in Crocus pollination. PMID:18611853

  6. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Leenawaty Limantara3); Budhi Prasetyo1); AB. Susanto2); Helly de Fretes1)*

    2012-01-01

    Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarez...

  7. Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    OpenAIRE

    Grether, Gregory F; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R.; Edwin L. Cooper

    2004-01-01

    Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female pre...

  8. The Phytoene synthase gene family of apple (Malus x domestica) and its role in controlling fruit carotenoid content

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah-Dwamena, C.; Driedonks, N.J.W.; Lewis, D; Shumskaya, M.; Chen, X Y; Wurtzel, E.T.; Espley, R.V.; Allan, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genom...

  9. Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, Kevin R.; Silva, Soraya J.; Maria-José Caramujo; Carla C. C. R. de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic c...

  10. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Natarajan, Ramesh Babu; Menon, K. Ramakrishna; Chandrasekhar, Lekshmi P.; Moorkoth, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red peppe...

  11. Effect of extrusion-cooking in total carotenoids content in cream and orange flesh sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos José de O Fonseca; Antonio G Soares; Murillo Freire Junior; Dejair L. de Almeida; José Luiz R Ascheri

    2008-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a food crop that supplies energy, minerals and vitamins C and B. Some cultivars are very rich in carotenoids (pro-vitamin A). In this study were evaluated and compared the total carotenoids content of two cultivars and the losses on the dehydrated extruded sweet potato flour. Samples from organic and conventional crops were analyzed, in the form of fresh and dehydrated extruded samples. Total carotenoids content of the fresh product, expressed on wet basis, w...

  12. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Applied QSAR with Quantum Chemical Descriptors for Predicting Radical Scavenging Activities of Carotenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Changho Jhin; Keum Taek Hwang

    2015-01-01

    One of the physiological characteristics of carotenoids is their radical scavenging activity. In this study, the relationship between radical scavenging activities and quantum chemical descriptors of carotenoids was determined. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) applied quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) were also developed for predicting and comparing radical scavenging activities of carotenoids. Semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 quantum chemical calculations were...

  13. Evaluation of biomass production, carotenoid level and antioxidant capacity produced by Thermus filiformis using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mandelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A fractional factorial design 2(5-1 was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch's trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 mg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity.

  14. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spannring, P.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid int

  15. Perceiving Social Cleavages and Inequalities: The Case of Israeli Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yechezkel; Erhard, Rachel; Resh, Nura

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of perceptions of social cleavage and inequality among approximately 9000 Israeli eighth and ninth graders showed students accurately comprehended a multifaceted society with major social divisions. A social map with inequality was revealed in which ethnicity played the least prominent role. Personal and social traits influenced…

  16. The pattern of DNA cleavage intensity around indels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Indels (insertions and deletions) are the second most common form of genetic variations in the eukaryotic genomes and are responsible for a multitude of genetic diseases. Despite its significance, detailed molecular mechanisms for indel generation are still unclear. Here we examined 2,656,597 small human and mouse germline indels, 16,742 human somatic indels, 10,599 large human insertions, and 5,822 large chimpanzee insertions and systematically analyzed the patterns of DNA cleavage intensities in the 200 base pair regions surrounding these indels. Our results show that DNA cleavage intensities close to the start and end points of indels are significantly lower than other regions, for both small human germline and somatic indels and also for mouse small indels. Compared to small indels, the patterns of DNA cleavage intensity around large indels are more complex, and there are two low intensity regions near each end of the indels that are approximately 13 bp apart from each other. Detailed analyses of a subset of indels show that there is slight difference in cleavage intensity distribution between insertion indels and deletion indels that could be contributed by their respective enrichment of different repetitive elements. These results will provide new insight into indel generation mechanisms. PMID:25660536

  17. Cleavage sites within the poliovirus capsid protein precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis was performed on radiolabeled poliovirus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. A computer-assisted comparison of the amino acid sequences obtained with that predicted by the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus genome allows assignment of the amino terminus of each capsid protein to a unique position within the virus polyprotein. Sequence analysis of trypsin-digested VP4, which has a blocked amino terminus, demonstrates that VP4 is encoded at or very near to the amino terminus of the polyprotein. The gene order of the capsid proteins is VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1. Cleavage of VP0 to VP4 and VP2 is shown to occur between asparagine and serine, whereas the cleavages that separate VP2/VP3 and VP3/VP1 occur between glutamine and glycine residues. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cleavage of VP0, which occurs during virion morphogenesis, is distinct from the cleavages that separate functional regions of the polyprotein

  18. Selective cleavage enhanced by acetylating the side chain of lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Leixiaomeng; Chen, Tingting; Xue, Gaiqing; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Selective cleavage is of great interest in mass spectrometry studies as it can help sequence identification by promoting simple fragmentation pattern of peptides and proteins. In this work, the collision-induced dissociation of peptides containing internal lysine and acetylated lysine residues were studied. The experimental and computational results revealed that multiple fragmentation pathways coexisted when the lysine residue was two amino acid residues away from N-terminal of the peptide. After acetylation of the lysine side-chain, b(n)+ ions were the most abundant primary fragment products and the Lys(Ac)-Gly amide bond became the dominant cleavage site via an oxazolone pathway. Acetylating the side-chain of lysine promoted the selective cleavage of Lys-Xxx amide bond and generated much more information of the peptide backbone sequence. The results re-evaluate the selective cleavage due to the lysine basic side-chain and provide information for studying the post-translational modification of proteins and other bio-molecules containing Lys residues. PMID:23303756

  19. Phosphate diester cleavage promoted by the novel artificial biomimetic agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bím, Daniel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hodačová, J.

