WorldWideScience

Sample records for carotenes

  1. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003571.htm Beta-carotene blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... skin is broken) Alternative Names Carotene test Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Carotene - serum. In: ...

  2. Beta-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce symptoms of breathing disorders such as asthma and exercise-induced asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... seem to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. Asthma attacks triggered by exercise. Taking beta-carotene by mouth seems to prevent ...

  3. Safety evaluation of synthetic β-carotene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Appel, M.J.; Berg, H. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    The safety of β-carotene was reassessed by evaluating the relevant literature on the beneficial and adverse effects of β-carotene on cancer and, in particular, by evaluating the results of toxicity studies. β- Carotene appeared neither genotoxic nor reprotoxic or teratogenic, and no signs of organ

  4. Radioprotective effect of the β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Huang Meiying; Zhu Gengbo; Yin Zhiwei; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1991-09-01

    The radioprotective effect of β-carotene was studied in animals. The results showed: 1) The chronic death rate decreased; 2) The peripheral leukocytes and spleen-B-Lymph cells increased; 3) The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood increased; 4) The β-carotene has the function of protecting the structure of the organs of thymus and testes; 5) The free asparagine (Asn) in the plasma increased and proline decreased

  5. 21 CFR 184.1245 - Beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beta-carotene. 184.1245 Section 184.1245 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1245 Beta-carotene. (a) Beta-carotene (CAS Reg. No. 7235-40-7) has the... reagent and vitamin A aldehyde are reacted together to form beta-carotene. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  6. β-Carotene content of selected banana genotypes from Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carotene with values as high as 2594.0 μg/100 g edible pulp. A positive correlation existed between pulp color intensity and β-carotene concentration. Accessions with relatively high levels of β-carotene,especially the PNG genotypes, could be ...

  7. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  8. DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND β-CAROTENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    molecules on earth; each year photosynthesis converts more than 100 billion metric tonnes of carbondioxide ... are associated with chlorophyll in higher plants, playing important role during photosynthesis by .... Mustapha (2008) reported higher concentration of β- carotene in spinach and lettuce, which are green leafy.

  9. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Ubiquinone and carotene production in the Mucorales Blakeslea and Phycomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzina, Vera; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Blakeslea trispora (Zygomycota, Mucorales) are actual or potential industrial sources of beta-carotene and lycopene. These chemicals and the large terpenoid moiety of ubiquinone derive from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. We measured the ubiquinone...... and carotene contents of wild-type and genetically modified strains under various conditions. Light slightly increased the ubiquinone content of Blakeslea and had no effect on that of Phycomyces. Oxidative stress modified ubiquinone production in Phycomyces and carotene production in both fungi. Sexual...... interaction and mutations in both organisms made the carotene content vary from traces to 23 mg/g dry mass, while the ubiquinone content remained unchanged at 0.3 mg/g dry mass. We concluded that the biosyntheses of ubiquinone and carotene are not coregulated. The specific regulation for carotene biosynthesis...

  11. β-carotene in sunflower oil oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishlieva, N. V.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of sunflower oil (SO, as well as of pure triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO in the presence of different concentrations (0.001-0.02 % β-carotene was studied. The process was β-performed at high (kinetic regime and low (diffusion regime oxygen concentrations at room temperature in the dark and under daylight. The results from the oxidation of SO and TGSO at 100ºC in the presence of β-carotene were also presented. It was established that in the antioxidant-free lipid system, the β-carotene did not give any antioxidative protection. It worked as a prooxidant during the oxidation at room temperature and at sufficiently high oxygen concentration, the effect being more pronounced in the dark than under daylight. β-carotene increased the stability of tocopherol-containing SO during its oxidation at room temperature and under daylight. This effect is more strongly expressed in a kinetic regime of oxidation. The synergism of β-carotene with the tocopherols was characterized by the stabilization factor F and the activity A. In the kinetic regime of oxidation F and A varied in the interval F=2.0-6.3, and A =2.7-21.0. In the diffusion regime F=1.3-1.5, and A=1.5-2.8.Se estudió la cinética de oxidación de aceite de girasol (SO, así como la de triacilgliceroles puros de aceite de girasol (TGSO en presencia de diferentes concentraciones (0.001-0.02 % de β- caroteno. El proceso se llevó a cabo a altas (régimen cinético y bajas (régimen de difusión concentraciones de oxígeno a temperatura ambiente con luz natural y en la oscuridad, y se presentan también los resultados de la oxidación de SO y TGSO a 100ºC en presencia de β-caroteno. Los resultados indicaron que en los sistemas lipídicos libres de antioxidantes, el β-caroteno no dio protección antioxidante. Funcionó como prooxidante durante la oxidación a temperatura ambiente y a concentraciones de oxigeno suficientemente elevadas, siendo el efecto m

  12. Effect of lutein on beta-carotene absorption and cleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Carotenoid interactions during absorption anti in postabsorptive metabolism have been observed in both human and animal studies. We reviewed the mutual interactions reported between lutein and β-carotene and report new data on the postprandial β-carotene and retinyl ester response in the

  13. Ascorbic Acid and Beta-Carotene Alleviate Oxidative Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic Acid and Beta-Carotene Alleviate Oxidative Effect of London King Size® Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Lipids. ... Malondialdehyde production in the tissues was reduced by ascorbic acid and or beta-carotene given daily to the rats. It is implied that ascorbic acid or ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njhbs.v2i1.11451.

  14. Isomerization of β-carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isomerization of all-trans--carotene occurs during shaking with 0.5% of titanium tetrachloride catalyst in methylene chloride at room temperature. In the present study we compared two types of columns C18 and C30 and various solvent systems for the separation of -carotene and its cis isomers by high performance liquid ...

  15. Changes in microstructure, beta carotene content and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes {OFSP} (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) contain high levels of beta carotene, an important provitamin A carotenoid. Stored sweet potato roots undergo many physiological changes that affect their beta carotene content and bioaccessibility as well as the tissue microstructure. This study ...

  16. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  17. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  18. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com; Ovidiu, Oprea [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Bojin, Dionezie [Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene-Sq and grape seed oil-GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers-NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive {beta}-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 Division-Sign -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the {beta}-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation {beta}-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a {beta}-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichiacoli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a

  19. A novel potential source of β-carotene: Eustigmatos cf. polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae) and pilot β-carotene production in bubble column and flat panel photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ma, Xiaoqin; Li, Aifen; Zhang, Chengwu

    2012-08-01

    Carotenoids profile of the unicellular Eustigmatos cf. polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae) and β-carotene production of the microalga in bubble column and large flat panel bioreactors were studied. The microalga which contained β-carotene, violaxanthin and vaucheriaxanthin as the major carotenoids accumulated large amount of β-carotene. The β-carotene production of this microalga in the bubble column bioreactor was considerable, with the maximum intracellular β-carotene content reaching 60.76 mg g(-1), biomass reaching 9.2 g L(-1), and β-carotene yield up to 470.2 mg L(-1). The β-carotene productions in two large flat panel bioreactors were relatively lower, whereas over 100 mg β-carotene L(-1) was achieved. Besides, high light intensity helped to accumulate intracellular β-carotene and biomass. Deficient nitrate supply inhibited biomass growth, though it helped to accumulate β-carotene. Our results first proved that E. cf. polyphem was a potential source and producer of β-carotene, making it an interesting subject for further β-carotene study or commercial exploration. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids.

  1. Structural study of aggregated β-carotene by absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li Ping; Wei, Liang Shu

    2017-10-01

    By UV-visible absorption spectroscope, the aggregated β-carotene in hydrated ethanol was studied in the temperature range of 5 55°C, with different ethanol/water ratio. And the structural evolutions of these aggregates with time were detected. The spectrophotometric analysis showed that the aggregate of β-carotene formed in 1:1 ethanol/water solution transfered from H-type to J-type with temperature increase. In 2:1 ethanol/water solution a new type of aggregate with strong coupling was predicated by the appearing absorption peak located at about 550 nm. In the time scales of 48 houses all the aggregated structures were stable, but the absorption intensity decreased with time. It was concluded that the types of aggregated β-carotene which wouldn't change with time depended on the solvent composition and temperature.

  2. α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Zaccari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1 in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg, followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg, and immature fruits (18.82 mg. Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis and α-carotene (34.1%. Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3% and mature (34.5% fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04 vs. raw pulp (0.96.

  3. Isomerization of β-carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    2007-05-04

    May 4, 2007 ... antioxidant because of the presence of a long chain of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. ... such as extraction, chromatography etc. It has been reported that the chlorinated solvents can promote isomerization of trans conjugated polyenes such as β-carotene during extraction.5. Also, the isomeriza-.

  4. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...

  5. Shake flask optimization of β-carotene production in Rhodotorula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was focused on the effects and interactions of media components on the production of β-carotene by Rhodotorula graminis. Mannitol, potassium nitrate, yeast extract, monopotassium hydrogen phosphate and magnesium sulfate medium components were screened using Plackett Burman Design ...

  6. Determination of carbohydrate and β-carotene content of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the soluble carbohydrate and β-carotene content of some selected vegetables which include sorrel (Hibiscus subdariffa), carrot (Daucus carota) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera).Soluble carbohydrate was determined by Anthrone method Spectrophotometry at wavelength of 620nm.

  7. Evaluation of β-carotene content and presence of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of β-carotene content and presence of some phytochemicals in five indigenous fruits. IA Nwaogu, CS Alisi, CO Ibegbulem. Abstract. No Abstract. Plant Products Research Journal Vol. 10, 2006: 13-15. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Isolation and molecular identification of β-carotene producing strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are unique species of the genus Dunaliella that produce large amounts of â-carotene when cultivated under appropriate conditions. These include high light intensity, high sodium chloride concentration, nitrate deficiency and extreme temperatures. Under these conditions, only D.

  9. Total β-carotene content of orange sweetpotato cultivated under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MFaber

    harvesting at four months (warm climates) to six months. (temperate climates) after planting (Niederwieser, 2004). In many traditional settings sweetpotato is harvested as needed (a practice called piece meal harvesting). When the roots are kept in the soil until needed, the carotenoid and β-carotene content of the roots may ...

  10. Integration of β-carotene molecules in small liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Popova, Antoaneta

    2010-01-01

    The most typical feature of carotenoids is the long polyene chain with conjugated double bonds suggesting that they can serve as conductors of electrons, acting as 'molecular wires', important elements in the molecular electronic devices. Carotenoids are essential components of photosynthetic systems, performing different functions as light harvesting, photoprotection and electron transfer. They act also as natural antioxidants. In addition they perform structural role stabilizing the three-dimensional organization of photosynthetic membranes. Carotenoids contribute to the stability of the lipid phase, preserving the membrane integrity under potentially harmful environmental conditions. Carotenoids can be easily integrated into model membranes, facilitating the investigation of their functional roles. In carotenoid-egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes ss-carotene is randomly distributed in the hydrocarbon interior of the bilayer, without any preferred, well defined orientation and retains a substantial degree of mobility. Here we investigate the degree of integration of ss-carotene in small unilamellar EPC liposomes and the changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra due to the lipid-pigment interaction. All observed changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra may be regarded as a result of the lipid-pigment interactions leading to the polyene geometry distortion and increasing of the environment heterogenety in the liposomes as compared to the solutions.

  11. Lycopene inhibits the isomerization of β-carotene during quenching of singlet oxygen and free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Thomas; Heinz, Philipp; Glomb, Marcus A

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of singlet oxygen and radical species on the isomerization of carotenoids. On the one hand, lycopene and β-carotene standards were incubated with 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene-1,4-endoperoxide that produced singlet oxygen in situ. (13Z)- and (15Z)-β-carotene were preferentially generated at low concentrations of singlet oxygen, while high concentrations resulted in formation of (9Z)-β-carotene. The addition of different concentrations of lycopene led to the same isomerization progress of β-carotene, but resulted in a decreased formation of (9Z)-β-carotene and retarded degradation of (all-E)-β-carotene. On the other hand, isomerization of β-carotene and lycopene was induced by ABTS-radicals, too. As expected from the literature, chemical quenching was observed especially for lycopene, while physical quenching was preferred for β-carotene. Mixtures of β-carotene and lycopene resulted in a different isomerization progress compared to the separate β-carotene model. As long as lycopene was present, almost no isomerization of β-carotene was triggered; after that, strong formation of (13Z)-, (9Z)-, and (15Z)-β-carotene was initiated. In summary, lycopene protected β-carotene against isomerization during reactions with singlet oxygen and radicals. These findings can explain the pattern of carotenoid isomers analyzed in fruits and vegetables, where lycopene containing samples showed higher (all-E)/(9Z)-β-carotene ratios, and also in in vivo samples such as human blood plasma.

  12. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  13. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    with higher estrogen content. CONCLUSIONS: OC use seems to be strongly related to serum beta-carotene levels, particularly among women above the age of 35. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this association and its implications for health risks of OC use.......OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...... impact. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7 day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987...

  14. Stability of β-carotene in polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinado, I., E-mail: irpeipar@upvnet.upv.es [Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Mason, M.; Romano, A. [Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Biasioli, F. [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all ‘Adige, TN (Italy); Scampicchio, M., E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • β-carotene was incorporated into PEO-nanofibers by electrospinning. • Properties of the fibers were analyzed by SEM, color analysis, and DSC. • TGA coupled to PTR–ms resulted promising to online-monitoring thermal degradation. • Thermal stability of βc increased after encapsulation into the PEO-nanofibers. - Abstract: β-carotene (βc) was successfully incorporated into electrospun nanofibers of poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with the aim of prolonging its shelf life and thermal stability. The physical and thermal properties of the βc-PEO-nanofibers were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nanofibers of PEO and βc-PEO exhibited average fiber diameters of 320 ± 46 and 230 ± 21 nm, with colorimetric coordinates L* = 95.7 ± 2.4 and 89.4 ± 4.6 and b* = −0.5 ± 0.1 and 6.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Proton Transfer–Mass Spectroscopy (TGA/PTR–ms) demonstrated that coated βc inside PEO nanofibers increased thermal stability when compared to standard βc in powder form. In addition, β-carotene in the membranes showed higher stability during storage when compared with β-carotene in solution with a decrease in concentration of 57 ± 4% and 70 ± 2% respectively, thus should extend the shelf life of this compound. Also, TGA coupled with PTR–MS resulted in a promising technique to online-monitoring thermal degradation.

  15. Beta-Cryptoxanthin- and alpha-carotene-rich foods have greater apparent bioavailability than beta-carotene-rich foods in Western diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Beta-carotene (BC), beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) and alpha-carotene (AC) are common carotenoids that form vitamin A (VA). Conversion ratios for VA formation have been set at 12:1 for BC- and 24:1 for CX- and AC-rich foods, respectively. These conversion ratios are based on chemical structure...

  16. Emulsion design for the delivery of β-carotene in complex food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Wang, Di; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-03-24

    β-Carotene has been widely investigated both in the industry and academia, due to its unique bioactive attributes as an antioxidant and pro-vitamin A. Many attempts were made to design delivery systems for β-carotene to improve its dispersant state and chemical stability, and finally to enhance the functionality. Different types of oil-in-water emulsions were proved to be effective delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients, and intensive studies were performed on β-carotene emulsions in the last decade. Emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, and emulsions with intact structures are preferable in delivering β-carotene during processing and storage. β-Carotene in emulsions with smaller particle size has poor stability, and protein-type emulsifiers and additional antioxidants are effective in protecting β-carotene from degradation. Recent development in the design of protein-polyphenol conjugates has provided a novel approach to improve the stability of β-carotene emulsions. When β-carotene is consumed, its bioaccessibility is highly influenced by the digestion of lipids, and β-carotene in smaller oil droplets containing long-chain fatty acids has a higher bioaccessibility. In order to better deliver β-carotene in complex food products, some novel emulsions with tailor-made structures have been developed, e.g., multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the updated understanding of emulsion-based delivery systems for β-carotene, and how emulsions can be better designed to fulfill the benefits of β-carotene in functional foods.

  17. β-Carotene suppresses osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Nan; Gao, Youshui; Zhou, Zubin; Liu, Wei; Pan, Chenhao; Yin, Peipei; Yu, Xiaowei; Tang, Mingjie

    2017-04-01

    β-Carotene is a natural anti-oxidant, which has been used for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the ameliorating function of β-carotene in osteoporosis has been implicated. However, the precise mechanism of β-carotene in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate how β-carotene affects osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Bone marrow-derived monocytes/-macrophages (BMM) were exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6μM β-carotene, followed by evaluation of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and resorption pits formation. Key factors in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways were evaluated with western blot after BMM cells were exposed to RANKL and β-carotene. The effects of β-carotene in nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos and cathepsin K (CTSK) expression were also evaluated. β-Carotene significantly inhibited BMM viability and promoted LDH release at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6μM. A decrease in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and resorption was also observed after β-carotene treatment. β-Carotene attenuated the NF-ĸB pathway activation by RANKL, with no effect on MAPK pathway. β-Carotene suppressed the upregulation of NFATc1 and c-Fos by RANKL. We clarified the anti-osteoclastogenic role of β-carotene, which is mediated by NF-κB signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Burri, Betty J; Singh, R Paul

    2012-09-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: β-carotene oil (oil) and whey protein isolate (WPI)-alginate-chitosan capsules containing β-carotene oil (capsule). Shaking water bath and Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) digestion models assessed the impact of gastric peristalsis on the release of β-carotene. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene was measured as percent recovered from the micelle fraction. There was greater release of β-carotene from oil fortified almond butter in the HGS model (87.1%) due to peristalsis than the shaking water bath model (51.0%). More β-carotene was released from capsule fortified almond butter during intestinal digestion. However, more β-carotene was recovered from the micelle fraction of oil fortified almond butter. These results suggest that a WPI-alginate-chitosan capsule coating may inhibit the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter.

  19. Influence of emulsion nature on radiation response of β-carotene in an aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, B.; Tobback, P.; Snauwaert, F.; Maes, E.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation response of β-carotene was followed in lipid solvents and in aqueous preparations. The nature of the solvent was found to have a marked influence on the response of β-carotene to γ-radiation. In aqueous emulsions radiation destruction of β-carotene was far less than that observed in solutions. Oil in water (O/W) emulsions of petroleum ether offered maximum protection to β-carotene against radiation damage. This observation was attributed to the multiphase nature of the emulsion since a transparent aqueous preparation was observed to offer no protection upon irradiation. Solubility of crystalline β-carotene in water was found to increase with the emulsifier concentration. Irradiation revealed that the extent of β-carotene destruction was dose dependent and increased with the solubility of β-carotene in water. In the presence of a free radical scavenger DPPH β-carotene exhibited varied radiation response depending upon the nature of solvents used. Thus, in transparent aqueous preparations the protection afforded by added DPPH to β-carotene was almost complete, while its influence was insignificant in O/W emulsions. The significance of these observations in radiation processing of foods is discussed. (author)

  20. β-Carotene in Golden Rice is as good as β-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Hu, Yuming; Yin, Shi-an; Wang, Yin; Dallal, Gerard E; Grusak, Michael A; Russell, Robert M

    2012-09-01

    Golden Rice (GR) has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene for use as a source of vitamin A. The objective was to compare the vitamin A value of β-carotene in GR and in spinach with that of pure β-carotene in oil when consumed by children. Children (n = 68; age 6-8 y) were randomly assigned to consume GR or spinach (both grown in a nutrient solution containing 23 atom% ²H₂O) or [²H₈]β-carotene in an oil capsule. The GR and spinach β-carotene were enriched with deuterium (²H) with the highest abundance molecular mass (M) at M(β-C)+²H₁₀. [¹³C₁₀]Retinyl acetate in an oil capsule was administered as a reference dose. Serum samples collected from subjects were analyzed by using gas chromatography electron-capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the enrichments of labeled retinol: M(retinol)+4 (from [²H₈]β-carotene in oil), M(retinol)+5 (from GR or spinach [²H₁₀]β-carotene), and M(retinol)+10 (from [¹³C₁₀]retinyl acetate). Using the response to the dose of [¹³C₁₀]retinyl acetate (0.5 mg) as a reference, our results (with the use of AUC of molar enrichment at days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the labeled doses) showed that the conversions of pure β-carotene (0.5 mg), GR β-carotene (0.6 mg), and spinach β-carotene (1.4 mg) to retinol were 2.0, 2.3, and 7.5 to 1 by weight, respectively. The β-carotene in GR is as effective as pure β-carotene in oil and better than that in spinach at providing vitamin A to children. A bowl of ~100 to 150 g cooked GR (50 g dry weight) can provide ~60% of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamin A for 6-8-y-old children.

  1. B-Carotene-a long road to commercial implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardiner, NS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available to commercial implementation Dusty Gardiner, Raj Lalloo, Dheepak Ramduth, Jozef Dudas, Mark Marcus (NCSA) © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 3 Uses of β-carotene (pro-vitamin A...) • Animal feed supplements • Food supplements – colorant, Vitamin A supplement • OTC pharmaceuticals (health supplements) – anti-oxidant, Vitamin A supplement © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 4 Production • Chemical synthesis...

  2. Manipulation of Origin of Life Molecules: Recognizing Single-Molecule Conformations in β-Carotene and Chlorophyll-a/β-Carotene Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Anh T.; Skeini, Timur [Nanoscale; amp, Quantum Phenomena Institute and Physics & amp, Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, United States; Iancu, Violeta [Nanoscale; amp, Quantum Phenomena Institute and Physics & amp, Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, United States; Redfern, Paul C.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Hla, Saw Wai [Nanoscale; amp, Quantum Phenomena Institute and Physics & amp, Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, United States

    2018-01-11

    Carotenoids and chlorophyll are essential parts of plant leaves and are involved in photosynthesis, a vital biological process responsible for the origin of life on Earth. Here, we investigate how beta-carotene and chlorophyll-a form mixed molecular phases On a Au(111) surface using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and molecular manipulation at the single-molecule level supported by density functional theory calculations. By isolating individual molecules from nanoscale molecular clusters with a scanning tunneling microscope tip, we are able to identify five beta-carotene conformations including a structure exhibiting a three-dimensional conformation. Furthermore, molecular resolution images enable direct visualization of beta-carotene/chlorophyll-a clsuters, with intimate structural details highlighting how they pair: beta-carotene preferentially positions next to chlorophyll-a and induces switching of chlorophyll-a from straight to several bent tail conformations in the molecular clusters.

  3. Carrot β-carotene degradation and isomerization kinetics during thermal processing in the presence of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockaert, Griet; Pulissery, Sudheer K; Lemmens, Lien; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2012-10-17

    The effect of thermal processing (85-130 °C) on the stability and isomerization of β-carotene in both an olive oil/carrot emulsion and an olive oil phase enriched with carrot β-carotene was studied. During processing, degradation of total β-carotene took place. Initially, total β-carotene concentration decreased quickly, after which a plateau value was reached, which was dependent on the applied temperature. In the oil/carrot emulsion, the total β-carotene concentration could be modeled by a fractional conversion model. The temperature dependence of the degradation rate constants was described by the activation energy and was estimated to be 45.0 kJ/mol. In the enriched oil phase, less degradation took place and the results could not be modeled. Besides degradation, β-carotene isomerization was studied. In both matrices, a fractional conversion model could be used to model total isomerization and formation of 13-Z- and 15-Z-β-carotene. β-Carotene isomerization was similar in both the oil/carrot emulsion and enriched oil phase as the simultaneously estimated kinetic parameters (isomerization reaction rate constant and activation energy) of both matrices did not differ significantly. The activation energies of isomerization were estimated to be 70.5 and 75.0 kJ/mol in the oil/carrot emulsion and enriched oil phase, respectively.

  4. Effect of salinity on cell growth and β-carotene production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... and cosmetics industries and in research such as genetic engineering; hence, identification of high productive isolate and optimization of its culture media for natural β- carotene production is of great importance. The β-carotene is a terpenoid pigment that is highly valuable for the sake of its nutritional ...

  5. Stereoselective synthesis by olefin metathesis and characterization of η-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-β,β-carotene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán, Noelia; Alvarez, Rosana; de Lera, Angel R

    2012-05-25

    The purported structure of the elusive η-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-β,β-carotene), a natural C(40) carotenoid first detected in the berries of Lonicera japonica and in citrus fruits sixty years ago, has been synthesized by olefin cross-metathesis/dimerization of a C(21) polyene derived from trans-7,8-dihydroretinal, thus allowing the full characterization of this highly unstable natural product.

  6. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON Β-CAROTENE CONTENT AND STORAGE STABILITY OF CORN AND BOVINE LUNG SNACKS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Clara de Moraes Prata GASPAR; Rosana Aparecida Manolio SOARES; Thaís de Campos CARDENAS; Suzana Cristina de Toledo Camacho LIMA; José Alfredo Gomes ARÊAS

    2012-01-01

    A β-carotene and iron rich snack was developed aimed at children consumption. β-carotene was added to the snacks, in the flavoring mixture after (A) or before (B) extrusion. Proximate composition, β-carotene content, instrumental color and texture parameters were determined during storage. Both products had low content of lipids and high content of bioavailable iron, β-carotene and proteins. Shear resistance of snack B increased during storage, and the values of B were...

  7. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of

  8. α- and β-Carotene Stability During Storage of Microspheres Obtained from Spray-Dried Microencapsulation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Marzena Anna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the stability of carotenes (α- and β-carotene in oil solutions with their stability when spray-dried encapsulation is applied. The carotenes were isolated from carrot. A storage test was subsequently performed. The stability of carotenes in oil solutions was determined with the HPLC method. The color of the samples was also analyzed. The oil solutions of carotenes were microencapsulated with the spray-drying method. A mixture of gum Arabic and maltodextrin was used as a matrix.

  9. Effects of β-Carotene and Its Cleavage Products in Primary Pneumocyte Type II Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Haider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC. Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs and the major product apo-8′carotenal. However, because these findings cannot directly be transferred to the lung due to the exceptional biotransformation capacity of the liver, potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of β-carotene under oxidative stress and its CPs were investigated in primary pneumocyte type II cells. The results indicate that increased concentrations of β-carotene in the presence of the redox cycling quinone dimethoxynaphthoquinone (DMNQ exhibit a cytotoxic potential, as evidenced by an increase of apoptotic cells and loss of cell density at concentrations > 10 µM. On the other hand, the analysis of micronucleated cells gave no clear picture due to the cytotoxicity related reduction of mitotic cells. Last, although CPs induced significant levels of DNA strand breaks even at concentrations ≥ 1 µM and 5 µM, respectively, β-carotene in the presence of DMNQ did not cause DNA damage. Instead, β-carotene appeared to act as an antioxidant. These findings are in contrast with what was demonstrated for primary hepatocytes and may reflect different sensitivities to and different metabolism of β-carotene in the two cell types.

  10. A ζ-carotene desaturase gene, IbZDS, increases β-carotene and lutein contents and enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijie; Kang, Chen; Song, Xuejin; Yu, Ling; Liu, Degao; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2017-09-01

    ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, the ZDS gene has not been applied to carotenoid improvement of plants. Its roles in tolerance to abiotic stresses have not been reported. In this study, the IbZDS gene was isolated from storage roots of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Nongdafu 14. Its overexpression significantly increased β-carotene and lutein contents and enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato (cv. Kokei No. 14) plants. Significant up-regulation of lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY) and β-carotene hydroxylase (β-CHY) genes and significant down-regulation of lycopene ε-cyclase (ε-LCY) and ε-carotene hydroxylase (ε-CHY) genes were found in the transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) and proline contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants under salt stress. The salt stress-responsive genes encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), SOD, CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and POD were found to be significantly up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress. This study indicates that the IbZDS gene has the potential to be applied for improving β-carotene and lutein contents and salt tolerance in sweetpotato and other plants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid-dissolved γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in globular chromoplasts of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Amrehn, Evelyn; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2014-11-01

    High levels of β-carotene, lycopene, and the rare γ-carotene occur predominantly lipid-dissolved in the chromoplasts of peach palm fruits. First proof of their absorption from these fruits is reported. The structural diversity, the physical deposition state in planta, and the human bioavailability of carotenoids from the edible fruits of diverse orange and yellow-colored peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) varieties were investigated. HPLC-PDA-MS(n) revealed a broad range of carotenes, reaching total carotenoid levels from 0.7 to 13.9 mg/100 g FW. Besides the predominant (all-E)-β-carotene (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g FW), two (Z)-isomers of γ-carotene (0.1-3.9 mg/100 g FW), and one (Z)-lycopene isomer (0.04-0.83 mg/100 g FW) prevailed. Approximately 89-94 % of total carotenoid content pertained to provitamin A carotenoids with retinol activity equivalents ranging from 37 to 609 µg/100 g FW. The physical deposition state of these carotenoids in planta was investigated using light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. The plastids found in both orange and yellow-colored fruit mesocarps were amylo-chromoplasts of the globular type, containing carotenoids predominantly in a lipid-dissolved form. The hypothesis of lipid-dissolved carotenoids was supported by simple solubility estimations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the fruit mesocarp. In our study, we report first results on the human bioavailability of γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene from peach palm fruit, particularly proving the post-prandial absorption of the rarely occurring γ-carotene. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition has been shown to be decisive for carotenoid bioavailability, lipid-dissolved carotenoids in peach palm fruits are expected to be highly bioavailable, however, further studies are required.

  12. Metabolic engineering of β-carotene in orange fruit increases its in vivo antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Elsa; Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramón, Daniel; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Orange is a major crop and an important source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. Increasing the levels of specific antioxidants in orange fruit through metabolic engineering could strengthen the fruit's health benefits. In this work, we have afforded enhancing the β-carotene content of orange fruit through blocking by RNA interference the expression of an endogenous β-carotene hydroxylase gene (Csβ-CHX) that is involved in the conversion of β-carotene into xanthophylls. Additionally, we have simultaneously overexpressed a key regulator gene of flowering transition, the FLOWERING LOCUS T from sweet orange (CsFT), in the transgenic juvenile plants, which allowed us to obtain fruit in an extremely short period of time. Silencing the Csβ-CHX gene resulted in oranges with a deep yellow ('golden') phenotype and significant increases (up to 36-fold) in β-carotene content in the pulp. The capacity of β-carotene-enriched oranges for protection against oxidative stress in vivo was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans as experimental animal model. Golden oranges induced a 20% higher antioxidant effect than the isogenic control. This is the first example of the successful metabolic engineering of the β-carotene content (or the content of any other phytonutrient) in oranges and demonstrates the potential of genetic engineering for the nutritional enhancement of fruit tree crops. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cleavage of beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, H; Langhoff, S; Scheibner, M; Berger, R G

    2003-09-01

    More than 50 filamentous fungi and yeasts, known for de novo synthesis or biotransformation of mono-, sesqui-, tri-, or tetraterpenes, were screened for their ability to cleave beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds. Ten strains discolored a beta,beta-carotene-containing growth agar, indicating efficient degradation of beta,beta-carotene. Dihydroactinidiolide was formed as the sole conversion product of beta,beta-carotene in submerged cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Hypomyces odoratus, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, and Trametes suaveolens. When mycelium-free culture supernatants from five species were applied for the conversions, nearly complete degradation of beta,beta-carotene was observed after 12 h. Carotenoid-derived volatile products were detected in the media of Ischnoderma benzoinum, Marasmius scorodonius, and Trametes versicolor. beta-Ionone proved to be the main metabolite in each case, whereas beta-cyclocitral, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were formed in minor quantities. Using a photometric bleaching test, the beta,beta-carotene cleaving enzyme activities of M. scorodonius were partially characterized.

  14. Reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets by natural beta carotene and its potential use as supercapacitor electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaiyi M. Zaid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A green, non-toxic and eco-friendly approach for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO nanosheets using natural β-carotene is reported. The FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses reveal the oxygen scavenging property of β-carotene successfully removes oxygen functionalities on GO nanosheets. Complete GO reduction is achieved within 16 h with 10 mM β-carotene as confirmed by the UV spectroscopy results. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy images provide clear evidence for the formation of few layers of graphene nanosheets. Furthermore, the mechanism of GO reduction by β-carotene has been proposed in this study. The electrochemical testing shows good charge storage properties of β-carotene reduced GO (142 F/g at 10 mV/s; 149 F/g at 1 A/g in Na2SO4, with stable cycling (89% for up to 1000 cycles. The findings suggest the reduction of GO nanosheets by β-carotene is a suitable approach in producing graphene nanosheets for supercapacitor electrode.

  15. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Radioprotective effects of natural β-carotene on villi and crypts in abdominally radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabe, Teruhisa; Itoh, Youko; Matsumura, Eijin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ayakawa, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    The protective effect of β-carotene against radiation injury to the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice (15 Gy) was examined with administration given pre-radiation, during (pre- and post-) radiation, and post-radiation. In the β-carotene group, the ratio of villus length to crypt was significantly greater in comparison with the radiation only group at 2 days after radiation. At 7 days after radiation, the ratio of necrotic cells in the crypt vs. the total was significantly lower, and the ratio of necrotic cells in the villus vs. the total was significantly greater with β-carotene administration, which indicated that β-carotene accelerated recovery from radiation injury. Each group administered β-carotene showed a significant radioprotective effect, with pre-radiation administration yielding a smaller effect than administration during radiation and post-radiation. It is concluded that pre-, during, and post-radiation administration of β-carotene protected against radiation injury of the small intestine and accelerated recovery from it. (author)

  17. Zinc plus ß-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to ß-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Wieringa, F.T.; West, C.E.; Muhilal,

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent in women and infants in developing countries. Supplementation during pregnancy can benefit mother and infant. Objective: We examined whether supplementation during pregnancy with iron and folic acid plus beta-carotene or zinc or

  18. Beta-carotene in Golden Rice is as good as beta-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which can lead to blindness and increased morbidity and mortality, affects 190 million preschool children in developing countries. To combat VAD, Golden Rice (GR) was developed to provide dietary beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid. Understanding the conversion ef...

  19. Retention levels of vegetable extractable beta-carotene preserved in virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungai, Z. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus spp. are known to be good sources of beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid with highly potent antioxidant property. As an antioxidant, beta-carotene scavenges for electron and thus terminates chain reactions, prevents recurrence and formation of unstable oxygen which otherwise initiate a chain reaction leading to such cases as cancer. While beta-carotene is supplied from consuming vegetables to provide vitamin A, it is also given as a supplement in cases of deficiency. However, it is highly degraded in the presence of light, heat, and oxygen posing a challenge to the methods of its preservation. Coconut oil and honey are popularly consumed in many countries facing vitamin A deficiency as good antioxidants and yet their role in preservation is largely unknown. The study reports the retention of beta-carotene extracted from Amaranthus spp. and separately preserved in virgin coconut oil (VCO and unadulterated honey for up to six months. HPLC and DPPH assay were used to determine beta-carotene and antioxidant activity respectively. Virgin coconut oil and honey had significantly different (p<0.001 antioxidant activities of 65.12±0.70 and 81.51±1.39 % radical scavenging activity respectively that compared well with those of BHT and ascorbic acid. The concentration of beta-carotene preserved in VCO and unadulterated honey degraded by 90%, though the final retention provided higher than the recommended daily allowance of retinol (0.216±0.001 and 0.312±0.003 retinol activity equivalent respectively when 100 mg is consumed. Virgin coconut oil and unadulterated honey can preserve beta-carotene if high amounts are used.

  20. Disposition of 14C-β-carotene following delivery with autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueker, Stephen R.; Le Thuy Vuong; Faulkner, Brian; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Vogel, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Following ingestion, a fraction of β-carotene is cleaved into vitamin A in the intestine, while another is absorbed intact and distributed among tissues and organs. The extent to which this absorbed β-carotene serves as a source of vitamin A is unknown in vivo. In the present study we use the attomole sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 14 C to quantify the disposition of 14 C-β-carotene (930 ng; 60.4 nCi of activity) after intravenous injection with an autologous triacylglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction in a single volunteer. Total 14 C was quantified in serial plasma samples and also in triglyceride-rich, and low density lipoprotein, subfractions. The appearance of 14 C-retinol, the circulating form of vitamin A in plasma, was determined by chromatographic separation of plasma retinol extracts prior to AMS analysis. The data showed that 14 C concentrations rapidly decayed within the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions after injection, whereas low density lipoprotein 14 C began a significant rise in 14 C 5 h post dose. Plasma 14 C-retinol also appeared at 5 h post dose and its concentrations were maintained above baseline for >88 days. Based upon comparisons of 14 C-retinol concentrations following an earlier study with orally dosed 14 C-β-carotene, a molar vitamin A value of the absorbed β-carotene of 0.19 was derived, meaning that 1 mole of absorbed β-carotene provides 0.19 moles of vitamin A. This is the first study to show that infused β-carotene contributes to the vitamin A economy in humans in vivo

  1. Influence of parenteral application of beta-carotene on fertility in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Holstein breed cows from the breeding stock of high yielding dairy cattle were selected for testing. The cows were selected during their high gravidity and fell into two groups. The i.m beta-carotene, Carofertin, of 20 ml (200 mg of beta-carotene was applied to the experimental group (n=15 two weeks before the expected parturition date. Another injection of the beta-carotene preparation was applied to the experimental group two weeks after parturition. Simultaneously, a physiological solution of 20 ml was injected i.m to the experimental group (n=15. The blood samples for testing of the beta-carotene and vitamin A concentration were taken during high gravidity and in the early puerperium two days after the beta-carotene application and on the day of parturition. Two-of parenteral application of beta-carotene before parturition does not have an impact significantly on the frequency of the occurrence of retained placenta in experimental cows comparing to the cows of the control group (x=33.3 % and x=20.0 % and length of the service period (x =97.20±31.64 and x=98.8±35.8 days. Based on the results obtained during this research, it can be concluded that the parenteral application of the beta-carotene (Carofertin as 200 mg per cow, which is meant for protection of the reproductive disorders of cows, does not affect the level of carotinemia when its concentration in the blood serum is within the physiological limits. Therefore, no significant discrepancy in values of the reproduction figures between the cows of the experimental and control group was found. All in all, its usage is advisable only during scarce feeding.

  2. Potential of New Isolates of Dunaliella Salina for Natural β-Carotene Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains, DF15, DF17, and DF40, compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil. Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing a large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40, and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in coordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.