    Praha: Czech Chemical Society, 2014. s. 51. [Liblice 2014. Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /49./. 07.11.2014-09.11.2014, Lázně Bělohrad] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphate diesters * bond cleavage Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  1. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.;

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites was...

  2. Rhodium-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečas, D.; Kotora, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 17 (2007), s. 1566-1591. ISSN 1385-2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : rhodium * catalysis * C-C bond cleavage Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.961, year: 2007

  3. Determination of major carotenoids in a few Indian leafy vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, Rangaswamy; Raju, Marisiddaiah; Krishnakantha, Thirumalai Parthasarathy; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2005-04-20

    Leafy vegetables [Basella rubra L., Peucedanum sowa Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Spinacia oleracea L., Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Poir., and Raphanus sativus L.] that are commonly used by the rural population in India were evaluated in terms of their main carotenoid pattern. The extracted carotenoids were purified by open column chromatography (OCC) on a neutral alumina column to verify their identity by their characteristic UV-visible absorption spectra. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column with UV-visible photodiode array detection under isocratic conditions was used for quantification of isolated carotenoids. Acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane (60:20:20 v/v/v) containing 0.1% ammonium acetate was used as a mobile phase. The major carotenoids identified by both methods were lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Among the carotenoids identified, lutein and beta-carotene levels were found to be higher in these leafy vegetables. Results show that P. sowa and S. oleracea are rich sources of lutein (77-92 mg/100 g of dry wt) and beta-carotene (36-44 mg/100 g of dry wt) compared with other leafy vegetables. The purity of carotenoids eluted by OCC was clarified by HPLC, and they were found to be 92% +/- 3% for neoxanthin, 94% +/- 2% for violaxanthin, 97% +/-2% for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 90% +/- 3% for beta-carotene. It could be recommended to use P. sowa and S. oleracea as rich sources of lutein and beta-carotene for health benefits. The OCC method proposed is relatively simple and provides purified carotenoids for feeding trials. PMID:15826027

  4. A genetic dissection of intestinal fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja-Adhi, M Airanthi K; Lobo, Glenn P; Golczak, Marcin; Von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are currently investigated regarding their potential to lower the risk of chronic disease and to combat vitamin A deficiency. Surprisingly, responses to dietary supplementation with these compounds are quite variable between individuals. Genome-wide studies have associated common genetic polymorphisms in the BCO1 gene with this variability. The BCO1 gene encodes an enzyme that is expressed in the intestine and converts provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A-aldehyde. However, it is not clear how this enzyme can impact the bioavailability and metabolism of other carotenoids such as xanthophyll. We here provide evidence that BCO1 is a key component of a regulatory network that controls the absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. In this process, conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A by BCO1 induces via retinoid signaling the expression of the intestinal homeobox transcription factor ISX. Subsequently, ISX binds to conserved DNA-binding motifs upstream of the BCO1 and SCARB1 genes. SCARB1 encodes a membrane protein that facilitates absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. In keeping with its role as a transcriptional repressor, SCARB1 protein levels are significantly increased in the intestine of ISX-deficient mice. This increase results in augmented absorption and tissue accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids and tocopherols. Our study shows that fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption is controlled by a BCO1-dependent negative feedback regulation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular framework for the controversial relationship between genetics and fat-soluble vitamin status in the human population. PMID:25701869

  5. Dietary Intake of Selected Common Vegetable Foods and their Total Carotenoids Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar EL-Qudah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD remains widespread in many countries including Jordan, mainly due to inadequate dietary intake of vitamin A and carotenoids. Approach: Few researches on carotenoid content in vegetables and fruits are carried out. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary intake of selected common foods among a sample of adult Jordanians, by using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and to analyze the carotenoid contents in selected vegetable foods by using UV spectrophotometry . Results: Among the total sample of 200 adults men and women, the consumption per person per week of rice was 21.1 serving, olive oil 20.9 serving, fresh carrot 13.6 serving, tomato 8.28 serving, mint 6.63 serving, chickpea 5.07 serving and parsley 5.03 serving. The total carotenoid contents were found in high concentrations in mint 25.2 mg 100 g-1, parsley 21.8 mg 100g-1, mallow 12.6 mg 100 g-1 and carrot 8.79 mg 100g-1. Zucchini, okra, tomato and green beans also contained appreciable amounts of carotenoids 3.38, 2.54, 2.19 and 1.97 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Eggplant had the lowest content of carotenoids 0.48 mg 100g-1. Conclusions: These finding could help the meal planning at a community level by including such high content of carotenoid vegetables in meals, which will lead to decrease the incidence of vitamin A deficiency disease. Further studies in this concern is highly recommended to solve such problem worldwide.

  6. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  7. Photon echo spectroscopy reveals structure-dynamics relationships in carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, N.; Polivka, T.; Yartsev, A.; Pullerits, T.