  3. Suppression of the β-carotene hydroxylase gene increases β-carotene content and tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic sweetpotato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Le; Ji, Chang Yoon; Kim, Sun Ha; Ke, Qingbo; Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Deng, Xiping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2017-08-01

    β-carotene, a carotenoid that plays a key photo-protective role in plants is converted into zeaxanthin by β-carotene hydroxylase (CHY-β). Previous work showed that down-regulation of IbCHY-β by RNA interference (RNAi) results in higher levels of β-carotene and total carotenoids, as well as salt stress tolerance, in cultured transgenic sweetpotato cells. In this study, we introduced the RNAi-IbCHY-β construct into a white-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar (cv. Yulmi) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among the 13 resultant transgenic sweetpotato plants (referred to as RC plants), three lines were selected for further characterization on the basis of IbCHY-β transcript levels. The RC plants had orange flesh, total carotenoid and β-carotene contents in storage roots were 2-fold and 16-fold higher, respectively, than those of non-transgenic (NT) plants. Unlike storage roots, total carotenoid and β-carotene levels in the leaves of RC plants were slightly increased compared to NT plants. The leaves of RC plants also exhibited tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress, which was associated with higher 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. In addition, RC plants maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and higher photosystem II efficiency than NT plants after 250 mM NaCl stress. Yield of storage roots did not differ significantly between RC and NT plants. These observations suggest that RC plants might be useful as a nutritious and environmental stress-tolerant crop on marginal lands around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECT OF Fe2+ DAN Mn2+ IONS TOWARD -CAROTENE PRODUCTIVITY BY PHYTOPLANKTON Isochrysis aff galbana (T-iso)

    OpenAIRE

    Natsir, Hasnah

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to find out the effect of Fe2+ and Mn2+ towards -carotene productivity as result of oxidative stress from photosystem (PS II). The phytoplanton Isocrysis aff galbana (T-iso) were the microalgae species which had the high lipid content primarily and had potentiality to produce -carotene as the -carotene supplement. Analysis method was carried out by the sonication extraction for short and cheap in the lysis cell of phytoplankton biomassa, infra red (IR) to find out the...

  5. Prooxidative and antioxidative properties of β-carotene in chlorophyll and riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungWoo; Kim, Tae Soo; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-09-01

    Effects of β-carotene on the oxidative stability of chlorophyll or riboflavin photosensitized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were determined by analysing the depleted headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, fluorescence intensity, and headspace volatiles. As the concentration of β-carotene increased from 0 to 10, 100, and 1000 μM, the oxidative stability of samples containing chlorophylls decreased in a concentration-dependent manner under light, indicating that β-carotene acted as a prooxidant. However, in riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions, 100 and 1000 μM β-carotene inhibited lipid oxidation. Although β-carotene protected both photosensitisers in O/W emulsions, β-carotene displayed antioxidative or prooxidative properties, which depended on the polarity of the photosensitisers. The development of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol increased greatly in chlorophyll sensitised O/W emulsions with an increase in β-carotene concentration, implying that more singlet oxygen oxidation occurred due to the higher levels of remaining chlorophylls. However, the content of t-2-heptenal and 1-octen-3-ol in the riboflavin sensitised O/W emulsions was not significantly correlated with the β-carotene concentration, which indicates that β-carotene in the lipid particles effectively quenched singlet oxygen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  7. Solubility of β-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araus, Karina A.; Canales, Roberto I.; Valle, Jose M. del; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measure solubility of β-carotene in pure CO 2 , and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. → We model the solubility of β-carotene in pure CO 2 , and with co-solvents. → The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of β-carotene in CO 2 was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of β-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO 2 at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of β-carotene in pure CO 2 at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) μmol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of β-carotene in CO 2 modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO 2 under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO 2 + β-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO 2 under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of β-carotene in triolein-modified CO 2 increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO 2 at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 μmol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility β-carotene in SC CO 2 as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO 2 . Enhancements may be due to an increase in the polarizability of SC CO 2 , which possibly growths markedly as triolein

  8. Influence of beta-carotene on fertility in rabbits when using embryo transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenfelder, U; Solti, L; Seregi, J; Brem, G

    1993-05-01

    The effect of beta-carotene on reproduction traits in rabbits was studied in 509 (superovulated and normally ovulated) donors and 239 recipients by using embryo/gene transfer performed at 2 different locations. All of the bucks and the half of the females were fed a diet supplemented with 40 mg synthetic beta-carotene (Rovimix((R)))/kg feed. Embryos at the pronucleus stage were collected 19 to 21 hours after induction of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); they were then microinjected into the male pronucleus and transferred to synchronized recipients. Data were obtained from the time when the donors and recipients were caged, until the pups resulting from the embryo transfers were weaned. Supplemented beta-carotene did not affect most of the 30 traits that were analyzed. However superovulated donors in Project 2 that received the beta-carotene enriched diet had a 14% lighter ovary weight (P<0.05) and less than half of the oocytes were unfertilized (P<0.05). In Project 1 (beta-carotene group) there was a greater number of pups born (36%, P<0.05) and more of these pups were born alive (53%, P<0.05).

  9. Impact of culture conditions on β-carotene encapsulation using Yarrowia lipolytica cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Hai; Minh, Ho Thi Thu; Van Nhi, Tran Nguyen; Ngoc, Ta Thi Minh

    2017-09-01

    Yeast cell was reported as an effective natural preformed material for use in encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds. The encapsulation process was normally considered as passive transfer through cellular wall and cellular membrane. Beside solubility of hydrophobic compound in phospholipid membrane or plasmolysis, membrane characteristics of yeast cell which are differed between strains and influenced by culture conditions are main factors involving the accumulation of hydrophobic compound into yeast cell. In this study, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was used as micro-container shell to encapsulate a high hydrophobic compound - β-carotene. Yeast cell was cultured under different conditions and wet yeast biomass was incubated with β-carotene which was dissolved in soybean oil overnight. β-carotene accumulation was then extracted and evaluated by UV-VIS spectrometry. Optimization of culture condition was investigated using the Box-Behnken model. β-carotene encapsulation efficiency in Y. lipolytica was showed to be affected by both pH of medium and agitation conditions. The highest β-carotene encapsulation efficiency was optimized at 42.8 μg/g with Y. lipolytica cultured at pH 4.5, medium volume equal to 115 ml and agitation speed at 211 rpm.

  10. Novel 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene isomerases from plastidic oil bodies in Dunaliella bardawil catalyze the conversion of all-trans to 9-cis β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidi, Lital; Pick, Uri

    2017-06-01

    We identified and demonstrated the function of 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene isomerases in plastidic globules of Dunaliella bardawil, the species accumulating the highest levels of 9-cis β-carotene that is essential for humans. The halotolerant alga Dunaliella bardawil is unique in that it accumulates under light stress high levels of β-carotene in plastidic lipid globules. The pigment is composed of two major isomers: all-trans β-carotene, the common natural form of this pigment, and 9-cis β-carotene. The biosynthetic pathway of β-carotene is known, but it is not clear how the 9-cis isomer is formed. We identified in plastidic lipid globules that were isolated from D. bardawil two proteins with high sequence homology to the D27 protein-a 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene isomerase from rice (Alder et al. Science 335:1348-1351, 2012). The proteins are enriched in the oil globules by 6- to 17-fold compared to chloroplast proteins. The expression of the corresponding genes, 9-cis-βC-iso1 and 9-cis-βC-iso2, is enhanced under light stress. The synthetic proteins catalyze in vitro conversion of all-trans to 9-cis β-carotene. Expression of the 9-cis-βC-iso1 or of 9-cis-βC-iso2 genes in an E. coli mutant line that harbors β-carotene biosynthesis genes enhanced the conversion of all-trans into 9-cis β-carotene. These results suggest that 9-cis-βC-ISO1 and 9-cis-βC-ISO2 proteins are responsible for the formation of 9-cis β-carotene in D. bardawil under stress conditions.

  11. β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiye, Shadrack O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Shiundu, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in β-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for β-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. β-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative β-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a β-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the β-carotene. As much as 280 μRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through β-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post-cooking, kales had statistically comparable β-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of β-carotene content. Measures to prevent β-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high β-carotene content.

  12. Efek Aplikasi Patch Gingiva Mukoadesif β-Carotene Akibat Paparan Radiografi Panoramik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rurie Ratna Shantiningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian sebelumnya diketahui bahwa aplikasi patch gingiva mukoadesif β-carotene berfungsi sebagai bahan proteksi efek paparan radiografi panoramik pada hewan coba kelinci New Zealand. Peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus akibat paparan radiografi panoramik dapat dihambat dengan aplikasi patch β-carotene. Sebagai kelanjutan dari penelitian, dilakukan uji klinis terhadap manusia untuk melihat efek proteksi patch tersebut. Sebanyak 20 orang subjek yang akan dipapar radiografi panoramik dimasukkan secara random dalam 2 kelompok. Kelompok I adalah subjek tanpa aplikasi patch gingiva mukoadesif β-carotene dan Kelompok II adalah subjek yang diaplikasi patch sebelum paparan. Setiap subjek dilakukan apusan pada mukosa gingiva anterior rahang atas sebelum dan 10 hari setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Apusan diwarnai dengan metode modifikasi Feulgen-Rossenbeck. Efek lain dari aplikasi juga dilihat mengenai lama waktu bertahan patch dan hasil radiograf yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat penurunan jumlah mikronukleus pada kelompok II walaupun tidak berbeda bermakna (p>0,05 terhadap kelompok I. Lama waktu bertahan patch gingiva mukoadesif β-carotene dapat mencapai lebih dari 10 jam dan dilaporkan terasa mengganjal pada awal pemakaian. Hasil analisis gray scale antara radiograf dengan dan tanpa aplikasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna (p>0,05. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah aplikasi patch gingiva mukoadesif β-carotene dapat menurunkan jumlah mikronukleus namun tidak secara signifikan. Effect of β-carotene Gingival Mucoadhesive Patch Application at Panoramic Radiography Exposure. According to previous research, β-carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch has a radiation protection effect on New Zealand Rabbits. The increase in micronucleus after panoramic radiography exposure is avoided because of β-carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch application. In order to continue that research, we try the

  13. Autolysis of Blakeslea trispora during carotene production from cheese whey in an airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakakou, Maria; Roukas, Triantafyllos; Papaioannou, Emmanuel; Kotzekidou, Parthena; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of autolysis in Blakeslea trispora during carotene production from deproteinized hydrolyzed whey in an airlift reactor was investigated. The process of cellular autolysis was studied by measuring the changes in carotene concentration, dry biomass, residual sugars, pH, intracellular protein, specific activity of the hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, chitinase), and micromorphology of the fungus using a computerized image analysis system. All these parameters were useful indicators of autolysis, but image analysis was found to be the most useful indicator of the onset and progress of autolysis in the culture. Autolysis of B. trispora began early in the growth phase, continued during the stationary phase, and increased significantly in the decline phase. The morphological differentiation of the fungus was a result of the degradation of the cell membrane by hydrolytic enzymes. The biosynthesis of carotenes was carried out in the exponential phase, where the phenomenon of autolysis was not intense.

  14. Carotene location in processed food samples measured by cryo In-SEM Raman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Schumm, Stephan; Pudney, Paul D A; Hazekamp, Johan

    2011-09-21

    Cryo In-SEM Raman has been used for the first time to localise carotene compounds in a food matrix. Raman spectra of lycopene and β-carotene have been obtained from sampling oil droplets and plant cell structures visualised with cryo-SEM in tomato and carrot based emulsions containing 5% oil. It was possible to identify the carotenoids in both the oil droplets and the cell walls. Furthermore our results gave some indication that the carotenoids were in the non-crystalline state. It has been suggested that a higher amount of carotenes solubilised into the oil phase of the food matrix would lead to a higher bioaccessibility, thus understanding the effect of processing conditions on micronutrients distribution in a food matrix might help the design of plant based food products with a better nutritional quality. This shows improved structural characterisation of the cryo-SEM with the molecular sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy as a promising approach for complex biological problems.

  15. Effect of simultaneous, single oral doses of beta-carotene with lutein or lycopene on the beta-carotene and retinyl ester responses in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Vliet, T. van

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lutein and lycopene on β-carotene absorption and cleavage were investigated in 12 male subjects. Responses of carotenoids and retinyl palmitate in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction after a separate 15-mg β-carotene dose were compared with those after a dose of 15 mg

  16. An HPLC-MS method for d8-ß-carotene and d4-retinyl esters useful in studies of ß-carotene absorption and its conversion to vitamin A in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal absorption and metabolism of beta-carotene is of vital importance in humans, especially in populations that obtain the majority of their vitamin A from pro-vitamin A carotenoids. Mass spectrometry has provided a better understanding of the absorption of beta-carotene, the most potent ...

  17. Retinal accumulation of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in mice deficient in carotenoid cleavage enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Shen, Zhengqing; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Nelson, Kelly; Besch, Brian M; Bartschi, Alexis; Longo, Simone; Mattinson, Ty; Shihab, Saeed; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Suntsova, Lyubov P; Dushkin, Alexander V; Bernstein, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoid supplementation can prevent and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular disease, but until now, there has been no validated and well-characterized mouse model which can be employed to investigate the protective mechanism and relevant metabolism of retinal carotenoids. β-Carotene oxygenases 1 and 2 (BCO1 and BCO2) are the only two carotenoid cleavage enzymes found in animals. Mutations of the bco2 gene may cause accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids in animal tissues, and BCO1 is involved in regulation of the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. To determine whether or not mice deficient in BCO1 and/or BCO2 can serve as a macular pigment mouse model, we investigated the retinal accumulation of carotenoids in these mice when fed with zeaxanthin, lutein, or β-carotene using an optimized carotenoid feeding method. HPLC analysis revealed that all three carotenoids were detected in sera, livers, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroids, and retinas of all of the mice, except that no carotenoid was detectable in the retinas of wild type (WT) mice. Significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and lutein accumulated in the retinas of BCO2 knockout (bco2 -/- ) mice and BCO1/BCO2 double knockout (bco1 -/- /bco2 -/- ) mice relative to BCO1 knockout (bco1 -/- ) mice, while bco1 -/- mice preferred to take up β-carotene. The levels of zeaxanthin and lutein were higher than β-carotene levels in the bco1 -/- /bco2 -/- retina, consistent with preferential uptake of xanthophyll carotenoids by retina. Oxidative metabolites were detected in mice fed with lutein or zeaxanthin but not in mice fed with β-carotene. These results indicate that bco2 -/- and bco1 -/- /bco2 -/- mice could serve as reasonable non-primate models for macular pigment function in the vertebrate eye, while bco1 -/- mice may be more useful for studies related to β-carotene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative analyses of ß-carotene and retinol in serum and feces in support of clinical bioavalailability studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, D.; Wang, Y.; Pang, Y.; Liu, A.; Guo, Jian; Bouwman, C.A.; West, C.E.; Breemen, van R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Among more than 50 provitamin carotenoids, beta-carotene is the most metabolically active source of retinol. Despite diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of blindness and childhood mortality in developing countries. In addition, the

  19. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerburg, Olaf; De Spirt, Silke; Mattern, Annett; Joachim, Cornelia; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Siems, Werner; Stahl, Wilhelm; Mall, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF. PMID:25688177

  20. Monitoring the Therapeutic and Protective Role of the Anti oxidative Nutritional Factor β Carotene in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are those substances, synthesized, only in plants that serve to protect the plants from free radicals. β-carotene, one of the carotenoids, has been thought to be of value to humans and other species, not only as precursors to vitamin A, but also for having excellent antioxidant properties. Four groups of rats were used to gain insight into the protective action of carotenes: control, β-carotene treated (30 mg/ kg body wt for 10 days), irradiated (4 fractions, each of 1.5 Gy gamma-rays during 10 days) and protracted group: rats received the same fractionated gamma-rays at the same time gavaged with β-carotene along the 10 days. Irradiated rats revealed significant decreases in p-carotene and glutathione (GSH) concentrations and significant increases in the activities of blood alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), catalase and contents of blood thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In liver , tissue, TBARS content and catalase activity were raised while GSH was declined. The oral intake of β-carotene to irradiated rats was found to maintain the parameters measured near the control mean levels; i.e., increased content of blood β-carotene and GSH and modulated activities of ALP, ACP, ALT, GGT, catalase and TBARS level. It also, modulated the alterations of liver TBARS, catalase and GSH. Conclusion: β-carotene therapy significantly modulates oxidative damage induced by ionising radiation in rats

  1. β-Carotene as a factor in the reconstitution of cyclic phospho rylation in damaged chloroplast membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tukendorf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenazine methosulphate mediated cyclic phosphorylation suppressed by heptane extraction or galactolipase treatment of spinach chloroplasts is restored by β -carotene, in 100% and 50%, respectively. Xanthophylls are not able to reconstitute this reaction. β-Carotene replaces galactolipids in reactivation of galactolipase treated chloroplasts, indicating a nonspecific effect of lipids in photosystem I dependent reactions.

  2. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Palou, A.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes

  3. Extraction of carotenoids from feces enabling the bioavailability of ß-carotene to be studied in Indonesian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Breemen, van R.B.; Permaesih, D.; Muhilal,; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.; Lugtenburg, J.

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we have presented a method for quantifying beta-carotene bioavailability based on analysis in serum, following administration of C-13-labeled beta-carotene. Because stool samples can be collected noninvasively, we have now extended the method to measure the bioavailability based on

  4. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Sommerburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  5. Degradative pro-vitamin A active compounds of all-trans-β-carotene in dehydrated dark green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Nyabuga Nyambaka

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV are rich source of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, with all-trans-b-carotene as the main compound contributing over 90% of the vitamin A content. The other pro-vitamin A carotenoids present in DGLV are the cis isomers of b-carotene; the 9-cis and the 13-cis, and a-carotene in some vegetables. The dehydration processes of freeze-, solar- and sun-drying resulted in all-trans-b-carotene undergoing isomerization and oxidation to produce cis isomers and monoepoxides of b-carotene, which are pro-vitamin A active, and some volatile compounds. The isomerization process results in the reduction of the relative proportions of all-trans isomer and an increase in the relative proportion of the cis isomers. Oxidation of all-trans-b-carotene induced the formation of vitamin A active epoxides; 5,6- and 5,8-monoepoxides of b-carotene as intermediate products that decompose to smaller volatile compounds. The epoxides were detected in low but sometimes in measurable amounts on some dehydrated and/or stored vegetable samples. The vitamin A active degradative compounds of all-trans-b-carotene were monitored using isocratic HPLC procedures. The factors influencing degradation of pro-vitamin A carotenoids during dehydration are discussed.

  6. Beta-Carotene production enhancement by UV-A radiation in Dunaliella bardawil cultivated in laboratory reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogedas, B.; Casal, C.; Forjan, E.; Vilchez, C.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene is an antioxidant molecule of commercial value that can be naturally produced by certain microalgae that mostly belong to the genus Dunaliella. So far, nitrogen starvation has been the most efficient condition for enhancing beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella. However, while nitrogen starvation promotes beta-carotene accumulation, the cells become non-viable; consequently under such conditions, continuous beta-carotene production is limited to less than 1 week. In this study, the use of UV-A radiation as a tool to enhance long-term beta-carotene production in Dunaliella bardawil cultures was investigated. The effect of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) added to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) on growth and carotenoid accumulation of D. bardawil in a laboratory air-fluidized bed photobioreactor was studied. The results were compared with those from D. bardawil control cultures incubated with PAR only. The addition of 8.7 W/square m UV-A radiation to 250 W/square m PAR stimulated long-term growth of D. bardawil. Throughout the exponential growth period the UV-A irradiated cultures showed enhanced carotenoid accumulation, mostly as beta-carotene. After 24 days, the concentration of beta-carotene in UV-A irradiated cultures was approximately two times that of control cultures. Analysis revealed that UV-A clearly induced major accumulation of all-trans beta-carotene. In N-starved culture media, beta-carotene biosynthesis in UV-A irradiated cultures was stimulated. We conclude that the addition of UV-A to PAR enhances carotenoid production processes, specifically all-trans beta-carotene, in D. bardawil cells without negative effects on cell growth

  7. β-carotene, iron and zinc content in Papua New Guinea and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is expected, that through recombination and recurrent selection, micronutrient contents will be enhanced to concentrations that are significant for human nutrition. These results further highlight the importance of organoleptic characters like pulp color for choosing ß-carotene dense bananas to combat health disorders ...

  8. Changes in levels of serum beta-carotene, vitamin A and cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were assessed for serum vitamin A, β - carotene and total cholesterol levels with their matched control (n = 20). The mean age and standard deviation of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients was 34.75± 6.57 while the mean age and standard deviation for controls was ...

  9. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The open sun drying method caused the greatest β-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables.

  10. Effects of β-carotene on the thermal oxidation of fatty acids | Zeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-Carotene is one of the most important fat soluble pigment with well known antioxidant and provitamin A activities. It is used in industries as food colorant and a source of vitamin A. The thermal induced degradation during processing leads to color and properties losses. The thermal stability of the fatty acids composition of ...

  11. Beta-carotene encapsulated in food protein nanoparticles reduces peroxyl radical oxidation in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC) was encapsulated by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) by the homogenization-evaporation method forming nanoparticles of 78, 90 and 370 nm diameter. Indices of the chemical antioxidant assays, the reducing power, DPPH radical scave...

  12. Human Serum Vitamin A and β-Carotene Contents in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the levels of vitamin A (as retinol) and β-carotene in locally consumed foods in relationship to their occurrence in the serum of individuals grouped according to different social groups and sexes was carried out in Kano metropolis. Both raw and prepared foods (meals/snacks) investigated showed the ...

  13. Effects of β-carotene on the thermal oxidation of fatty acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alamzeb

    β-Carotene is one of the most important fat soluble pigment with well known antioxidant and provitamin. A activities. It is used in industries as food colorant and a source of vitamin A. The thermal induced degradation during processing leads to color and properties losses. The thermal stability of the fatty acids composition of ...

  14. Retention of ß-carotene in frozen carrots under varying conditions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Retention was found to be better in 3 min blanched samples than in 5 min ones. There was an increase in β-carotene content in carrots after 5 days at all storage temperatures: 0, –8, –14, and –18oC. Decrease was found to be insignificant ...

  15. Epidemiological evidence for beta-carotene in prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective and conclusions: This article gives an overview of observational and experimental epidemiological studies relating β-carotene to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Observational epidemiological studies have consistently shown that a diet rich in β-carotenerich fruits and vegetables

  16. Effects of β-carotene on the thermal oxidation of fatty acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alamzeb

    carotene was dissolved in acetone and added to the three tested oils in order to obtain concentrations in the range of 50 to. 300 μg/g. The samples were then sonicated for 1 min and kept for. 24 h under nitrogen before sealing airtight in a glass bottle.

  17. A New Method to Simultaneously Quantify the Antioxidants: Carotenes, Xanthophylls, and Vitamin A in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Colmán-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method for simultaneously determining and quantifying the antioxidants carotenes, xanthophylls, and retinol in human plasma is presented in this paper. Compounds were extracted with hexane, a C30 column, and a mobile phase of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and water were used for the separation of the compounds. A total of 8 carotenoids, 3 Z-β-carotene isomers, and 1 fat-soluble vitamin (retinol were resolved within 72 min at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was achieved at 450 nm for carotenoids and 330 nm for retinol. To evaluate the effectiveness of themethod, it has been applied to an intervention study conducted on eight volunteers. Results. Limits of detection were between 0.1 μg/mL for lycopene and astaxanthin and 1.3 μg/mL for 15-Z-β-carotene. Recoveries were ranged between 89% and 113% for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Accuracy was between 90.7% and 112.2% and precision was between 1% and 15% RSD. In human plasma samples compounds studied were identified besides three lycopene isomers, demonstrated to be suitable for application in dietary intervention studies. Conclusions. Due to its accuracy, precision, selectivity, and reproducibility, this method is suitable to dietary habits and/or antioxidants status studies.

  18. A New Method to Simultaneously Quantify the Antioxidants: Carotenes, Xanthophylls, and Vitamin A in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Miralles, Esther; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and accurate reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneously determining and quantifying the antioxidants carotenes, xanthophylls, and retinol in human plasma is presented in this paper. Compounds were extracted with hexane, a C30 column, and a mobile phase of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and water were used for the separation of the compounds. A total of 8 carotenoids, 3 Z-β-carotene isomers, and 1 fat-soluble vitamin (retinol) were resolved within 72 min at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was achieved at 450 nm for carotenoids and 330 nm for retinol. To evaluate the effectiveness of themethod, it has been applied to an intervention study conducted on eight volunteers. Results. Limits of detection were between 0.1 μg/mL for lycopene and astaxanthin and 1.3 μg/mL for 15-Z-β-carotene. Recoveries were ranged between 89% and 113% for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Accuracy was between 90.7% and 112.2% and precision was between 1% and 15% RSD. In human plasma samples compounds studied were identified besides three lycopene isomers, demonstrated to be suitable for application in dietary intervention studies. Conclusions. Due to its accuracy, precision, selectivity, and reproducibility, this method is suitable to dietary habits and/or antioxidants status studies. PMID:26697143

  19. Iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in different mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Maria de Arruda Germano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron availability in the diet is very important because iron deficiency affects a large population in the world. The matrix where iron is present has an influence in its availability. The presence of β-carotene is a factor that alters the availability of iron. This research aims to estimate the iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in food mixtures: M1 = egg and pumpkin; M2 = spinach and pumpkin; M3 = spinach and cabbage; M4 = egg and cabbage; M5 = spinach and carrot; M6 = egg and carrot; M7 = bean and carrot; M8 = bean and pumpkin and M9 = bean and cabbage. After cooking, the following figures were determined: proximate composition, oxalic acid, phytic acid, tannin, iron, iron availability in vitro and β-carotene. The data were analyzed by Tukey test (5%. There were no significant statistical differences for oxalic acid. Tannin presented greater results in mixtures with spinach (M2 and M5; phytic acid was greater in bean samples (M7, M8 and M9 and with spinach (M2. Mixtures M5 e M7, with carrot, presented more β-carotene than the others. The best result for iron availability appeared in mixture (M6. A positive correlation was verified between protein and iron dialysis, and between lipids and iron dialysis. Dietetic fiber was an inhibitor to iron availability. Mixtures with egg showed greater iron availability

  20. Milking microalga Dunaliella salina for Beta-carotene production in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Holwerda, E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed for production of beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina. Cells were grown in low light intensity and then transferred to a production bioreactor illuminated at a higher light intensity. It was a two-phase bioreactor consisting of an aqueous and a biocompatible organic

  1. Optimization of {beta}-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael D., E-mail: triplettm@battelle.or [Battelle Memorial Institute, Health and Life Sciences Global Business (United States); Rathman, James F. [The Ohio State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, {beta}-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of {beta}-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. {beta}-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. {beta}-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  2. Vitamin C as well as β-carotene attenuates experimental liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapeutic effects of vitamin C and β-carotene on chronic liver diseases have not yet been fully demonstrated and their application as dietary intakes or supplements lacks strong experimental backing. We aimed at investigating the therapeutic efficacy of these vitamins on hepatic fibrogenesis caused by carbon ...

  3. Optimization of β-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, Michael D.; Rathman, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, β-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of β-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. β-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. β-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  4. Solubility of beta-Carotene in Supercritical CO2 and the Effect of Entrainers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Stateva, R. S.; Galushko, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2001), s. 195-203 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : beta-carotene * supercritical carbon dioxide * solubility Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2001

  5. Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Taguchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’ and the curdlan water slurry (W was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W dispersion. The (O/W dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’ and stirred to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene.

  6. Incapacity of β - carotene to protect Escherichia coli J-5 against ultra violet lethal action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos Junior, G.A.S.; Zucchi, T.M.A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The ultra violet light survival of Escherichia coli J-5 cell population was not modified when it was β-carotene treated. It was found that this carotenoid does not confer radioprotection to the u.v. light effects in this bacterial strain. (author) [pt

  7. Full Product Pattern Recognition in β-Carotene Thermal Degradation through Ionization Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiaoyin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Lance Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hochrein, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The full product pattern including both volatile and nonvolatile compounds was presented for the first time for β-Carotene thermal degradation at variable temperatures up to 600°C. Solvent-enhanced ionization was used to confirm and distinguish between the dissociation mechanisms that lead to even and odd number mass products.

  8. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta}-carotene

  9. Effect of natural β-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Yatziv, S.; Sela, M.; Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2 , and >5 Ci/m 2 , respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, α-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture β-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural β-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or α-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of β-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans β-carotene, α-carotene, but not 9-cis β-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural β-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant

  10. Physical quality and carotene content of solar-dried green leafy and yellow succulent vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdziniso, Phumzile; Hinds, Margaret J; Bellmer, Danielle D; Brown, Barbara; Payton, Mark E

    2006-03-01

    The effects of vegetable type, vegetable dimensions, and solar drier load on dehydration rate; and texture, color, water activity, and carotene content of solar-dried carrots, sweet potatoes, and collard greens were studied. Mean dehydration rates (moisture loss,%/hr) for solar dried loads of 430 g/m2 and 715 g/m2 were 3.3 +/- 0.30% and 3.8 +/- 0.20% for carrots and sweet potatoes, respectively. Loads of 360 g/m2 and 465 g/m2 of collard greens had dehydration rates of 6.3 +/- 0.10% moisture loss per hr. The results showed that vegetable type accounted for significant differences (p dehydration rate, and beta-carotene content. Vegetable dimensions affected (p Solar drier load affected water activity (p dehydrated carrot, sweet potato, and collard treatments were 10.9-17.4%, 7.6-9.8%, and 11.9-21.5%, respectively. Among the carrot treatments, the 5-mm thick slices packed at a load of 715 g/m2 contained the highest beta-carotene (17.4%, dry basis) and vitamin A activity (362 IU/g, dry basis), and good physical properties. For collard greens, the 2-cm and 3-cm wide strips packed at 360 g/m2 loads had the best combinations of high beta-carotene (21.5% and 17.2%, dry basis, respectively), vitamin A activity (357.2 and 293.1 IU/g, dry basis, respectively), and optimal color, texture, and water activity. Beta-carotene losses due to solar dehydration were 48.9-67.5%, 4.0-5.8%, and 1.9-19.8% (dry basis) in carrots, sweet potato and collard greens, respectively.

  11. Twisting a β-Carotene, an Adaptive Trick from Nature for Dissipating Energy during Photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llansola-Portoles, Manuel J; Sobotka, Roman; Kish, Elizabeth; Shukla, Mahendra Kumar; Pascal, Andrew A; Polívka, Tomáš; Robert, Bruno

    2017-01-27

    Cyanobacteria possess a family of one-helix high light-inducible proteins (Hlips) that are homologous to light-harvesting antenna of plants and algae. An Hlip protein, high light-inducible protein D (HliD) purified as a small complex with the Ycf39 protein is evaluated using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We show that the HliD binds two different β-carotenes, each present in two non-equivalent binding pockets with different conformations, having their (0,0) absorption maxima at 489 and 522 nm, respectively. Both populations of β-carotene molecules were in all-trans configuration and the absorption position of the farthest blue-shifted β-carotene was attributed entirely to the polarizability of the environment in its binding pocket. In contrast, the absorption maximum of the red-shifted β-carotene was attributed to two different factors: the polarizability of the environment in its binding pocket and, more importantly, to the conformation of its β-rings. This second β-carotene has highly twisted β-rings adopting a flat conformation, which implies that the effective conjugation length N is extended up to 10.5 modifying the energetic levels. This increase in N will also result in a lower S 1 energy state, which may provide a permanent energy dissipation channel. Analysis of the carbonyl stretching region for chlorophyll a excitations indicates that the HliD binds six chlorophyll a molecules in five non-equivalent binding sites, with at least one chlorophyll a presenting a slight distortion to its macrocycle. The binding modes and conformations of HliD-bound pigments are discussed with respect to the known structures of LHCII and CP29. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Insulin resistance and adiposity in relation to serum β-carotene levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Jose A; Damaso, Ligeia; Altomare, Astrid; Killen, Kelleigh; Hossain, Jobayer; Balagopal, Prabhakaran Babu

    2012-07-01

    To determine the effects of placebo vs an encapsulated supplement of fruit and vegetable juice concentrate (FVJC) on serum β-carotene levels, insulin resistance, adiposity, and subclinical inflammation in boys. Thirty age-matched prepubertal boys (9 lean and 21 overweight (OW); age range, 6-10 years) were studied. All participants received nutrition counseling and were randomized to receive FVJC or placebo capsules for 6 months. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid corrected β-carotene, serum retinol, glucose, insulin, retinol binding protein-4, leptin, adiponectin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were measured before and after the 6-month intervention. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), acute insulin response to intravenous glucose, along with abdominal fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were also determined. Baseline β-carotene concentrations correlated inversely with HOMA-IR, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, and abdominal fat mass (P ≤ .01). FVJC intake increased β-carotene concentrations (P ≤ .001) but did not influence retinol or retinol binding protein-4. Retinol insufficiency <1.047 μM was present in 18% of the entire cohort at baseline and in 37% at 6 months. HOMA-IR decreased after supplementation in the OW cohort, when adjusted for percent weight change (P = .014). The percent change in abdominal fat mass increased in the placebo group and decreased in the FVJC group (P = .029). A 6-month supplementation with FVJC in the presence of nutritional counseling was associated with an increase in serum β-carotene concentrations and a reduction in adiposity in conjunction with an improvement in insulin resistance in OW boys. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Fe2+ and Mn2+ addition on growth and β-carotene production of Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, E.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.

    2018-03-01

    Dunaliella salina is a unicellular chlorophyte, which could grow in a wide range of harsh environmental condition. Under growth-limitation conditions, D.salina was known as famous for a high β-carotene producer with up to 10% of its dry cell weights, therefore it could be a β-carotene supplement. The research aimed to find out the effect of Iron (Fe2+) and Manganese (Mn2+) towards β-carotene productivity as result of oxidative stress from the second photosystem (PS II). The analysis method was carried out by the ultrasonic extraction for short and cheap lyses of phytoplankton biomasses; infra-red (IR) to find out the interaction metal ion, and UV/VIS spectrophotometer to determine the β-carotene concentration from phytoplankton the crude extract. The result showed that the interaction occurred between metal ions and M-N, -O-M and M←OH-C groups in the amino acid of phytoplankton. The highest impact was indicated on 0.3 ppm Fe2+ to D. Salina. The highest β-carotene concentration was 13.08 μg/g DW for 0.3 ppm Fe2+ and 8.08 μg/g DW for 0.8 ppm Mn2+. The dry weight concentrations of β-carotene indicated that D. salina with 0.6 ppm Fe2+ addition had more potential as a β-carotene supplement.

  14. EFFECT OF EXTRUSION ON Β-CAROTENE CONTENT AND STORAGE STABILITY OF CORN AND BOVINE LUNG SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara de Moraes Prata GASPAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A β-carotene and iron rich snack was developed aimed at children consumption. β-carotene was added to the snacks, in the flavoring mixture after (A or before (B extrusion. Proximate composition, β-carotene content, instrumental color and texture parameters were determined during storage. Both products had low content of lipids and high content of bioavailable iron, β-carotene and proteins. Shear resistance of snack B increased during storage, and the values of B were greater than those of snack A. The color parameter a measured on snack B was greater than the verified for snack A, whereas the opposite was observed for parameter b. Initial β-carotene content was higher in the snack A with significant reduction in both snacks during storage. β-carotene reduction from 15 to 60 days was less pronounced in the snack A as compared to snack B. The flavoring and fortification methods affected the shear strength, color parameters and β-carotene contents of the snacks.

  15. Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Altemimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C, extraction power (% and extraction time (min were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box–Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3 and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  16. The Effect of Phytosterol on Serum Beta-Carotene Concentration of Hypercholesterolaemic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dina-Keumala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of optic neuritic as recommended by the Optic Neuritic Treatment Trial (ONTT was intravenous methylprednisolon followed by oral prednisone. This study aims to describe characteristics and response to intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone treatment of optic neuritic patient in Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. Method: The study was a parallel clinical trial, forty subjects with hipercholesterolaemia were selected using certain criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups using block randomization. Twenty subjects in phytosterol group received phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day and dietary counseling (P, while twenty subjects in counseling group received only dietary counseling (C. Serum total cholesterol and β-carotene concentration were assessed on day 0 and 42. Before and after treatment, dietary intake were assessed with 2x24 hour recall methods. Results: Seventeen subjects in P group and fourteen subjects in C group completed the study. There was no significant differences in baseline data both groups. After 42 days treatment, there was no significant differences in nutrients intakes in two groups except for β-carotene and phytosterol intakes in P group. There was a 9.17% significant reduction in serum total cholesterol concentration in P group while no change was observed in the C group (p<0.05. Serum β-carotene concentration was increased significantly in P group, 0.44±0.376 μmol/L to 0.536(0.21–1.95 μmol/L, while there was no significant increased in C group, 0.493±0.349 μmol/L to 0.56±0.33 μmol/L. There was a significant difference in serum β-carotene concentration after adjusted with serum total cholesterol concentration between two groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Dietary advice to consume an additionally of high β-carotene sources when consuming phytosterol 2x0.6 g/day for 42 consecutive days maintains serum β-carotene concentration while lowering serum total cholesterol concentration

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits intestinal β-carotene absorption by downregulation of lipid transporter expression via PPAR-α dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kondaiah, Palsa; Palika, Ravindranadh; Ghosh, Sudip; Nair, Madhavan K; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2016-01-15

    The involvement of lipid transporters, the scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) in carotenoid absorption is demonstrated in intestinal cells and animal models. Dietary ω-3 fatty acids are known to possess antilipidemic properties, which could be mediated by activation of PPAR family transcription factors. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on intestinal β-carotene absorption. β-carotene uptake in Caco-2/TC7 cells was inhibited by EPA (p intestinal β-carotene absorption by down regulation of SR B1 expression via PPARα dependent mechanism and provide an evidence for dietary modulation of intestinal β-carotene absorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Separation and identification of beta-carotene and its cis isomers by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo de Padilla, F

    1996-06-01

    The separation and identification by HPLC of the cis isomers of beta-carotene was studied. A 1.26 mg/ml beta-carotene solution previously isomerized with iodine as a catalyst, was eluted with 2% acetone in hexane, from a Ca(OH)2 chromatographic column in three bands. The fractions were identified by spectrophotometry and the retention times of 2.05, 2.4 and 2.8 min for the 13 cis, all-trans, and 9 cis beta-carotene isomers, determined by HPLC, with 1% acetone in hexane as movil phase. 22.13 mg % of all-trans beta-carotene were found in a sample of canned carrots. It is recommended the analyses of a greater number of samples, the determination of the method's sensitivity, reproductibility, and the use of a standard of reference of a response factor for calculations.

  19. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan_markovic57@yahoo.co [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). {beta}-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that {beta}-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in {beta}-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  20. β-Carotene and astaxanthin with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangrong; Wang, Gongke; Chen, Dejun; Lu, Yan

    2015-07-15

    β-Carotene and astaxanthin are two carotenoids with powerful antioxidant properties. In this study, the interaction of these two carotenoids with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions was investigated using several spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results indicate the quenching mechanism of HSA/BSA, by the two carotenoids, is a static process. The binding constants and number of binding sites were evaluated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic investigations revealed the interaction between the two carotenoids and HSA/BSA is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and hydrophobic forces and electrostatic attraction have a significant role in the reactions. Binding site I was found to be the primary binding site for β-carotene and astaxanthin. In addition, as shown by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and FT-IR, the two carotenoids may induce conformational and micro-environmental changes in HSA/BSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min

    2014-01-01

    by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10 L mol s, but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced......The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k = 3.2 × 10 L mol s in 9:1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently...... rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations....

  2. Hepatic and duodenal expression of β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase in beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.; Gonzaleza, A.; Shimada, A.; Mora, O.; Cobos, M.; Varela, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Mexico most bovines are finished on pasture: the adipose tissue of those animals shows a yellow pigmentation which results in an important economic loss for the producer, because pg downgrading or even rejection of resulting carcasses. Yellowness of fat is caused by excessive carotenoids in the diet, of which β-carotene is predominant. β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase (β-ox) is the enzyme that cleaves it into two molecules of vitamin A. In cattle not all the absorbed β-carotene is transformed into vitamin A; the excess is transported to the liver where it might be cleaved by the enzyme and stored or packaged with other lipid compounds and carried to different tissues, including the adipose. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of β-ox in duodenal mucosae and hepatic tissue of grass-fed compared with grain-fed cattle. Biological samples were taken at Queretaro's Municipal abattoir from bovines at slaughter. For tRNA assays, intestinal mucosae was taken in Trizol reagent (Gibco BRL cat. 15595- 026), homogenized and transported on ice to the laboratory. For in situ hybridization duodenal and hepatic tissue samples were taken and fixed on 3.5% paraformaldehyde. A partial cDNA for β-ox of 744 nt was obtained by RT-PCR amplification, this product was inserted into TOPO vector 4.0 (Invitrogen cat. K457501) and cloned into E. coli bacteria. Then two sense and antisense digoxygenin labeled probes were synthesized and used for the hybridization of duodenal and hepatic cryosections of 15 μm from four pigmented and four non-pigmented carcasses. The hybridization conditions were a four-hour pre-hybridization at 65 deg. C and a overnight hybridization at the same temperature. The slides were washed and incubated overnight at 4 deg. C with digoxygenin/alkaline phosphatase antibody. The slides were washed and incubated with alkaline phosphatase-nitro blue tetrazolim/5-bromo-4-cloro-3- indoly-phosphate in darkness overnight at room

  3. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-02-01

    The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k2 = 3.2 × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in 9 : 1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10(8) L mol(-1) s(-1), but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations.

  4. Nonradiative transitions in the media of different polarity and their simulation for 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, V.S.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of nonradiative transitions based on the model of orientation broadening of electronic levels has been used to interpret known data on the medium polarity and temperature effect on the S 1 (A g - ) state lifetime of 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al. The effect of promotion vibrations on the rate constant of the nonradiative transitions has been considered. The results allow assuming that the internal electric field produced by the environment heavily perturbs molecules of the pigments. In consequence of this, at both pigments in the excited S 1 (A g - ) state exist in the form of different conformers I and II. Their structure differs by 180° turn of the cyclohexene ring relative to the polyene chain. Conformer II dominates in the polar media, and it is in the intramolecular charge transfer state S 1 (A g - /ICT). In addition, it can also be in the charge separated state S 1 (A g - /CS) due to the fluctuations of internal electric field. (authors)

  5. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  6. Optimised extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis and hypoglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiu-Yue; Fang, Ming; Zheng, Jia-Hui; Ren, Di-Feng; Lu, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Spirulina platensis is rich in β-carotene, which possesses many important biological activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis by using response surface methodology (RSM), determined its antioxidant capacity in vitro and explored its hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mice. The raw β-carotene extract with a concentration of 1942.14 ± 10.03 µg mL(-1) was obtained at the optimised condition by RSM (0.40 of the solid-liquid ratio, 51% of the extraction power, and 17 min of the extraction time), and the purity of evaporated β-carotene extract reached 816.32 ± 10.57 mg g(-1) after purified by a NKA-9 resin with a sampling and elution rate of 1 mL min(-1) . The β-carotene extract scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals with the highest ratios of 44 ± 0.26% and 35 ± 0.45% respectively, and exhibited strong inhibiting capacity on anti-lipid peroxidation. The blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was significantly reduced from 15.81 ± 1.71 mmol L(-1) to 8.10 ± 0.88 mmol L(-1) after 10 d administration of the β-carotene extract [100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)], and the increased food and water intakes in the diabetic mice were also significantly relieved after β-carotene treatment. Our results suggested that extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis had potential prospects in scaled-up industrialisation and healthcare applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  8. Losses in -carotene and vitamin C due to frying of plantain ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slices of plantain (unripe and ripe) of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thickness were fried at 130 ± 5, 150 ± 5 and 170 ± 5°C for 1 to 10 min in refined palm oil. The results obtained showed that -carotene and vitamin C contents decreased significantly with the elevation of the temperature and duration of frying (p<0.05). The decrease is ...

  9. β-Carotene production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to plasmid stability and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used for the production of β-carotene. The episomal plasmid YEplac195YB/I/E was extended by a gene coding for the mevalonate kinase (mvaK1) from Staphylococcus aureus. The adh1 promoter was chosen for constitutive expression of mvaK1. The recombinant strain S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) synthesised β-carotene by expressing the carotenogenic genes of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous together with the mvaK1 gene. Cells of this strain were investigated for their carotenoid contents in YNB and YPD media. A corresponding mvaK1 transcript in the recombinant yeast host was verified. Growth experiments of a specific erg12 deletion mutant showed that the mevalonate kinase (MvaK1) was able to complement the function of the deleted native mevalonate kinase (Erg12) from S. cerevisiae in the MVA pathway under control of the constitutive adh1 promoter. Cells of S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) exhibited high plasmid stability under either selective or non-selective cultivation conditions. Time course experiments demonstrated high plasmid stability even over extended cultivation periods. Carotenoid production was therefore also stable in larger culture volumes. Due to the stability of the plasmid, cultivation of the cells in complex YPD medium was possible, and 14.3 mg β-carotene per litre and a cell density of 9 g cell dry matter (CDM) per litre were achieved. The highest amount of 3,897 μg β-carotene per gramme CDM at a cell density of 1 g CDM per litre was measured after cultivation of the cells in YNB medium with glucose as sole carbon source.

  10. Are lutein, lycopene, and β-carotene lost through the digestive process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Gleize, Béatrice; Borel, Patrick; Desmarchelier, Charles; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2017-04-19

    The bioavailability of many carotenoids has been assessed, but little attention has been given to the metabolism of these antioxidant compounds during digestion. The isomerization and loss of lutein, lycopene, and β-carotene incorporated into a lipid-rich liquid meal was determined in vitro through the gastric, duodenal, and jejunal phases in the presence and absence of digestive enzymes, and in the presence and absence of known oxidizing agents often found in mixed meals (metmyoglobin in red meat and ferrous sulfate in supplemental iron). Carotenoids were quantitated using HPLC-PDA. In the absence of enzymes, lutein and lycopene were lost during earlier phases of the digestive process. In the presence of enzymes, lutein and lycopene were robust through the gastric and duodenal phases, with statistically significant losses of 40% and 20%, respectively, observed only during the jejunal phase. Regardless of the presence or absence of enzymes, an initial 25% of β-carotene was lost during the gastric phase, but no further loss was observed. Ferrous sulfate had no significant impact on any carotenoid level. Metmyoglobin had no impact on lutein, but significantly reduced lycopene and β-carotene levels by 30% and 80%, respectively, by the end of the jejunal phase. No significant isomerization was observed between the initial and jejunal phases for any of the carotenoids.

  11. Reconstitution of β-carotene hydroxylase activity of thermostable CYP175A1 monooxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoi, Kyoko; Hofmann, Ute; Schmid, Rolf D.; Urlacher, Vlada B.

    2006-01-01

    CYP175A1 is a thermostable P450 Monooxygenase from Thermus thermophilus HB27, demonstrating in vivo activity towards β-carotene. Activity of CYP175A1 was reconstituted in vitro using artificial electron transport proteins. First results were obtained in the mixture with a crude Escherichia coli cell extract at 37 o C. In this system, β-carotene was hydroxylated to β-cryptoxanthin. The result indicated the presence of electron transport enzymes among the E. coli proteins, which are suitable for CYP175A1. However, upon in vitro reconstitution of CYP175A1 activity with purified recombinant flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase from E. coli, only very low β-cryptoxanthin production was observed. Remarkably, with another artificial electron transport system, putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase from Pseudomonas putida, purified CYP175A1 enzyme hydroxylated β-carotene at 3- and also 3'-positions, resulting in β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the turnover rate of the enzyme reached 0.23 nmol β-cryptoxanthin produced per nmol P450 per min

  12. Ascorbic acid and beta-carotene reduce stress-induced oxidative organ damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrefoglu, M; Akinci, A; Taslidere, E; Elbe, H; Cetin, A; Ates, B

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidants are potential therapeutic agents for reducing stress-induced organ damage. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid and β-carotene on oxidative stress-induced cerebral, cerebellar, cardiac and hepatic damage using microscopy and biochemistry. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: untreated control, stressed, stressed + saline, stressed + ascorbic acid and stressed + β-carotene. The rats in the stressed groups were subjected to starvation, immobilization and cold. The histopathological damage scores for the stressed and stressed + saline groups were higher than those of the control group for all organs examined. The histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels for the groups treated with antioxidants were lower than those for the stressed and stressed + saline groups. Mean tissue superoxide dismutase activities for groups that received antioxidants were higher than those for the stressed + saline group for most organs evaluated. Ascorbic acid and β-carotene can reduce stress-induced organ damage by both inhibiting lipid oxidation and supporting the cellular antioxidant defense system.

  13. A novel in vivo β carotene biosensor for heavy metals detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling Shing; Lee, Bei Ru; Koh, Chia En; Ong, Yun Qiu; Choong, Chieh Wean

    2015-11-01

    A novel whole cell-based biosensor was constructed using Daucus carota cell as a biological component, with in vivo β-carotene as a reporter group. In this biosensor, the cells were immobilized using agarose gel, and change in in vivo β-carotene, before and after exposure of cells to heavy metals was noted using spectrophotometer at λ = 450 nm. Biosensor was found to operate at its optimum condition using cells from day-14 culture with density of 8 x 10(5) cells/cuvette, and immobilized with 0.5 % agarose at 45°C. The performance of biosensor was affected by pH with the best response produced at pH 7.5. Pb and Cu tests showed that biosensor was able to detect the presence of both heavy metals within the range of 0.01 ppm- 10.00 ppm. The performance of biosensor decreased in stability test with prolonged storage of 40 days, with a stable performance obtained after 10 days of storage. The results showed that β-carotene contain in naturally available cell D. carota responded well to the presence of heavy metals. It is a good indication that biosensor designed is a good candidate to be used for environmental toxicity assessment.

  14. Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Michele; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Bedoni, Marzia; Forvi, Elena; Gramatica, Furio; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The present work reports on Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) vibrational fingerprints of β-carotene and haemoglobin in fresh whole blood (i.e. right after blood test) with different laser excitations, i.e. visible (514 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 785 nm). The use of colloidal silver nanoparticles significantly increases the Raman signal, thus providing a clear SERS spectrum of blood. The collected spectra have been examined and marker bands of β-carotene and of the haem prosthetic group of haemoglobin have been found. In particular, the fundamental features of β-carotene (514 nm excitation), blood proteins and haem molecules (785 nm excitation) were recognized and assigned. Moreover haemoglobin SERS signals can be identified and related with its oxygenation state (oxy-haemoglobin). The data reported show the prospects of Raman and SERS techniques to detect important bio-molecules in a whole blood sample with no pre-treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary safety assessment of genetically modified rice EH rich in β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangyang; Xu, Yan; Du, Yanan; Zhao, Xiao; Hu, Ruili; Fan, Xiaorui; Ren, Fangfang; Yao, Quanhong; Peng, Rihe; Tang, Xueming; Zhao, Kai

    2017-08-01

    This 90-day study aimed to assess the dietary safety of transgenic rice EH which is rich in β-carotene. Two experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 45% rice flour of Zhonghua 11 rice and transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene, respectively. The reference group was fed a diet containing standard feed nutrition. During the trial period, each rat was weighed and the food intake was recorded twice a week. Their behaviors were observed daily. In the end, blood samples were obtained from all anesthetized rats to measure the hematologic and serum chemistry indicators. Growth performance, anatomy and pathology of all organs in each group were analyzed. Although a few parameters were found to be statistically significantly different across groups, they were within the normal reference range for this breed and age of rats. Therefore, the changes were not considered to be diet related. The results revealed that the transgenic rice EH rich in β-carotene was as nutritious as Zhonghua 11 rice and showed a lack of biologically meaningful unintended effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Raman, AFM and SNOM high resolution imaging of carotene crystals in a model carrot cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygula, Anna; Oleszkiewicz, Tomasz; Grzebelus, Ewa; Pacia, Marta Z; Baranska, Malgorzata; Baranski, Rafal

    2018-05-15

    Three non-destructive and complementary techniques, Raman imaging, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy were used simultaneously to show for the first time chemical and structural differences of carotenoid crystals. Spectroscopic and microscopic scanning probe measurements were applied to the released crystals or to crystals accumulated in a unique, carotenoids rich callus tissue growing in vitro that is considered as a new model system for plant carotenoid research. Three distinct morphological crystal types of various carotenoid composition were identified, a needle-like, rhomboidal and helical. Raman imaging using 532 and 488 nm excitation lines provided evidence that the needle-like and rhomboidal crystals had similar carotenoid composition and that they were composed mainly of β-carotene accompanied by α-carotene. However, the presence of α-carotene was not identified in the helical crystals, which had the characteristic spatial structure. AFM measurements of crystals identified by Raman imaging revealed the crystal topography and showed the needle-like and rhomboidal crystals were planar but they differed in all three dimensions. Combining SNOM and Raman imaging enabled indication of carotenoid rich structures and visualised their distribution in the cell. The morphology of identified subcellular structures was characteristic for crystalline, membraneous and tubular chromoplasts that are plant organelles responsible for carotenoid accumulation in cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of β-carotene nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation under power ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Fei, E-mail: shengf@ices.a-star.edu.sg; Chow, Pui Shan; Dong, Yuancai; Tan, Reginald B. H., E-mail: reginald.tan@ices.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    This work seeks to produce β-carotene nanoparticles by ultrasound-assisted antisolvent precipitation and to understand the influences of the various process parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles. At the active concentration of 5–15 mg/ml, 112–141 nm β-carotene particles were precipitated under 1 min ultrasound (18 W); while precipitation without ultrasound resulted in 144–365 nm particles. Without ultrasound, addition of the active solution to water (antisolvent) produced 241 nm particles while addition of water to active solution led to bigger particles, i.e., 519 nm. When the precipitation was carried out under ultrasound, the particle size had only a small increment from 117 to 132 nm. Furthermore, active/antisolvent volume ratio influenced particle size significantly; the particle size decreased from 432 to 223 nm as the active/antisolvent volume ratio decreased from 1:1 to 1:4 without ultrasound. However, the smallest β-carotene particles (117 nm) were precipitated with active/antisolvent volume ratio at 1:2 under ultrasound. Nanoparticles precipitated under ultrasound showed faster dissolution rate in comparison with the raw active and nanoparticles precipitated without ultrasound.

  18. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa in natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Sandra Regina da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferentes. Em dois dos cinco lotes analisados, o z-caroteno foi o carotenóide principal, contribuindo com 41 e 62% do total de carotenóides, enquanto que em outros dois lotes, o beta-caroteno foi o majoritário, com 55 e 74% do total e em um dos lotes o cis-zeta-caroteno esteve presente em maior concentração, com 29%. Este tipo de inversão entre os carotenóides majoritários não é comumente encontrado em frutas e vegetais.

  20. β-Carotene from Yeasts Enhances Laccase Production of Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae in Co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaolin; Zhao, Liting; Wang, Feng; Lu, Jian; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

    2017-01-01

    Laccase is widely used in several industrial applications and co-culture is a common method for enhancing laccase production in submerged fermentation. In this study, the co-culture of four yeasts with Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae was found to enhance laccase production. An analysis of sterilization temperatures and extraction conditions revealed that the stimulatory compound in yeasts was temperature-sensitive, and that it was fat-soluble. An LC-MS analysis revealed that the possible stimulatory compound for laccase production in the four yeast extracts was β-carotene. Moreover, the addition of 4 mg β-carotene to 150 mL of P. eryngii var. ferulae culture broth improved laccase production by 2.2-fold compared with the control (i.e., a monoculture), and was similar to laccase production in co-culture. In addition, the enhanced laccase production was accompanied by an increase of lac gene transcription, which was 6.2-time higher than the control on the fifth day. Therefore, it was concluded that β-carotene from the co-cultured yeasts enhanced laccase production in P. eryngii var. ferulae , and strains that produce β-carotene could be selected to enhance fungal laccase production in a co-culture. Alternatively, β-carotene or crude extracts of β-carotene could be used to induce high laccase production in large scale.

  1. Carotenoids and β-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato: A possible solution to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Nusrat, Tania; Begum, Parveen; Ahsan, Monira

    2016-05-15

    The present study, in line with a plant-food-based approach to address vitamin A deficiency, reports the analysis of total carotenoids, and trans- and cis-β-carotenes, in different varieties of raw and boiled orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP). Carotenoids were isolated using acetone-petroleum ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination. trans- and cis-β-Carotenes were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC method using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:methanol:2-propanol in the ratio of 85:15:33 with 0.01% ammonium acetate. Intra-varietal difference in carotenoids as well as trans- and cis-β-carotenes were noted in both the raw and boiled potatoes. Carotenoid content was found to be higher in the raw potatoes compared to the boiled samples from the same variety. Amongst the OFSP varieties, Kamalasundari (BARI SP-2) was found to contain the most carotenoids in both the raw and boiled samples. β-Carotene was significantly higher in the Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 varieties. trans-β-Carotene was found to be the major carotenoid in all of the raw potatoes, but boiling was associated with an increase in cis-β-carotene and a decrease in the trans isomer. Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 orange-fleshed sweet potatoes have the potential to be used as food-based supplements to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. β-Carotene Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Aneurysm by Alleviating Macrophage Recruitment in Apoe(-/- Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Gopal

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a common chronic degenerative disease characterized by progressive aortic dilation and rupture. The mechanisms underlying the role of α-tocopherol and β-carotene on AAA have not been comprehensively assessed. We investigated if α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation could attenuate AAA, and studied the underlying mechanisms utilized by the antioxidants to alleviate AAA. Four-months-old Apoe(-/- mice were used in the induction of aneurysm by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II, and were orally administered with α-tocopherol and β-carotene enriched diet for 60 days. Significant increase of LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and circulating inflammatory cells was observed in the Ang II-treated animals, and gene expression studies showed that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 were upregulated in the aorta of aneurysm-induced mice. Extensive plaques, aneurysm and diffusion of inflammatory cells into the tunica intima were also noticed. The size of aorta was significantly (P = 0.0002 increased (2.24±0.20 mm in the aneurysm-induced animals as compared to control mice (1.17±0.06 mm. Interestingly, β-carotene dramatically controlled the diffusion of macrophages into the aortic tunica intima, and circulation. It also dissolved the formation of atheromatous plaque. Further, β-carotene significantly decreased the aortic diameter (1.33±0.12 mm in the aneurysm-induced mice (β-carotene, P = 0.0002. It also downregulated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ following treatment. Hence, dietary supplementation of β-carotene may have a protective function against Ang II-induced AAA by ameliorating macrophage recruitment in Apoe(-/- mice.

  3. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option.

  4. Bioefficacy of beta-carotene is improved in rats after solubilized as equimolar dose of beta-carotene and lutein in phospholipid-mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisiddaiah, Raju; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2009-08-01

    beta-Carotene (BC) is a potent dietary source of vitamin A for populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency, yet its bioavailability is influenced by several factors such as dietary fat, carotenoids type, and other components. We hypothesize that type of micellar phospholipids influence bioefficacy of carotenoids and activity of carotenoid metabolizing enzymes. This study determined the BC bioefficacy in rats (n = 5/time point) after an equimolar dose of BC and lutein (Lut) solubilized in micelles containing either phosphatidylcholine (PC) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or no phospholipid (NoPL). Results show that no BC and Lut was detected in the plasma of rats at 0 hour, but after gavage, the mean (SD) area under the curve (AUC; in picomoles per milliliter) of plasma BC for 6 hours in PC, LPC, and NoPL groups were 1145 (132), 965 (199), and 2136 (112), respectively. The AUC value of plasma Lut in LPC group (183 +/- 23 pmol mL(-1) h(-1)) was higher than the other 2 groups. Similarly, liver BC and Lut levels in the LPC group were significantly higher than the other groups. The activity of BC 15,15'-monooxygenase in the intestinal mucosa of LPC and PC groups was higher than NoPL group. Plasma retinyl palmitate level in LPC (AUC, 647 +/- 89 pmol mL(-1) h(-1)) group was 2-fold higher than that of PC and NoPL groups. Results indicate that phospholipids enhanced the BC and Lut absorption. beta-Carotene uptake was not affected by Lut when given with micellar phospholipids, but reduced plasma Lut level was observed, which may be due to the conversion of absorbed Lut into its metabolites.

  5. Membrane engineering - A novel strategy to enhance the production and accumulation of β-carotene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Ye, Lijun; Zhao, Dongdong; Li, Siwei; Li, Qingyan; Zhang, Bolin; Bi, Changhao; Zhang, Xueli

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoids are a class of terpenes of commercial interest that exert important biological functions. While various strategies have been applied to engineer β-carotene production in microbial cell factories, no work has been done to study and improve the storage of hydrophobic terpene products inside the heterologous host cells. Although the membrane is thought to be the cell compartment that accumulates hydrophobic terpenes such as β-carotene, direct evidence is still lacking. In this work, we engineered the membrane of Escherichia coli in both its morphological and biosynthetic aspects, as a means to study and improve its storage capacity for β-carotene. Engineering the membrane morphology by overexpressing membrane-bending proteins resulted in a 28% increase of β-carotene specific producton value, while engineering the membrane synthesis pathway led to a 43% increase. Moreover, the combination of these two strategies had a synergistic effect, which caused a 2.9-fold increase of β-carotene specific production value (from 6.7 to 19.6mg/g DCW). Inward membrane stacks were observed in electron microscopy images of the engineered E. coli cells, which indicated that morphological changes were associated with the increased β-carotene storage capacity. Finally, membrane separation and analysis confirmed that the increased β-carotene was mainly accumulated within the cell membrane. This membrane engineering strategy was also applied to the β-carotene hyperproducing strain CAR025, which led to a 39% increase of the already high β-carotene specific production value (from 31.8 to 44.2mg/g DCW in shake flasks), resulting in one of the highest reported specific production values under comparable culture conditions. The membrane engineering strategy developed in this work opens up a new direction for engineering and improving microbial terpene producers. It is quite possible that a wide range of strains used to produce hydrophobic compounds can be further improved

  6. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, T.; Butt, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  7. ROS production and glutathione response in keratinocytes after application of β-carotene and VIS/NIR irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Silke B; Vitt, Kristina; Scholz, Patrik; Keck, Cornelia M; Meinke, Martina C

    2018-01-25

    The skin is exposed to many stress factors which, in turn, can promote a shift of the antioxidant (AO) network towards the prooxidative side, supporting the development of various skin disorders. A balanced diet, in combination with a healthy lifestyle could reduce oxidative stress. Carotenoids are essential nonenzymatic AOs and main components of the exogenous AO system. To examine the interdependence between endogenous and exogenous AOs, secondary keratinocytes (HaCaT) were treated with various Beta (β-)-carotene concentrations with subsequent stress treatment by moderate irradiation (700-2000 nm). To facilitate the uptake of β-carotene, an innovative nanocrystal solution was used. Cell viability assay was applied to HaCaT cells to evaluate suitable concentration of β-carotene, whereby the uptake was measured by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The redox status was determined before and after supplementation with two selected β-carotene concentrations (0.02 and 0.1 μg/ml) and irradiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the AO glutathione (GSH) by a fluorescent-based assay for evaluating the endogenous redox status. An increase of ROS and a reduction of GSH after irradiation was observed. Interestingly, the applied β-carotene, already induce oxidative stress. Nevertheless, an effective protection against irradiation could be observed for the lower dose. The high dose turned pro-oxidative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UV-A photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles by nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Hogan, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles was stimulated by lipophilic nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides at concentrations as low as 5 μM after 15 min in UV radiation (UV-A between 315 and 400 nm). Bleaching of β-carotene by acifluorfen-methyl [methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate] was proportional to UV-A intensity and independent of pH. White light (400-700 nm) alone was without effect. At pH 6.5, 100 μM acifluorfen [sodium 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate], a water-soluble nitrodiphenyl ether, stimulated photooxidation of β-carotene after 15 min in UV-A radiation. Activity of 200 μM acifluorfen was enhanced at pHs between 3.5 and 6.5. The chlorodiphenyl ether analogue of acifluorfen-methyl, methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate, exhibited little activity at 200 μM and 200 μM phenyl ether was without effect. Activation energy for acifluorfen-methyl stimulated β-carotene photooxidation near 20 and 30 0 C was 40.3 and 5.6 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Subsequent to UV-A exposure and placement into darkness no further bleaching of β-carotene was detected, indicating that reactive species were generated only in light and consumed quickly in darkness

  9. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on chick growth, immune status and behaviour in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, M; Guasco, B; Malacarne, G; Ottonelli, R

    2006-11-01

    Carotenoids are important for various functions during chick development. Since these pigments cannot be synthesized, they can be considered limited resources that the mother optimally allocates between herself and her offspring (maternal effect). Some studies have examined the effects of carotenoids on growth and immune function but little is known about their role in behaviour. In this study of the grey partridge, we conducted two supplementation experiments: (1) laying females were fed with beta-carotene enriched or impoverished diets; (2) chicks were fed directly with beta-carotene enriched or impoverished diets. We then evaluated the effects of this carotenoid on chick growth, immunocompetence and anti-predator behaviour (reactions to a raptor model). In the first experiment, the beta-carotene enriched diet given to mothers did not cause any difference in chick physiology. In the second experiment, beta-carotene supplementation of chicks had a significant beneficial effect on their growth and immune response, although their behavioural reactions did not differ in relation to the diet. Therefore, beta-carotene supplementation had beneficial effects on growth and immunocompetence only when directly supplied to chicks. The beneficial effect reported in other species for begging or pecking behaviours was not confirmed for the anti-predator behaviour of grey partridge chicks.

  10. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  11. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moench-Pfanner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO, for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  12. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  13. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  14. Enrichment of tomato paste with 6% tomato peel increases lycopene and beta-carotene bioavailability in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Emmanuelle; Borel, Patrick; Mikail, Céline; Abou, Lydia; Charbonnier, Monique; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Goupy, Pascale; Portugal, Henri; Lairon, Denis; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe

    2005-04-01

    A high intake of tomato products is associated with a lower incidence of upper aerodigestive tract and prostate cancers. This beneficial effect might be explained by a higher intake of carotenoids such as lycopene and/or beta-carotene. Because tomato peels, usually eliminated during tomato processing, are a valuable source of these carotenoids, we designed a study to examine whether a tomato paste enriched in tomato peels (ETP, 6% peel) increases the absorption of these carotenoids compared to a classically made tomato paste (CTP). Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using an in vitro digestion model by measuring the amount of carotenoids transferred from the pastes to micelles. Carotenoid absorption by human intestinal cells (Caco-2) was evaluated after the addition of carotenoid-rich micelles (obtained from the in vitro digestion of the 2 pastes). Carotenoid bioavailability in humans was assessed by measuring chylomicron carotenoid responses in a postprandial experiment in which 8 healthy men consumed 2 meals containing either the ETP or the CTP. ETP contained 47.6 mg lycopene (58% more than CTP) and 1.75 mg beta-carotene (99% more than CTP) per 100 g of paste. In micelles, 30% more lycopene and 81% more beta-carotene were recovered after ETP than after CTP in vitro digestion. The amount of carotenoids absorbed by Caco-2 cells was 75% greater (P < or = 0.05) for lycopene and 41% greater (P < or = 0.05) for beta-carotene after the addition of micelles from ETP than from CTP. After ETP intake the chylomicron beta-carotene response was 74% greater than after CTP intake, and the lycopene response tended to be greater (34.1%, P = 0.093). Peel enrichment of tomato paste with tomato peel is an interesting option for increasing lycopene and beta-carotene intakes.

  15. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  16. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Martin, Neil E.; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, John Michael; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  17. Increase in serum beta-carotene following dark green leafy vegetable supplementation in Mebendazole-treated school children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, V; Ahmed, F; Gebre-Medhin, M; Greiner, T

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of consumption of dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and sweet pumpkin on serum beta-carotene and retinol concentrations in children treated for Ascaris lumbricoides. Experimental study with a randomised design. A total of 110 primary school children aged 8-12 y in northwestern Bangladesh. All children were de-wormed and 2 weeks later randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive for 6 days per week, for 6 weeks, one complete meal containing either: (1) 4.4 mg beta-carotene from DGLV (n=37, after 18 dropouts); (2) 1.5 mg beta-carotene from sweet pumpkin (n=36, 18 dropouts); or (3) vegetables containing virtually no beta-carotene (control) (n = 37, 18 dropouts). Significant increases (P < 0.001) in mean serum beta-carotene concentrations were seen in all three study groups, with a statistically higher increase (micromol/l) in the DGLV group (0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32, 0.55) compared to the control group (0.20; 95% CI 0.14, 0.26; P = 0.002). The increase in serum retinol (micromol/l) was statistically significant (P=0.04) only in the DGLV group (mean 0.066; 95% CI 0.002, 0.13), but this increase was not different from the increase in the control group. In children successfully treated for Ascaris lumbricoides, a substantial increase in serum beta-carotene was seen after feeding with a moderately high cumulative dose of DGLV for 6 weeks.

  18. Manganese peroxidases from Ganoderma applanatum degrade β-carotene under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfermann, Isabel; Linke, Diana; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-04-01

    A β-carotene-degrading enzyme activity was observed in liquid cultures of the basidiomycete Ganoderma applanatum. Supplementing the cultures with β-carotene induced the bleaching activity. Purification via hydrophobic interaction, ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) resulted in a single protein band. LC-ion-trap-MS analyses and gene amplification identified two manganese peroxidase isoenzymes with 97.8 % identity on the amino acid level. These showed an estimated molecular mass of 48 kDa and an isoelectric point of 2.6. Properties not yet described for other manganese peroxidases were hydrogen-peroxide-independent catalysis and two maxima of the bleaching activity, a distinct one at pH 5 and a lower one at pH 8. During simulated washing studies, the applicability of the isoenzymes for the brightening of carotenoids under alkaline conditions was proven. The new enzymes may replace common bleaching agents to produce environmentally more compatible detergent formulations.

  19. Efficient two-frequency ultrasound extraction of β-carotene from the fungus Blakeslea trispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeenko Anatoly P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are known for their lower environmental pollution, lower costs, shorter extraction time compared to regular extraction methods and higher extraction efficiency. Ultrasound has significant advantages in the extraction of a great number of biologically active compounds including carotenoids. Benefits of using ultrasound for extraction of various compounds are numerous and include effective mixing and micro-mixing, more efficient energy transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of two-frequency ultrasound main parameters such as ultrasonic intensity, sonication time, and temperature. Application of two-frequency ultrasound (simultaneous influence of ultrasound with frequency of 20–46 kHz, intensity of 1.5–2.5 W/cm2 and frequency of 1.0–2.0 MHz, intensity of 2.0–3.0 W/cm2 raises the percentage of β-carotene extraction from biomass of the fungus Blakeslea trispora from 90–92% up to 98–99% in comparison with one frequency ultrasound. The recommended oil temperature for the extraction process is 35°C, because lower temperature leads to reduction of percentage of β-carotene extraction, and higher temperature promotes unjustified increase of expenditure of energy.

  20. Zone II flexor tendon repair: effects of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, D P; Sharzer, L A; Padawer, J; Levenson, S M; Seifter, E

    1990-07-01

    Ninety-six adult Leghorn chickens each had the flexor profundus tendon in each middle toe sharply divided in Zone II with immediate repair (pentobarbital, ketamine anesthesia). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive unsupplemented standard chick chow or the chow supplemented with vitamin A (150,000 IU/kg chow), Vitamin E (1000 IU/kg chow), or beta-carotene (90 mg/kg chow). Eight animals from each of the four groups were examined at 7, 30, or 45 days post repair. After sacrifice, in situ composite wound breaking strength was measured in the amputated toe by constant speed tensiometry. Vitamin A-supplemented animals demonstrated breaking strength more than double that of control at each postoperative test day, while those animals receiving supplemental Vitamin E had breaking strength less than half that of control at Day 7 and Day 45. These results are statistically significant. Tensiometry curves differed markedly at all time points among the groups: Vitamin A curves being broader, higher, and having more spikes. These differences in the tensiometry curves, both qualitative and quantitative, may be due to differences in intrinsic tendon healing or to differences in adhesion formation or a combination of both. beta-Carotene supplementation had modest effect. We conclude that supplemental dietary vitamin A increases the breaking strength of composite tendon wounds and that supplemental dietary vitamin E decreases it.

  1. Mutations in the maize zeta-carotene desaturase gene lead to viviparous kernel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA. The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation. Previous studies have suggested that ZDS is likely the structural gene of the viviparous9 (vp9 locus. Therefore, we performed an allelic test using vp-wl2 and three vp9 mutants. The results showed that vp-wl2 is a novel allele of the vp9 locus. In addition, the sequences of ZDS gene were identified in these three vp9 alleles. The vp-wl2 mutant gene was subsequently introgressed into four maize inbred lines, and a viviparous phenotype was observed with yield losses from 7.69% to 13.33%.

  2. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of beta-carotene and retinoic acid oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithsiri Wijeratne, E M; Liu, Manping X; Kantipudi, Narendra B; Brochini, Claudia B; Leslie Gunatilaka, A A; Canfield, Louise M

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis of the beta-carotene oxidation product, 2,3-dihydro-5,8-endoperoxy-beta-apo-carotene-13-one (1) was achieved in six steps starting from beta-ionone. Photo-oxygenation of all trans-retinoic acid (8) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (9) produced a mixture of 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (10) and 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (11). Methylation of the crude photo-oxygenation mixture afforded the corresponding methyl esters 12 and 13, respectively, both of which underwent ready aerial oxidation yielding hitherto unknown oxidation products of retinoic acid identified as methyl 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (14) and methyl 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (15). Evaluation of 1, all trans-retinoic acid (8), 13-cis-retinoic acid (9), and the photo-oxygenation products 10-15 in a panel of five cancer cell lines showed 1 to be inactive and that 11 is significantly cytotoxic compared with the other retinoic acid analogs suggesting the requirement of the carboxylic acid moiety and the cis-geometry of the 13(14) double bond for cytotoxic activity.

  3. Imidazole and beta-carotene photoprotection against photodynamic therapy evaluated by synchrotron infrared microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, Gabriela N.; Parisi, Julieta; García Einschlag, Fernando S.; Mártire, Daniel O.

    2018-04-01

    In order to better understand the role of β-carotene and imidazole on the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) mechanism, synchrotron infrared microscopy was used to detect the associated intracellular biochemical modifications following the visible light irradiation of HeLa cells incubated with these compounds as typical hydrophobic and hydrophilic singlet oxygen quenchers, respectively. For this purpose, PDT was performed employing the hydrophilic sensitizer 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridinio) porphyrin tetra (p-toluenesulfonate), TMPyP, and the hydrophobic sensitizer 5-(4-Methoxycarboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin. The single cell IR spectra of PDT-treated, PDT plus quencher-treated and control HeLa cells were recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron Infrared SMIS beamline targeting specifically the cell nucleus. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assess the IR spectral changes. PCA revealed that there is a frequency shift of the protein Amide I vibrational band for the assays with the TMPyP sensitizer, indicating changes in the protein secondary structures of the PDT-treated cancer cells compared to the controls. In addition, the scores in those cells treated with both quenchers appear to be similar to the controls indicating a photoprotective effect. Comparative experiments carried out with SKMEL-28 and HaCat cells showed non- significant photoprotective effects of β-carotene and imidazole.

  4. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brose, K., E-mail: katharina.brose@gmx.net [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Zouni, A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Müh, F. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Mroginski, M.A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Maultzsch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-03

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry A{sub g} in the C{sub 2h} group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν{sub 66} and ν{sub 67}. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue.

  5. Lack of inhibitory effects of beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium on development of ductular adenocarcinomas in exocrine pancreas of hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vitamins E and E, β-carotene and selenium on development of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumours in hamsters were investigated. Dietary supplementation of vitamin C, alone as well as in combination with β-carotene resulted in consistently lower numbers of

  6. Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase/4-ketolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojima, K.; Breitenbach, J.; Visser, J.H.; Setoguchi, Y.; Tabata, K.; Hoshino, T.; Berg, van den J.A.; Sandmann, G.

    2006-01-01

    A gene has been cloned from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by complementation of astaxanthin formation in a ß-carotene accumulating mutant. It consists of 3,166 bp and contains 17 introns. For the ß-carotene mutant ATCC 96815, a single point mutation in the splicing sequence of intron 8 was found.

  7. Effects Of Ubiquinol-1 0 And F3-Carotene On The In Vitro Susceptibility Of Low-Density Lipoprotein To Copper-Induced Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Safari

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary antioxidant intake has been reported to be inversely associated with coronary miery disease. To clarify the possible role oflipophilic antioxidants in the prevention of atherosclerosis, we investigated the effects ofubiquinol-1 0 and ~-carotene on the susceptibility oflow-density lipoprotein(LD L to oxidative modification.Methods: In this study,first "ubiquinol-1 0 and ~-carotene" were added to plasma and incubated for 3hr at 37°C. Then, the LDL fraction was separated by ultracentrifugation. The oxidizability ofLDL was estimated by measuring conjugated diene (CD, lipid peroxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS after cupric sulfate solution was added. Results: We showed that ubiquinone-! 0 and ~-carotene significantly (p ~-carotene.Conclusion: LDL exposed to the lipophilic antioxidants in vitro reduced oxidizability. These findings suggest that ubiquinol-1 0 and ~-carotene have a role in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  8. Golden Rice: introducing the beta-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim; Ye, Xudong; Lucca, Paola; Schaub, Patrick; Welsch, Ralf; Potrykus, Ingo

    2002-03-01

    To obtain a functioning provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway in rice endosperm, we introduced in a single, combined transformation effort the cDNA coding for phytoene synthase (psy) and lycopene beta-cyclase (beta-lcy) both from Narcissus pseudonarcissus and both under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin promoter together with a bacterial phytoene desaturase (crtI, from Erwinia uredovora under constitutive 35S promoter control). This combination covers the requirements for beta-carotene synthesis and, as hoped, yellow beta-carotene-bearing rice endosperm was obtained in the T(0)-generation. Additional experiments revealed that the presence of beta-lcy was not necessary, because psy and crtI alone were able to drive beta-carotene synthesis as well as the formation of further downstream xanthophylls. Plausible explanations for this finding are that these downstream enzymes are constitutively expressed in rice endosperm or are induced by the transformation, e.g., by enzymatically formed products. Results using N. pseudonarcissus as a model system led to the development of a hypothesis, our present working model, that trans-lycopene or a trans-lycopene derivative acts as an inductor in a kind of feedback mechanism stimulating endogenous carotenogenic genes. Various institutional arrangements for disseminating Golden Rice to research institutes in developing countries also are discussed.