    2009-06-01

    Based on simultaneous analysis of the frequency-resolved transient grating, peak shift, and echo width signals, we present a model for the third-order optical response of carotenoids including population dynamics and system-bath interactions. Our frequency-resolved photon echo experiments show that the model needs to incorporate the excited-state absorption from both the S2 and the S1 states. We apply our model to analyze the experimental results on astaxanthin and lycopene, aiming to elucidate the relation between structure and system-bath interactions. Our analysis allows us to relate structural motifs to changes in the energy-gap correlation functions. We find that the terminal rings of astaxanthin lead to increased coupling between slow molecular motions and the electronic transition. We also find evidence for stronger coupling to higher frequency overdamped modes in astaxanthin, pointing to the importance of the functional groups in providing coupling to fluctuations influencing the dynamics in the passage through the conical intersection governing the S2-S1 relaxation.

  8. Genetics of Ustilago violacea. I. Carotenoid mutants and carotenogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild-type strains of Ustilago violacea produce pink colonies on laboratory medium and yield white, orange, pumpkin, and yellow colonies after uv mutagenesis. The wild-type strains contain neurosporene and lycopene; one orange mutant, γ-carotene; and one yellow mutant, β-carotene. One white mutant had no detectable carotenoids. Diploid colonies heterozygous for wild type and orange, pumpkin, yellow, or white are phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for yellow and orange are also phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for white and orange; white and yellow; and white, yellow, and orange are phenotypically light orange, light yellow, and orange-yellow, respectively. The white mutants give a circular complementation map; the color mutants fit a linear complementation map. We propose a multienzyme of four identical dehydrogenases and one or two identical cyclases for carotenogenesis in this species. The white and color mutants represent structural mutations altering the conformation of the dehydrogenase or cyclase, respectively. Furthermore, cyclases may or may not aggregate in association with the dehydrogenase aggregate to form the multienzyme aggregate responsible for the color mutants

  9. Crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    In structural materials with both brittle and ductile phases, cracks often initiate within the brittle phase and propagate dynamically towards the ductile phase. The macroscale, quasistatic toughness of the material thus depends on the outcome of this microscale, dynamic process. Indeed, dynamics has been hypothesized to suppress dislocation emission, which may explain the occurrence of brittle transgranular fracture in mild steels at low temperatures (Lin et al., 1987). Here, crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions are explored using continuum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. The focus is on two questions: (1) whether dynamics can affect the energy barriers for dislocation emission and cleavage, and (2) what happens in the dynamic "overloaded" situation, in which both processes are energetically possible. In either case, dynamics may shift the balance between brittle cleavage and ductile blunting, thereby affecting the intrinsic ductility of the material. To explore these effects in simulation, a novel interatomic potential is used for which the intrinsic ductility is tunable, and a novel simulation technique is employed, termed as a "dynamic cleavage test", in which cracks can be run dynamically at a prescribed energy release rate into a material. Both theory and simulation reveal, however, that the intrinsic ductility of a material is unaffected by dynamics. The energy barrier to dislocation emission appears to be identical in quasi-static and dynamic conditions, and, in the overloaded situation, ductile crack tip behavior ultimately prevails since a single emission event can blunt and arrest the crack, preventing further cleavage. Thus, dynamics cannot embrittle a ductile material, and the origin of brittle failure in certain alloys (e.g., mild steels) appears unrelated to dynamic effects at the crack tip.

  10. School Desegregation and Racial Cleavage, 1954-1970: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carithers, Martha W.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the empirical studies dealing with school desegregation and racial cleavage which have appeared since the 1954 Supreme Court decision. Focuses on patterns and consequences of interracial association, and attitude change relevant to racial cleavage. (DM)

  11. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season. PMID:25964421

  12. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I–VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  13. Effects of in vivo irradiation on plasma levels of carotenoids and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this investigation were to determine whether ultraviolet irradiation induces alterations in plasma carotenoid and vitamin A levels in human subjects. Twelve Caucasian women participated in an 8-week crossover trial. UV exposures were given to the anterior and posterior sides of the body on 11 days of a 2-week period. Mean cumulative UVA (320-400 nm) doses of 17.9 +/- 2.6 J/cm2 and 24.1 +/- 1.5 J/cm2 were delivered to the anterior and posterior sides, respectively. UVB (280-320 nm) doses were equivalent to 10% of the UVA doses given. Intake of carotenoids and preformed vitamin A was held constant. Plasma samples were collected weekly for spectrophotometric analysis of total carotenoids and vitamin A. A significant reduction (p < 0.003) in plasma carotenoid levels was observed following repeated irradiation. Although a significant treatment response could not be demonstrated for plasma vitamin A (p=0.11), a significant test for carryover (p < 0.02) suggested a delayed or continuing increase in plasma levels following irradiation. It is concluded that UV irradiation can reduce plasma carotenoid levels in vivo and may also affect plasma vitamin A levels in an adaptive response

  14. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-β), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-ϵ) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-β gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-β gene. PMID:19574250

  15. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene. PMID:19574250

  16. Carotenoid production and gene expression in an astaxanthin-overproducing Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco-Matiz, Lina M; Barbachano-Torres, Alejandra; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Cerda García-Rojas, Carlos M; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Barahona-Crisóstomo, Salvador K; Baeza-Cancino, Marcelo E; Alcaíno-Gorman, Jennifer; Cifuentes-Guzmán, Víctor H