  9. Regulation of astaxanthin and its intermediates through cloning and genetic transformation of β-carotene ketolase in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiresan, S; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2015-02-20

    Astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid used in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries is mainly produced from green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. It is biosynthesized by the action of key enzyme, β-carotene ketolase (BKT) on β-carotene through intermediates echinenone and canthaxanthin. In this study, the β-carotene ketolase (bkt) gene was isolated from H. pluvialis and cloned in a vector pRT100 and further mobilized to a binary vector pCAMBIA 1304. The T-DNA of pCAMBIA 1304, which consists of cloned bkt, was successfully transformed to H. pluvialis through Agrobacterium mediation. The cloning and transformation of bkt in H. pluvialis was confirmed by Southern blotting and also by PCR analysis. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin content in the transformed cells were found to be 2-3-fold higher, while the intermediates like echinenone and canthaxanthin were found to be 8-10-fold higher than in the control cells. The expression level of carotenogenic genes like phytoene synthase (psy), phytoene desaturase (pds), lycopene cyclase (lcy), bkt, and β-carotene hydroxylase (bkh) were found to be higher in transformed cells compared to the non-transformed (NT) H. pluvialis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...

  11. Physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of ß-carotene nanoemulsions stabilized with whey protein-dextran conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, ß-carotene (BC)-loaded nanoemulsions encapsulated with native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI-dextran (DT, 5 kDa, 20 kDa, and 70 kDa) conjugates were prepared and the effects of glycosylation with various molecular weight DTs on the physicochemical property, lipolysis, and BC bioac...

  12. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  13. Metabolic responses and β-carotene production by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina exposed to leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Einali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus and elderberry ( Sambucus ebulus leaves on β-carotene productivity in Dunaliella salina, a green microalga. Leaf extracts from eucalyptus have greater amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as greater ferric reducing antioxidant potential than elderberry. The extracts of both species greatly inhibited growth of algal suspensions. However, chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration increased in cells treated with leaf extracts, and the highest values were detected in 1 % eucalyptus and 2 % elderberry extracts. Fresh weight, total sugar, and protein content significantly increased following exposure of cells to different doses of leaf extracts. However, in doses containing more than 2 % eucalyptus, the upward trend for total sugar and protein ceased and remained statistically unchanged. These results suggest that metabolic modifications enable D. salina cells to tolerate the stress induced by the leaf extracts through allocating carbon flux to the synthesis of osmolytes and putative antioxidant molecules (e.g. sugars and β-carotene. Therefore, the use of leaf extracts holds potential to be a promising and effective way to improve D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production and other biotechnological and industrial applications.

  14. Enhanced Protective Effects of Combined Treatment with β-Carotene and Curcumin against Hyperthermic Spermatogenic Disorders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal hyperthermia leads to oxidative stress and apoptosis in spermatogenic cells, which subsequently causes male infertility. In this study, we examined the effects of β-carotene and/or curcumin on heat-stress- (HS- induced testicular injuries in mice. ICR male mice (8 weeks old were consecutively treated with β-carotene (10 mg/kg and/or curcumin (20 mg/kg orally once a day for 14 days and then subjected to single exposure with scrotal HS at 43°C for 15 min on day 7. HS induced a significant reduction in testicular weight, appearance of multinucleated giant cells, and desquamation of germ cells in destructive seminiferous tubules, as well as degenerative Leydig cells. Moreover, HS reduced the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and mRNA levels of mitochondrial SOD, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, B-cell lymphoma-extra-large, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, with increases in lipid peroxidation levels and mRNA levels of BCL2-associated X protein and caspase-3 relative to those of the control group. However, these changes were significantly recovered by combined treatment with β-carotene and curcumin after HS. These findings indicate that the combined treatment with β-carotene and curcumin might be a valuable protective agent to ameliorate hyperthermic spermatogenic disorders via its potent antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and androgen synthetic effects.

  15. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

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    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  16. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

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    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  17. Novel micronisation β-carotene using rapid expansion supercritical solution with co-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Le Anh

    2017-09-01

    Rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) is the most common approach of pharmaceutical pacticle forming methods using supercritical fluids. The RESS method is a technology producing a small solid product with a very narrow particle size distribution, organic solvent-free particles. This process is also simple and easy to control the operating parameters in comparision with other ways based on supercritical techniques. In this study, β-carotene, a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits, has been forming by RESS. In addition, the size and morphology effect of four different RESS parameters including co-solvent, extraction temperature, and extraction pressure and expansion nozzle temperature has surveyed. The particle size distribution has been determined by using laser diffraction experiment. SEM has conducted to analyze the surface structure, DSC and FTIR for thermal and chemical structure analysis.

  18. Effect of micellar lipids, dietary fiber and β-carotene on lutein bioavailability in aged rats with lutein deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, Bangera Sheshappa; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2011-09-01

    To determine the effect of various dietary components on the intestinal uptake of lutein in aged rats. This study determined the time-course (2, 4, 6, 8 h) plasma and tissue responses of a pharmacologic dose of lutein (200 μM) solubilized in mixed micelles with fat (3%, soybean oil), phosphatidylcholine (PC; 3 mM), lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC; 3 mM), dietary fiber (pectin, 1.25%), β-carotene (200 μM), or micelles with no dietary components (control) in aged rats with lutein deficiency. No lutein was detected in the plasma of rats at 0 h indicating the deficiency. After gavages of lutein, the mean percent area under the curve (picomoles per milliliter per 8 h) of plasma lutein in the fat (91.4), PC (218.0), and lysoPC (94.1) groups were higher (P > 0.05), whereas its level in the dietary fiber and β-carotene groups was lower than the control group. The liver and eye lutein levels of the PC (95.4, 38.67%) and fat (18.2, 143%) groups were significantly higher, whereas the lysoPC (9.6, 27.2%), β-carotene (19.2, 35.4%), and dietary fiber (3.1, 88.4%) groups were lower than the control group. Results indicate that soybean oil and soy phospholipids greatly sway lutein absorption in aged rats with lutein deficiency. The results also suggest that ingestion of lutein with pectin and β-carotene suppresses lutein absorption. Hence, to improve the absorption of lutein in older adults with macular pigment deficiency, foods with sufficient fat with low dietary fiber and β-carotene may be suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection by pantothenol and β-carotene against liver damage produced by low-dose γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slyshenkov, V.S; Omelyanchik, S.N.; Moiseenok, A.G.; Petushok, N.E.; Wojtczak, L.

    1999-01-01

    Rats were exposed to a total dose of 0.75 Gy of γ radiation from a 60 Co source, receiving three doses of 0.25 Gy at weekly intervals. During two days before each irradiation, the animals received daily intragastric doses of 26 mg pantothenol or 15 mg β-carotene per kg body mass. The animals were killed after the third irradiation session, and their blood and livers were analyzed. As found previously, in livers of animals not supplied with either pantothenol or β-carotene and killed one hour after the irradiation, a large accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, as conjugated dienes, ketotrienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, could be observed. The contents of CoA, pantothenic acid, total phospholipids, total glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio were considerably decreased, whereas the NAD/NADH ratio was increased. All these effects were alleviated in animals supplied with beta-carotene and were completely abolished in animals supplied with pantothenol. In the present paper, we extended our observations of irradiation effects over a period of up to 7 days after the last irradiation session. We found that most of these changes, with the exception of GSH/GSSG ratio, disappeared spontaneously, whereas supplementation with beta-carotene shortened the time required for the normalization of biochemical parameters. In addition, we found that the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and NADP-dependent malate (decarboxylating) dehydrogenase ('malic enzyme') in liver were also significantly decreased one hour after irradiation but returned to the normal level within 7 days. Little or no decrease in these activities, already 1 h after the irradiation, could be seen in animals supplemented with either beta-carotene or pantothenol. It is concluded that pantothenol is an excellent radioprotective agent against low-dose γ radiation. (author)

  20. The Effect of β-Carotene Supplementation on the Pharmacokinetics of Nelfinavir and Its Active Metabolite M8 in HIV-1-infected Patients

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    Humayoun Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Carotene supplements are often taken by individuals living with HIV-1. Contradictory results from in vitro studies suggest that β-carotene may inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters. The study objective was to investigate the effect of β-carotene on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 in HIV-1 infected individuals. Twelve hour nelfinavir pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted at baseline and after 28 days of β-carotene supplementation (25,000 IU twice daily. Nelfinavir and M8 concentrations were measured with validated assays. Non-compartmental methods were used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Geometric mean ratios comparing day 28 to day 1 area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–12 h, maximum (Cmax and minimum (Cmin concentrations of nelfinavir and M8 are presented with 90% confidence intervals. Eleven subjects completed the study and were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in nelfinavir AUC0–12 h and Cmin (−10%, +4% after β-carotene supplementation. The M8 Cmin was increased by 31% while the M8 AUC0–12 h and Cmax were unchanged. During the 28 day period, mean CD4+ % and CD4+:CD8+ ratio increased significantly (p < 0.01. β-carotene supplementation increased serum carotene levels but did not cause any clinically significant difference in the nelfinavir and M8 exposure.

  1. Effects of beta-carotene on adult immune condition and antibacterial activity in the eggs of the Grey Partridge, Perdix perdix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Marco; Guasco, Beatrice; Malacarne, Giorgio; Ottonelli, Roberta

    2007-08-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary constituents in birds. Their functions are numerous and complex, and breeding females are potentially faced with an optimal allocation of these resources between themselves and offspring. We conducted a dietary experiment (low and high supply of beta-carotene) to examine the effect of beta-carotene on health and immune response of 64 reproducing pairs of Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix L.) and on the quality of their eggs, as revealed by the measurement of biochemical components in yolk and albumen, the egg hatching rate and chick survival. We found a beneficial effect of beta-carotene on the erythrosedimentation rate and immune response of females (PHA reaction), while the diet did not significantly affect these variables in males. In both sexes, the plasma level of carotenoids was not related to the quantity of beta-carotene supplied. A higher quantity of beta-carotene in the diet did not induce a variation of egg nutrients (proteins and lipids), nor an increase of yolk beta-carotene concentration. We detected a higher concentration of lysozyme, an enzyme with antibacterial activity, in the albumen of eggs laid by females with a high supply of beta-carotene. These eggs showed higher hatching rates. The present study indicates that although carotenoid supplementation does not influence blood and yolk carotenoid levels, it results in better immune conditions of females, eventually translated into increased antibacterial activity of the eggs. The broad range of beneficial effects of carotenoids is discussed.

  2. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

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    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  3. β -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of β- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 μg β carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that β- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  4. Carotenóides como alternativa contra a hipovitaminose A Carotenoids as an alternative against hypovitaminosis A

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    Carmem Lygia Burgos Ambrósio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A hipovitaminose A acarreta xeroftalmia, cegueira e morte em milhares de crianças no mundo e constitui um dos principais problemas nutricionais de populações de países em desenvolvimento, incluído o Brasil. Embora haja grande disponibilidade de frutas e verduras, fontes de carotenóides no Brasil, a hipovitaminose A constitui um grave problema de saúde pública. A falta de informação da população, no que diz respeito às fontes alimentares e aos fatores que interferem na biodisponibilidade dos carotenóides, citados na literatura, com a "mnemônica" SLAMENGHI são possíveis causas associadas a esta contradição. Os atuais fatores de conversão de carotenóides em retinol são superiores aos antigos fatores, o que pressupõe uma efetividade ainda menor na conversão dos carotenóides na forma ativa da vitamina A e coloca em questão a utilização destes no combate à hipovitaminose A. Esta revisão tem como objetivo relatar o que vem sendo abordado acerca do tema biodisponibilidade e fontes de carotenóides, para possibilitar um melhor posicionamento na utilização dos carotenóides no combate à hipovitaminose A.Hypovitaminosis A causes xerophthalmia, blindness and death in thousands of children throughout the world and constitutes one of the main nutritional problems in the populations of developing countries, including Brazil. Although fruits and vegetables, sources of carotenoids, are widely available in Brazil, hypovitaminosis A constitutes a serious public health problem. The lack of information available to the population about the dietary sources of carotenoids and factors affecting their bioavailability, known in the literature as SLAMENGHI, are possible causes associated with this contradiction. Current carotenoid conversion factors to retinol are higher than earlier ones. This suggests a reduced effectiveness in the conversion of carotenoids into the active form of vitamin A, questioning the role of carotenoids in

  5. Comparison of non-toxic methods for creating beta-carotene encapsulated in PMMA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzanski, Christopher D.

    Nano/microcapsules are becoming more prevalent in various industries such as drug delivery, cosmetics, etc. Current methods of particle formation often use toxic or carcinogenic/mutagenic/reprotoxic (CMR) chemicals. This study intends to improve upon existing methods of particle formation and compare their effectiveness in terms of entrapment efficiency, mean particle size, and yield utilizing only non-toxic chemicals. In this study, the solvent evaporation (SE), spontaneous emulsification, and spontaneous emulsion solvent diffusion (SESD) methods were compared in systems containing green solvents ethyl acetate, dimethyl carbonate or acetone. PMMA particles containing encapsulated beta carotene, an ultraviolet sensitive substance, were synthesized. It was desired to produce particles with minimum mean size and maximum yield and entrapment of beta carotene. The mass of the water phase, the mass of the polymer and the pumping or blending rate were varied for each synthesis method. The smallest particle sizes for SE and SESD both were obtained from the middle water phase sizes, 200 g and 100 g respectively. The particles obtained from the larger water phase in SESD were much bigger, about 5 microns in diameter, even larger than the ones obtained from SE. When varying the mass of PMMA used in each synthesis method, as expected, more PMMA led to larger particles. Increasing the blending rate in SE from 6,500 to 13,500 rpm had a minimal effect on average particle size, but the higher shear resulted in highly polydisperse particles (PDI = 0.87). By decreasing the pump rate in SESD, particles became smaller and had lower entrapment efficiency. The entrapment efficiencies of the particles were generally higher for the larger particles within a mode. Therefore, we found that minimizing the particle size while maximizing entrapment were somewhat contradictory goals. The solvent evaporation method was very consistent in terms of the values of mean particle size, yield, and

  6. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  7. Statistical optimization of beta-carotene production by Arthrobacter agilis A17 using response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Murat; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2017-04-01

    β-carotene is a commercially important natural pigment and has been widely applied in the medicine, pharmaceutical, food, feed and cosmetic industries. The current study aimed to investigate the usability of molasses for β-carotene production by Arthrobacter agilis A17 (KP318146) and to optimize the production process. Box-Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the optimum levels and the interactions of three independent variables namely molasses, yeast extract and KH2PO4 at three different levels. β-carotene yield in optimized medium containing 70 g/l molasses, 25 g/l yeast extract and 0.96 g/l KH2PO4, reached up to 100 mg/l, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the yield, obtained from control cultivation. A remarkable β-carotene production on inexpensive carbon source was achieved with the use of statistical optimization.

  8. Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Godoy, Ronoel; Pacheco, Sidney; Carvalho, José; Nutti, Marília

    2013-03-01

    The effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of all-trans-beta-carotene in biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots have not been investigated, although these are conventional methods of cassava preparation. The aims of the present study were to investigate beta-carotene micellarization efficiency of yellow-fleshed BRS Jari cassava roots after boiling and frying, as an indicator of the bioaccessibility of this carotenoid, and to apply fluorescence microscopy to investigate beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction. Uncooked, boiled, and fried cassava roots were digested in vitro for the evaluation, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), of the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-beta-carotene in BRS Jari cassava roots. Fluorescence microscopy of the micellar fraction was used to confirm the presence of beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction and to observe the structure of the microemulsion from the boiled and fried cassava samples. Fried cassava roots showed the highest (p < .05) micellarization efficiency for total carotenoids and all-trans-beta-carotene (14.1 +/- 2.25% and 14.37 +/- 2.44%, respectively), compared with boiled and raw samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that after in vitro digestion there were no carotenoid crystals in the micellar fraction, but rather that this fraction presented a biphasic system compatible with emulsified carotenoids, which was consistent with the expected high bioavailability of beta-carotene in this fraction. Increased emulsification and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from fried biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots compensates for chemical losses during preparation, indicating that this preparation is suitable for home use of BRS Jari cassava roots and might represent a relatively good food source of bioavailable provitamin A.

  9. Effect of Carotene and Lycopene on the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

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    Yulan Wang

    Full Text Available Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between carotenoids intake and risk of Prostate cancer (PCa. However, results have been inconclusive.We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of dietary intake or blood concentrations of carotenoids in relation to PCa risk. We summarized the data from 34 eligible studies (10 cohort, 11 nested case-control and 13 case-control studies and estimated summary Risk Ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using random-effects models.Neither dietary β-carotene intake nor its blood levels was associated with reduced PCa risk. Dietary α-carotene intake and lycopene consumption (both dietary intake and its blood levels were all associated with reduced risk of PCa (RR for dietary α-carotene intake: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99; RR for dietary lycopene intake: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-0.98; RR for blood lycopene levels: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.69-0.96. However, neither blood α-carotene levels nor blood lycopene levels could reduce the risk of advanced PCa. Dose-response analysis indicated that risk of PCa was reduced by 2% per 0.2mg/day (95%CI: 0.96-0.99 increment of dietary α-carotene intake or 3% per 1mg/day (95%CI: 0.94-0.99 increment of dietary lycopene intake.α-carotene and lycopene, but not β-carotene, were inversely associated with the risk of PCa. However, both α-carotene and lycopene could not lower the risk of advanced PCa.

  10. Genetic modification of the soybean to enhance the β-carotene content through seed-specific expression.

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    Mi-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was genetically manipulated using the recombinant PAC (Phytoene synthase-2A-Carotene desaturase gene in Korean soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Kwangan. The PAC gene was linked to either the β-conglycinin (β or CaMV-35S (35S promoter to generate β-PAC and 35S-PAC constructs, respectively. A total of 37 transgenic lines (19 for β-PAC and 18 for 35S-PAC were obtained through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the modified half-seed method. The multi-copy insertion of the transgene was determined by genomic Southern blot analysis. Four lines for β-PAC were selected by visual inspection to confirm an orange endosperm, which was not found in the seeds of the 35S-PAC lines. The strong expression of PAC gene was detected in the seeds of the β-PAC lines and in the leaves of the 35S-PAC lines by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses, suggesting that these two different promoters function distinctively. HPLC analysis of the seeds and leaves of the T(2 generation plants revealed that the best line among the β-PAC transgenic seeds accumulated 146 µg/g of total carotenoids (approximately 62-fold higher than non-transgenic seeds, of which 112 µg/g (77% was β-carotene. In contrast, the level and composition of the leaf carotenoids showed little difference between transgenic and non-transgenic soybean plants. We have therefore demonstrated the production of a high β-carotene soybean through the seed-specific overexpression of two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Capsicum phytoene synthase and Pantoea carotene desaturase. This nutritional enhancement of soybean seeds through the elevation of the provitamin A content to produce biofortified food may have practical health benefits in the future in both humans and livestock.

  11. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content.

  12. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, <0.08, <0.08, 0.08 and 0.46 microM clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  13. Comparative metabolomics profiling of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae lead to a strategy that improving β-carotene production by acetate supplementation.

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    Xiao Bu

    Full Text Available A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS based approach. The results showed that most of the central intermediates associated with amino acids, carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates (acetic acid, glycerol, citric acid, pyruvic acid and succinic acid, fatty acids, ergosterol and energy metabolites were produced in a lower amount in recombinant strain, as compared to the parent strain. To increase β-carotene production in recombinant strain, a strategy that exogenous addition of acetate (10 g/l in exponential phase was developed, which could enhance most intracellular metabolites levels and result in 39.3% and 14.2% improvement of β-carotene concentration and production, respectively, which was accompanied by the enhancement of acetyl-CoA, fatty acids, ergosterol and ATP contents in cells. These results indicated that the amounts of intracellular metabolites in engineered strain are largely consumed by carotenoid formation. Therefore, maintaining intracellular metabolites pool at normal levels is essential for carotenoid biosynthesis. To relieve this limitation, rational supplementation of acetate could be a potential way because it can partially restore the levels of intracellular metabolites and improve the production of carotenoid compounds in recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  14. Advanced lipid systems containing β-carotene: stability under UV-vis radiation and application on porcine skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Rodríguez, Gelen; Cócera, Mercedes; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Alonso, Cristina; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Jawhari, Tariq; de la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga

    2015-07-28

    Phospholipid-based nanostructures, bicelles and bicosomes, are proposed as carriers of the antioxidant β-carotene. The stability of these nanostructures and their carotenoid cargo was evaluated in an oxidation environment induced by ultraviolet A, visible and infrared A radiation (UVA-VIS-IRA). Additionally, the effect of these nanoaggregates on non-irradiated and irradiated skin microstructure was studied. The characterization of the lipid systems was performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and lipid peroxidation of the systems was determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) assay. Moreover, the stability of β-carotene in these lipid systems under this radiation was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the particle size of the bicelles did not change due to radiation. However, the size of the bicosomes increased slightly after irradiation. The TBARS assay showed the absence of peroxides in the bicelles and bicosomes, indicating the preservation of the lipid molecules under the radiation used. Raman experiments showed that bicosomes protected β-carotene from degradation induced by radiation better than liposomes or dissolution in chloroform. With respect to the skin microstructure, no changes after irradiation were observed via freeze substitution transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). This technique also showed the presence of vesicular structures in the stratum corneum (SC) after treatment with bicosomes.

  15. Growth, antioxidant capacity and total carotene of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 in a low cost enriched natural seawater medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc; Doan, Nguyen; Louime, Clifford; Giordano, Mario; Portilla, Sixto

    2014-01-01

    Dunaliella is currently drawing worldwide attention as an alternative source of nutraceuticals. Commercially, β-carotene making up over 10% of Dunaliella biomass is generating the most interest. These compounds, because of their non-toxic properties, have found applications in the food, drug and cosmetic industry. The β-carotene content of Dunaliella cells, however, depends heavily on the growth conditions and especially on the availability of nutrients, salinity, irradiance and temperature in the growth medium. A chemically well defined medium is usually required, which significantly contributes to the cost of pigment production; hence a desire for low cost marine media. The present study aimed at evaluating the suitability of six different media, especially exploiting local potential resources, for the mass production of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 as functional food and medicine. The efficacy of a new selected low-cost enriched natural seawater medium (MD4), supplemented with industrial N-P-K fertilizer, was investigated with respect to biomass production, chlorophyll, antioxidant capacity, and total carotene by Dunaliella though culture conditions were not optimized yet. This new medium (MD4) appears extremely promising, since it affords a higher production of Dunaliella biomass and pigments compared with the control, a common artificial medium (MD1), while allowing a substantial reduction in the production costs. The medium is also recommended for culturing other marine algae.

  16. The antiproliferative effect of beta-carotene requires p21waf1/cip1 in normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, L A; Savio, M; Quarta, S; Scotti, C; Cazzalini, O; Rossi, L; Scovassi, I A; Pizzala, R; Melli, R; Bianchi, L; Vannini, V; Prosperi, E

    2000-04-01

    In normal human fibroblasts, beta-carotene induces a cell-cycle delay in the G1 phase independent of its provitamin A activity via a mechanism not yet elucidated. In this study we provide biochemical evidence showing that delayed progression through the G1 phase occurs concomitantly with: an increase in both nuclear-bound and total p21waf1/cip1 protein levels; an increase in the amount of p21waf1/cip1 associated with cdk4; the inhibition of cyclin D1-associated cdk4 kinase activity; and a reduction in the levels of hyperphosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein, and particularly, in phosphorylated Ser780. The role of p21waf1/cip1 in the antiproliferative effect of the carotenoid was further supported by genetic evidence that neither changes in cell-cycle progression nor in the phosphorylation status of retinoblastoma protein were observed in p21waf1/cip1-deficient human fibroblasts treated with beta-carotene. These results clearly demonstrate that p21waf1/cip1 is involved directly in the molecular pathway by which beta-carotene inhibits cell-cycle progression.

  17. [The relationship between income and children's habitual consumption of β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva-Bandeira, Geovanna T; Rios-Asciutti, Luiza S; Rivera, Amélia A; Rodrigues-Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Pordeus-de-Lima, Rafaella C; Marinho-Albuquerque, Tarciane; Marcos-de-Morais, Ronei; de Toledo-Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Farias-de-Oliveira, Adyla; Teixeira-Lima, Roberto; de Carvalho-Costa, Maria J

    2011-06-01

    Examining the relationship between family income and daily b-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E consumption amongst children in the city of João Pessoa / PB, Brazil. One hundred and eighty-three children aged 2 to income level which was representative of the population of Joao Pessoa. The research instrument consisted of questionnaires addressing socio-economic, demographic, epidemiological, anthropometric and food consumption variables. The results were analysedby using R software, using descriptive (mean, median, standard-deviation, simple and relative frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (correlation and regression). Participants were predominantly male (55 %) from income classes E (up to US$ 428.64) and C (> US$ 622.31-US$ 2,682.93) and mothers who had studied for nine years or more. Regarding vitamin intake, there was low vitamin C inadequacy (8 %) and high vitamin E inadequacy (59 %), the latter being more frequent in the 4-8 year-old age group (33 % of children). There was an inverse correlation between income and energy intake (r=-0.1525, pincome and vitamin E consumption (r=-0.3, pincome and maternal education (pincome and b-carotene consumption and between income and vitamin C consumption was significantly positive (r=0.33 and r=0.28, respectively, pincome regarding vitamin C and b-carotene and negatively related regarding vitamin E and calories.

  18. Rapid and simultaneous determination of lycopene and beta-carotene contents in tomato juice by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thais; Shiroma-Kian, Cecilia; Halim, Yuwana; Francis, David; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2009-02-25

    The rapid quantification of lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato juices by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated. Two sample preparation methods were compared: a direct measurement of the tomato paste and an extraction method using hexane to isolate carotenoids. HPLC was used as the reference method. Cross-validated (leave-one-out) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to create calibration models to predict these phytonutrient concentrations in blind test samples. The infrared spectra showed unique marker bands at 957 and 968 cm(-1) for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the infrared spectral data gave correlation coefficients (r values) of >0.9 between the ATR-IR predicted and HPLC reference values, and standard errors of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.5 and 0.04 mg/100 g of juice for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively. ATR-IR could provide the tomato industry with a simple, rapid, and high-throughput technique for the determination of tomato quality.

  19. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-En; Huang, Xing-Qi; Hang, Yu; Deng, Yin-Yin; Lu, Qin-Qin; Lu, Shan

    2014-09-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of α- and β-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, β-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxylase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from β-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumulation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a β-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible ϵ-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Comparative studies on the stability of vitamin C and β-carotene of some sliced vegetables and fruit juices exposed to microwaves and γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R. S.; Basyony, A. E.; Bothyna, S. A.; Safaa, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to maintain the integrity and contents of vitamin C and β-carotene, carrots, sweet potatoes and mango serving as main sources of β-carotene, while guava, lime and orange were considered as major reservoir for vitamin C. Microwave and γ-irradiation treatments were applied to keep the vitamin C and β-Carotene of the aforementioned natural sources. The samples were exposed to γ-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5,2.0,2.5 and 3 kGy and microwaves for 1,2,3 and 4 min at low power setting. The results indicate that the vitamin C and β-Carotene levels of the samples were variably degraded depending upon the conditions of treatments. Microwave treatment caused decreases in the levels of vitamin C of lime, orange and guava and the extent of reduction was dependent upon the exposure time. In general, γ-irradiation treatment was better than exposure to microwaves for retention of vitamin C and β-carotene and hence extending the shelf life of the food sources under study. The mode of action of these physical methods on vitamin C and β-carotene content is discussed.

  1. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-. trans-β-carotene at the C9\\'-C10\\' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-. trans-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9\\'-C10\\' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-. cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-. cis-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-. trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development.

  2. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  3. The Silencing of Carotenoid β-Hydroxylases by RNA Interference in Different Maize Genetic Backgrounds Increases the β-Carotene Content of the Endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judit; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Sandmann, Gerhard; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a staple food in many parts of Africa, but the endosperm generally contains low levels of the pro-vitamin A carotenoid β-carotene, leading to vitamin A deficiency disease in populations relying on cereal-based diets. However, maize endosperm does accumulate high levels of other carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, which is derived from β-carotene via two hydroxylation reactions. Blocking these reactions could therefore improve the endosperm β-carotene content. Accordingly, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the endogenous ZmBCH1 and ZmBCH2 genes, which encode two non-heme di-iron carotenoid β-hydroxylases. The genes were silenced in a range of maize genetic backgrounds by introgressing the RNAi cassette, allowing us to determine the impact of ZmBCH1/ZmBCH2 silencing in diverse hybrids. The β-carotene content of the endosperm increased substantially in all hybrids in which ZmBCH2 was silenced, regardless of whether or not ZmBCH1 was silenced simultaneously. However, the β-carotene content did not change significantly in C17 hybrids (M7 × C17 and M13 × C17) compared to C17 alone, because ZmBCH2 is already expressed at negligible levels in the C17 parent. Our data indicate that ZmBCH2 is primarily responsible for the conversion of β-carotene to zeaxanthin in maize endosperm. PMID:29186806

  4. Β-carotene inhibits neuroblastoma tumorigenesis by regulating cell differentiation and cancer cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Min, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri

    2014-08-08

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid cancer in young children and malignant NB cells have been shown to possess cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics. Thus, the successful elimination of CSCs represents a strategy for developing an effective preventive and chemotherapeutic agent. CSCs are characterized by differentiation and tumorigenicity. β-Carotene (BC) has been associated with many anticancer mechanisms, although the efficacy of BC on CSCs remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of BC on tumor cell differentiation and tumorigenicity was investigated using a xenograft model. Mice were pretreated with BC for 21 days, then received a subcutaneous injection of SK-N-BE(2)C cells. Both tumor incidence and tumor growth were significantly inhibited for mice that received BC supplementation compared to the control group. Treatment with BC has also been shown to induce tumor cell differentiation by up-regulating differentiation markers, such as vimentin, peripherin, and neurofilament. Conversely, BC treatment has been shown to significantly suppress tumor stemness by down-regulating CSC markers such as Oct 3/4 and DLK1. BC treatment also significantly down-regulated HIF1-α expression and its downstream target, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that BC is a potential chemotherapeutic reagent for the treatment of NB, and mediates this effect by regulating the differentiation and stemness of CSCs, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, K.; Zouni, A.; Müh, F.; Mroginski, M. A.; Maultzsch, J.

    2013-06-01

    In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry Ag in the C2h group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν66 and ν67. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue.

  6. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  7. Effects of beta-carotene supplementation on adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Fuster, Antonia; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-12-01

    We previously described that the intake of pharmacological doses of beta-carotene (BC) resulted in higher body weight gain in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo), an animal model that resembles human subjects in terms of intestinal BC absorption and metabolism. These results were some way unexpected considering the condition of BC as a vitamin A precursor and the previous data in rodents showing these compounds as thermogenic activators. Here, we aimed to characterise in the ferret whether the mentioned changes in body weight could be explained by changes in adipose tissue thermogenic capacity. We studied the effects of 6-month supplementation with BC (0.8 and 3.2 mg/kg per d) on adipose tissue morphology and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) content. BC supplementation resulted in higher body weight (the high dose), induced depot- and dose-dependent hypertrophy of white adipocytes, decreased the amount of brown-like multilocular adipocytes in the retroperitoneal depot and decreased UCP1 content in different fat depots. To ascertain whether BC effects could be mediated by retinoic acid (RA), 1 week supplementation with RA (0.25 and 25 mg/kg per d) was also studied. RA treatment resulted in a slight decrease in adiposity, decreased cell lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 content, suggesting that the effects of BC on thermogenic capacity are not through RA. In conclusion, RA, but not BC, may have in the ferret comparable effects with those described in rodents, whereas differences concerning BC and RA treatments may be attributable to the different BC metabolism in the present animal model with a lower conversion of BC to RA compared with rodents.

  8. β-carotene at physiologically attainable concentration induces apoptosis and down-regulates cell survival and antioxidant markers in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya Shree, G; Yogendra Prasad, K; Arpitha, H S; Deepika, U R; Nawneet Kumar, K; Mondal, Priya; Ganesan, P

    2017-12-01

    Although β-carotene is known for its anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties, a few recent epidemiological and experimental evidence show that at higher concentration it acts as pro-oxidant and induces cancer. Since the global burden of breast cancer exceeds all other types of cancer, and its incidence rates is also in increasing trend, the present study attempted to evaluate the anti-cancer molecular mechanism of β-carotene (at 1 µM concentration) isolated from Spinacia oleracea in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The carotenoid was purified by open column chromatography and identified by LC-MS. The anti-proliferative effect of β-carotene at different concentrations was evaluated by WST-1 assay and the changes in cell morphology were examined by microscopic observation. The induction of apoptosis by β-carotene was observed by DAPI staining and colorimetric caspase-3 assay. The expression of cell survival, apoptotic, and antioxidant marker proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Purified β-carotene inhibited the viability of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was well correlated with changes in cell morphology. Increased apoptotic cells were observed in β-carotene (1 µM)-treated cells. This apoptosis induction was associated with increased caspase-3 activity. The protein expression studies showed that β-carotene at 1 µM concentration effectively decreases the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and PARP, and survival protein, NF-kB. It also inhibited the activation of intracellular growth signaling proteins, Akt and ERK1/2. The inhibition of Akt activation by β-carotene results in decreased phosphorylation of Bad. Further, it down-regulated antioxidant enzyme, SOD-2, and its transactivation factor (Nrf-2), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, XBP-1, at protein levels. These findings exhibit the key role of β-carotene even at a low physiological concentration in MCF-7 cells which further explains its

  9. Annatto extract and β-carotene enhances antioxidant status and regulate gene expression in neutrophils of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno Da Cruz; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2012-03-01

    Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) contains a mixture of orange-yellowish pigments due to the presence of various carotenoids that have antioxidant effect. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) as part of the body's defence mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. It is well known that the function of neutrophils is altered in diabetes; one of the major functional changes in neutrophils in diabetes is the increased generation of extracellular superoxide via the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the production of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in neutrophils from diabetic rats treated with annatto extract and β-carotene. Forty-eight female Fisher rats were distributed into six groups according to the treatment received. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after treatment, and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The ROS and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Analyses of gene expression were performed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results show that treatment with annatto extract and β-carotene was able to decrease ROS production and the mRNA levels of p22(phox) and p47(phox) and increase the mRNA levels of SOD and CAT in neutrophils from diabetic rats. These data suggest that annatto extract and β-carotene exerts antioxidant effect via inhibition of expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits and increase expression/activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  11. Differential accumulation of β-carotene and tissue specific expression of phytoene synthase (MaPsy) gene in banana (Musa sp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Singh, V P; Arora, A; Bhattacharya, R C; Rajendran, Ambika

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp. The gene encoding Musa accuminata phytoene synthase ( MaPsy ) was successfully amplified using a pair of degenerate primers designed from Oncidium orchid. The deduced amino acid sequences shared a high level of identity to phytoene synthase gene from other plants. Gene expression analysis confirmed the presence of two isoforms ( MaPsy1 and MaPsy2 ) of MaPsy gene in banana fruits. Presence of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in peel and one in pulp confirmed the differential accumulation of β-carotene in banana fruits. However, Nendran accumulated more β-carotene in edible pulp due to presence of both the isoforms of MaPsy gene. Thus, carotenoid accumulation is a tissue specific process strongly dependent on differential expression pattern of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in banana.

  12. Nutritional composition, acceptability, and shelf stability of carrot pomace-incorporated cookies with special reference to total and β-carotene retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Bellur Nagarajaiah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated carrot pomace was assessed for the feasibility of incorporating into baked product by partial substitution of refined flour at 4, 8, and 12% level. As carrot pomace is a good source of antioxidant components and dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, it was added to the cookies. Carrot pomace and products were analyzed for chemical composition, and products were further evaluated for sensory quality, carotene retention and bioaccessibility, and storage stability. The results showed that pomace contained protein, (6.50%; dietary fiber (44.75%; total carotene, (5,456 μg; and β-carotene (607 μg/100 g. Products with 4% pomace incorporation had highest retention in terms of total carotene (75% and β-carotene (69%. The highest level of replacement (12% had a significant adverse effect on the product. Overall acceptability indicated that panel members liked the products up to 8% of added carrot pomace compared to control. Thus, it can be stated that value-added cookies could be advantageous as they are nutrient dense containing dietary fiber and carotenoids.

  13. Electronic Coherence Provides a Direct Proof for Energy-Level Crossing in Photoexcited Lutein and β-Carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, Evgeny; Müller, Marc G.; Marian, Christel M.; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate femtosecond transient absorption dynamics of lutein and β-carotene. Strong oscillations up to about 400 fs are observed, depending on excitation or detection wavelength and solvent. We propose electronic quantum beats as the origin of these oscillations. They provide direct proof for strong coupling of the 1Bu+ with another electronic “dark” state predicted by quantum chemical calculations to be the 1Bu- state resulting in a crossing within a dynamic relaxation model. The overall dynamics can be described well by an optical Bloch equation approach.

  14. Carotenóides e composição centesimal de ervilhas (Pisum sativum L.) cruas e processadas

    OpenAIRE

    Otilia Teixeira de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    A ervilha é um dos alimentos mais produzidos no mundo e, conseqüentemente, tem uma grande importância para a nutrição humana, sendo comercializada sob várias formas: fresca, seca, congelada e enlatada, necessitando de cozimento antes de ser consumida. Sendo assim, podem ocorrer alterações em sua composição durante esses processamentos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar as mudanças ocorridas devido ao processamento na composição centesimal e no perfil de carotenóides em ervilhas ...

  15. Detection of bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin, and beta-apo-8'-carotenal in products derived from red pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Hornero-Méndez, D; Garrido-Fernández, J

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method using either thin layer or liquid chromatography is proposed for the detection of 4 pigments (bixin, lycopene, canthaxanthin and beta-apo-8'-carotenal) that can be used fraudulently to intensify the natural color of products derived from red pepper (oleoresins, paprika, paprika paste, etc.). Similarly, the addition of other colorant natural products containing some of these pigments as major pigments (such as tomato for lycopene and Bixa orellana seeds for bixin) can be detected. The method proposed can also be used to control the aforementioned pigments in their natural sources as well as in food products.