    2015-12-01

    The primary carotenoid synthesized by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is astaxanthin, which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture. Cell growth kinetics and carotenoid production were correlated with the mRNA levels of the idi, crtE, crtYB, crtI, crtS and crtR genes, and the changes in gene sequence between the wild-type and a carotenoid overproducer XR4 mutant strain were identified. At the late stationary phase, the total carotenoid content in XR4 was fivefold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Additionally, the mRNA levels of crtE and crtS increased during the XR4 growth and were three times higher than the wild-type strain in the late stationary phase. Moreover, the nucleotide sequences of crtYB, crtI and crtR exhibited differences between the strains. Both the higher crtE and crtS transcript levels and the crtYB, crtI and crtR mutations can, at least in part, act to up-regulate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in the XR4 strain. PMID:26377586

  17. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  18. Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Hearst, J.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Alberti, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Carotenoids comprise one of the most widespread classes of pigments found in nature. The first reactions of C{sub 40} carotenoid biosynthesis proceed through common intermediates in all organisms, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of early enzymes from this pathway. The authors report here the nucleotide sequence of three genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Erwinia herbicola, a nonphotosynthetic epiphytic bacterium, which encode homologs of the CrtB, CrtE, and CrtI proteins of Rhodobacter capsulatus, a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium. CrtB (prephytoene pyrophosphate synthase), CrtE (phytoene synthase), and CrtI (phytoene dehydrogenase) are required for the first three reactions specific to the carotenoid branch of general isoprenoid metabolism. All three dehydrogenases possess a hydrophobic N-terminal domain containing a putative ADP-binding {beta}{alpha}{beta} fold characteristic of enzymes known to bind FAD or NAD(P) cofactors. These data indicate the structural conservation of early carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes in evolutionary diverse organisms.

  19. Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in head to eat carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of g radiation on the total carotenoids, α and β-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (α and β-carotene). According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The carotenoid stability varies largely during the stages of processing and storage, depending upon structure, temperature, oxygen availability, light exposure, humidity content, water activity and acid, metal anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant presence. The minimally processed carrots in this experiment were manually peeled, rinsed, cutted into diskis, packaged under 5% O2 / 10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air), g ionizing radiation treatments was carried out with a 137Cs source, of 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 and 1,0kGy doses, and shelf-stored at 5°C for 24 days. Total carotenoids quantification was by 449nm spectrophotometer. Determination of a and β-carotenes was made by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The different treatments and control group were, too, evaluated by analysing of colour and volatiles, by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy with solid phase microextration (CG-MS/SPME), for study the significant carotenoids losses during the process

  20. Effects of carotenoids on damage of biological lipids induced by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be involved in the radioresistant mechanisms of radioresistant bacteria. In these bacterial cells, carotenoids are present in biological lipids, and therefore may be related to the radiation-induced damage of lipids. However, only limited data are available for the role of carotenoids in such damage. In this study, we irradiated an α-linolenic acid-benzene solution with gamma rays and analyzed the resulting oxidative degradation and peroxidation damage in the presence or absence of two typical carotenoids: β-carotene and astaxanthin. The analyses revealed that oxidative degradation and peroxidation of α-linolenic acid, as evaluated by the amount of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formed, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 8.5×10-3 M β-carotene inhibited gamma radiation-induced oxidative degradation of α-linolenic acid, whereas 5.0×10-5 and 5.0×10-6 M β-carotene, and 5.0×10-7 and 5.0×10-8 M astaxanthin promoted degradation. In contrast, neither β-carotene nor astaxanthin affected peroxidation of α-linolenic acid. These results suggest that an optimum concentration of carotenoids in radioresistant bacteria protects biological lipid structures from radiation-induced damage.

  1. Lycopene Accumulation Affects the Biosynthesis of Some Carotenoid-related Volatiles Independent of Ethylene in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Gao; Hongliang Zhu; Yi Shao; Anjun Chen; Chengwen Lu; Benzhong Zhu; Yunbo Luo

    2008-01-01

    For elucidating the regulatory mechanism of ethylene on carotenoid-related volatiles (open chain) compounds and the relationship between lycopene and carotenoid-related volatiles,transgenic tomato fruits in which ACC synthase was suppressed were used.The transgenic tomato fruit showed a significant reduction of lycopene and aroma volatiles with low ethylene production.6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and geranylacetone,which were suspected to be lycopene degradation products,were lower than those in wild type tomato fruits.In order to identify whether lycopene accumulation effects the biosynthesis of some carotenoid-related volatiles independent of ethylene in tomato or not,the capability of both wild type and transgenic tomato fruits discs to convert lycopene into carotenoid-related volatiles was evaluated.The data showed that external lycopene could convert into 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol in vivo,Indicating that the strong inhibition of ethylene production had no effect on enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of some carotenoid-related volatiles.Therefore,in ACS-suppression transgenic tomato fruits,the low levels of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol was due to decreased lycopene accumulation,not ethylene production.Ethylene only affected the accumulation of lycopene,and then indirectly influenceed the level of lycopene-related volatiles.

  2. Seed-specific overexpression of phytoene synthase: increase in carotenoids and other metabolic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker; Sheehy; Daley; Colburn; Ke

    1999-11-01

    A bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB) gene was overexpressed in a seed-specific manner and the protein product targeted to the plastid in Brassica napus (canola). The resultant embryos from these transgenic plants were visibly orange and the mature seed contained up to a 50-fold increase in carotenoids. The predominant carotenoids accumulating in the seeds of the transgenic plants were alpha and beta-carotene. Other precursors such as phytoene were also detected. Lutein, the predominant carotenoid in control seeds, was not substantially increased in the transgenics. The total amount of carotenoids in these seeds is now equivalent to or greater than those seen in the mesocarp of oil palm. Other metabolites in the isoprenoid pathway were examined in these seeds. Sterol levels remained essentially the same, while tocopherol levels decreased significantly as compared to non-transgenic controls. Chlorophyll levels were also reduced in developing transgenic seed. Additionally, the fatty acyl composition was altered with the transgenic seeds having a relatively higher percentage of the 18 : 1 (oleic acid) component and a decreased percentage of the 18 : 2 (linoleic acid) and 18 : 3 (linolenic acid) components. This dramatic increase in flux through the carotenoid pathway and the other metabolic effects are discussed. PMID:10607293

  3. The effect of structure in a long target RNA on ribozyme cleavage efficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, T B; McDonald, C K; Hagen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Inhibition of gene expression by catalytic RNA (ribozymes) requires that ribozymes efficiently cleave specific sites within large target RNAs. However, the cleavage of long target RNAs by ribozymes is much less efficient than cleavage of short oligonucleotide substrates because of higher order structure in the long target RNA. To further study the effects of long target RNA structure on ribozyme cleavage efficiency, we determined the accessibility of seven hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites i...

  4. Mutational analysis of a type II topoisomerase cleavage site: distinct requirements for enzyme and inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenreich, C H; Kreuzer, K. N.

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the DNA sequence requirements for cleavage of a 30 bp oligonucleotide that contains a strong bacteriophage T4 type II topoisomerase site. A novel method was used to generate substrates with each of the four nucleotides at 10 positions surrounding the cleavage site, and mutant substrates were also prepared for the four internal positions of the staggered cleavage site. The substrates were tested for cleavage in the presence of several inhibitors that induce enzyme-mediated cle...

  5. Cleavage patterns and the topology of the metazoan tree of life

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Several major alliances of metazoan phyla have been identified by small subunit rRNA sequence comparisons. It is possible to arrange the phyla to produce a parsimonious distribution of cleavage types, requiring only one change from a radial ancestral condition to spiral cleavage and one other to “idiosyncratic” cleavage; this arrangement is consistent with most of the recent molecular phylogenies. The cleavage shifts are correlated with changes in many of the features that once were used to d...

  6. Evaluation of the Relationship between the Incubation Time and Carotenoid Production in Rhodotorula Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa Isolated from Leather Tanning Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sadat Naghavi

    2013-10-01

    It seemed that the maximum rate of total carotenoid was not directly associated with the maximum amount of cell biomass and the type of carotenoid and their relative amount may vary depending on genus of yeast.

  7. Collision Cross-Section Determination and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isomeric Carotenoids Using Electrospray Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Linlin; Shion, Henry; Davis, Roderick G.; Terry-Penak, Brent; Castro-Perez, Jose; van Breemen, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments with provitamin A and antioxidant activities. Biosynthesized in plants as their all-trans isomers, carotenoids isomerize in solution and in humans to multiple cis isomers which can have different bioavailabilities and functions. Since separation and characterization of isomeric carotenoids using HPLC or LC-MS-MS is time consuming, the potential for ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to resolve and characterize carotenoid isomers rapidly without chromatogra...

  8. Oxidative stress and astaxanthin: The novel supernutrient carotenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Biswal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation leads to, generation and overproduction of the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and hence are responsible for many diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases. Antioxidants are found in varying amounts in vegetables, fruits, grain cereals, eggs, meat, legumes and nuts. However, there is always a search for antioxidants that can quench and breakup the chain of generation of free-radicals. Aims: Astaxanthin, a ketocarotenoid, has exceptional antioxidant activity and hence can be used for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, boosting of the immune system, anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, and cataract prevention. Hence, an attempt has performed in this review to compile data on astaxanthin and its several diverse applications over the last decade with an aim to escalate the intense interest in undertaking new research on this natural fascinating molecule. Materials and Methods: A literature search using astaxanthin and antioxidants as keywords using Google as the search engine was done and the data obtained were compiled and presented. Results and Conclusions: Astaxanthin can be a great supplement for everyone in enhancing immunity, preventing a myriad of diseases in our hectic lifestyle by providing more energy, reducing oxidative damage, producing clarity of vision as well as protection from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun! Further the immunomodulatory, antioxidative, and antiinflammatory activity of astaxanthin a bioactive natural supernutrient carotenoid may be very important to human health in treating many such untreatable diseases.

  9. Broadband 2D Electronic Spectroscopy Reveals Coupling Between Dark 1Bu- State of Carotenoid and Qx State of Bacteriochlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholes Gregory D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of LH2 protein of purple bacteria by broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy is presented. The dark 1Bu- carotenoid state is directly observed in 2D spectra and its role in carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interaction is discussed.

  10. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  11. Comparing the photophysics of the two forms of the Orange Carotenoid Protein using 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathies R.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is applied to investigate the photophysics of the photoactive orange carotenoid protein, which is involved in nonphotochemical quenching in cyanobacteria. Differences in dynamics between the light and dark forms arise from the different structure of the carotenoid in the protein pocket, with consequences for the biological role of the two forms.