  16. Effects of dietary α-tocopherol and β-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raun Andersen, H.; Andersen, O.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH 3 HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of α-tocopherol (10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) or β-carotene (1000, 10,000 or 100,000 IU/kg) for four weeks, two groups on each diet. The concentration of α-tocopherol and β-carotene used corresponded to deficient, normal and high levels. During the last two weeks, one group on each diet was given 40 mg CH 3 HgCl/l of drinking water. High dietary α-tocopherol protected against CH 3 HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the α-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH 3 HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, α-tocopherol did not protect against CH 3 HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary β-carotene further enhanced CH 3 HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH 3 HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) in the kidneys in all dietary groups. High dietary α-tocopherol enhanced the activity of Se-GSH-Px in liver and kidney compared to the activity in mice fed the normal level of α-tocopherol. This occurred in mice exposed to CH 3 -HgCl as well as in unexposed mice, and the difference between CH 3 HgCl exposed and unexposed mice was not diminished. High dietary α-tocopherol increased the activity of both Se-GSH-Px and T-GSH-Px in the brain of CH 3 HgCl-exposed mice. The dietary level of β-carotene did not affect the activity of the two enzymes in the organs investigated. (au) (43 refs.)

  17. Determination of beta-carotene and lutein available from green leafy vegetables by an in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2005-04-20

    Green leafy vegetables (Spinacea oleracea, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, and Solanum americanum) contain a high amount of beta-carotene (27-52 mg/100 g of dry sample) and lutein (140-193 mg/100 g of dry sample). The amount of beta-carotene and lutein released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes ranged from 22 to 67% and from 27 to 77%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the enzymatic release of carotenoids (lutein + beta-carotene) and the content of Klason lignin, nonstarch polysaccharides, and resistant protein. The carotenoids released by the in vitro colonic fermentation ranged from 2 to 11%, and part of them (0.251-4.03 mg/100 g of original dry sample) remained intact in the fermentation media and could be potentially absorbed in the colon. A significant part of carotenoids seems to be unavailable in the intestinal tract (16% in S. oleracea to 58% in C. aconitifolius).

  18. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (psweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  19. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-03-09

    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability.

  20. Identification of cow and buffalo milk based on Beta carotene and vitamin-A concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Ullah

    Full Text Available The current study presents the application of fluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of cow and buffalo milk based on β-carotene and vitamin-A which is of prime importance from the nutritional point of view. All samples were collected from healthy animals of different breeds at the time of lactation in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan. Cow and buffalo milk shows differences at fluorescence emission appeared at band position 382 nm, 440 nm, 505 nm and 525 nm both in classical geometry (right angle setup as well as front face fluorescence setup. In front face fluorescence geometry, synchronous fluorescence emission shows clear differences at 410 nm and 440 nm between the milk samples of both these species. These fluorescence emissions correspond to fats, vitamin-A and β-carotene. Principal Component Analysis (PCA further highlighted these differences by showing clear separation between the two data sets on the basis of features obtained from their fluorescence emission spectra. These results indicate that classical geometry (fixed excitation wavelength as well as front face (synchronous fluorescence emission of cow and buffalo milk nutrients could be used as fingerprint from identification point of view. This same approach can effectively be used for the determination of adulterants in the milk and other dairy products.

  1. Identification of cow and buffalo milk based on Beta carotene and vitamin-A concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahat; Khan, Saranjam; Ali, Hina; Bilal, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The current study presents the application of fluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of cow and buffalo milk based on β-carotene and vitamin-A which is of prime importance from the nutritional point of view. All samples were collected from healthy animals of different breeds at the time of lactation in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan. Cow and buffalo milk shows differences at fluorescence emission appeared at band position 382 nm, 440 nm, 505 nm and 525 nm both in classical geometry (right angle) setup as well as front face fluorescence setup. In front face fluorescence geometry, synchronous fluorescence emission shows clear differences at 410 nm and 440 nm between the milk samples of both these species. These fluorescence emissions correspond to fats, vitamin-A and β-carotene. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) further highlighted these differences by showing clear separation between the two data sets on the basis of features obtained from their fluorescence emission spectra. These results indicate that classical geometry (fixed excitation wavelength) as well as front face (synchronous fluorescence emission) of cow and buffalo milk nutrients could be used as fingerprint from identification point of view. This same approach can effectively be used for the determination of adulterants in the milk and other dairy products.

  2. Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gobbi de LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The feasibility of incorporating beta-carotene-loaded solid lipid microparticles (BCSLM into vanilla ice creams was investigated, through the physico-chemical characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of the products products. The BCSLM were produced with palm stearin as the lipid phase, hydrolyzed soy protein isolate as the surfactant, and xanthan gum as the thickener. The results showed similar values of proximate composition, total soluble solids, pH, and overrun for all formulations. On the other hand, colorimetric evaluations showed that the ice cream produced with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol presented a more intense color, while in the product with non-encapsulated beta-carotene, a fast degradation of carotenoid was confirmed, highlighting the importance of the encapsulation techniques. The results of the sensorial analysis of the products were highly satisfactory and showed that the panelists preferred the ice creams produced with BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol and with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol, confirming the feasibility of incorporating BCSLM into ice creams to reduce the application of artificial dyes to the product.

  3. OIL OF PANDAN KELAPA HUTAN (Pandanus jiulianettii Martelli: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, TOTAL PHENOLS, TOTAL CAROTENE, VITAMIN E AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISYE IRIANA ZEBUA

    2018-01-01

    vitamin E and antioxidant activities of the forest coconut pandan oil (P. jiulianettii Martelli. extracted using an aluminum pan. Physicochemical character that been analyzed is specific gravity, iod value, saponification value, free fatty acid content, acid value and peroxide value. Total phenol, total carotene and vitamin E measured respectively using Folin-Ciocalteu method, spectrophotometry method and colorimetric methods. Antioxidant activities is measured using a method that called DPPH. The result shows the pandan coconut oil has 1,00059 of specific gravity, 65.87 g/100gr of iod, 201,28 mg/g of saponification, 4.26% of acid and 5.64 Meq/kg of peroxide. The content of total phenols, total carotene and vitamin E respectively are 48.55 ppm, 2.75 µg/g and 5.0303 mg/100g. The antioxidant IC50 measuring result shows the value is 45.83 mg/mL.

  4. [Accumulation of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in Euglena gracilis Cells under Autotrophic and Mixotrophic Culture Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrosnop, V M; Polishchuk, A V; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was to find the mode of cultivation of unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis, favorable for the simultaneous accumulation of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Cells were grown either in photoautotrophic or photoheterotrophic conditions in the presence of 100 mM ethanol (variant Et) or 40 mM glutamate (variant Gt), or their combination (variant EtGt). The exogenous substrates significantly stimulated light-dependent growth of E. gracilis. The largest increase of biomass was recorded on the 20th day in the variant EtGt and exceeded the autotrophic control by 7 times. The content of β-carotene and chlorophyll (Chl) per cell in mixotrophic cultures exceeded the control by 2-3 and 1.6-2 times, respectively. At the same time, α-tocopherol accumulation in autotrophic cells was greater than in the cells of mixotrophic cultures by 2-7 times. Total yield of tocopherol per unit volume of culture medium, which depended not only on its intracellular content, but also on the amount of accumulated biomass was highest in EtGt variant. A correlation between the accumulation of the antioxidants and the equilibrium concentration of oxygen in the growth medium, which depended on the intensities of photosynthesis and respiration has been analyzed.

  5. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  6. A Simple Plasma Retinol Isotope Ratio Method for Estimating β-Carotene Relative Bioefficacy in Humans: Validation with the Use of Model-Based Compartmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Lietz, Georg; Oxley, Anthony; Green, Michael H

    2017-09-01

    Background: Provitamin A carotenoids are an important source of dietary vitamin A for many populations. Thus, accurate and simple methods for estimating carotenoid bioefficacy are needed to evaluate the vitamin A value of test solutions and plant sources. β-Carotene bioefficacy is often estimated from the ratio of the areas under plasma isotope response curves after subjects ingest labeled β-carotene and a labeled retinyl acetate reference dose [isotope reference method (IRM)], but to our knowledge, the method has not yet been evaluated for accuracy. Objectives: Our objectives were to develop and test a physiologically based compartmental model that includes both absorptive and postabsorptive β-carotene bioconversion and to use the model to evaluate the accuracy of the IRM and a simple plasma retinol isotope ratio [(RIR), labeled β-carotene-derived retinol/labeled reference-dose-derived retinol in one plasma sample] for estimating relative bioefficacy. Methods: We used model-based compartmental analysis (Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software) to develop and apply a model that provided known values for β-carotene bioefficacy. Theoretical data for 10 subjects were generated by the model and used to determine bioefficacy by RIR and IRM; predictions were compared with known values. We also applied RIR and IRM to previously published data. Results: Plasma RIR accurately predicted β-carotene relative bioefficacy at 14 d or later. IRM also accurately predicted bioefficacy by 14 d, except that, when there was substantial postabsorptive bioconversion, IRM underestimated bioefficacy. Based on our model, 1-d predictions of relative bioefficacy include absorptive plus a portion of early postabsorptive conversion. Conclusion: The plasma RIR is a simple tracer method that accurately predicts β-carotene relative bioefficacy based on analysis of one blood sample obtained at ≥14 d after co-ingestion of labeled β-carotene and retinyl acetate. The method also provides

  7. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    .5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May− October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content...

  8. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  9. Inhibition of β-carotene degradation in oil-in-water nanoemulsions: influence of oil-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Decker, Eric Andrew; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2012-12-01

    The utilisation of carotenoids as functional ingredients (pigments and nutraceuticals) in many food and beverage products is currently limited because of their poor water-solubility, high melting point, chemical instability, and low bioavailability. This study examined the impact of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of β-carotene encapsulated within nanoemulsions suitable for oral ingestion. β-Carotene was incorporated into oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by either a globular protein (β-lactoglobulin) or a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20). Nanoemulsions were then stored at neutral pH and their physical and chemical stability were monitored under accelerated stress storage conditions (55°C). β-Carotene degradation was monitored non-destructively using colour reflectance measurements. The rate of β-carotene degradation decreased upon addition of water-soluble (EDTA and ascorbic acid) or oil-soluble (vitamin E acetate or Coenzyme Q10) antioxidants. EDTA was more effective than ascorbic acid, and Coenzyme Q10 was more effective than vitamin E acetate. The utilisation of water-soluble and oil-soluble antioxidants in combination (EDTA and vitamin E acetate) was less effective than using them individually. Emulsions stabilized by β-lactoglobulin were more stable to colour fading than those stabilized by Tween 20. These results provide useful information for designing effective nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that retard the chemical degradation of encapsulated carotenoids during long term storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carotenoid absorption, chylomicron response curves, the influence of β-carotene supplementation on immune function and the measurement of natural killer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, S.

    1997-01-01

    Absorption of β-carotene from raw, uncooked vegetables can be very low. Particle size of uncooked foods is particularly important; β-carotene absorption from pureed or finely chopped vegetables is considerably higher than from whole or sliced raw vegetables. Cooking procedures (boiling/steaming) improves the chemical extractability of carotenoids from foods and also appears to improve absorption. Dietary fat stimulates bile flow from the gall bladder which facilitates the emulsification of fat and fat soluble dietary components into lipid micelles within the small intestine. Without micelle formation carotenoids are very poorly absorbed. Several studies have shown that the absence of dietary fat or very low fat diets substantially reduces β-carotene absorption in human volunteers. Carotenoid absorption is thought to be a passive process. The assumption is that carotenoids within lipid micelles come into contact with the intestinal epithelial cell membranes and that transport from micelles to the plasma membrane and cytosol of the cell occur together with the transport of fatty acids. β-carotene appears simultaneously in lymph with newly absorbed fat from a meal and thus it is assumed that they move together across the plasma membrane and within the mucosal cell

  11. Activity of flavonoids and β-carotene during the auto-oxidative deterioration of model food oil-in water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiokias, Sotirios; Varzakas, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant effects of flavonoids and β-carotene during the thermal auto-oxidation of food relevant oil-in-water emulsions were spectrophotometrically assessed by measuring the formation of primary oxidation products (conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides). An oxidatively "sensitive" model emulsion was selected as substrate of this study in terms of processing and compositional factors. At a concentration of 1.5mmolkgr(-1), only quercetin among the tested compounds significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of cottonseed oil-in-water emulsions. Structural characteristics (positioning of hydroxyl group) or partitioning behaviour between the emulsion phases may modulate the flavonoid activity. The high oxygen pressure conditions of the experimental system may explain the lack of any antioxidant activity for β-carotene. The antioxidant potential of quercetin increased with its concentration until a specific level. On the contrary, the antioxidant concentration within the same tested range (0.75-3mmolkgr(-1)) did not impact the activity of catechin and β-carotene. Mixtures of β-carotene with flavonoids did not exert a tendency for increasing the activity of each individual compound. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plants for human health: Stable isotope approaches to assess the vitamin A value of biofortified Golden Rice and high beta-carotene maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem, especially in populations of the developing world where staple foods, such as rice, wheat, and maize, make up a significant portion of daily caloric intake. Seeds of these crops contain little to no provitamin A carotenoids (e.g., beta-carotene...

  13. Effect of home processing and storage on ascorbic acid and beta-carotene content of Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of selected processing and storage methods on the concentration of ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in Bathua and fenugreek leaves. Methods included storage of leaves with or without polythene bags for 24 and 48 h in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C; at 30 degrees C in polythene bags; drying (sun and oven); blanching (5, 10, 15 min); open pan and pressure cooking. Ascorbic acid content of fresh leaves was 220.97 to 377.65 mg and beta-carotene content was 19.00 to 24.64 mg/100 g, DW. The percent loss of ascorbic acid ranged from 2.03 to 8.77 and 45.15 to 66.9 while lower losses (0.0 to 1.75 and 1.63 to 2.84) of beta-carotene were observed in leaves stored in the refrigerator and at 30 degrees C, respectively. A markedly greater reduction in ascorbic acid and beta-carotene was observed in dried, blanched and cooked leaves. The study data suggest that storage of leaves in refrigeration, drying in oven, blanching for a short time and cooking in a pressure cooker results in better retention of these two vitamins.

  14. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  15. Genetic analysis and association of simple sequence repeat markers with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Benard; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Alajo, Agnes; Ssemakula, Gorrettie N.; Owusu-Mensah, Eric; Carey, Edward E.; Mwanga, Robert O.M.; Yencho, G. Craig

    2017-01-01

    Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between ‘New Kawogo’ × ‘Beauregard’. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers. Broad sense heritability (H2) for storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content were 0.24, 0.68, 0.70 and 0.90, respectively. Storage root β-carotene content was negatively correlated with dry matter (r = −0.59, P < 0.001) and starch (r = −0.93, P < 0.001) content, while storage root yield was positively correlated with dry matter (r = 0.57, P = 0.029) and starch (r = 0.41, P = 0.008) content. Through logistic regression, a total of 12, 4, 6 and 8 SSR markers were associated with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content, respectively. The SSR markers used in this study may be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis and selection for these traits in future. PMID:28588391

  16. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  17. Vitamina C, carotenóides, minerais e metais pesados em frutas orgânicas e convencionais

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Pollyanna Costa

    2008-01-01

    A preocupação com a presença de pesticidas em alimentos e os possíveis danos à saúde, tem levado cada vez mais consumidores a optarem pelo consumo de alimentos orgânicos. A agricultura orgânica é um sistema de produção baseado na preservação ambiental, na agrobiodiversidade, nos ciclos biológicos e na qualidade de vida do homem, visando à sustentabilidade social, ambiental e econômica. As frutas possuem um alto conteúdo de nutrientes, como a vitamina C e carotenóides, que têm chamado a atençã...

  18. Effects of bioactive compounds from carrots (Daucus carota L.), polyacetylenes, beta-carotene and lutein on human lymphoid leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana G; Brandt, Kirsten; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2012-07-01

    New therapies for leukaemia are urgently needed. Carrots have been suggested as a potential treatment for leukaemia in traditional medicine and have previously been studied in other contexts as potential sources of anticancer agents. Indicating that carrots may contain bioactive compounds, which may show potential in leukaemia therapies. This study investigated the effects of five fractions from carrot juice extract (CJE) on human lymphoid leukaemia cell lines, together with five purified bioactive compounds found in Daucus carota L, including: three polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and two carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein). Their effects on induction of apoptosis using Annexin V/PI and Caspase 3 activity assays analysed via flow cytometry and inhibition of cellular proliferation using Cell Titer Glo assay and cell cycle analysis were investigated. Treatment of all three lymphoid leukaemia cell lines with the fraction from carrot extracts which contained polyacetylenes and carotenoids was significantly more cytotoxic than the 4 other fractions. Treatments with purified polyacetylenes also induced apoptosis in a dose and time responsive manner. Moreover, falcarinol and falcarindiol-3-acetate isolated from Daucus carota L were more cytotoxic than falcarindiol. In contrast, the carotenoids showed no significant effect on either apoptosis or cell proliferation in any of the cells investigated. This suggests that polyacetylenes rather than beta-carotene or lutein are the bioactive components found in Daucus carota L and could be useful in the development of new leukemic therapies. Here, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of polyacetylenes have been shown to be exerted via induction of apoptosis and arrest of cell cycle.

  19. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  20. Identificação de bergenina e carotenóides no fruto de uchi (Endopleura uchi, Humiriaceae Identification of bergenin and carotenoids in the uchi (Endopleura uchi, Humiriaceae fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyege Amazonas M. Magalhães

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O extrato obtido em metanol da polpa de frutos Endopleura uchi foi submetido a fracionamento utilizando-se técnicas cromatográficas convencionais levando ao isolamento de bergenina. Na análise da composição dos carotenóides foi evidenciada a predominância de beta-caroteno (16,57 mig.g-1. Os isômeros do beta-caroteno foram detectados, trans-beta-caroteno (89,3%, 13-cis-beta-caroteno (8% e 9-cis-beta-caroteno (3%. Considerando a importância do papel nutricional dos carotenóides e a bioatividade do glicosídeo bergenina, esse estudo sugeriu o potencial desse fruto como alimento funcional.The extract obtained in methanol from the fruits pulp of Endopleura uchi was fractionated using conventional chromatographic tecniques to isolate bergenin. In the analysis of the composition of carotenoids was evidenced the predominance of beta-carotene (16.57 mug.g-1. The isomers of beta-carotene: trans-beta-carotene (89.3%, 13-cis-beta-carotene (8% and 9-cis-beta-carotene (3% were detected. Considering the importance of the nutritional role of carotenoids and the bioactivity of the bergenina, this study suggested the potential of this fruit as functional food.

  1. Análise, por CLAE, de carotenóides de cinco linhagens de Rhodotorula HPLC analysis of carotenoids from five Rhodotorula strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Squina

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi otimizado para a análise da composição de carotenóides de cinco linhagens de Rhodotorula.A extração com ruptura mecânica da parede celular da levedura com areia tratada mostrou ser mais eficiente que a ruptura química com dimetilsulfóxido. Os carotenóides foram separados e quantificados por CLAE em coluna de C18 utilizando como fase móvel acetonitrila/metanol (0,1% trietilamina/acetato de etila (75:15:10 e 100% metanol (0,1% trietilamina entre as injeções, com vazão de 1 mL/min. Em todas as linhagens, os carotenóides majoritários encontrados foram torularrodina, toruleno, ³-caroteno e ²-caroteno. Os teores totais de carotenóides, em µg/g, foram de 251,7 em R. glutinis,123,5 em R. rubra,113,2 em R. araucariae,105,8 em R. lactosa ede 103,7 em R. minuta.A method for extraction and HPLC separation of carotenoids from fiveRhodotorula strains was optimized. The extraction by mechanical disruption of the yeast cell wall with fine treated sand was shown to be more efficient than chemical disruption with dimethylsulfoxide. The carotenoids were separated and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using as mobile phase acetonitrile/methanol (0.1% triethylamina/ethyl acetate (75:15:10 with 100% methanol (0.1% triethylamine between the injections, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. In all strains, the major carotenoids found were torularhodin, torulene, ³-carotene and ²-carotene. The total carotenoid contents, in µg/g, obtained were 251.7 for R. glutinis,123.5 for R. rubra,113.2 for R. araucariae,105.8 for R. lactosaand 103.7 for R. minuta.

  2. Estimating rapidly and precisely the concentration of beta carotene in mango homogenates by measuring the amplitude of optothermal signals, values of chromaticity indices and the intensities of Raman peaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Dimitrovski, D.; Luterotti, S.; Tiwisk, van C.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Doka, O.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, quantitative information about the micronutrients (including beta carotene) in mango fruit is often desired. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry (SP), the two widely used methods in practice to quantify carotenoids, both require a time consuming and expensive

  3. β-carotene and retinol contents in the meat of herbivorous ungulates with a special reference to their public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin; Eldesoky, Kamal Ibrahim; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate total carotenoids, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in the livers and muscles of some ungulates (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and horses) in comparison with the Wistar rats as a control. Cattle and horses had the highest contents of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Unexpectedly, sheep was the highest accumulator of retinol with a mean concentration of 203 ± 23.34 µg/g, while the least accumulator was buffalo, having a mean value of 58.28 ± 13.77 µg/g. Livers had higher contents of the examined phytochemicals than muscles. Consumption of these tissues may provide human with some needs from these important phytochemicals, though ingestion of livers, especially that of the sheep, is not advisable for the pregnant women.

  4. Production of antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E, by two-step culture of Euglena gracilis Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, H; Kanamaru, A; Yoshino, Y; Kakuta, H; Kawamura, Y; Matsunaga, T

    1997-01-20

    Euglena gracilis Z is one of the few microorganisms which simultaneously produces antioxidant vitamins such as beta-carotene and vitamins C and E. Photoheterotrophically cultured E. gracilis Z produced larger levels of biomass but with a lower content of antioxidant vitamins than photoautotrophically grown cultures. For efficient production of these vitamins, a two-step culture was performed. Cells were grown photoheterotrophically and then transferred to photoautotrophic conditions. When E. gracilis Z cells were grown in fed-batch culture under photoheterotrophic conditions, their density reached 19 g/L after 145 h. Subsequent transfer of these cells to photoautotrophic conditions increased vitamin content, enhancing the total vitamin yields, which were 71.0 mg/L of beta-carotene, 30.1 mg/L of vitamin E, and 86.5 mg/L of vitamin C. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammed, M.A.; Bello, I.A.; Oladoye, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  6. Determination of Lutein and β-Carotene in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L

    2017-05-01

    An ultra-HPLC method for the determination of lutein and β-carotene in infant formula and adult nutritionals was validated using both unfortified and fortified samples provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN). All experiments showed separation of all-trans-lutein and β-carotene from their major cis isomers, apocarotenal, α-carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. Samples spiked with all-trans-lutein and β-carotene showed no isomerization during sample preparation. Linearity of the calibration solutions correlated to approximately 0.8-45 μg/100 g (reconstituted basis) for samples prepared for the lowest sample concentrations. With dilutions specified in the method, the range can be extended to approximately 2250 μg/100 g. The LOD for both lutein and β-carotene was 0.08 μg/100 g, and the LOQ for both was 0.27 μg/100 g. For all measurements in the range of 1-100 μg/100 g, repeatability RSD was ≤5.8% for lutein and ≤5.1% for β-carotene. For measurements >100 μg/100 g, repeatability RSD was ≤1.1% for lutein and ≤1.7% for β-carotene. Accuracy was determined by recovery from spiked samples and ranged from 92.3 to 105.5% for lutein and from 100.1 to 107.5% for β-carotene. The data provided show that the method meets the criteria specified in the Standard Method Performance Requirements for carotenoids (SMPR 2014.014).

  7. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....

  8. Effects of vitamin A and β-carotene supplementation on birth size and length of gestation in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Wu, Lee; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies may be related to poor fetal growth and short gestation. Few studies have investigated the contribution of maternal vitamin A deficiency to these outcomes. In rural northwestern Bangladesh, we examined the effects of weekly antenatal vitamin A and β-carotene supplementation on birth weight, length, circumferential body measures, and length of gestation. With the use of a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial design, pregnant women were enrolled in the first trimester and began receiving their allocated supplements (vitamin A, β-carotene, or placebo) weekly until 3 mo postpartum. Birth anthropometric measures were made at home. Of 13,709 newborns whose birth weight was measured within 72 h of birth, mean (±SD) weight was 2.44 ± 0.42 kg, the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) was 54.4%, and that of small-for-gestational age (SGA) was 70.5%. Birth weight, length, and chest, head, and arm circumferences did not differ between supplementation and placebo groups nor did rates of LBW and SGA. Mean gestational age at birth was 38.3 ± 2.9 wk, and 25.6% of births occurred before 37 wk. Neither gestational age nor preterm birth rate differed with vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation. In this rural South Asian population with a high burden of LBW and preterm birth but modest levels of maternal vitamin A deficiency, antenatal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation did not benefit these birth outcomes. Other nutritional and nonnutritional interventions should be examined to reduce risks of these adverse outcomes in rural South Asia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00198822.

  9. Toward enabling large-scale open-shell equation-of-motion coupled cluster calculations: triplet states of β-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanshi; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Apra, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol

    2014-10-02

    In this paper we discuss the application of novel parallel implementation of the coupled cluster (CC) and equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods (EOMCC) in calculations of excitation energies of triplet states in beta-carotene. Calculated excitation energies are compared with experimental data, where available. We also provide a detailed description of the new parallel algorithms for iterative CC and EOMCC models involving single and doubles excitations.

  10. Nutritional composition, acceptability, and shelf stability of carrot pomace-incorporated cookies with special reference to total and β-carotene retention

    OpenAIRE

    Shyamala Bellur Nagarajaiah; Jamuna Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated carrot pomace was assessed for the feasibility of incorporating into baked product by partial substitution of refined flour at 4, 8, and 12% level. As carrot pomace is a good source of antioxidant components and dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, it was added to the cookies. Carrot pomace and products were analyzed for chemical composition, and products were further evaluated for sensory quality, carotene retention and bioaccessibility, and storage stability. The results show...

  11. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with a low-dose of beta-carotene and vitamin C supplements: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Toru; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Nakamura, Tomoyasu; Kato, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Fukano, Hideo; Suzuki, Koji; Shimozato, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Management of oral leukoplakia-a potentially malignant disorder-is currently not evidence-based. Of the few randomized trials that have been reported, most have negative data. Therefore, a multi-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the use of low-dose beta-carotene combined with vitamin C supplements for the treatment and to prevent malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. 46 Japanese participants with oral leukoplakia were allocated randomly either to an experimental arm (10 mg day(-1) of beta-carotene and 500 mg day(-1) of vitamin C) or placebo arm (50 mg day(-1) of vitamin C). Current or ex-smokers within 3 months of cessation were excluded. The supplements were continued over a period of 1 year. The primary endpoint was clinical remission at 1-year and the likelihood of malignant transformation during a 5-year follow-up period as a secondary endpoint. The overall clinical response rate in the experimental arm was 17.4% (4/23) and 4.3% (1/23) in the placebo arm (p = 0.346). During the median 60-month follow-up period, two subjects in the experimental arm and three in the control arm developed oral cancer. Under the intention-to-treat principle, relative risk by supplementing with beta-carotene and vitamin C was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.28-1.89) (p = 0.580) by the Cox proportional hazards model. No unfavorable side-effects were noted. Beta-carotene (10 mg day(-1) ) and vitamin C were neither effective for clinical remission, nor for protection against the development of cancer. Data from this RCT does not support the hypothesis that chemoprevention with this treatment is effective for oral leukoplakia. © 2014 UICC.

  12. Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; El-Salam, Samiha M Abd; Omran, Azza A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties. Methods The changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of sorghum grains were determined. Results Total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity in raw sorghum were ranged from 109.21 to 116.70, 45.91 to 54.69, 1.39 to 21.79 mg/100 g, 1.74 to 5.25, 0.54 to 1.19 mg/kg and 21.72% to 27.69% and 25.29% to 31.97%, respectively. The above measured compounds were significantly decreased after soaking. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and cinnamic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Dorado variety. While ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and caffeic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Shandaweel-6. On the other hand, protocatechuic acid represents the major phenolic acids in Giza-15. Regarding flavonoids components, Dorado was the highest variety in kampferol and naringenin while Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in luteolin, apigenin, hypersoid, quercetin and christen. Finally, Giza-15 was the highest variety in catechin. Phenolic acids, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities were decreased after soaking. Conclusions Sorghum varieties have moderate quantities from total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity which decreased after soaking. PMID:23569898

  13. The administration of beta carotene to prevent and regress oral carcinoma in the hamster cheek pouch and the associated enhancement of the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Shklar, G; Flynn, E; Trickler, D

    1990-01-01

    In the past four years this laboratory has utilized the hamster cheek pouch tumor model to investigate the anticancer activities of antioxidants, such as beta carotene. These molecules, which have exhibited no evidence of toxicity, have been administered systemically (oral ingestion), and locally to the tumor site in the hamster cheek pouch. The results have been either the inhibition of tumor growth, or the regression of tumor. Adjacent to the degenerating tumors a dense inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Specifically, the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta, have been immunohistochemically localized to the site of regressed oral carcinoma. Recently, liposomes composed of phosphaditylcholine, phosphaditylserine, and phosphodityelanolamine were combined with beta carotene and injected locally to oral squamous cell carcinoma of the hamster. The results indicated that tumor cells accumulated the liposomes and were lysed while normal mucosal cells did not demonstrate this effect. Therefore antioxidants such as beta carotene can be localized to a tumor site, without a toxic response. Future studies on the anticancer activity of the antioxidants need to focus on the cellular and molecular changes produced in the immune effectors and in the mucosal cells following administration of the antioxidants.

  14. Isothermal approach to predict the removal efficiency of β-carotene adsorption from CPO using activated carbon produced from tea waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, S. A. A.; Nazar, A.; Yunita, M.; Pasaribu, RA; Panjaitan, F.; Yanuar, F.; Misran, E.

    2018-02-01

    Adsorption of β-carotene in crude palm oil (CPO) was studied using activated carbon produced from tea waste (ACTW) an adsorbent. Isothermal studies were carried out at 60 °C with the ratio of activated carbon to CPO were 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:6, respectively. The ACTW showed excellent performance as the percentage of adsorption of β-carotene from CPO was > 99%. The best percentage removal (R) was achieved at ACTW to CPO ratio equal to 1:3, which was 99.61%. The appropriate isotherm model for this study was Freundlich isotherm model. The combination of Freundlich isotherm equation and mass balance equation showed a good agreement when validated to the experimental data. The equation subsequently executed to predict the removal efficiency under given sets of operating conditions. At a targetted R, CPO volume can be estimated for a certain initial concentration β-carotene in CPO C0 and mass of ACTW adsorbent M used.

  15. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  16. The Arabidopsis nox Mutant Lacking Carotene Hydroxylase Activity Reveals a Critical Role for Xanthophylls in Photosystem I Biogenesis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Osto, Luca; Piques, Maria; Ronzani, Michela; Molesini, Barbara; Alboresi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Carotenes, and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls, are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus. They contribute to the assembly of photosynthetic complexes and participate in light absorption and chloroplast photoprotection. Here, we studied the role of xanthophylls, as distinct from that of carotenes, by characterizing a no xanthophylls (nox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which was obtained by combining mutations targeting the four carotenoid hydroxylase genes. nox plants retained α- and β-carotenes but were devoid in xanthophylls. The phenotype included depletion of light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits and impairment of nonphotochemical quenching, two effects consistent with the location of xanthophylls in photosystem II antenna, but also a decreased efficiency of photosynthetic electron transfer, photosensitivity, and lethality in soil. Biochemical analysis revealed that the nox mutant was specifically depleted in photosystem I function due to a severe deficiency in PsaA/B subunits. While the stationary level of psaA/B transcripts showed no major differences between genotypes, the stability of newly synthesized PsaA/B proteins was decreased and translation of psaA/B mRNA was impaired in nox with respect to wild-type plants. We conclude that xanthophylls, besides their role in photoprotection and LHC assembly, are also needed for photosystem I core translation and stability, thus making these compounds indispensable for autotrophic growth. PMID:23396829

  17. Effect of heat-processing on the antioxidant and prooxidant activities of β-carotene from natural and synthetic origins on red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan-Thi, Hanh; Durand, Philippe; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Waché, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of bioactives is a cause of structural changes in these molecules. In this work, the bioactivity of commercial natural β-carotenes, one softly extracted without heat-assistance from Momordica cochinchinensis (BCG), one conventionally extracted from another natural source (BCC), and a synthetic one (BCS), was assessed during an additional heat-treatment mimicking formulation. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated after heat-treatment at different concentrations through hemolysis of horse red blood cells. The thermal 15-cis-isomerization of β-carotene, characterized by DAD-HPLC, resulted in a 2.5- to 4.8-fold increase in the anti-hemolytic effect but this was undetected in chemical assay, at 4 μM. At 100 μM, BCC lost its antioxidant properties and became pro-oxidant. This effect might be caused by long-chain-oxidized-products of BCC. Results demonstrated that a short heat-treatment improves the bioactivity of β-carotene but longer treatments made BCC prooxidant, showing that samples that underwent drastic extraction processes could not tolerate additional steps for functional food production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzamwita, Madjaliwa; Duodu, Kwaku Gyebi; Minnaar, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71.4 and 83% respectively, after baking. Breads containing 20% and 30% OFSP flour could be used for the eradication of vitamin A deficiency as they were found to meet 29 and 89.2% (100g portion) respectively, of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin A amongst children aged 3-10years. The latter would meet nearly a half of the RDA of vitamin A for pregnant and lactating women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of neutral and chemically oxidized species of β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: Fluorescence from intermediate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, D.D.D.H [Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala (Sri Lanka); Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Chandrika, U.G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Jayaweera, P.M., E-mail: pradeep@sjp.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2015-02-15

    Radical cations, dications and oxidized intermediate species of three carotenoids, namely, β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin, were generated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solutions via chemical oxidation using anhydrous FeCl{sub 3}. UV–vis, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopic studies were performed to understand and compare the nature of intermediate species generated during the chemical oxidation process and subsequent degradation. The intense emission observed at 550 nm can be assigned to the S{sub 2}→S{sub 0} (1{sup 1}B{sub u}→1{sup 1}A{sub g}) transition of the carotenoid molecules. The 350 nm excitation during the oxidation process for β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin exhibit intense fluorescence peaks at 492 nm, 493 nm and 500 nm, respectively. These peaks are assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy compounds of the three molecules that are formed with molecular oxygen prior to the formation of oxidized short-chain stable compounds. - Highlights: • Fluorescence and UV–vis studies on β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin. • Oxidation, induced by FeCl{sub 3} in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} shows blue shifted fluorescence peaks. • Fluorescence peaks were assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy forms of carotenoids. • The D0→D3 transition of radical cations are observed in the near IR region.

  20. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

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    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  1. Induced High-Yield Production of Zeaxanthin, Lutein, and β-Carotene by a Mutant of Chlorella zofingiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiping; Lin, Yan; He, Mingxia; Gong, Yuhao; Huang, Junchao

    2018-01-31

    Natural resources of zeaxanthin are extremely limited. A Chlorella zofingiensis mutant (CZ-bkt1), which could accumulate high amounts of zeaxanthin, was generated and characterized. CZ-bkt1 was achieved by treating the algal cells with a chemical mutagen followed by a color-based colony-screening approach. CZ-bkt1 was found to consist of a dysfunctional carotenoid ketolase, leading to the accumulation of zeaxanthin rather than to its downstream ketocarotenoid astaxanthin. Light irradiation, glucose, NaCl, and nitrogen deficiency all induced CZ-bkt1 to accumulate zeaxanthin. CZ-bkt1 accumulated zeaxanthin up to 7.00 ± 0.82 mg/g when induced by high-light irradiation and nitrogen deficiency and up to 36.79 ± 2.23 mg/L by additional feeding with glucose. Furthermore, in addition to zeaxanthin, CZ-bkt1 also accumulated high amounts of β-carotene (7.18 ± 0.72 mg/g or 34.64 ± 1.39 mg/L) and lutein (13.81 ± 1.23 mg/g or 33.97 ± 2.61 mg/L). CZ-bkt1 is the sole species up to date with the ability to accumulate high amounts of the three carotenoids that are essential for human health.

  2. Genotype × Environment Interaction of Mosaic Disease, Root Yields and Total Carotene Concentration of Yellow-Fleshed Cassava in Nigeria

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    Norbert G. Maroya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes were evaluated over two years in five major cassava growing agroecological zones in Nigeria. The trials were established in a randomized complete block design with four replications to assess genotype performance and Genotype × Environment interaction for cassava mosaic disease (CMD, fresh and dry root yield (FYLD; DYLD, root dry matter content (DMC, and total carotene concentration (TCC. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 among genotypes (G, environment (E, and Genotype × Environment interaction (GE for all the traits tested. For reaction to CMD, the best genotypes showing stable resistance were TMS 07/0539 and TMS 07/0628. For root yield, the best genotypes were TMS 01/1368 and TMS 07/0553. Genotype TMS 07/0593 was the best for DMC and TCC across the 10 environments. Variation among genotypes accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for CMD (72.1% and TCC (34.4%. Environmental variation accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for FYLD (42.8%, DYLD (39.6%, and DMC (29.2%. This study revealed that TMS 07/0593 has the highest and most stable TCC, DMC with the lowest CMD severity score and appeared to be the best genotype.

  3. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  4. Reduction of chromate and carotene-synthesizing activity of selenite-resistant mutants of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma

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    Grzàdka M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The yeast P. rhodozyma is a perspective microbial producer of carotenoid pigment astaxanthin with a high antioxidant power. The aim of the work was to study the ability of the selenite-resistant strains of this yeast to reduce chrome(VI compounds, as well as to analyze the relations between synthesis of carotenoids, resistance to selenite and chromate-reducing activity of P. rhodozyma. Methods. The yeast cells were grown at standard conditions for this species. The residual chromate content in cultural liquid was determined colorimetrically using diphenylcarbazide. The carotenoid content was determined after extraction of the pigments from the previously permeabilized cells by organic solvents. Results. The selected selenite-resistant mutants of the yeast P. rhodozyma revealed the different combinations of the phenotypes related with tolerance/sensitivity to chromate and selenite, as well as ability to reduce chromate. Conclusions. The obtained results give reasons for suggesting that pathways of detoxification of chromate and selenite by the yeast P. rhodozyma are different, although run through a common reductive type. The isolated mutant strains would be served as the useful models to study relations between homeostasis of Se and Cr oxyanions and biosynthesis of carotenes.