  12. Calorimetric studies of the effect of cis-carotenoids on the thermotropic phase behavior of phosphatidylcholine bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Widomska, Justyna; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna; Latowski, Dariusz; Gruszecki, Wiesław I.; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Carotenoid geometry is a factor that determines their solubility and orientation in the lipid memebrane as well as antioxidant capacities and bioavailability. The effects of the cis-isomers of carotenoids (zeaxanthin and ?-carotene) on the thermotropic properties of lipid membranes formed with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The results were compared with the ef...

  13. Induced carotenoid accumulation in Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica by plant hormones and UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids prevent different degenerative diseases and improve human health. Microalgae are commercially exploited for carotenoids, including astaxanthin and β-carotene. Two commercially important microalgae, Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica, were treated with plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), or by UV-C radiation (T. suecica only) and a combination thereof. Significant increases in total carotenoids were found for D. salina and T. suecica after treatment with MJ (10 μmol/L) and SA (70-250 μmol/L), respectively. T. suecica also had significant increases in total carotenoids following UV-C radiation compared to control cultures. Among the carotenoids, lutein was the highest induced carotenoid. A combination of these two treatments also showed a significant increase in total carotenoids and lutein for T. suecica, when compared to controls. Plant hormones and UV-C radiation may be useful tools for increasing carotenoid accumulation in green microalgae although the responses are species- and dose-specific and should be trialed in medium to large scale to explore commercial production. PMID:26201492

  14. Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries : report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Delaimy, WK; van Kappel, AL; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Steghens, JP; Bingham, S; Johansson, [No Value; Wallstrom, P; Overvad, K; Tjonneland, A; Key, TJ; Welch, AA; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Peeters, PHM; Boeing, H; Linseisen, J; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Guibout, C; Navarro, C; Quiros, [No Value; Palli, D; Celentano, E; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, [No Value; Kaaks, R; Riboli, E

    2004-01-01

    Background: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries

  15. Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of organic solvents and carotenoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hříbek, P.; Batysta, F.; Chábera, P.; Polívka, Tomáš

    Nové Hrady : Academic and University Center, 2008. s. 47. [ESF Workshop on Novel Methods in Exploring Carotenoid Excited State Dynamics. 21.09.2008-25.09.2008, Nové Hrady] Keywords : carotenoids * scan measurement Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  16. Skin carotenoids as biomarker for vegetable and fruit intake: Validation of the reflection-spectroscopy based “Veggie Meter”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin is a relatively stable storage medium for carotenoids; non-invasive optical measurements of carotenoids in this tissue via Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) serve as a non-invasive biomarker for fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake. The RRS method has been validated with HPLC-based measurements of...

  17. Using skin carotenoids to assess potential dietary changes after one academic year in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reported dietary intake is often used in community interventions to assess intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V); however, dietary assessment methods are inaccurate, and time and labor intensive. Skin carotenoids are a potential biomarker to assess F/V intake given that carotenoids are predominately...

  18. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus.

  19. Utilization of natural carotenoids as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Murayama, Masaki; Nishikawa, Naomi; Hashimoto, Noritsugu; Shoyama, Masashi; Kurita, Osamu [Industrial Research Division, Mie Prefectural Science and Technology Promotion Center, Takachaya 5-5-45, Tsu, Mie 514-0819 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were assembled by using natural carotenoids, crocetin (8,8'-diapocarotenedioic acid) and crocin (crocetin-di-gentiobioside), as sensitizers and their photoelectrochemical properties were investigated taking a presence or absence of carboxylic group in the dye molecule into consideration. In these carotenoids, crocetin that has carboxylic groups in the molecule can attach effectively to the surface of TiO{sub 2} film so that it performed the best photosensitized effect resulting in the short-circuit photocurrent with 2.84 mA under irradiation of 1.0 cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, crocin that has no carboxylic group in the molecule showed lower photoelectrochemical performance because of its lower affinity to the surface of TiO{sub 2} film. These results indicate that it is possible to apply carotenoid as sensitizers for DSCs at the presence of effective function groups. (author)

  20. High isoprenoid flux Escherichia coli as a host for carotenoids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Wonchul

    2012-01-01

    A noncarotenogenic microbe E. coli was engineered for high production of carotenoids. To increase the isoprenoid flux, the chromosomal native promoters of the rate-controlling steps (dxs, idi and ispDispF) in the isoprenoid pathway were replaced with a strong bacteriophage T5 promoter (P(T5)) by using the λ-Red recombinase system in combination with the Flp/FRT site-specific recombination system for marker excision and P1 transduction for gene trait stacking. The resulting high isoprenoid flux E. coli can be used as a starting strain to produce various carotenoids by introducing heterologous carotenoid genes. In this study, the high isoprenoid flux E. coli was transformed with a plasmid carrying the β-carotene biosynthetic genes from Pantoea stewartii for β-carotene production. PMID:22144352

  1. TRACKING CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOIDS IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS OF FROZEN SPINACH PURÉE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is in the professional and general public considered highly nutritious vegetable with many beneficial effects on human health. It is a rich source of antioxidant active substances, especially chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and minerals especially zinc and copper. This work studies the changes of chlorophyll and carotenoids that occur after mass production technology of freezing at -37 °C. Before freezing was used blanching operation. In this work we used a variety Boeing, Boa, Beaver, Hudson and Chica. The highest content of all monitored parameters are found in fresh leaves of sampled Hudson. We found that within the processing decreases chlorophyll in 16.6%, 13.8% of chlorophyll b and carotenoids of 6.15%. This decrease was in all cases statistically significant.

  2. High carotenoid bioaccessibility through linseed oil nanoemulsions with enhanced physical and oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Gerding, Daniela; Oomah, B Dave; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Bustamante, Mariela; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica

    2016-05-15

    Carotenoid (astaxanthin or lycopene) emulsions obtained by high pressure homogenization were investigated for their physical, oxidative and storage stability and biological fate on an in vitro digestion model of bioaccessibility. Emulsion stability evaluated at various processing environments (20-50°C, 2-10 pH, 0-500 mM NaCl, and 0-35 days storage at 25°C) depended on carotenoid and homogenization pressures (5, 10, 100 MPa). Trolox increased the oxidative stability of nanoemulsions (100 MPa) and acted synergistically with BHT in increasing the stability of lycopene nanoemulsion. Intestinal digestibility depended on homogenization pressures with the fastest release and lower amount of free fatty acids observed at 100 MPa. Carotenoid nanoemulsions (100 MPa) were partially (66%) digested and highly bioaccessible (>70%). Therefore, nanoemulsions provide an effective and stable system for efficient astaxanthin or lycopene delivery and bioavailability in foods, beverages, nutraceuticals and/or other agriproducts. PMID:26775996

  3. Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Carotenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-Jing; PANG Jie; YE Xing-Qian; Lü Yuan; LI Jun

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are a family of effective active oxygen scavengers, which can reduce the danger of occurrence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cataract, cancer, and so on. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) equation between carotenoids and antioxidant activity was established by quantum chemistry AMI, molecular mechanism (MM+) and stepwise regression analysis methods, and the model was evaluated by leave-one-out approach. The results showed that the significant molecular descriptors related to the antioxidant activity of carotenoids were the energy difference (EHL) between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and ionization energy (Eiso). The model showed a good predictive ability (Q2 > 0.5).

  4. Structural Determinats Underlying Photoprotection in the Photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein of Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Adjele; Kinney, James N.; Zwart, Petrus H.; Punginelli, Claire; D' Haene, Sandrine; Perreau, Francois; Klein, Michael G.; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    The photoprotective processes of photosynthetic organisms involve the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy as heat. Photoprotection in cyanobacteria is mechanistically distinct from that in plants; it involves the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), a water-soluble protein containing a single carotenoid. The OCP is a new member of the family of blue light photoactive proteins; blue-green light triggers the OCP-mediated photoprotective response. Here we report structural and functional characterization of the wildtype and two mutant forms of the OCP, from the model organism Synechocystis PCC6803. The structural analysis provides highresolution detail of the carotenoidprotein interactions that underlie the optical properties of the OCP, unique among carotenoid-proteins in binding a single pigment per polypeptide chain. Collectively, these data implicate several key amino acids in the function of the OCP and reveal that the photoconversion and photoprotective responses of the OCP to blue-green light can be decoupled.

  5. Reaction of carotenoids with CCl3OO· by using pulse radiolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文恩; 姚思德; 王强; 钱素平; 王文峰; 韩雅珊

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of carotenoids (bixin, β-carotene and lycopene) with CCl3OO@ in aqueous and i-propylalcohol solution saturated with air have been studied by pulse radiolysis. For bixin and β-carotene reaction products from forming process, absorbing in the region of 650 nm, is observed with concomitant carotenoid bleaching (bixin at 500 nm, β-carotene at 450 nm). Their rate constants from forming process are 1.78×108 and 7.8×107 mol-1@L@s-1 respectively. However, in the case of lycopene, no such a forming process of reaction as bixin and β-carotene can be observed although there is the bleaching reaction (rate constant 4×107 mol-1@L@s-1). The results suggest that the carotenoid radical cationand an additional radical are produced in the case of bixin and β-carotene, whereas lycopene undergoes electron transfer with CCl3OO@, forming cation radical.

  6. Excited-State Dynamics of Carotenoids Studied by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ingu; Pang, Yoonsoo [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sebok [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Carotenoids, natural antenna pigments in photosynthesis share a symmetric backbone of conjugated polyenes. Contrary to the symmetric and almost planar geometries of carotenoids, excited state structure and dynamics of carotenoids are exceedingly complex. In this paper, recent infrared and visible transient absorption measurements and excitation dependent dynamics of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al and 7',7'-dicyano-7'-apo-β-carotene will be reviewed. The recent visible transient absorption measurements of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al in polar and nonpolar solvents will also be introduced to emphasize the complex excited-state dynamics and unsolved problems in the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} excited states.

  7. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  8. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  9. Sequence specificity of DNA cleavage by Micrococcus luteus γ endonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA fragments of defined sequence have been used to determine the sites of cleavage by γ-endonuclease activity in extracts prepared from Micrococcus luteus. End-labeled DNA restriction fragments of pBR322 DNA that had been irradiated under nitrogen in the presence of potassium iodide or t-butanol were treated with M. luteus γ endonuclease and analyzed on irradiated DNA preferentially at the positions of cytosines and thymines. DNA cleavage occurred immediately to the 3' side of pyrimidines in irradiated DNA and resulted in fragments that terminate in a 5'-phosphoryl group. These studies indicate that both altered cytosines and thymines may be important DNA lesions requiring repair after exposure to γ radiation

  10. Mutagenesis of the yellow fever virus NS2B/3 cleavage site: determinants of cleavage site specificity and effects on polyprotein processing and viral replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, T J; Nestorowicz, A.; Rice, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The determinants of cleavage site specificity of the yellow fever virus (YF) NS3 proteinase for its 2B/3 cleavage site have been studied by using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutations at residues within the GARR decreases S sequence were tested for effects on cis cleavage of an NS2B-3(181) polyprotein during cell-free translation. At the P1 position, only the conservative substitution R-->K exhibited significant levels of cleavage. Conservative and nonconservative substitutions were tolerated ...