  5. β-carotene and canthaxanthin inhibit chemically- and physically-induced transformation in 10T1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pung, A.; Rundhaug, J.E.; Yoshizawa, C.N.; Bertram, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the effects of β-carotene (β-C), a vitamin A precursor of plant origin, and canthaxanthin (CTX), a non-provitamin A carotenoid, on the neoplastic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblast cells. We show that both β-C and CTX inhibit 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced transformation. Both carotenoids failed to inhibit X-ray-induced transformation when the cells were treated prior to and during irradiation. However, when the drugs were added 1 week after X-irradiation and maintained in the medium thereafter, both carotenoids inhibited subsequent development of transformed foci in a dose-dependent manner. Again, CTX was more effective than β-C. The inhibition of MCA-induced transformation was reversible; upon removal of the drug, transformed foci developed within 2 weeks, indicating that the carotenoids were not specifically toxic to initiated cells. Although both carotenoids caused a small dose-dependent decrease in the growth rate of both parental and initiated 10T1/2 cells, they did not markedly affect colony size or number when the cells were treated as in the transformation assays, nor did they influence the expression of neoplasia of two transformed cell lines. We suggest that the carotenoids' lipid anti-oxidant properties may be responsible for their inhibitory actions on transformation. (author)

  6. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

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    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  7. beta-carotene attenuates the paradoxical effect of tobacco smoke on the mortality of rats after experimental myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Sergio A R; Novo, Rosangela; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Matsubara, Luiz S; Azevedo, Paula S; Minicucci, Marcos F; Campana, Alvaro O; Zornoff, Leonardo A M

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke (ETS) in rats that were or were not supplemented with dietary beta-carotene (BC), on ventricular remodeling and survival after myocardial infarction (MI). Rats (n = 189) were allocated to 4 groups: the control group, n = 45; group BC administered 500 mg/kg diet, n = 49, BC supplemented rats; group ETS, n = 55, rats exposed to tobacco smoke; and group BC+ETS, n = 40. Wistar rats weighing 100 g were administered one of the treatments until they weighed 200 to 250 g (approximately 5 wk). The ETS rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 min 4 times/d, in a chamber connected to a smoking device. After reaching a weight of 200-250 g, rats were subjected to experimental MI (coronary artery occlusion) and mortality rates were determined over the next 105 d. In addition, echocardiographic, isolated heart, morphometrical, and biochemical studies were performed. Mortality data were tested using Kaplan-Meyer curves and other data by 2-way ANOVA. Survival rates were greater in the ETS group (58.2%) than in the control (33.3%) (P = 0.001) and BC+ETS rats (30.0%) (P = 0.007). The groups did not differ in the other comparisons. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalized to body weight was greater and maximal systolic pressures were lower in the ETS groups than in non-ETS groups. Previous exposure to tobacco smoke induced a process of cardiac remodeling after MI. There is a paradoxical protector effect with tobacco smoke exposure, characterized by lower mortality, which is offset by BC supplementation.

  8. Microencapsulation of β-Carotene Based on Casein/Guar Gum Blend Using Zeta Potential-Yield Stress Phenomenon: an Approach to Enhance Photo-stability and Retention of Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Deepika; Jain, Ashay; Ghoshal, Gargi; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2017-07-01

    β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend. The ratio of CA:GG was found to be 1:0.5 (w/v) when optimized on the basis of zeta potential-yield stress phenomenon. These possessed a higher percentage yield (71.34 ± 0.55%), lower particle size (176.47 ± 4.65 μm), higher encapsulation efficiency (65.95 ± 5.33%), and in general, a uniform surface morphology was observed with particles showing optimized release behavior. Prepared MCs manifested effective and controlled release (up to 98%) following zero-order kinetics which was adequately explained by the Korseymer-Peppas model. The stability of the freeze-dried MCs was established in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF, SIF) for 8 h. Antioxidant activity of the MCs was studied and revealed the retention of the functional architecture of β-carotene in freeze-dried MCs. Minimal photolytic degradation upon encapsulation of β-carotene addressed the challenge regarding photo-stability of β-carotene as confirmed via mass spectroscopy.

  9. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  10. Dual role of beta-carotene in combination with cigarette smoke aqueous extract on the formation of mutagenic lipid peroxidation products in lung membranes: dependence on pO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozza, P; Serini, S; Trombino, S; Lauriola, L; Ranelletti, F O; Calviello, G

    2006-12-01

    Results from some intervention trials indicated that supplemental beta-carotene enhanced lung cancer incidence and mortality in chronic smokers. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that high concentrations of the carotenoid, under the pO2 present in lung (100-150 mmHg), may exert deleterious effects through a prooxidant mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interactions of beta-carotene and cigarette smoke condensate (tar) on the formation of lipid peroxidation products in rat lung microsomal membranes enriched in vitro with varying beta-carotene concentrations (from 1 to 10 nmol/mg prot) and then incubated with tar (6-25 microg/ml) under different pO2. As markers of lipid peroxidation, we evaluated the levels of conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde, possessing mutagenic and pro-carcinogenic activity. The exposure of microsomal membranes to tar induced a dose-dependent enhancement of lipid peroxidation, which progressively increased as a function of pO2. Under a low pO2 (15 mmHg), beta-carotene acted clearly as an antioxidant, inhibiting tar-induced lipid peroxidation. However, the carotenoid progressively lost its antioxidant efficiency by increasing pO2 (50-100 mmHg) and acted as a prooxidant at pO2 ranging from 100 to 760 mmHg in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this finding, the addition of alpha-tocopherol (25 microM) prevented the prooxidant effects of the carotenoid. beta-Carotene auto-oxidation, measured as formation of 5,6-epoxy-beta,beta-carotene, was faster at high than at low pO2 and the carotenoid was more rapidly consumed in the presence of tar. These data point out that the carotenoid may enhance cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and exert potential deleterious effects at the pO2 normally present in lung tissue.

  11. Annato extract and β-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body’s defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes. PMID:22573917

  12. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Crataegus Fruits Grown in Tunisia as Determined by DPPH, FRAP, and β-Carotene/Linoleic Acid Assay

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    Farouk Mraihi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus fruit is one of most important fruits in Tunisian flora. Some fruits of this genus are edible. This study was undertaken in order to examine the benefits of these fruits in human health and their composition of antioxidants including total polyphenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins content, and total anthocyanins. The antioxidative properties of the ultrasonic methanolic extract were assessed by different in vitro methods such as the FRAP, DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. We concluded that peel fraction of red fruits possessed relatively high antioxidant activity and might be a rich source of natural antioxidants in comparison with the pulp and seed fruit extract. The results also showed that hawthorn yellow fruit presents lower amounts of phenolic content, absence of anthocyanins, and less antioxidant capacity. Most of peel and seed fractions were stronger than the pulp fractions in antioxidant activity based on their DPPH IC50, FRAP values, and results of β-carotene/linoleic acid. The total phenolic compounds contents were also highly correlated with the DPPH method and the FRAP assay.

  13. Determination of beta-carotene and vitamin A contents of serum and liver of sheep slaughtered in Ahvaz abattoir during different seasons of the year

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    N Hedayat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the particular role of vitamin A in different tissues and organs, various clinical signs are seen in its deficiency. Additionally, marginal deficiency of vitamin A without the presence of clinical signs leads to performance defects such as infertility. In this study, the seasonal changes of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver of slaughtered sheep in Ahvaz abattoir were investigated. A total of 360 sheep were sampled from October 2013 to June 2014. Spectrophotometry was used for measuring values. The results were analyzed statistically with student t-test. The mean ±SE concentration of β-carotene and vitamin A of serum and liver were 209/9±1/5, 98±0/9 (µg/dl, 19/8±0/4, 32/3±0/8(µg/g, respectively. Although there wasn't significant difference in levels of the measured parameters in two age groups(sheep only with immature teeth and sheep with a minimum mature tooth but there was a significant difference in vitamin A of serum and liver in the two sexes. The serumic levels of vitamin A in male sheep was more than the females while the concentration of vitamin A in the liver of female sheep was more than the males. The difference between seasons in vitamin A of serum was also statistically different with higher concentrations observed in warm seasons in comparison to milder seasons.

  14. Investigation of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity, β-carotene, Total Phenol and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruit Peel of Five Citrus Cultivars under Low Temperature

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    B. Golein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the sensitivity of citrus fruit to low temperatures and the conjunction of the fruit harvest season with cold days of the year necessisates more research on physiological effects of cold-stress damages. In this study, five citrus cultivars including Sanguinelli blood orange, Local lemon, Valencia orange, Unshiu mandarin and Local orange were stored under various cold treatments (3, 0, -3 and -6 °C at two stages of before fruit ripening and ripening. Control treatment had temperature of 15 °C. Variations of activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, β-carotene and total phenol of fruit peel at two stages of before fruit ripening and ripening, as well as antioxidant capacity at ripening stage were examined. Results showed that under low temperature and control treatment, the SOD acivity, β–carotene and total phenol in fruit peel of the studied cultivars at ripening stage are higher than before ripening stage. In all the cultivars, except Local lemon, there was an increasing trend in the antioxidant capacity until 0 °C treatment and then became stable. The increasing trend of enzymetic and non-enzymetic antioxidants in fruit peel at ripening stage as compared with before ripening stage, was probably due to cold tolerance of fruits at this stage.

  15. Comparison of lycopene, β-carotene and phenolic contents of tomato using conventional and ecological horticultural practices, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF

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    Ulrichs Christian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Tomato fruits are rich in anti-oxidant compounds that have been recognized as benef icial for human health. Horticultural practices can influence the concentration of these secondary metabolites. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can increase nutrient and water absorption of plants. The experiment, performed under glasshouse, examined whether organically grown ‘Vitella F1’ tomatoes differed in their fruit content of lycopene, β- carotene and total phenols from that found in conventionally grown tomatoes. Treatments were the cultivation methods: conventional, organic, conventional+AMF and organic+AMF. When comparing the cultivation method, no significant differences for the analyzed nutritional parameters were found; only tomatoes grown organically had slightly lower total phenolic contents. In both cultivation methods, tomato plants inoculated with AMF (Glomus sp. built higher lycopene content in fruits than those without inoculation. Organic grown tomatoes increased β-carotene and total phenolic contents in fruits as a result of the AMF treatment. AMF applications increased root fresh weight but not shoot fresh weight. The improved growth and nutrient acquisition in tomato demonstrated the potential of AMF colonization for increased antioxidant compounds in fruits. White fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum was controlled successfully with application of diatomaceous earth Fossil Shield® 90 in organic treatments as well as with Applaud® in the conventional cultivation methods.

  16. PEMANFAATAN MINYAK SAWIT MERAH DALAM PEMBUATANBISKUIT KACANG KAYA BETA KAROTEN [Utilization of Red Palm Oil To Produce BetaCarotene-Rich Nuts Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyansyah Robiyansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to get formulation of red palm oil and cooking oil to produce nuts biscuits with the best organoleptic properties. The formula consisted of red palm oil and cooking oil mixture with 6 comparisons: (0:100, (20:80, (40:60, (60:40, (80:20 and (100:0. These formula were then used as basis to produce nuts biscuits. Observation was done on the organoleptic properties (aroma, texture, taste and color for all biscuits for all samples, while  proximates test (water, fat,protein,ash content and betacarotene content were done only for the best formulation. The data were descriptively analyzed and presented in tables and graphs. The best organoleptic properties of these betacarotene rich nuts biscuits was formulation of 20:80. This biscuits had water content 1,42%, ash content 1,21%, fat content 32,60%, protein content 12,59%, and the total of beta carotene 347,15 ppm, with the less normal for aroma (4,55, less crunchy for the texture (4,40, distinctive flavor beans for the taste (4,28, and yellowish for the color (4,50. Keywords: β-carotene, nuts biscuits,red palm oil.

  17. Annato extract and β-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2012-05-01

    Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body's defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes.

  18. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Disorders in plasma and red blood cells of females rats by combined treatment with vitamins E, C and β-Carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Ashry, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the outcome of the main dietary micro nutrients (vitamin E, C and β-carotene) on 9 Gy whole body γ-irradiated female rats as single or fractionated (1.5 Gy daily for 6 days) doses. Animals were divided into four group: control, irradiated, vitamins treated and vitamins administered 3 hours prior to irradiation. Vitamins were orally administered for 6 consecutive days and rats were sacrificed on the 3 rd, 6 Th and 9 Th days post irradiation and/or vitamin administration. Exposure to ionizing radiation with both regimens elevated significantly malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with concomitant decline in glutathione (GSH) levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The single dose elevated total plasma protein level, while the fractionated dose elevated total plasma protein level, while the fractionated one declined it. Both regimens increased significantly blood creatinine and urea levels than the control level, denoting renal dysfunction occurrence. Vitamins administration before irradiation modulated the MDA and GSH levels in both plasma and RBCs. Indeed, it slightly ameliorated the disturbed plasma levels of total protein, creatinine and urea. The study promotes the usage of the combined vitamins (E, ascorbic acid and β-carotene) as useful protectors against harmful environmental oxidative stresses

  19. Luminescence property and lowest excited singlet state level of various carotenes; Shuju no karochinrui no hako tokusei to saitei reiki -juko jotai jun'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T. [Miyagi Midical Univ., Miyagi (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Specification of the lowest excited singlet state (S{sub l}) of the butadiene which is the simplest {pi} electron conjugated system molecule has not sufficiently clarified at present. Recently, Andersson et al. found the weak light emission which was considered to be the S{sub 1} fluorescence in a near infrared region in a room temperature solution of {beta}- carotene (n=11), and specified the S{sub 1} level in 14,200{+-}500cm {sup -1}. And, Fujii et al. reported the S{sub 1} fluorescence of spheroidine (n=10). In very recent, Christensen et al. measured the comparatively clear fluorescence spectrum of carotenes n=5 to 11 separated by HPLC in EPA glass at 77K, and systematically examined the unique luminescence property observed in polyene. Christensen et al. issued the warning for the rough conventional method that the S{sub 1} level was estimated from the S{sub 1} fluorescence lifetime of the polyene molecule using the comprehensive energy gap law, because the ratio of quantum yield of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} fluorescence is different by the substituent type of the polyene end even if n is same. (NEDO)

  20. Computer simulations of material ejection during C{sub 60} and Ar{sub m} bombardment of octane and β-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palka, G.; Kanski, M.; Maciazek, D. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Garrison, B.J. [Department of Chemistry, 104 Chemistry Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Postawa, Z., E-mail: zbigniew.postawa@uj.edu.pl [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations are used to investigate material ejection and fragment formation during keV C{sub 60} and Ar{sub m} (m = 60, 101, 205, 366, 872 and 2953) bombardment of organic solids composed from octane and β-carotene molecules at 0° and 45° impact angle. Both systems are found to sputter efficiently. For the octane system, material removal occurs predominantly by ejection of intact molecules, while fragment emission is a significant ejection channel for β-carotene. A difference in the molecular dimensions is proposed to explain this observation. It has been shown that the dependence of the sputtering yield Y on the primary kinetic energy E and the cluster size n can be expressed in a simplified form if represented in reduced units. A linear and nonlinear dependence of the Y/n on the E/n are identified and the position of the transition point from the linear to nonlinear regions depends on the size of the cluster projectile. The impact angle has a minor influence on the shape of the simplified representation.

  1. Mapeo genético y análisis de QTL para carotenos en una población s1 de yuca Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for carotenes in a s1 population of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Marín Colorado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La población S1 de la variedad tailandesa de yuca MTAi8 (AM320, la cual presenta patrones de segregación definidos para el contenido de carotenos totales (Beta-caroteno, se sometió a un análisis de agrupamiento segregante (BSA = Bulk Segregant Analysis empleando 700 marcadores moleculares tipo microsatélites o SSR. Se generaron 25 grupos de ligamiento identificando 3 QTL mayores asociados con una región del genoma de yuca con el contenido de carotenos totales. Tres marcadores SSR explicaron el 37.2% (NS109, 32% (rSSRY251 y 27.7% (rSSRY313 de la varianza fenotipica total, situados en el grupo de ligamiento D fuertemente asociados con el contenido de carotenos totales en la familia AM320 S1, se estableció una fuerte correlación positiva entre color de pulpa de raíz y contenido de carotenos totales (r=0.81, y negativa entre carotenos totales y materia seca (r= -0.31. Los tres posibles QTL presentaron efecto positivo y de carácter aditivo para el contenido de carotenos totales, pueden ser la oportunidad para implementar selección asistida por marcadores para carotenos totales en yuca.The S1 population of the Thai variety MTAi8 (AM320, which shows patterns of segregation defined by the content of total carotenes (beta-carotene, underwent an analysis of segregating bulk (BSA = Bulk segregating Analysis using 700 molecular markers type microsatellites or SSR. There were generated 25 tying groups and identifying 3 major QTLs associated with a region of the genome of cassava with the content of total carotenes. Three markers SSR; explained the 37.2% (NS109, 32% (rSSRY251 and 27.7% (rSSRY313 of the total phenotypic variance, placed in the Group D strongly tying, associated with the content of total carotenes in the family AM320 S1, which established a strong positive correlation between color and content root pulp carotenes total (r = 0.81, and between negative and carotenes total dry matter (r = -0.31. The three possible QTLs showed positive

  2. Diversidade dos pigmentos e do gene codificador da Capsantina- capsorubina sintase (Via biossintética dos carotenóides) em quatro espécies do gênero Capsicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, José Getúlio

    2011-01-01

    Os Carotenóides são compostos naturais que apresentam papéis fisiológicos cruciais nas plantas e que possuem importantes funções nutricionais e nutracêuticos na dieta de seres humanos e animais. Os frutos maduros de Capsicum apresentam uma gama de colorações incluindo vermelho intenso, laranja, amarelo e marrom que são condicionadas pela presença de distintos pigmentos carotenóides. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar, via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), a divers...

  3. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsein, Maria; Lindberg, Ann; Svensson, Catarina; Jensen, Sören Krogh; Berg, Charlotte; Waller, Karin Persson

    2018-02-01

    A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or β-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2010 in 19 (n HM  = 9; n LM  = 10) dairy herds. Questionnaires were used to collect information about feed and routines for colostrum feeding. Feed (n = 57), colostrum (n = 162), cow serum (n = 189) and calf serum samples (n = 187) were collected and analysed for α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Other analyses e.g. total serum protein, fat content, and total solids in colostrum were also performed. Linear regression models with vitamin concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum as outcome were performed. Calves in HM herds had lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum than calves in LM herds, but the effect depended on total protein status in serum of the calf (P = 0.036). Calves from herds that fed transition milk for 3 days or more had higher α-tocopherol concentrations in serum than calves from herds feeding transition milk up to 2 days (P = 0.013). Fat percentage in colostrum was positively associated with α-tocopherol (P mortality risks were associated with lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum for calves with failure of passive transfer. Feeding transition milk longer was associated with higher concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf

  4. Effect of Air Cooling and Vacuum Cooling Storage on the β-Carotene Content and Proximate Analysis (Water Content, pH, Total Protein and Content of Sugar) in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Martini, T.; Rini, K. S.; Okstafiyanti, L.

    2017-04-01

    The study of air cooling and vacuum cooling storage effect on the β-carotene content and proximate analysis in carrot has been studied. The aim of the research to determine the effective storage in carrot to improve the quality and the shelf life. Parameters measured during the 12 weeks of storage process were β-carotene, pH, water, sugar and protein content. Validation analysis for β-carotene method showed a good linearity (r 2 = 0.997) in a range of 0-8 mg/L and (r 2 = 0.999) in a range of 0-1 mg/L. The precision was exemplified by %RSD of 0.88%-7.48%. Mean recovery was 100.66% during accuracy studied. UV analysis revealed the LOD values were 0.009 mg/L and LOQ values were 0.032 mg/L. The decreased content of β-carotene, water, protein, and pH from carrot during vacuum cooling storage were higher than in the air cooling storage period. The sugar content for air cooling storage increased up to eight weeks and decreased at the end of storage while the vacuum cooling storage decreased from the beginning of the storage period. All the data indicates that the air cooling storage was more effective storage techniques for extending the shelf life of carrot compared to the vacuum cooling storage.

  5. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  6. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics.

  7. Effect of daily consumption of ß-cryptoxanthin-rich tangerines and ß-carotene-rich sweet potatoes on vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations in plasma and breast milk of Bangladeshi women with low vitamin A status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The potential of ß-cryptoxanthin-rich foods to form vitamin A (VA) in humans is not well understood. Objective: To measure the effects of consuming ß-cryptoxanthin (CX) and ß-carotene-rich (BC) foods on breast milk and plasma VA and carotenoids in VA deficient lactating women. Design: Su...

  8. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in patients with Behçet's disease: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, A; Ozsoy, E; Biberoğlu, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanoğlu, A; Yis, M O; Atahan, C; Oruk, S

    2003-11-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystemic disease characterized by activation and remission periods. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known; a genetic defect in the immunoregulatory system induced by infectious agents, like viruses and bacteria, is thought to cause the disease. In this study, we examine the serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc in Behçet's disease patients and investigate the relationship between these serum levels and the activation of the disease. We conclude that adding vitamin E to the treatment of Behçet's disease patients and its effects on the prognosis of the disease need to be further investigated by controlled studies.

  9. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  10. Constitutive Effects of Lead on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene Battery and Protection by β-carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling xenobiotics metabolism. 2nd, trials to reduce Pb-induced adverse effects were done using some phytochemicals like β-carotene or ascorbic acid. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to a wide range of Pb concentrations varying from physiological to toxic levels (0 to 10 mg/L) for 24 h. High Pb concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) significantly reduced phase I (CYP1A1 and 1A2) and phase II (UGT1A6 and NQO1) xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme mRNA expression in a mechanistic manner through the AhR regulation pathway. Additionally, these Pb concentrations induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent phenomenon. Coexposure of HepG2 cells to physiological concentrations of some micronutrients, like β-carotene (10 μM) or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM), along with Pb (1 mg/L) for 24 h significantly reduced the levels of ROS production and recovered AhR mRNA expression into the normal levels. Thus, consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may help to reduce the adverse effects of lead in areas with high levels of pollution. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Nitrogen Limited Red and Green Leaf Lettuce Accumulate Flavonoid Glycosides, Caffeic Acid Derivatives, and Sucrose while Losing Chlorophylls, Β-Carotene and Xanthophylls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Becker

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitrogen application in crop production is desirable for ecological and health-related reasons. Interestingly, nitrogen deficiency can lead to enhanced concentrations of polyphenols in plants. The reason for this is still under discussion. The plants' response to low nitrogen concentration can interact with other factors, for example radiation intensity. We cultivated red and green leaf lettuce hydroponically in a Mediterranean greenhouse, supplying three different levels of nitrogen (12 mM, 3 mM, 0.75 mM, either in full or reduced (-50% radiation intensity. In both red and green lettuce, we found clear effects of the nitrogen treatments on growth characteristics, phenolic and photosynthetic compounds, nitrogen, nitrate and carbon concentration of the plants. Interestingly, the concentrations of all main flavonoid glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, and sucrose increased with decreasing nitrogen concentration, whereas those of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, lactucaxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin decreased. The constitutive concentrations of polyphenols were lower in the green cultivar, but their relative increase was more pronounced than in the red cultivar. The constitutive concentrations of chlorophylls, β-carotene, neoxanthin, all trans- and cis-violaxanthin were similar in red and green lettuce and with decreasing nitrogen concentration they declined to a similar extent in both cultivars. We only detected little influence of the radiation treatments, e.g. on anthocyanin concentration, and hardly any interaction between radiation and nitrogen concentration. Our results imply a greater physiological plasticity of green compared to the red lettuce regarding its phenolic compounds. They support the photoprotection theory regarding anthocyanins as well as the theory that the deamination activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase drives phenylpropanoid synthesis.

  12. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  13. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and antioxidant activity in plant products / Compostos fenólicos, carotenóides e atividade antioxidante em produtos vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz

    2010-09-01

    variedade de doenças crônicas como aterosclerose e câncer, efeitos que têm sido particularmente atribuídos aos compostos que possuem atividade antioxidante nos vegetais: vitaminas C e E, os compostos fenólicos, especialmente os flavonóides, e os carotenóides. Compostos fenólicos agem como antioxidantes, não somente por sua habilidade em doar hidrogênio ou elétrons, mas também em virtude de seus radicais intermediários estáveis, que impedem a oxidação de vários ingredientes do alimento, particularmente de lipídios. Carotenóides são constituídos de cadeias de polienos, em um longo sistema de duplas ligações conjugadas, rico em elétrons, responsável pela atividade antioxidante desses compostos: tanto na absorção do oxigênio singlet quanto de radicais livres, para interromper as reações em cadeia onde eles estão envolvidos. Este trabalho teve por finalidade revisar as diferentes formas de avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa dos principais componentes não-nutrientes antioxidantes em alimentos de origem vegetal: compostos fenólicos e carotenóides.

  14. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  15. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation trial in Bangladesh: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Massie, Allan; Schulze, Kerry; Hackman, Andre; West, Keith P

    2011-04-21

    We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE)), beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE) or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and infectious morbidity, infant infectious morbidity

  16. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  17. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q A in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680 - or Car + in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q A reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680 + with consequent recombination of Car + and Chl-680 - (or Pheo

  18. Efeito de baixas doses de irradiação nos carotenóides majoritários em cenouras prontas para o consumo Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in read-to-eat carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito das baixas doses da radiação gama na concentração de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenouras minimamente processadas, durante a vida-útil. As cenouras são as principais fontes de carotenóides provitamínicos A (alfa e beta-caroteno de origem vegetal. De acordo com a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos a cenoura é amplamente consumida. A estabilidade dos carotenóides varia grandemente durante o processamento e o armazenamento, dependendo de sua estrutura, temperatura, oxigênio, luz, umidade, atividade de água e presença de ácidos e metais antioxidantes e pró-oxidantes. As cenouras minimamente processadas neste experimento foram manualmente descascadas, lavadas, cortadas mecanicamente, acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2 / 10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy, e armazenadas a 5°C durante 24 dias. Os carotenóides totais foram quantificados por espectrofotometria a 449nm. Para a determinação de alfa e beta-caroteno utilizou-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os diferentes tratamentos e o grupo controle foram, também, avaliados através das análises de cor e voláteis, por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas associada à microextração em fase sólida (CG-EM/MEFS, para estudar as perdas dos carotenóides durante o processamento.This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on the total carotenoids, alpha and beta-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (alpha and beta-carotene. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely

  19. Biofortified β-carotene rice improves vitamin A intake and reduces the prevalence of inadequacy among women and young children in a simulated analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Atmarita, Atmarita; Gironella, Glen M; Muslimatun, Siti; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a major public health problem affecting developing countries where people eat mostly rice as a staple food. In Asia, rice provides up to 80% of the total daily energy intake. Objective: We used existing data sets from Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where dietary intakes have been quantified at the individual level to 1) determine the rice and vitamin A intake in nonpregnant, nonlactating women of reproductive age and in nonbreastfed children 1–3 y old and 2) simulate the amount of change that could be achieved in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A if rice biofortified with β-carotene were consumed instead of the rice consumed at present. Design: We considered a range of 4–20 parts per million (ppm) of β-carotene content and 10–70% substitution levels for the biofortified rice. Software was used to estimate usual rice and vitamin A intake for the simulation analyses. Results: In an analysis by country, the substitution of biofortified rice for white rice in the optimistic scenario (20 ppm and 70% substitution) decreased the prevalence of vitamin A inadequacy from baseline 78% in women and 71% in children in Bangladesh. In Indonesia and the Philippines, the prevalence of inadequacy fell by 55–60% in women and dropped by nearly 30% in children from baseline. Conclusions: The results of the simulation analysis were striking in that even low substitution levels and modest increases in the β-carotene of rice produced a meaningful decrease in the prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A. Increasing the substitution levels had a greater impact than increasing the β-carotene content by >12 ppm. PMID:27510534

  20. PEMBUATAN BAHAN BAKU SPREADS KAYA KAROTEN DARI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIK MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BATCH [Preparation of Red Palm Oil Based-Spreads Stock Rich in Carotene Through Enzymatic Interesterification in Batch-type Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wulandari1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of red palm oil (a mixture of red palm olein/RPO and red palm stearin/RPS in 1:1 weight ratio and coconut oil (CNO blends of varying proportions using a non-specific immobilized Candida antartica lipase (Novozyme 435 was studied for the preparation of spread stock. The interesterification reaction was held in a batch-type reactor. Two substrate blends were chosen for the production of spread stock i.e. 77.5:22,5 and 82.5:17.5 (RPO/RPS:CNO, by weight through enzymatic interesterification in three different reaction times (2, 4, and 6 hours. The interesterification reactions were conducted at 60°C, 200 rpm agitation speed and 10% of Novozyme 435. The interesterified products were evaluated for their physical characteristics (slip melting point or SMP and solid fat content or SFC and chemical characteristics (carotene retention, moisture content, and free fatty acid/FFA content. All of the interesterified products had lower SFC and SMP as compared to the initial blends. The SMP and SFC increased in longer reaction times. The SMP ranged from 30.8°C to 34.9°C. The carotene retention ranged from 74.80% to 81.08%, while the moisture content and FFA content increased in longer reaction times. The interesterified products had desirable physical properties for possible use as a spread stock rich in carotene.

  1. Predictors of Sustained Smoking Cessation: A Prospective Analysis of Chronic Smokers From the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Erik M.; Wanke, Kay L.; Rogers, Scott; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Synder, Kirk; Albanes, Demetrius; Taylor, Phil R.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Because US smoking rates have not declined during the past decade, there is a renewed need to identify factors associated with smoking cessation. Using a nested case–control design, we explored the association between ability to sustain cessation over an extended period and demographic, smoking, medical, and behavioral variables. Methods. We selected a sample of 1379 sustained quitters (abstinent from smoking for at least 40 months) and 1388 relapsers (abstinent for more than 8 months before relapse) from participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a nutritional intervention study involving Finnish men aged 50 to 69 years at baseline. Contingency table and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate potential differences between the 2 groups on baseline variables. Results. Compared with sustained quitters, relapsers were more likely to report symptoms of emotional distress and higher levels of nicotine dependence, to drink more alcohol, and to report more medical conditions. Conclusions. Factors associated with both tobacco use and comorbid conditions impact an individual’s ability to maintain long-term smoking cessation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action and potential common pathways among these factors may help to improve smoking cessation therapies. PMID:17600267

  2. Protection of β-carotene from chemical degradation in emulsion-based delivery systems using antioxidant interfacial complexes: Catechin-egg white protein conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Luping; Su, Yujie; Zhang, Mengqi; Chang, Cuihua; Li, Junhua; McClements, David Julian; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to fabricate catechin-egg white protein (CT-EWP) conjugates as novel food-grade antioxidant emulsifiers designed to improve the physicochemical stability of β-carotene (BC) emulsions. CT-EWP conjugates were synthesized using free radical grafting, and the formation of conjugates was confirmed by electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The physicochemical stability of BC emulsions was characterized by measuring alterations in particle size, ζ-potential and BC retention. The particle size and ζ-potential changed more rapidly at 37°C than at 4 or 25°C, however no creaming or oiling-off were observed at any of the storage temperatures, suggesting all emulsions were physically stable throughout the 30-day storage period. Compared to emulsions stabilized by EWP or CT+EWP physical mixtures (no conjugation), CT-EWP conjugate-stabilized emulsions had better resistance to environmental stresses, such as thermal processing and high ionic strengths, which was attributed to a stronger steric repulsion between the oil droplets. CT-EWP conjugates also significantly reduced the degradation rate of BC in emulsions during storage (pantioxidant and interfacial activities. These results indicate that CT-EWP conjugates can be utilized to develop food-grade delivery systems to protect chemically labile lipophilic bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. [EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCING CAROTENE PRODUCING STRAINS BACILLUS SP. 1.1 AND B. AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS UCM B-5113 INTO THE CHIKENS DIET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechypurenko, O O; Kharhota M A; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown the efficiency of carotene producing strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 in the diet of chickens. Also it was detected the lowering of the quantitative content of bacterial genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut after eating by chickens cross "H&N Brown Nick" fodder with strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 alone and in composition in quantities 1 x 10(10) CFU per 1 g of feed. On the 18th day after introduction of cultures Bacillus sp. 1.1, B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 and their composition in the diet of poultry we revealed the increasing of body weight by 21.6, 7.6 and 22.0%, respectively, comparesing to controls. Also due to Bacillus sp. 1.1 it was detected the restore of intestinal villous structures, tissues of spleen, liver and heart. We found the additive effect of the composition of the investigated strains of bacteria genus Bacillus to the chickens.

  5. Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioacessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, Paulo; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G; De Moura, Fabiana F; Failla, Mark L

    2014-07-16

    Biofortification is a strategy for decreasing micronutrient deficiencies in vulnerable populations by increasing nutrient density in staple food crops. Roots from five varieties of cassava biofortified with β-carotene (βC), three parental accessions, and one variety of commonly consumed white cassava from Brazil were investigated. Roots from biofortified varieties contained up to 23-fold higher βC than white cassava, and the additional complement of βC was primarily the all-trans isomer. At least 68% of βC per gram fresh weight was retained after boiling or boiling and briefly frying. Micellarization of βC during simulated digestion of fried root exceeded that of boiled root. Apical uptake of all-trans-βC from mixed micelles by Caco-2 cells was affected by an interaction between variety and cooking style. These results suggest that Brazilian cassava biofortified with βC has the potential to reduce vitamin A deficiency without requiring major changes in local and ethnic styles of home cooking.

  6. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...... 2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56......·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α...

  7. Influence of NaCl Salinity on β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Contents in the Leaves of Atriplex hortensis L. var. Pusa Bathua No. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin contents of plants are also known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. The influence of NaCl salinity on the vitamin content in the leaves of Atriplex hortensis was investigated in the present study. Atriplex hortensis plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different levels of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 30 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. β -carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and ascorbic acid content were found to increase gradually with increase in the concentrations of NaCl. No significant changes were observed in thiamine and riboflavin content at lower levels of salinity, however significant decrease was observed in thiamine and riboflavin content at higher level of salinity.

  8. Trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene from sunscreens penetrate viable skin layers and reduce cutaneous penetration of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J V; Praça, F S G; Bentley, M V L B; Gaspar, L R

    2015-04-30

    Cutaneous permeation is a critical parameter when topical application of sunscreens containing antioxidants is considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cutaneous penetration of most marketed UV-filters combined with trans-resveratrol (RES) and beta-carotene (BTC) since few studies report skin penetration when such compounds are applied. Formulations containing octocrylene, octyl methoxycinnamate, avobenzone and bemotrizinole were prepared and supplemented or not with BTC, or with RES, or with both compounds in combination. Penetration studies were performed using Franz vertical diffusion cells and porcine ear skin as the biological membrane. The quantification of UV-filters and antioxidants in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis plus dermis and receptor fluid was performed by HPLC. Results suggested that UV-filters and antioxidants did not permeate the skin but were retained for 12h post application. About 90% and 80%, respectively, of the total penetrated amount of UV-filters and antioxidants was found in the SC. Interestingly, it was observed that BTC, alone or combined with RES, reduced the skin retention of UV-filters on average by 63%. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the combination of antioxidants and UV-filters in sunscreens is advantageous for cutaneous penetration, since BTC and BTC+RES improved sunscreen safety by reducing delivery of the four UV-filters in the study into SC and viable epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Astaxanthin from shrimp efficiently modulates oxidative stress and allied cell death progression in MCF-7 cells treated synergistically with β-carotene and lutein from greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Poorigali Raghavendra-Rao; Arathi, Bangalore Prabhashankar; Vijay, Kariyappa; Baskaran, Vallikannan; Lakshminarayana, Rangaswamy

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the synergistic efficacy of keto-carotenoid astaxanthin (AST, from shrimp) plus hydrocarbon (β-carotene, BC) and hydroxyl (lutein, L) carotenoids (from greens) on molecular events in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells were treated with either of carotenoid (20 μM, AST or BC or L) separately or the mixture of them (an equimolar concentration of carotenoids mixture, CM) or saponified carotenoid extract from shrimp (SSCE) for 48 h and analyzed cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis. The IC 50 and combination-index values of AST co-treatment with a lower concentration of BC and L (5 μM) exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress as compared with individual carotenoids or SSCE. Further, higher cellular uptake/accumulation of AST along with BC and L found to synergistically induce apoptosis through modulation of cyclin D1, p53, Bax and Bcl-2 expressions by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Further, CM or SSCE treatments are unlikely to affect proliferation of normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). The results of selective killing of MCF-7 cells demonstrated a greater insight on the synergistic effect of shrimp AST plus BC and L. It is concluded that consumption of shrimp along with green leafy vegetables helps in combating cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  11. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  12. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato.

  13. Serum Trimethylamine N-oxide, Carnitine, Choline, and Betaine in Relation to Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Kristin A; Li, Xinmin S; Graubard, Barry I; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Goedert, James J; Wang, Zeneng; Hazen, Stanley L; Sinha, Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine, and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We measured biomarker concentrations in baseline fasting serum samples from 644 incident colorectal cancer cases and 644 controls using LC/MS-MS. Logistic regression models estimated the ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) for colorectal cancer by quartile (Q) of serum TMAO, choline, carnitine, and betaine concentrations. Results: Men with higher serum choline at ATBC baseline had approximately 3-fold greater risk of developing colorectal cancer over the ensuing (median ± IQR) 14 ± 10 years (in fully adjusted models, Q4 vs. Q1, OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.24-4.61; P trend colorectal cancer was similarly robust for proximal, distal, and rectal colon cancers (all P colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant ( P = 0.25, 0.71, and 0.61, respectively). Conclusions: Higher serum choline concentration (but not TMAO, carnitine, or betaine) was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Impact: Serum choline levels showed strong prognostic value for prediction of incident colorectal cancer risk across all anatomical subsites, suggesting a role of altered choline metabolism in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Long-term effects of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, and zinc on age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report no. 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Emily Y; Clemons, Traci E; Agrón, Elvira; Sperduto, Robert D; Sangiovanni, John Paul; Kurinij, Natalie; Davis, Matthew D

    2013-08-01

    To describe the long-term effects (10 years) of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation of high-dose antioxidants and zinc supplement on progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial followed by an epidemiologic follow-up study. We enrolled 4757 participants with varying severity of AMD in the clinical trial; 3549 surviving participants consented to the follow-up study. Participants were randomly assigned to antioxidants C, E, and β-carotene and/or zinc versus placebo during the clinical trial. For participants with intermediate or advanced AMD in 1 eye, the AREDS formulation delayed the progression to advanced AMD. Participants were then enrolled in a follow-up study. Eye examinations were conducted with annual fundus photographs and best-corrected visual acuity assessments. Medical histories and mortality were obtained for safety monitoring. Repeated measures logistic regression was used in the primary analyses. Photographic assessment of progression to, or history of treatment for, advanced AMD (neovascular [NV] or central geographic atrophy [CGA]), and moderate visual acuity loss from baseline (≥15 letters). Comparison of the participants originally assigned to placebo in AREDS categories 3 and 4 at baseline with those originally assigned to AREDS formulation at 10 years demonstrated a significant (Peffects were associated with the AREDS formulation. Mortality was reduced in participants assigned to zinc, especially death from circulatory diseases. Five years after the clinical trial ended, the beneficial effects of the AREDS formulation persisted for development of NV AMD but not for CGA. These results are consistent with the original recommendations that persons with intermediate or advanced AMD in 1 eye should consider taking the AREDS formulation. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2013 American

  15. Teores de carotenóides em mamão e pêssego determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Carotenoid levels in papaya and peach determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Andriati Sentanin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os carotenóides são pigmentos naturais, responsáveis pela cor em muitos alimentos como frutas e vegetais, gema de ovo, pele e músculo de alguns peixes. Porém, sua importância também está relacionada a funções ou ações biológicas nos seres humanos, como atividade pró-vitamínica A, fortalecimento do sistema imunológico, diminuição do risco de doenças degenerativas como câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, degeneração macular e catarata. A determinação da composição de carotenóides em alimentos, portanto, é considerada prioritária mundialmente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar quantitativamente, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, os principais carotenóides presentes em três cultivares de mamão (Formosa, Golden e Sunrise e três cultivares de pêssego (Xiripá, Coral e Diamante. Para cada cultivar, foram analisados cinco lotes durante o ano para mamão e durante a safra para pêssego. Os três cultivares de mamão apresentaram composição parecida com as médias dos conteúdos totais de licopeno, beta-criptoxantina e beta-caroteno variando de 18,5 a 23,9, 8,2 a 11,7 e 0,5 a 1,2 µg.g -1, respectivamente. Em relação ao pêssego, os cultivares Coral e Xiripá tiveram níveis muito baixos de carotenóides. O cultivar Diamante teve um teor total médio de 6,4 µg.g -1 de beta-criptoxantina, o carotenóide principal.Carotenoids are natural pigments responsible for the color of many foods such as fruit, vegetables, egg yolk, skin and the flesh of some fish. However, its importance is also related to biological functions or actions in humans, such as the provitamin A activity, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration and cataract. The determination of the carotenoid composition of foods is therefore considered a priority worldwide. The objective of the present study was to analyze quantitatively, by

  16. Resíduos do beneficiamento do camarão cultivado: obtenção de pigmentos carotenóides Waste from the processing of farmed shrimp: a source of carotenoid pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Ogawa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A extração de pigmentos carotenóides constitui uma possível alternativa, de grande agregação de valor, para o aproveitamento da cabeça do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a identificação, a extração e a quantificação dos principais pigmentos desta matéria-prima, coletados a partir de uma planta de beneficiamento de camarão no Ceará - Brasil. Após cocção dos resíduos a 100 °C, na proporção 1:2 cabeça de camarão e água durante 15 minutos, obteve-se uma pasta de pigmentos brutos extraindo-se os carotenóides com acetona resfriada e, posteriormente, com hexano, obtendo a fase pigmento-hexano. Obteve-se também a fase DMSO, após o material ser particionado com dimetilsulfóxido, e uma fração acidificada. Estas frações sofreram evaporação e secagem, sendo os carotenóides identificados em coluna aberta, utilizando-se o parâmetro de eluição das frações, o espectro de absorção visível e o valor de Rf na camada delgada de sílica gel. Os espectros de absorção de cada fração foram obtidos a 350 a 550 nm e quantificados por cromatografia de camada delgada. Para o cálculo de carotenóides totais (37,62 µg.g-1 da pasta de pigmentos, utilizou-se o somatório das frações hexano, DMSO e acidificada, e coeficientes de extinção 2592, 2100 e 1690 referentes ao beta-caroteno, astaxantina e astaceno, respectivamente. A astaxantina foi o pigmento mais abundante (45,5%, seguido do beta-caroteno-5,6-epóxido (33,5% e do astaceno (21,0%.The extraction of carotenoid pigments from shrimp heads left over from the processing of Litopenaeus vannamei has been shown to constitute an economically feasible alternative for aggregating value to shrimp processing waste. The objective of the present study was to extract, identify and quantify the main pigments found in shrimp heads collected at a shrimp processing plant in Ceará (Brazil. Samples were cooked for 15 minutes at 100 °C in water at a

  17. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

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    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  18. Vegetable-borne lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene compete for incorporation into chylomicrons, with no adverse effect on the medium-term (3-wk) plasma status of carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssandier, Viviane; Cardinault, Nicolas; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Grolier, Pascal; Bouteloup, Corinne; Azais-Braesco, Véronique; Borel, Patrick

    2002-03-01

    The results of epidemiologic studies have consistently shown associations between dietary intake or plasma carotenoid status and incidence of cancers and cardiovascular and eye diseases. The aim was to assess whether vegetable-borne carotenoids (lycopene, lutein, and beta-carotene) compete for intestinal absorption and whether this affects the plasma status of carotenoids in the medium term (ie, after 3 wk). During 3-wk periods separated by 3-wk washout periods, 20 women were supplemented with either 96 g tomato purée/d (14.98 mg lycopene + 1.50 mg beta-carotene), 92 g cooked chopped spinach/d (11.93 mg lutein + 7.96 mg beta-carotene), 96 g tomato purée/d + 92 g chopped spinach/d, 96 g tomato purée/d + 2 lutein pills (12 mg lutein), or 92 g chopped spinach/d + 1 lycopene pill (15 mg lycopene). Plasma carotenoids were measured before and after each supplementation period. The subjects also participated in postprandial experiments in which they ingested meals containing double amounts of the supplements described above. Carotenoids were measured in chylomicrons to assess the interaction of carotenoids on absorption. Adding a second carotenoid to a meal that provided a first carotenoid diminished the chylomicron response to the first carotenoid. However, cosupplementation with a second carotenoid of a diet supplemented with a first carotenoid did not diminish the medium-term plasma response to the first carotenoid. Consumption of carotenoids from different vegetable sources does not diminish plasma carotenoid concentrations in the medium term, despite the finding in postprandial testing of competitive inhibitory interactions among different carotenoids.

  19. Effect of supplemental β-carotene compared to retinyl palmitate on fatty acid profile and expression of mRNA from genes involved in vitamin A metabolism in beef feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condron, Kaitlin N; Waddell, Jolena N; Claeys, Matt C; Lemenager, Ronald P; Schoonmaker, Jon P

    2017-09-01

    To examine the effects of dietary β-carotene (βC) or retinyl palmitate (RP) on fatty acid (FA) profile and mRNA expression, samples were collected from 24 Angus-cross calves that were allotted to four treatments consisting of RP supplemented at 2200 IU/kg, and synthetic β-carotene (SβC) supplemented at one, five or 10 times RP. Longissimus muscle (LM) cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid was greater in RP compared to SβC1X (P = 0.04). The polyunsaturated:saturated FA increased linearly (P = 0.04) in the LM as dietary SβC increased. Expression of βC oxygenase 2 (βCO2), an enzyme that cleaves β-carotene, was greater in the LM for SβC1X compared to RP and decreased linearly as SβC increased (P ≤ 0.02). Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the LM increased in SβC1X compared to RP (P = 0.03); however, PPARγ and retinoic acid X receptor α (RXRα) expression decreased linearly (P = 0.02) in the LM with increasing SβC. Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) expression tended (P = 0.10) to decrease linearly in the LM with increased SβC. In conclusion, SβC supplementation increased mRNA expression of some lipogenic genes in the LM, but increasing dietary SβC inhibited their expression and tended to increase polyunsaturated FA. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Carotenóides: uma possível proteção contra o desenvolvimento de câncer Carotenoids: a possible protection against cancer development

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    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as possibilidades de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer, proporcionadas por carotenóides provenientes da alimentação, com base em uma revisão da literatura. Os carotenóides têm demonstrado uma ação protetora contra a carcinogênese, tanto em estudos in vitro como in vivo, com animais e humanos. Entre eles, a beta-criptoxantina, a fucoxantina, a astaxantina, a capsantina, a crocetina e o fitoeno, têm sido pouco explorados, e a literatura ainda se mostra extremamente limitada e pouco conclusiva. Estudos experimentais com humanos demonstraram não haver efeito, ou efeito reverso, do beta-caroteno, no entanto, não incluíram anteriormente variáveis intervenientes e interativas que deveriam ter sido controladas. A partir da evidência científica, baseada em estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios experimentais recentes, e da elucidação dos mecanismos de atuação de fitoquímicos relacionados à maior proteção contra o câncer, conclui-se que a alimentação rica em carotenóides provenientes das frutas, legumes e verduras, representa um possível fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer.This study is a literature review that discusses the likelihood of dietary carotenoids offering protection against cancer. Carotenoids have been demonstrating a protective action against carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans. Among them, beta-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin, crocetin and phytoene have been little explored and literature is still very lacking and little conclusive. Experimental studies with humans have shown beta-carotene to have no effect or reverse effect; however, they have never included intervenient and interactive variables that should have been controlled. Scientific evidence based on epidemiological studies and recent experimental assays and the elucidation of phytochemical activity mechanisms associated with greater protection against

  1. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

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    Luciana Marino e Biscaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  2. Supplementation of Adult Rats with Moderate Amounts of β-Carotene Modulates the Redox Status in Plasma without Exerting Pro-Oxidant Effects in the Brain: A Safer Alternative to Food Fortification with Vitamin A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Simões-Pires, André; Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Despite the antioxidant potential of vitamin A, recent studies reported that chronic retinol ester supplementation can also exert pro-oxidant effects and neurotoxicity in vivo and raises the mortality rates among healthy subjects. Our aim was to find evidence for a safer (i.e., less toxic) molecule with provitamin A activity. Therefore, we investigated whether chronic supplementation of healthy Wistar rats with β-carotene (0.6, 3, and 6 mg/kg/day) would demonstrate antioxidant characteristics without leading to pro-oxidant side effects in the brain. Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), thiobarbituric reactive species level (TBARS), and total reduced thiol content (SH) were evaluated in plasma. TBARS and SH were additionally evaluated in selected brain regions together with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. In the present study, we show that β-carotene is able to exert antioxidant activity in plasma without triggering pro-oxidant events in the brain, providing evidence that may justify its further evaluation as a safer nutritional supplement with provitamin A activity. PMID:25470379

  3. Avaliação dos níveis séricos das vitaminas A, E, C e B2, de carotenóides e zinco, em idosos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannucchi Hélio

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram verificados os níveis séricos de zinco, carotenóides e vitaminas A, E, C, B2 em todos os idosos (n = 202 internados nas diversas enfermarias do hospital estudado, no período de fevereiro de 1986 a outubro de 1988. Foram estudados 130 homens e 72 mulheres que apresentaram média de idade de 67,8 anos, com variação entre 60 a 88. A percentagem de níveis séricos deficitários foi de 59,5 para o zinco, 56,5% para a vitamina C, 34,5% para a vitamina B2, 26% para a vitamina E, 13,2% para a vitamina A e 6,8% para os carotenóides. Os idosos portadores de leucoses, magaesôfogo, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva constituíram-se no grupo de pacientes com grande prevalência de estado deficitário de zinco e das vitaminas estudadas, resultados que mostram a importância de se investigar as deficiências desses micronutrientes e dão subsídios para a abordagem terapêutica mais racional do paciente idoso internado.

  4. Carotenoid extraction from the gonad of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Pectinidae Extração de carotenóides da gônada da vieira Nodipecten nodosus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae

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    S. Suhnel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In marine bivalve mollusks, unsaturated molecules called carotenoids are present in the natural diet and play an important role in different biological process, especially in reproduction. In order to gain more insights into these compounds in Nodipecten nodosus it was necessary to develop a suitable protocol for extraction of carotenoids from the gonads. Female gonads of cultured scallops (75 mm length were lyophilized and macerated in liquid N2. To verify the effect of composition in organosolvents on the extracting solutions, two organic solvents were tested: acetone and hexane (Ac = O:Hex at four ratios, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 2:3, in four static extraction times: 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin contents were determined in the crude extracts by UV-visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Triplicate aliquots of 50 mg were used for each treatment. The results indicated that the best single extraction (0.312 ± 0.016 µg carotenoids/mg was attained with Ac = O: Hex 1:3, for 15 minutes. Through exhaustive extraction methodology (10x, a superior yield (0.41 ± 0.001 µg carotenoids/mg was obtained from a gonad sample in comparison to the highest value found for a single extraction. Astaxanthin content was reduced by 8.6% in carotenoid extract preservation assay, i.e., -18 °C, 26 days incubation, under N2 atmosphere.Em moluscos bivalves marinhos, carotenóides insaturados estão presentes na dieta natural, com um importante papel em diversos processos biológicos, em especial na reprodução. A elucidação dos efeitos destes compostos em Nodipecten nodosus requer o desenvolvimento de um protocolo adequado para a extração de carotenóides das gônadas desses animais. Para isso, gônadas de vieiras cultivadas (75 mm de comprimento foram liofilizadas e maceradas em N2 líquido. Amostras em triplicata com 50 mg foram coletadas para a utilização em cada tratamento. Os conte

  5. β-carotene biotransformation to obtain aroma compounds Biotransformação de β-caroteno para obtenção de compostos de aroma

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    Mariana Uenojo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important constituents of food due to their color and because their degradation products generate important volatile compounds in foods. Aroma compounds derived from carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, and they are precursors of many important aromas in foods such as fruits and in flowers as well. They present high aromatic potential and are therefore of great interest to the industries of aromas and fragrances. In this study, more than 300 previously isolated microorganisms with potential for biotransformation of β-carotene present in the culture medium were selected using the plate method; about 80 strains presented capacity to produce aroma compounds and 7 strains were selected by an untrained panel of tasters to generate aroma compounds. The β-ionone was the main compound produced by CS1 (34.0 mg.L-1 and CF9 (42.4 mg.L-1 microorganisms at 72 and 24 hours of fermentation, cultured with and without pre-inoculation, respectively. The β-damascone and pseudoionone were found in low concentrations, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen (TTN was tentatively identified and other compounds such as apocarotenoids, apparently obtained from the cleavage of the central part of the carotenoid, were detected.Carotenoides são importantes constituintes de alimentos por sua coloração e por seus produtos de degradação gerarem compostos voláteis em alimentos. Compostos de aromas derivados de carotenoides estão distribuídos na natureza, constituem precursores de aromas importantes em alimentos como frutas e em flores. Apresentam alto potencial aromático e, por isso, são de grande interesse para as indústrias de aromas e fragrâncias. Neste trabalho, mais de 300 microrganismos foram selecionados pelo método da placa, de acordo com sua capacidade de degradar carotenoides presentes no meio de cultura. Cerca de 80 linhagens apresentaram capacidade de produção de aromas e 7 cepas apresentaram descritores e

  6. Development of Biofortified Maize Hybrids through Marker-Assisted Stacking of β-Carotene Hydroxylase, Lycopene-ε-Cyclase and Opaque2 Genes

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    Rajkumar U. Zunjare

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yellow maize though contains high kernel carotenoids, the concentration of provitamin A (proA is quite low (<2 μg/g, compared to recommended level (15 μg/g. It also possesses poor endosperm protein quality due to low concentration of lysine and tryptophan. Natural variant of crtRB1 (β-carotene hydroxylase and lcyE (lycopene-ε-cyclase cause significant enhancement of proA concentration, while recessive allele, opaque2 (o2 enhances the level of these amino acids. Development of biofortified maize enriched in proA, lysine and tryptophan thus holds significance in alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition. In the present study, marker-assisted stacking of crtRB1, lcyE and o2 was undertaken in the genetic background of four maize hybrids (HQPM1, HQPM4, HQPM5, and HQPM7 popularly grown in India. HP704-22 and HP704-23 were used as donors, while four elite QPM parents viz., HKI161, HKI163, HKI193-1, and HKI193-2 were used as recipients. CrtRB1 showed severe segregation distortion, while lcyE segregated as per the expectation. Recovery of recurrent parent genome (RPG among selected backcross progenies ranged from 89 to 93%. Introgressed progenies possessed high concentration of proA (7.38–13.59 μg/g, compared to 1.65–2.04 μg/g in the recurrent parents. The reconstituted hybrids showed an average of 4.5-fold increase in proA with a range of 9.25–12.88 μg/g, compared to original hybrids (2.14–2.48 μg/g. Similar plant-, ear-, and grain- characteristics of improved versions of both inbreds and hybrids were observed when evaluated with their respective original versions. Mean lysine (0.334% and tryptophan (0.080% of the improved hybrids were at par with the original versions (lysine: 0.340%, tryptophan: 0.083%. Improved hybrids also possessed similar grain yield potential (6,301–8,545 kg/ha with their original versions (6,135–8,479 kg/ha evaluated at two locations. This is the first study of staking crtRB1-, lcyE-, and o2

  7. Influence of the extraction procedure on the antioxidative activity of lentil seed extracts in a β-carotene-linoleate model system

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    Chavan, U.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from lentil seeds using three solvent systems: 80% (v/v acetone, 80% (v/v methanol, and 80% (v/v ethanol. Each extract was subsequently separated into two fractions by chromatoghraphy on a column with Toyo Pearl HW-40 using water (fraction I and methanol (fraction II for elution. Antioxidative activity of extracts and their respective fractions were examined in a β-carotene-linoleate model system. All three extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activity. Considering the level of phenolic compounds in extracts it seems that phenolic compounds from the acetone extract were less active than those from either the methanolic and ethanolic ones. Because the content of phenolics was about 16-fold lower in fraction I of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts compared to fraction II, the phenolics in fraction I of the methanol and ethanol extracts from lentil seeds are much more active than these in fraction II. A stronger antioxidant activity of fraction I from the acetone extract compared to the crude acetone extract was observed during the latter incubation stage. The reason was a relatively high level of phenolic compounds in this fraction. UV spectra confirmed that the phenolic compounds from the acetone extract were different compared to methanolic and ethanolic extracts.Los compuestos fenólicos fueron extraídos de semillas de lenteja usando tres sistemas de disolventes: acetona del 80% (v/v, metanol del 80% (v/v, y etanol del 80% (v/v. Cada extracto fue separado posteriormente en dos fracciones por cromatografía en columna con Toyo Pearl HW-40 usando agua (fracción I y metanol (fracción II para la elución. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos y de sus fracciones respectivas fueron examinadas en un sistema modelo β-caroteno-linoleato. Los tres extractos exhibieron actividad antioxidante similar. Atendiendo al nivel de compuestos fenólicos en los extractos parece que los compuestos del extracto

  8. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

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    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  9. Perfil transcricional dos genes envolvidos na via de biossíntese de carotenóides e quantificação dos metabólitos em laranjas de polpa vermelha

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Sanae Nishimura

    2012-01-01

    A combinação do aumento da população mundial e a melhoria nos padrões de vida estão levando a uma maior demanda por alimentos com alto valor nutricional. As variedades de laranjas de polpa vermelha são as únicas laranjas que acumulam licopeno na polpa e no suco. O licopeno é um carotenóide considerado como um composto antioxidante, com ação potencial na prevenção de alguns tipos de câncer. Apesar do valor nutricional agregado as laranjas de polpa vermelha, a caracterização fisiológica e mo...

  10. Níveis de retinol e carotenóides séricos e intercorrências gestacionais em puérperas Vitamin A serum and gestational intercurrences in postpartum women

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    Luciana Ferreira Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre intercorrências gestacionais e níveis de retinol e carotenóides em puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 262 puérperas atendidas na Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. O estado nutricional antropométrico foi avaliado pelo do índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e pelo ganho ponderal gestacional, e foram coletadas informações sobre intercorrências gestacionais nos registros médicos dos prontuários. Foram adotados os pontos de corte 1,05µmol/L e 80µg/dL para definir inadequação dos níveis de retinol e carotenóides séricos, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e dois vírgula sete por cento da amostra foi acometida por intercorrências gestacionais, destacando-se anemia (29,0%, inadequação dos níveis de retinol (24,4%, e síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez (5,7%. Observou-se maior proporção de obesidade pré-gestacional entre mulheres com síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez, em comparação com as não portadoras de tal intercorrência. Verificou-se menor nível médio de carotenóides séricos entre as que desenvolveram síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez e 91,7% destas apresentaram inadequação destes nutrientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados revelam acometimento importante de mulheres por intercorrências gestacionais e por deficiências nutricionais. Além disso, apontam a obesidade pré-gestacional como um possível fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez e sugerem uma associação entre baixos níveis de carotenóides e tal intercorrência.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate an association between pregnancy complications and serum retinol and carotenoid levels in puerpere seen at a public maternity of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The sample consisted of 262 puerpere seen at the Maternity School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

  11. Avaliação dos níveis séricos das vitaminas A, E, C e B2, de carotenóides e zinco, em idosos hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Vannucchi Hélio; Cunha Daniel Ferreira da; Bernardes Mônica M.; Unamuno Maria R. Del Lama

    1994-01-01

    Foram verificados os níveis séricos de zinco, carotenóides e vitaminas A, E, C, B2 em todos os idosos (n = 202) internados nas diversas enfermarias do hospital estudado, no período de fevereiro de 1986 a outubro de 1988. Foram estudados 130 homens e 72 mulheres que apresentaram média de idade de 67,8 anos, com variação entre 60 a 88. A percentagem de níveis séricos deficitários foi de 59,5 para o zinco, 56,5% para a vitamina C, 34,5% para a vitamina B2, 26% para a vitamina E, 13,2% para a vit...

  12. Composição Nutricional e Teor de Carotenóides de Doces de Leite Adicionados de Extrato de Urucum/Nutritional Composition and Level of Carotenoids of Dulce de Leche Added of Extract Annatto (Bixa orellana

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    Admilson José da Silva Braga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição centesimal, pH e teor de carotenóides de doces de leite tipo caseiro com diferentes concentrações de urucum. Materiais e Métodos: Os doces de leite foram elaborados com leite de vaca integral e sacarose, além da adição (0%; 1,0%; 1,5% e 2,0% de urucum. Foram realizadas análises de composição centesimal, pH e carotenóides, sendo estes últimos extraídos com acetona, para posterior leitura em espectrofotômetro a 450nm. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado e teste de Tukey (p<0,05 para as análises estatísticas. Resultados: Os teores de umidade, lipídeos, proteínas e cinzas apresentaram-se dentro dos parâmetros exigidos pela legislação brasileira. As amostras com 0% e 1% de urucum não diferiram significativamente entre si, mas diferiram das amostras com 1,5% e 2,0% de urucum (p<0,05. A adição de extrato de urucum no doce de leite interferiu na composição química do mesmo, entretanto, ainda permaneceu dentro dos limites exigidos pela legislação. Conclusão: Os teores de carotenóides nas amostras de doce de leite aumentou proporcionalmente ao acréscimo de extrato de urucum, variando de 0,0281 mg.100g-1 a 0,6030 mg.100g-1, ocorrendo beneficiamento do produto pelo incremento de carotenóides. Objective: the work aimed to evaluate the percent composition, pH and carotenoid content of home-made type dulce de leche with different concentrations of annato. Materials end Methods: The dulces de leche were made with whole cow milk and sucrose, besides the addition (0%; 1.0%; 1.5% and 2.0% of annatto. Analyses of percent composition, pH and carotenoids were performed, these latter ones being extracted with acetone for further reading in spectrophotometer at 450nm. Completely randomized design and Tukey test (p<0.05 were utilized for statistical analyses. Results: The contents of moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes lay within the parameters demanded by the Brazilian

  13. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

    2009-11-25

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.

  14. Vantagens e desvantagens das colunas C18 e C30 para a separação de carotenóides por CLAE Advantages and disadvantages of C18 and C30 columns for HPLC separation of carotenoids

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    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm demonstrado uma alta associação entre ingestão ou nível plasmático de carotenóides e a diminuição do risco ou proteção contra algumas doenças. Estes fatos, bem como a elevada suscetibilidade destes compostos à luz e calor, com formação de isômeros cis, os quais apresentam menor atividade biológica, torna importante o desenvolvimento de sistemas que permitam a separação destes carotenóides em alimentos. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a separação de isômeros geométricos de licopeno, e dos isômeros de posição luteína e zeaxantina, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, utilizando colunas C18 (monomérica, 4 mm, 300 x 3,9 mm e C30 (polimérica, 3 mm, 250 x 4,6 mm e diferentes fases móveis, tanto com eluição isocrática como com gradiente. Os carotenóides foram identificados através das características espectrais e co-cromatografia com padrões. As melhores condições cromatográficas foram obtidas em coluna C30 com temperatura de 33 ºC, eluição isocrática a 1 mL/min e fase móvel com metanol (0,1% trietilamina/éter metil-terc-butílico (50:50 para separar isômeros de licopeno e (95:5 para luteína e zeaxantina. Entretanto, para análise quantitativa, é necessário verificar a repetibilidade da área dos picos na coluna C30. Além disso, a coluna C18 monomérica pode ser empregada para separar luteína e zeaxantina.Several studies have demonstrated a high association between dietary intake or plasma levels of carotenoids and the decrease of risk or the protection against some diseases. Taking this into consideration, as well as the high susceptibility of these compounds to light and heat, leading to the formation of cis isomers with lower biological activity, it is important to develop systems that allow the separation of such compounds in foods. This work evaluated the separation of the geometric isomers of lycopene and of the position isomers, lutein and zeaxanthin, by high

  15. Influência da temperatura na solubilidade de beta-caroteno em solventes orgânicos à pressão ambiente Effect of temperature on the solubility of beta-carotene in organic solvents under ambient pressure

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    Marcus Vinícius Três

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reporta dados experimentais de solubilidade em pressão ambiente de beta-caroteno em solventes orgânicos puros (etanol, acetona, acetato de etila e diclorometano e em misturas de tais solventes no intervalo de temperatura de 10 a 60 °C. Para este fim, adotou-se o método gravimétrico para a determinação da solubilidade, utilizando células encamisadas de equilíbrio. Os resultados mostraram que valores mais elevados de solubilidade são obtidos quando foram empregados solventes com parâmetros de solubilidade mais próximos daquele do soluto. Verificou-se que o aumento da temperatura, tanto para solventes puros, como para as misturas de solventes, acarretou num aumento da solubilidade do beta-caroteno para todas as condições experimentais. Observou-se ainda, que nas condições experimentais investigadas, não houve sinergismo significativo para as misturas de solventes quando comparadas aos valores de solubilidade obtidos para os solventes puros. O modelo UNIFAC se mostrou útil na previsão qualitativa dos resultados de solubilidade.This work reports experimental data of the solubility of beta-carotene in pure acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol and dichloromethane and in mixtures of these organic solvents in the temperature range of 10 to 60 °C under ambient pressure. The gravimetric method was employed to determine the solubility, using glass equilibrium cells. The results showed that the best solvents were those having solubility parameter values close to that of the solute. It was found that raising the temperature caused the solute solubility values for both pure and solvent mixtures to increase under all the experimental conditions. Moreover, no synergetic effects were observed on the solubility of beta-carotene in solvent mixtures compared to pure solvents in the temperature range investigated. The UNIFAC model proved to be useful in predicting the solubility data.

  16. Method validation and simultaneous determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum treated with 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and Plantago major L. by high- performance liquid chromatography using diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Abdulkadi; Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Berber, Ismet

    2013-02-01

    A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum treated with Plantago Major L. and 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed utilizing an Inertsil ODS3 reversed phase column with methanol-tetrahydrofuran-water as mobile phase under gradient conditions, at 1.5 mL min(-1) flow rate and 25 °C. Diode-array detection was at 325, 450, 290 and 270 nm (retinol and retinyl palmitate), β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C, respectively and runnig time 18 min. The high-performance liquid chromatography assay and extraction procedure proposed are simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate. The method was then applied for the determination of retinol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin C in rat serum. Results of this study demonstrated that; at 60th day DMBA-treated group, there was a significant decrease in vitamin levels compared to the levels of control group. A significant increase was observed in vitamin levels of 7,12 dimethylbenz[α]anthracene+Plantago Major L.-treated group compared to the DMBA-treated group. Additionally, the results obtained in the study are found to be in agreement with data reported in the literature.

  17. Comparative Modulation of Levels of Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Treated Wistar Rats by Vitamin B12, Beta-Carotene, and Spirulina fusiformis: Role of NF-κB, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Martin, Sherry; Evan Prince, Sabina

    2017-11-01

    Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) are known hepatotoxic agents. We compared the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis and its active components vitamin B12 and beta-carotene in attenuating INH and RIF induced hepatotoxicity. We also tried to elucidate the inflammatory mechanism behind anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity. INH and RIF were administered to Wistar albino rats for 28 days to induce hepatotoxicity. S. fusiformis, vitamin B12, and beta-carotene were co-administered with INH and RIF and their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory roles were studied through blood and liver analysis. Changes induced by INH and RIF in antioxidants, cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) and expression of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) and Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) were also studied. Supplement treatment caused restoration of liver function parameters to normal levels along with reversal of inflammatory changes in IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Liver PCNA, iNOS, and NF-κB expression were reduced in the supplement treated tissues compared to INH and RIF treated rats as evidenced by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Correlation of IL-6 levels, PCNA, and iNOS with NF-κB showed its pivotal role in the inflammatory process. Study shows the pivotal role of NF-kB and the equivalence in antioxidant efficacy of vitamin B12 and beta-carotene compared to Spirulina fusiformis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3825-3833, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  19. The high content of β-carotene present in orange-pulp fruits of Carica papaya L. is not correlated with a high expression of the CpLCY-β2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-León, Arianna C; Estrella-Maldonado, Humberto; Dubé, Pascal; Fuentes Ortiz, Gabriela; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera May, Carlos; Ramírez Prado, Jorge; Desjardins, Yves; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the transcriptional regulation of six genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, together with the carotenoid accumulation during postharvest ripening of three different papaya genotypes of contrasting pulp color. Red-pulp genotype (RPG) showed the lowest content of yellow pigments (YP), such as β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin, together with the lowest relative expression levels (REL) of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. On the contrary, the yellow-pulp genotype (YPG) showed the highest content of YP and the highest REL of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. Interestingly, the orange-pulp genotype (OPG) showed intermediate content of YP and intermediate REL of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. The highest content of β-carotene shown by OPG despite having an intermediate REL of the CpLCY-β2 genes, suggests a post-transcriptional regulation. Thus, the transcriptional level of the genes, directing the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can partially explain the accumulation of carotenoids during the postharvest ripening in C. papaya genotypes of contrasting pulp color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK, SIFAT FISIK, SERTA KADAR β-KAROTEN DAN α-TOKOFEROL EMULSI BUAH MERAH (Pandanus conoideus (The Organoleptic Properties, Physical Properties, and the Level of β-carotene and α-tocopherol of Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus Oil Emulsion

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    Zita Letviany Sarungallo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the organoleptic and physical properties, and the level of β-carotene and α-tocopherol of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus emulsion. The emulsion was made by mixing red fruit oil and water in ratio of 7:3, with addition of some emulsifiers as treatments, namely 0.20% of CMC (carboxyl methyl cellulose (F0, 0.5% of Tween 80 and 0.2% of CMC  (F1, and 0.5% of Tween 20 and 0.2% of CMC  (F2. Based on the organoleptic evaluation, the most preferred formulation of red fruit emulsion was F1, which have complementary ingredients, namely 0.50% of Tween 80, 0.20% of CMC, 0.06% of sodium benzoate, 0.02% of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, 1.5% of orange citrus essence, and 15% of sugar. The acceptance scores of the formulation for color, taste, aroma, and texture were 4.5 (like-extremely like, 3.8 (neutral-like, 3.8 (neutral-like, and 4.1 (like, respectively, and the level of viscosity was thick with organoleptic score of 6.1 (thick. Physically, red fruit emulsion has red orange in color, citrus in aroma, sweet in taste, viscous in texture, viscosity 20.5 dPa.s, pH 6.4,  and stability 100% in strorage for 30 days at room temperature.  The content  of β-carotene  and α-tocopherol were 14 mg/kg and 229.4 mg/kg respectively. Keywords: Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus, emulsion, organoleptic and physical properties, β-carotene, α-tocopherol

  1. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  2. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano = Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Andrade Batista

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de a-caroteno, b-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações doano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Devido ao conteúdo inexpressivo de a-caroteno em todas as amostras, foi possível quantificar apenas o b-caroteno. Não se verificou diferença estatisticamente significativa (a = 0,05 no conteúdo de b-caroteno das hortaliças entre os diferentes estabelecimentos, nem entre as estações do ano. As hortaliçasmostraram-se excelentes fontes de provitamina A, e se consumidas regularmente, contribuem de forma importante na adequação diária de vitamina A para adultos e crianças. Além disso, esses alimentos são acessíveis à população por apresentarem baixo custo e serem facilmente encontrados.This study aimed to investigate the level of a-carotene, b-carotene and to calculate the value of vitamin A in vegetables sold at local markets and informal markets of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, as wellas to evaluate the seasonal and commercial effects on the content of these pigments. The vegetables (basella, green onion, cilantro, sweet basil and parsley were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, being b-carotene the only pigment present in all the analyzed samples. No significant statistical differences (a = 0.05 were found in the contents of b-carotene of the vegetables either among the different stores, or among the different seasons. The vegetables analyzed are great provitamin A sources and, ifeaten on a regular basis, they can fit the daily requirements of vitamin A for adults and children. Besides, these foods are very accessible due to their

  3. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Genetic diversity and total carotene content in accessions of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is a perennial shrub cultivated in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. It is an important dietary source for humans in tropical countries. Carotenoids are natural pigments that are widely distributed in the nature, where about 50 of them have provitamin A activity, b-carotene has been the most efficient. Among the procedures to fortify (enrich or increase the nutritional content of foods or crops cassava varieties, the study of genetic variability of the content of carotenoids in the root is one of the most common to carried out processes of selection and recombination in the breeding program which will allow the

  4. Cleavage of β-Carotene to Retinal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Adrian; von Lintig, Johannes

    Elucidating the physiological roles played by vitamins has always been a major goal of nutritionists and biochemists. In humans, vitamin A deficiency disorder (VADD) in milder forms leads to night blindness, whilst more severe progression can lead to corneal malformations, e.g. xerophthalmia (See Volume 5, Chapters 8 and 9). This deficiency also affects the immune system, leads to infertility and causes malformations during embryogenesis. The molecular basis for these diverse effects lies in the dual role of vitamin A (retinol, 1) derivatives. In all visual systems, retinal (2), or a closely related compound such as 3-hydroxyretinal (3), is the chromophore of the visual pigments (e.g. rhodopsin) [1,2]. In vertebrates, the derivative retinoic acid (RA, 4) is a major signalling molecule that controls a wide range of processes. Retinoic acid is the ligand of the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) [3-6] (see Chapter 15).

  5. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  6. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe and conventional methods

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    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura (Daucus carota L. , planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS e o convencional e analisar a composição centesimal da cenoura in natura. O teor de β-caroteno obtido pela extração por EFS e por convencional foi de 2.457 e 2.455 µg/100g, respectivamente. Os valores médios encontrados para a matéria-seca da cenoura foram de: matéria-seca = 8,9%; extrato etéreo = 0,29%; cinzas = 8,11%; fibra bruta = 14,57%, proteína bruta = 6,4%, extrato não nitrogenado = 6,3% e valor calórico = 27,7kcal. Conclui-se que a extração de carotenóides em cenoura pelo fluido supercritico é uma técnica de separação viável, pois este fluido é inerte, não deixa resíduo final e não gera resíduo ambiental. Pelos teores encontrados conclui-se também que as cenouras são boas fontes de fibras, apresentam alto teor de umidade e baixo teor de gorduras, cinzas e valor calórico.The carrot (Daucus carota L. is a plant of the Umbelliferae family. It produces an aromatic and edible root, and is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable in Brazil. It represents the main source of plant-origin, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, especially α and β-carotene, and is also a great source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and minerals. This study aimed to evaluate two methods of extraction of β-carotene, supercritical fluid (SFE and conventional, and to examine the proximate composition of the carrot in nature. The contents of β-carotene obtained by SFE and by conventional extraction were 2,457 and 2,455 µg/100g, respectively. The average values found

  7. Carotenóides da cianobactéria Synechocystis pevalekii produzida em condições normais e sob limitação de nutrientes Carotenoids of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis pevalekii produced under normal conditions and under nutrient limitation

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    Marcos Coelho Müller

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microalgas e cianobactérias como fontes de nutrientes e substâncias bioativas para alimentos e suplementos alimentares vem despertando grande interesse nos últimos anos. Por meio de cromatografia em coluna aberta com espectrofotometria de absorção, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de conjunto de diodos, cromatografia em camada delgada e reações de grupos funcionais, foram identificados trans-e cis-²-caroteno, equininona, ²-criptoxantina,3-hidroxi-4'-cetocarotenóide, zeaxantina e 3,3-diidroxi-4'-cetocarotenóide em Synechocystis pevalekii. A cianobactéria Synechocystis pevalekiiapresentou-se verde em condições normais de cultivo devido à presença de clorofilas. Com o cultivo em condições de "stress" (redução de 80% dos nutrientes do meio Conway original, as clorofilas desapareceram e a cianobactéria apresentou coloração laranja. O ²-caroteno diminuiu de 307 para 248 µg/g e a ²-criptoxantina de 94 para 13 µg/g.Por outro lado, a zeaxantina aumentou de 29 para 220 µg/g. S. pevalekii, portanto, apresenta potencial comercial como fonte de zeaxantina, carotenóide apontado como responsável pela ação protetora contra a degeneração macular e catarata, junto com a luteína. Os resultados demonstram que as condições de produção da cianobatéria podem ser estabelecidas de tal forma que a biossíntese de carotenóides importantes para saúde humana, de difícil obtenção, seja favorecida. Já existem várias fontes comerciais de ²-caroteno, mas são raras as fontes de zeaxantina.The use of microalgae and cyanobacteria as sources of nutrients and bioactive substances for food and dietary supplements has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Through open column chromatography-visible absorption spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector, thin layer chromatography and functional group chemical reactions, trans- and cis-²-carotene

  8. Influência da embalagem e estocagem no conteúdo de betacaroteno e ácido ascórbico em suco de manga “Ubá” industrializado = Influence of package and storage on the content of beta-carotene and ascorbic acid in industrialized “Ubá” mango juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou o conteudo e avaliou a estabilidade de doisantioxidantes naturais - β-caroteno e acido ascorbico (AA - em suco de manga "Uba" industrializado e armazenado em diferentes tempos de estocagem e correlacionou as recomendacoes de vitaminas A e C com o teor encontrado nos sucos. O β-caroteno e o AA foram analisados nos sucos comercializados em embalagem tetra pak, em cinco tempos de estocagem (1 a 5 meses e em embalagem de vidro, em tres tempos de estocagem (apos 3, 4 e 5 meses de armazenamento. A analise foi realizada por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE. Nao foram detectadas diferencas estatisticamente significativas (α = 5% entre os diferentes tempos de estocagem, para ambos os componentes analisados, tanto em embalagens tetra pak quanto em embalagens de vidro. Alem disso, nao foram observadas diferencas significativas entre o conteudo de β-caroteno dos sucos comercializados nas duas embalagens. No entanto, houve diferenca significativa no teor de AA entre as diferentes embalagens, e a embalagem de vidro apresentou maior teor em relacao a embalagem tetrapak. Assim, as perdas ocasionadas especialmente pela permeabilidade da embalagem ao oxigenio deveriam ser alvo de atencao das industrias de alimentos.This work investigated the content and stability of two natural antioxidants . β-carotene and ascorbic acid (AA - in mango juice industrialized and stored during different storage times, correlating the recommendations of vitamins A and C with the content found in the juice. β-carotene and AA were analyzed in juice sold in tetra pak packaging, during five storage times (1 to 5months and in glass containers, during three storage times (after 3, 4 and 5 months of storage. The analysis was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. No statically differences (α = 5 % were found between the different times of storage for both compounds analyzed, both in tetra pak package and glass container

  9. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  10. Avaliação dos níveis séricos das vitaminas A, E, C e B2, de carotenóides e zinco, em idosos hospitalizados Assessment of vitamin A, E, C and B2, carotenoid and zinc serum levels in elderly hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Vannucchi; Daniel Ferreira da Cunha; Mônica M. Bernardes; Maria R. Del Lama Unamuno

    1994-01-01

    Foram verificados os níveis séricos de zinco, carotenóides e vitaminas A, E, C, B2 em todos os idosos (n = 202) internados nas diversas enfermarias do hospital estudado, no período de fevereiro de 1986 a outubro de 1988. Foram estudados 130 homens e 72 mulheres que apresentaram média de idade de 67,8 anos, com variação entre 60 a 88. A percentagem de níveis séricos deficitários foi de 59,5 para o zinco, 56,5% para a vitamina C, 34,5% para a vitamina B2, 26% para a vitamina E, 13,2% para a vit...