  11. Small Molecule-Mediated Cleavage of RNA in Living Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) control gene expression by triggering the degradation of a mRNA via recruitment of RNase H or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), respectively.[1] These approaches are hampered, however, by the poor cellular permeability of oligonucleotides. A small molecule approach to cleave RNA targets could obviate uptake issues. Several compounds can induce RNA cleavage in vitro,[2] however, to the best of our knowledge no small molecul...

  12. Effects of Cysteamine on Sheep Embryo Cleavage Rates

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİNLER, Sinem Ö; ÖZDAŞ, Özen B.; SANDAL, Asiye İ.; ARICI, Ramazan; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet C.; BARAN, Alper; TEK, Çağatay; KILIÇARSLAN, Mehmet R.; Ak, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress during in vitro culture leads to defects in development of gametes and embryos. Several antioxidants such as cysteamine, L-ascorbic acid, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, glutathione, proteins, vitamins have been used to supplement culture media to counter the oxidative stress. This study was conducted to detect the effect of adding cysteamine to the maturation medium to subsequent cleavage rates of sheep embryos. Totally 604 ovaries were obtained by ten replica and 2060 oocyt...

  13. Interrelation between local and global characteristics of cleavage fracture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grishchenko, W.; Kotrechko, S.; Mamedov, S.; Zatsarna, O.; Dlouhý, Ivo

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Šandera, P.), s. 221-224 ISBN 978-3-03785-934-6. ISSN 1013-9826. - (Key Engineering Materials. 592-593). [MSMF 7 - International Conference on Materials Structure and Micromechanics of Fracture /7./. Brno (CZ), 01.07.2013-03.07.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : local stress * fracture * cleavage * embrittlement * strength Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  14. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Spannring, P.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid into the aldehydes nonanal and 9-oxo-nonanoic acid or into pelargonic and azelaic acid. Considerable hazards, including explosion risks, are associated with the use of ozone, and alternative processes...

  15. Developing a programmed restriction endonuclease for highly specific DNA cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenschmidt, Kristin; Lanio, Thomas; Simoncsits, András; Jeltsch, Albert; Pingoud, Vera; Wende, Wolfgang; Pingoud, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Specific cleavage of large DNA molecules at few sites, necessary for the analysis of genomic DNA or for targeting individual genes in complex genomes, requires endonucleases of extremely high specificity. Restriction endonucleases (REase) that recognize DNA sequences of 4–8 bp are not sufficiently specific for this purpose. In principle, the specificity of REases can be extended by fusion to sequence recognition modules, e.g. specific DNA-binding domains or triple-helix forming oligonucleotid...

  16. The pattern of DNA cleavage intensity around indels

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Liqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Indels (insertions and deletions) are the second most common form of genetic variations in the eukaryotic genomes and are responsible for a multitude of genetic diseases. Despite its significance, detailed molecular mechanisms for indel generation are still unclear. Here we examined 2,656,597 small human and mouse germline indels, 16,742 human somatic indels, 10,599 large human insertions, and 5,822 large chimpanzee insertions and systematically analyzed the patterns of DNA cleavage intensiti...

  17. Mycothiol synthesis by an anomerization reaction through endocyclic cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mycothiol is found in Gram-positive bacteria, where it helps in maintaining a reducing intracellular environment and it plays an important role in protecting the cell from toxic chemicals. The inhibition of the mycothiol biosynthesis is considered as a treatment for tuberculosis. Mycothiol contains an α-aminoglycoside, which is difficult to prepare stereoselectively by a conventional glycosylation reaction. In this study, mycothiol was synthesized by an anomerization reaction from an easily prepared β-aminoglycoside through endocyclic cleavage. PMID:26977192

  18. Centrocortin Cooperates with Centrosomin to Organize Drosophila Embryonic Cleavage Furrows

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ling-Rong; Timothy L Megraw

    2009-01-01

    In the Drosophila early embryo the centrosome coordinates assembly of cleavage furrows [1–3]. Currently, the molecular pathway that links the centrosome and the cortical microfilaments is unknown. In centrosomin (cnn) mutants, where the centriole forms but the centrosome pericentriolar material (PCM) fails to assemble [4, 5], actin microfilaments are not organized into furrows at the syncytial cortex [6]. While CNN is required for centrosome assembly and function [4, 6, 7], little is known of...

  19. Embryo apoptosis identification: Oocyte grade or cleavage stage?

    OpenAIRE

    Bakri, Noraina Mohd; Ibrahim, Siti Fatimah; Osman, Nurul Atikah; Hasan, Nurhaslina; Jaffar, Farah Hanan Fathihah; Rahman, Zulaiha Abdul; Osman, Khairul

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a programed cell death that is vital for tissue homeostasis. However, embryo apoptosis had been known to be related to embryo fragmentation which should be avoided in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of embryo apoptosis with the grade of immature oocytes and cleavage stage of in vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos. This study consisted of 345 oocytes collected through ovary slicing. Immature oocytes were graded as A, B and C...

  20. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.