  11. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  12. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122 Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benício Paes Chaves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de α-caroteno, β-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações do ano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Devido ao conteúdo inexpressivo de α-caroteno em todas as amostras, foi possível quantificar apenas o β-caroteno. Não se verificou diferença estatisticamente significativa (α = 0,05 no conteúdo de β-caroteno das hortaliças entre os diferentes estabelecimentos, nem entre as estações do ano. As hortaliças mostraram-se excelentes fontes de provitamina A, e se consumidas regularmente, contribuem de forma importante na adequação diária de vitamina A para adultos e crianças. Além disso, esses alimentos são acessíveis à população por apresentarem baixo custo e serem facilmente encontrados.This study aimed to investigate the level of α-carotene, β-carotene and to calculate the value of vitamin A in vegetables sold at local markets and informal markets of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, as well as to evaluate the seasonal and commercial effects on the content of these pigments. The vegetables (basella, green onion, cilantro, sweet basil and parsley were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, being β-carotene the only pigment present in all the analyzed samples. No significant statistical differences (α = 0.05 were found in the contents of β-carotene of the vegetables either among the different stores, or among the different seasons. The vegetables analyzed are great provitamin A sources and, if eaten on a regular basis, they can fit the daily requirements of vitamin A for adults and children. Besides, these foods are very

  13. Avaliação dos níveis séricos das vitaminas A, E, C e B2, de carotenóides e zinco, em idosos hospitalizados Assessment of vitamin A, E, C and B2, carotenoid and zinc serum levels in elderly hospital patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Vannucchi

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram verificados os níveis séricos de zinco, carotenóides e vitaminas A, E, C, B2 em todos os idosos (n = 202 internados nas diversas enfermarias do hospital estudado, no período de fevereiro de 1986 a outubro de 1988. Foram estudados 130 homens e 72 mulheres que apresentaram média de idade de 67,8 anos, com variação entre 60 a 88. A percentagem de níveis séricos deficitários foi de 59,5 para o zinco, 56,5% para a vitamina C, 34,5% para a vitamina B2, 26% para a vitamina E, 13,2% para a vitamina A e 6,8% para os carotenóides. Os idosos portadores de leucoses, magaesôfogo, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva constituíram-se no grupo de pacientes com grande prevalência de estado deficitário de zinco e das vitaminas estudadas, resultados que mostram a importância de se investigar as deficiências desses micronutrientes e dão subsídios para a abordagem terapêutica mais racional do paciente idoso internado.Serum levels of carotenoids, zinc and vitamins A, E, C and B2 were measured in al (n = 202 the elderly patients hospitalized in different wards of the hospital studied from February 1986 to October 1988. The study was conducted on 130 men and 72 women with a mean age of 67.8 years (range: 60 to 88 years. The percentage of nutritional deficiency was 59.5% for zinc, 56.5% for vitamin C, 34.5% for vitamin B2, 25.9% for vitamin E, 13.2% for vitamin A, and 6.8% for carotenoids. Elderly patients with leucoses, megaesophagus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and congestive heart failure represent a group with a high prevalence of deficiency both of zinc and of the vitamins under study. These results show the importance of detecting deficiencies of these micronutrients and provide a basis for a more rational approach to the treatment of elderly patients.

  14. Efeito do tratamento térmico na concentração de carotenóides, compostos fenólicos, ácido ascórbico e capacidade antioxidante do suco de tangerina murcote Effect of thermal treatment on the carotenoid, phenolic compound and ascorbic acid concentrations, and the antioxidant capacity of murcott tangerine juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Souza Dutra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento térmico do suco de tangerina murcote em relação ao teor de carotenóides totais, ao perfil de carotenóides (luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina e β-caroteno, aos compostos fenólicos totais, ao ácido ascórbico e à capacidade antioxidante. No processo, utilizou-se um trocador de calor tubular, sendo avaliados 11 tratamentos seguindo um ensaio fatorial completo 2² com três repetições no ponto central, com quatro pontos axiais e uma região de observação de 88 a 100 ºC e 16 a 44 s. O teor de caratenóides totais decresceu de forma significativa em quase todos os tratamentos aplicados, se comparado ao valor encontrado para o suco in natura. A maioria dos tratamentos não reduziu de forma significativa os teores dos caratenóides luteína, zeaxantina e β-criptoxantina. Além disso, o teor de β-caroteno não sofreu alterações significativas em todos os tratamentos avaliados. A análise de variância mostrou que, para os caratenóides, não ocorreram interações significativas entre as variáveis temperatura e tempo. Os teores de ácido ascórbico e compostos fenólicos totais apresentaram reduções em seis condições avaliadas, ao passo que, em quatro, observou-se um aumento dos teores de compostos fenólicos totais, causado provavelmente pela evaporação da água presente no suco. A maior redução do teor de ácido ascórbico e o maior aumento para compostos fenólicos totais foi observado para o binômio 100 ºC/30 s. O teor de ácido ascórbico sofreu de forma significativa a influência da temperatura e esse processo de degradação pode ser descrito por meio de um modelo quadrático. Todos os tratamentos utilizados reduziram a capacidade antioxidante do suco, sendo mais intensa para o binômio 100 ºC/30 s. As variações observadas não alteraram de maneira considerável as características nutricionais do suco e os tratamentos térmicos realizados a 94 ºC por 16 a 44 s

  15. Influência da embalagem e estocagem no conteúdo de beta-caroteno e ácido ascórbico em suco de manga “Ubá” industrializado - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.6178 Influence of package and storage on the content of beta-carotene and ascorbic acid in industrialized “Ubá” mango juice - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.6178

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou o conteúdo e avaliou a estabilidade de dois antioxidantes naturais - β-caroteno e ácido ascórbico (AA - em suco de manga “Ubá” industrializado e armazenado em diferentes tempos de estocagem e correlacionou as recomendações de vitaminas A e C com o teor encontrado nos sucos. O β-caroteno e o AA foram analisados nos sucos comercializados em embalagem tetra pak, em cinco tempos de estocagem (1 a 5 meses e em embalagem de vidro, em três tempos de estocagem (após 3, 4 e 5 meses de armazenamento. A análise foi realizada por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Não foram detectadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas (α = 5% entre os diferentes tempos de estocagem, para ambos os componentes analisados, tanto em embalagens tetra pak quanto em embalagens de vidro. Além disso, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre o conteúdo de β-caroteno dos sucos comercializados nas duas embalagens. No entanto, houve diferença significativa no teor de AA entre as diferentes embalagens, e a embalagem de vidro apresentou maior teor em relação à embalagem tetra pak. Assim, as perdas ocasionadas especialmente pela permeabilidade da embalagem ao oxigênio deveriam ser alvo de atenção das indústrias de alimentos.This work investigated the content and stability of two natural antioxidants – β-carotene and ascorbic acid (AA – in mango juice industrialized and stored during different storage times, correlating the recommendations of vitamins A and C with the content found in the juice. β-carotene and AA were analyzed in juice sold in tetra pak packaging, during five storage times (1 to 5 months and in glass containers, during three storage times (after 3, 4 and 5 months of storage. The analysis was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. No statically differences (α = 5 % were found between the different times of storage for both compounds analyzed, both in

  16. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH• Evaluation of the antioxidant activity using the b-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH scavenging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante de extratos de frutas (acerola, amora, açaí e morango e compostos puros foi avaliada por meio de dois métodos: sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH• - 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila. As metodologias foram previamente adaptadas para a realização em microplacas, de forma a reduzir a quantidade de reagentes e amostras necessárias, aumentar o número de análises simultâneas e permitir a automatização das leituras de absorbância. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade antioxidante dos extratos metanólicos dos frutos estava de acordo com a apresentada pelos compostos puros, isto é ácido ascórbico e compostos fenólicos, nos dois sistemas. O extrato de acerola, devido ao seu alto conteúdo de vitamina C, comportou-se como pró-oxidante e os de açaí, amora e morango como antioxidantes no sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Entretanto, quando avaliado pelo método de seqüestro de radicais livres, o extrato de acerola apresentou a maior atividade antioxidante, seguido pelos extratos de amora, açaí e morango. As adaptações realizadas nos métodos de avaliação de atividade antioxidante utilizando microplaca permitiram a realização de múltiplas análises simultâneas, além de minimizar significativamente o uso de reagentes e amostras.The antioxidant activity of fruit extracts (acerola, açaí, black-berry and strawberry and pure compounds has been analysed by two methods: beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH•(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. First, those methodologies were adapted to be performed in microplates, in order to reduce the sample and reagent amounts, to increase the number of simultaneous analyses and to automate absorbance lectures. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts was in accordance with those of pure ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, in the two systems. The acerola

  17. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con β-1,3 glucano vitamina E y β-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pacheco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with β-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and β-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and β-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with β-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with β-Ο-glucan and β-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, or β-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.Se evaluó el efecto de β-1,3-glucano, vitamina E y β-caroteno en la dieta de juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis inoculados con virus del síndrome de la mancha blanca (WSSV. Se colocaron grupos de 30 camarones (peso 1 ± 0,5 g en

  18. Papel da lipoperoxidação na intensificação da remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto Rol de la lipoperoxidación en la intensificación de la remodelación ocasionada por el betacaroteno tras infarto Role of lipoperoxidation in the remodeling intensification induced by beta-carotene after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S. Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle e BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control y BC (500mg/kg/dieta. Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5%. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control and BC (500mg/kg/regimen. After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5% significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001 and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61

  19. Isomerization of β-carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    2007-05-04

    May 4, 2007 ... 2Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Fu Jen University, Taipei, Taiwan 242 e-mail: vrshobana01@yahoo.co.in ... is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. It has received considerable attention in the ... shown that the con- sumption of fruits and vegetables high in carotenoid content can elevate ...

  20. Effect of processing on β-carotene levels in sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum, a staple food in Africa, does not contain adequate amounts of provitamin A carotenoids to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency which affects up to 31 million people on the continent1. One attempt to solve this problem is through...

  1. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene quantification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2012), s. 541-546 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * Microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * Biotechnology * Carotenoids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2012

  2. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, total phenolic compound and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, conventional oranges and strawberries fruits have greater counts of yeasts and mold than organic ones. Nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrites levels from organic production varied between 0.13 and 0.16 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 0.20 to 0.25 ...

  3. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil Influência do método de extração e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenóides do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.Este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenoides totais do óleo de pequi (OP obtido por diferentes métodos de extração, bem como avaliar a conservação dessas propriedades e dos pigmentos durante o armazenamento. O OP foi obtido por extração com solventes, extração mecânica e flotação com água quente, e armazenado por 180 dias em frascos âmbar sob condições ambientes. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos índices de acidez, peróxido, saponificação e iodo, da coloração e do teor de carotenoides totais e de β-carotenos. Verificou-se que a extração com solventes promoveu um maior rendimento em óleo e o maior valor de carotenoides totais. A extração mecânica resultou em um óleo com acidez (5,44 mg KOH.g-1 e índice de peróxido (1,07 mEq.kg-1 elevados. Ao longo do armazenamento do OP, houve aumento da

  4. Volume 10 No. 6 June 2010 2629 ß-CAROTENE, IRON AND ZINC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... Nutritional disorders due to inadequate intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc in the East. African region are unusually ... vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are documented in the east and central African ..... 29. FAO/WHO. Requirements of vitamin A, iron, folate and vitamin B12. Report.

  5. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... of carotenoid supplementation and spinach intake on erythrocyte enzyme antioxidant activities, serum or plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations, and concentrations of oxidatively damaged amino acids in plasma; Subjects received for 3 wk a basic diet (n = 10), a basic diet with a carotenoid supplement (n...

  6. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Gupta, S.; Ghosh, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2%) from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk). The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano...

  7. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    into ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively...

  9. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...... with the control group. Consumption of the carotenoid supplement led to lower alpha-tocopherol responses (P = 0.02) compared with the basic diet only. Our data suggest that the short-term changes in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration can be attributed...

  10. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies in older adults and animals have suggested contrasting relations between bone health and different vitamin A compounds. To our knowledge, the associations between maternal vitamin A status and offspring bone development have not previously been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We examin...

  11. Effect of β-carotene integration to Italian trotter mares in peripartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Falaschini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy trotter horses begin racing activity in the summer, two years after their birth year, so that the foals born in the first months of the year are better developed than those born in late spring-summer. As it is known, mares are characterised by an oestrus cyclic activity, which founds its best time in spring. The management of trotter mares tries to anticipate the foaling at first months of the year and therefore the next oestrus cycle, too...

  12. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Al-Babili, S; Klöti, A; Zhang, J; Lucca, P; Beyer, P; Potrykus, I

    2000-01-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.

  13. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    tendency, but due to few observations no final conclusions could be drawn: •For grass–clover silage there were generally no losses of vitamins during the ensiling process and during storage, but there were huge variations between farms. •For wholecrop silage there was a loss of vitamins during the ensiling...

  14. Losses in β-carotene and vitamin C due to frying of plantain (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Market were used in the study. The plantain variety has a yellow pulp and in Cameroon, it is used regularly to make chips. Unriped Plantains (green stage) collected from the market were divided in two parts. The first part was used immediately and the second part stored in the laboratory until they were ripe ...

  15. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a solution to overcome

  16. Effect of salinity on cell growth and β-carotene production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urmia Lake, the second largest hyper-saline lake by area in the world, has fluctuated in salinity over time, but recently, it has reached a maximum of 360 g/l. Dunaliella is a type of halophile green-orange microalgae especially found in lake and salty fields and is known for its antioxidant activity; because of its ability to create ...

  17. Twisting a Beta-Carotene, an Adaptive Trick from Nature for Dissipating Energy during Photoprotection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manuel J. Llansola-Portoles, M.J.; Sobotka, Roman; Kish, E.; Shukla, M.K.; Pascal, A.A.; Polívka, T.; Robert, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 4 (2017), s. 1396-1403 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13967S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : LIGHT-HARVESTING COMPLEX * RESONANCE RAMAN-SPECTRA * PHOTOSYSTEM-II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  18. Mango variation in vitamin C and beta carotene with cultivar and country of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos (Mangifera indica) are a traditional fruit in the Caribbean countries and Southeast Asia, but have been imported in to the U.S. on a large scale only in the last few years. Fruit of cultivars ‘Ataulfo,' ‘Kent,’ ‘Tommy Atkins,’ ‘Keitt,’ and ‘Haden’ were obtained from shipments from Mexico, Pe...

  19. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents of forage species in four-cut system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, H.; Nadeau, A.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    . Plots were fertilized with cattle slurry and harvested in a four-cut system: 30 May/7 June, 5 July/12 July, 22 August/21 August and 24 October/9 October in 2005/2006. Bft was the legume with the highest α-tocopherol concentration in most harvests [86 mg kg−1 dry matter (DM) averaged over all harvests...

  20. Cloning and expression of a ζ-carotene desaturase gene from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a sin- ... pigments, providing distinct colours and nutritional quality to flowers ... In bacteria and fungi, these sequential desaturations were achieved by a single gene product, CRTI, while in cyanobacteria and higher plants, two related enzymes, phytoene ...

  1. Vitaminas antioxidantes, carotenóides, polifenóis e envelhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Sílvia Nerantzoulis da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Geriatria), apresentado á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra A Teoria do Stress Oxidativo parece ser a que mais consenso reúne entre os gerontologistas como teoria explicativa do Envelhecimento. Ainda não existe um conhecimento verdadeiramente clarificado acerca dos mecanismos químicos e biológicos inerentes à interação dos antioxidantes com o organismo. Estudos indicam que níveis séricos reduzidos de vitaminas antioxidantes e...

  2. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Gupta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2% from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk. The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano-capsules could be achieved using isabgol fiber as encapsulant. However it was observed that the nano-capsules followed a non-Fickian diffusion pattern. Good DPPH-radical scavenging and metal-chelation activities were observed for encapsulated carotenoids. Shelf-life studies showed that the nano-capsules gradually degraded at 97% relative humidity, as the moisture-induced rancidity was evidently not extensive.En el presente trabajo los carotenos fueron aislados (1,2% a partir de aceite de palma crudo y encapsulados con fibra de isabgol (cáscara de psyllium. La eficiencia de encapsulación fue 82,23±1,42 %. La morfología de las cápsulas mostró una textura áspera de la superficie con mínimos poros. La naturaleza amorfa de las nanocápsulas fue evidenciada a partir de patrones de difracción de rayos X. Los estudios de DSC mostraron una alta estabilidad térmica de las nanocápsulas entre 20–120 °C. En los estudios de liberación in vitro se vió que la liberación controlada de las nanocápsulas se podría lograr mediante fibra isabgol como encapsulante. Sin embargo se observó que las nanocápsulas siguieron un patrón de difusión no- Fickian. Se observaron buenas actividades DPPH captadoras de radicales y actividades de quelación de metal para carotenoides encapsulados. Los estudios sobre la vida útil mostraron que las nanocápsulas se degradan gradualmente con una humedad relativa del 97%, y aunque la humedad indujo el enranciamiento, este hecho no se puede generalizar.

  3. Effect of maize intercrop plant densities on yield and β-carotene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas L.) and quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) in combating vitamin A and protein malnutrition, small land holdings by rural poor farmers still limit the crops' overall production in Africa. As such, intercropping and optimum plant ...

  4. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a

  5. Screening for Total Carotenoids and β-Carotene in Some Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machinery and protect them against photo-damage. (Alexander, 1999). Carotenoids are notable for their wide distribution, structural diversity, and of various ... Squash (Curcurbita moschata), Spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus), Tomatoe (Lycopersicon esculentum) and. Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) were purchased from.

  6. Cloning and expression of a ζ-carotene desaturase gene from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... in a similarly digested pET-28a(+) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad,. USA) to form the recombinant plasmid pET-28a-LcZDS carrying a 6× His-tag at the N-terminal. E. coli BL21 transformed with pET-28a-LcZDS was grown in liquid LB medium selected by 100 mg/L kanamycin at 37◦C, with agitation (180 rpm), until it ...

  7. Room temperature photooxidation of beta-carotene and peripheral chlorophyll in photosystem II reaction centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Vácha, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2008), s. 179-187 ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : photosystem II Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2008

  8. Absorption of beta-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review available information on absorption and further metabolism of different carotenoids in man and to discuss animal models and approaches in the study of carotenoid absorption and metabolism in man. Conclusions: Humans appear to absorb various carotenoids in a relatively

  9. Beta-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll-c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alster, J.; Polívka, Tomáš; Arellano, J.B.; Chábera, P.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 90-97 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorosomes * energy transfer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  10. The path from beta-Carotene to Carlactone, a Strigolactone-Like Plant Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alder, J.; Jamil, M.; Marzorati, M.; Bruno, F.; Bigler, J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beyer, P.; Al-Babili, S.

    2012-01-01

    Strigolactones, phytohormones with diverse signaling activities, have a common structure consisting of two lactones connected by an enol-ether bridge. Strigolactones derive from carotenoids via a pathway involving the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 and 8 (CCD7 and CCD8) and the iron-binding

  11. Identification of quantitative trait Loci for dry-matter, starch, and ß-carotene content in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes (OFSP) is essential for the improvement of the food supply and nutritional status of millions of people in developing countries, particularly in sub Saharan Africa. However, sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] breeding is challenging due to its genetic ...

  12. an Ascor nd mic rbic ac crobiol citru cid, β-c logical us and caroten l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    al quality of ques to see tratable acid ges and stra as found in otal phenol production. ones. Compa erries fruit sh al oranges an were detect d 0.16 mg/k. 25 mg/kg FW al quality we not pronounc. , strawberry, y and ing ent ntal organ more and F secto. : +20 3 590851 access under th. Afric tal phe organic grown aa M. Hass.

  13. Isotopic tracer techniques for studying the bioavailabitity and bioefficacy of dietary carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene, in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; West, C.E.; Breemen, van R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in many developing countries. Provitamin A carotenoids in fruit and vegetables are the major source of vitamin A for a large proportion of the world's population. However, the contribution of plant foods is substantial only when both the consumption

  14. Genetic mapping of a major co-dominant QTL associated with beta-carotene accumulation in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common flesh color of commercially grown watermelon is red due to the accumulation of lycopene. However, natural variation in carotenoid composition that exists among heirloom and exotic accessions, results in a wide spectrum of flesh colors. We previously identified a unique orange-flesh waterm...

  15. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition.

  16. [Probiotic features of carotene producing strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, L V; Nechypurenko, O O; Kharhota, M A

    2015-01-01

    Researched probiotic properties of carotinproducing strains Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113. It was established that Bacillus sp. 1.1 characterized by high and middle antagonistic activity against museums and actual test cultures and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 shown middle and low activity. They grew up and formed a pigment at pH 6.0 in the presence of 0.4% bile. Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 were avirulent, had low antagonistic activity and characterized by susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, excluding colistin. The results suggested the possibility to create based on Bacillus sp. 1.1 and B. amyloliquefaciens UCM B-5113 probiotic preparation.

  17. The effects of supraphysiological supplementation of b-carotene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and SHR-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Karlos Alvim Fiorelli

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effect of administration of supraphysiological âcaroteno on biological parameters (ectoscopy and blood pressure, laboratory (malondialdehyde and histological (liver and carotid arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats prone to stroke (SHR-sp.Methods: we used 36 male rats were divided into three groups, each containing 12 rats Wistar, SHR and SHR-sp, subdivided into six control animals and six animals treated with supraphysiological doses of âcaroteno for two periods of ten weeks interspersed with one week interruption. In the experiment were assessed daily physical examination and blood pressure (plethysmography. At sacrifice, blood was collected for measurement of serum malondialdehyde, liver and carotid arteries for histological examination.Results: temporary change in color of the fur, decreased significantly (p<0.0001 blood pressure (20mg supplementation âcaroteno and serum levels of malondialdehyde (p<0.05 and increased amount of elastic fibers in the carotid wall of SHR and SHR-sp.Conclusion: supplementation of supraphysiological âcaroteno caused no toxic effects, showed positive response in the modulation of blood pressure and lower serum malondialdehyde. No significant morphological changes were found in both groups, except an increase in the number of elastic fibers in the muscle layer carotid suggesting elastosis in SHR and SHR-sp.

  18. Effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH3HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of alpha......Cl/l of drinking water. High dietary alpha-tocopherol protected against CH3HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the alpha-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH3HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, alpha...

  19. Electric field effects on red chlorophylls, b-carotenes and P700 in cyanobacterial photosystem I complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Palacios, M.A.; Azzizi, A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Kruip, J.; Rögner, M.; Karapetyan, N.V.; Schlodder, E.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have probed the absorption changes due to an externally applied electric field (Stark effect) of Photosystem I (PSI) core complexes from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis. The results reveal that the so-called C719 chlorophylls in S.

  20. An intramolecular charge transfer state of carbonyl carotenoids: implications for excited state dynamics of apo-carotenals and retinal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kaligotla, S.; Chábera, P.; Frank, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 22 (2011), s. 1463-9076 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoid * retinal * excited-state dynamics * charge-transfer state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  1. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of varieties and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, B-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy Brassica crops: collard (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard (B. juncea L.) and turnip (B. rapa) greens are important commercial and culinary vegetables; especially in the southern United States. However, almost no information on essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit...

  2. Development of Biofortified Maize Hybrids through Marker-Assisted Stacking of β-Carotene Hydroxylase, Lycopene-ε-Cyclase and Opaque2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjare, Rajkumar U.; Hossain, Firoz; Muthusamy, Vignesh; Baveja, Aanchal; Chauhan, Hema S.; Bhat, Jayant S.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Saha, Supradip; Gupta, Hari S.

    2018-01-01

    Traditional yellow maize though contains high kernel carotenoids, the concentration of provitamin A (proA) is quite low (RPG) among selected backcross progenies ranged from 89 to 93%. Introgressed progenies possessed high concentration of proA (7.38–13.59 μg/g), compared to 1.65–2.04 μg/g in the recurrent parents. The reconstituted hybrids showed an average of 4.5-fold increase in proA with a range of 9.25–12.88 μg/g, compared to original hybrids (2.14–2.48 μg/g). Similar plant-, ear-, and grain- characteristics of improved versions of both inbreds and hybrids were observed when evaluated with their respective original versions. Mean lysine (0.334%) and tryptophan (0.080%) of the improved hybrids were at par with the original versions (lysine: 0.340%, tryptophan: 0.083%). Improved hybrids also possessed similar grain yield potential (6,301–8,545 kg/ha) with their original versions (6,135–8,479 kg/ha) evaluated at two locations. This is the first study of staking crtRB1-, lcyE-, and o2-, favorable alleles in single genetic background. The improved inbreds can be effectively used as potential donor for independent and/or simultaneous introgression of crtRB1, lcyE, and o2 in the future breeding programme. These biofortified maize hybrids, rich in proA, lysine and tryptophan will hold great promise for nutritional security. PMID:29515602

  3. Controlled release of B-carotene in B-lactoglobulin-dextran conjugates nanoparticles in vitro digestion and the transport with Caco-2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan–tripolyphosphate nanoparticles have been extensively studied during the last decade because of their numerous applications. In this study, we describe conditions to optimize chitosan nanoparticles as potential nano-fillers in edible films. The ionic cross-linking between the cationic amino ...

  4. Development of Biofortified Maize Hybrids through Marker-Assisted Stacking of β-Carotene Hydroxylase, Lycopene-ε-CyclaseandOpaque2Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunjare, Rajkumar U; Hossain, Firoz; Muthusamy, Vignesh; Baveja, Aanchal; Chauhan, Hema S; Bhat, Jayant S; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Saha, Supradip; Gupta, Hari S

    2018-01-01

    Traditional yellow maize though contains high kernel carotenoids, the concentration of provitamin A (proA) is quite low (RPG) among selected backcross progenies ranged from 89 to 93%. Introgressed progenies possessed high concentration of proA (7.38-13.59 μg/g), compared to 1.65-2.04 μg/g in the recurrent parents. The reconstituted hybrids showed an average of 4.5-fold increase in proA with a range of 9.25-12.88 μg/g, compared to original hybrids (2.14-2.48 μg/g). Similar plant-, ear-, and grain- characteristics of improved versions of both inbreds and hybrids were observed when evaluated with their respective original versions. Mean lysine (0.334%) and tryptophan (0.080%) of the improved hybrids were at par with the original versions (lysine: 0.340%, tryptophan: 0.083%). Improved hybrids also possessed similar grain yield potential (6,301-8,545 kg/ha) with their original versions (6,135-8,479 kg/ha) evaluated at two locations. This is the first study of staking crtRB1 -, lcyE -, and o2 -, favorable alleles in single genetic background. The improved inbreds can be effectively used as potential donor for independent and/or simultaneous introgression of crtRB1, lcyE , and o2 in the future breeding programme. These biofortified maize hybrids, rich in proA, lysine and tryptophan will hold great promise for nutritional security.

  5. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    plantain ( Plantago lanceolata )) and three legume species (yellow sweet clover ( Melilotus officinalis ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ))] and a perennial ryegrass-white clover mixture were investigated in a cutting trial with four harvests (May-October) during...

  6. Fatores que influenciam a reação de saponificação dos carotenóides presentes no urucum (Bixa orellana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Pollyanna Ibrahim; Nachtigall,Aline Manke; Stringheta,Paulo César

    2009-01-01

    Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de KOH (0,6%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% e 5%) e temperatura de extração (25ºC, 50°C, 60°C e 70°C) na reação de saponificação dos principais pigmentos de urucum. O progresso da reação foi acompanhado pela quantificação do teor de bixina e de norbixina por meio de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). A maior concentração de base propiciou a maior conversão de bixina em norbixina (KOH 5% - bixina: 0,44 g.1...

  7. Influence of maturity at harvest, N fertiliser and postharvest storage on dry matter, ascorbic acid and B-carotene contents of vegetable amaranth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Harbinson, J.; Imungi, J.K.; Kooten, van O.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable amaranth is a leafy vegetable traditionally grown in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where it is the most consumed traditional vegetable. It is considered to have high nutritional quality, containing relatively large amounts of vitamins A and C. We have assessed the influence of the maturity

  8. Controlled release of B-carotene in B-lactoglobulin-dextran conjugates nanoparticles in vitro digestion and the transport with Caco-2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undesirable aggregation of nanoparticles stabilized by proteins may may occur at the protein’s isoelectric point when the particle has zero net charge. Aggregation may be reduced bychanging the isoelectric point by conjugation of free amino groups with reducing sugars (Maillard reaction). Alternativ...

  9. Annato extract and β-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rossoni-Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Araújo, Glaucy Rodrigues; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2011-01-01

    Annatto has been identified asecarotenoids that havetantioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body’s defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessivel...

  10. High education is associated with low fat and high fibre, beta-carotene and vitamin C - Computation of nutrient intake based on a short food frequency questionnaire in 17,265 men and women in the Tromsø Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Koster Jacobsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTEducational level has been correlated to the intake of several nutrients. In a population-based studyincluding 17,265 men and women aged 25-69 years, the intake of nutrients were calculated based on 37questions about food habits. In this paper, we present results from the dietary survey with emphasis onthe relationships between dietary habits and educational level. Compared to subjects with low formaleducation, subjects with high educational level have less fat in their diet and more dietary fibre, betacarotene,vitamin C and alcohol (p-value for linear trend is associated with healthy food habits and relatively higher alcohol consumption. There is a need forefforts in order to change the food habits of the less educated.NORSK SAMMENDRAGPersoner med lang utdanning har ofte et bedre kosthold enn personer med kortere utdanning. I denneundersøkelsen har vi estimert inntaket av en rekke næringsstoffer basert på 37 spørsmål om kostvanersom ble stilt til personer som tok del i Tromsø-IV-undersøkelsen (1994/95. Vår studie inkluderer 17 265menn og kvinner i Tromsø i alderen 25-69 år. Vi presenterer resultater fra denne kostholdsundersøkelsenmed vekt på relasjoner mellom kostvaner og utdanningslengde. Sammenlignet med personer med kortformell utdanning, har personer med lang utdanning mindre fett i kosten og høyere inntak av fiber, betakaroten,vitamin C og alkohol (p helsemessig gunstigere kosthold, men et høyere alkoholinntak, enn personer med kort utdanning.Funnene understreker behovet for målrettede tiltak for å utjevne sosiale forskjeller i kostvaner i Norge.

  11. Carotenóides: propriedades, aplicações e biotransformação para formação de compostos de aroma Carotenoids: properties, applications and biotransformation in flavor compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Uenojo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, providing yellow, orange or red color in a great number of vegetables, microorganisms and in some animals. Carotenoids act as biological antioxidants and seem to play an important role in human health by protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Several authors describe the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids in flavor compounds as occuring through chemical or photochemical degradations or through biotechnological processes. Biotransformation of carotenoids seems to be a reasonable alternative to produce flavor compounds since these compounds are considered 'natural' ingredients. In this work we describe the properties of some carotenoids, as well as biotechnological approaches to obtain its oxyfunctionalized derivatives.

  12. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  13. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K

    2012-01-01

    - or three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...

  14. Fatores que influenciam a reação de saponificação dos carotenóides presentes no urucum (Bixa orellana L. Factors that influence saponification reaction in annatto (Bixa orellana L. carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Ibrahim Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de KOH (0,6%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% e 5% e temperatura de extração (25ºC, 50°C, 60°C e 70°C na reação de saponificação dos principais pigmentos de urucum. O progresso da reação foi acompanhado pela quantificação do teor de bixina e de norbixina por meio de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. A maior concentração de base propiciou a maior conversão de bixina em norbixina (KOH 5% - bixina: 0,44 g.100g-1, norbixina: 1,43 g.100g-1 e com a menor concentração não ocorreu conversão (KOH 0,6% - bixina: 2,00 g.100g-1, norbixina: não detectada. A elevação da temperatura de extração esteve associada à redução do teor de bixina no meio e ao aumento do teor de norbixina (T70°C - bixina: 0,01 g.100g-1, norbixina: 2,34 g.100g-1; T25ªC - bixina: 1,04 g.100g-1, norbixina: 0,78 g.100g-1. Sendo assim, para extração de bixina seria recomendado o uso de soluções alcalinas pouco concentradas, ao passo que para a obtenção do pigmento hidrossolúvel são aconselhadas concentrações mais elevadas, podendo estar associadas a aquecimento.This research aimed to evaluate the effect of different KOH concentrations (0.6%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% and extraction temperature (25ºC, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the progress of saponification reaction in annatto pigments. The progress of the reaction was monitored by quantification of bixin and norbixin using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The highest alkali concentration made possible the maximum conversion of bixin into norbixin (KOH 5% - bixin: 0.44 g.100g-1, norbixin: 1.43 g.100g-1 and using the lowest concentration, saponification didn't take place (KOH 0.6% - bixin: 2.00 g.100g-1, norbixin: not detected. The elevation of extraction temperature was associated to a decrease of bixin content and to an increase of norbixin content (T70°C - bixin: 0.01 g.100g-1, norbixin: 2.34 g.100g-1; T25ºC - bixin: 1.04 g.100g-1, norbixin: 0.78 g.100g-1. Therefore, for the extraction of bixin is recommended to use alkaline solutions in low concentrations. To obtain the hydrossoluble pigment, higher concentrations are suggested, and they could be associated to heating.

  15. Novo método para obtenção de hidrolisado protéico, cálcio, quitina, carotenóides e glicosaminoglicanos de cabeças de camarão

    OpenAIRE

    CAHÚ, Thiago Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a indústria pesqueira brasileira tem vivenciado um período importante de desenvolvimento. Mas, juntamente com o crescimento na produção, temse o aumento da quantidade de resíduos gerados no processamento do pescado, que usualmente são descartados no ambiente, causando poluição. Os resíduos do processamento são constituídos por cabeças, carcaças e vísceras de peixes, cabeças e cascas de crustáceos e fauna acompanhante, e podem representar de 20 a 70% do pesc...

  16. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Jun Cao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene cyclases cyclize the open ends of acyclic lycopene (ψ,ψ-carotene into β- or ε-ionone rings in the crucial bifurcation step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Among all carotenoid constituents, β-carotene (β,β-carotene is found in all photosynthetic organisms, except for purple bacteria and heliobacteria, suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of lycopene β-cyclase activity in these organisms. In this work, we isolated a gene (BfLCYB encoding a lycopene β-cyclase from Bangia fuscopurpurea, a red alga that is considered to be one of the primitive multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and accumulates carotenoid constituents with both β- and ε-rings, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin, α-carotene (β,ε-carotene and lutein. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli demonstrated that BfLCYB is able to catalyze cyclization of lycopene into monocyclic γ-carotene (β,ψ-carotene and bicyclic β-carotene, and cyclization of the open end of monocyclic δ-carotene (ε,ψ-carotene to produce α-carotene. No ε-cyclization activity was identified for BfLCYB. Sequence comparison showed that BfLCYB shares conserved domains with other functionally characterized lycopene cyclases from different organisms and belongs to a group of ancient lycopene cyclases. Although B. fuscopurpurea also synthesizes α-carotene and lutein, its enzyme-catalyzing ε-cyclization is still unknown.

  17. Serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and lung function among Dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Waart, de F.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins (provitamins) may protect against loss of lung function over time. We studied the association between serum carotenoids (-carotene, -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein), -tocopherol, and lung function among noninstitutionalized Dutch elderly age 65 to 85

  18. Degradative pro-vitamin A active compounds of all- trans -&beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b-carotene undergoing isomerization and oxidation to produce cis isomers and monoepoxides of b-carotene, which are pro-vitamin A active, and some volatile compounds. The isomerization process results in the reduction of the relative ...

  19. Carotenoids in the cells of the alga Trentepohlia gobii Meyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Column-, and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the cells of the species Trentepohlia gobii Meyer from cobbles in the river Urmi in the Badzhal mountains of Khabarovsk Territory in the Far East: ß, ß-carotene, ß, ε-carotene, ß, ß-carotene-2-ol, ß, ε-carotene-2-ol, ß, ß-carotene-2, 2'-diol, 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-ß, ß-carotene-2-ol, 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-ß, ε-carotene-2-ol and 5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-ß, ß-carotene-2,2'-diol.

  20. Influence of mineral medium components - calcium, phosphorus and potasium - on carotenoid biosynthesis in the alga Scenedesmus acuminatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sykuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From the alga Scenedesmus acuminatus 10 carotenoids were isolated: α-carotene, β-carotene, neo-β-carotene, lutein, lutein-5,6-epoxide, violaxanthine, loroxanthine, neoxanthine, antheraxanthine and from old algae - echinenone. Algae cultured on calcium-free medium contained about 60 (per cent cartoenoids less than those from medium with Ca(NO32.

  1. Volume 10 No. 8 August 2010 3015 CHANGES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... of beta carotene, an important provitamin A carotenoid. Stored sweet potato roots undergo many physiological changes that affect their beta carotene content and bioaccessibility as well as the tissue microstructure. This study investigated the changes in microstructure, beta carotene content and in vitro ...

  2. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXXII. Carotenoids occurring in the thalli of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cartenoids in nineteen species of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa was studied by column and thinlayer chromatography. This investigations revealed the presence of the following carotenoids: neurosporene, α-carotene, β-carotene, rubixanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, torularhodin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, echinenone, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, β-carotene epoxide, antheraxanthin, lutein epoxide, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, flavoxanthin, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-apo-10'-carotenal and apo-12'-violaxanthal. Five of these, torularhodin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal and β-apo-10'-carotenal, are reported for the first time from lichens. The total carotenoid content of the material ranged from 15.88 (Pyxine cocoes to 135.44 µg g-1 dry weight (Telaschistes chrysophthalmus.

  3. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    OpenAIRE

    Mara N.G. Santos; Joice V.C. Orsine; Alexandre I. de A. Pereira; Roberto Cañete; María R.C.G. Novaes

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck (BDB) in nature and processed. Method...

  4. Degradative pro-vitamin A active compounds of all- trans -&beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) are rich source of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, with all-trans-b-carotene as the main compound contributing over 90% of the vitamin A content. The other pro-vitamin A carotenoids present in DGLV are the cis isomers of b-carotene; the 9-cis and the 13-cis, and a-carotene in some ...

  5. Adição de carotenóides naturais e artificiais na alimentação de galinhas poedeiras: efeitos na qualidade de ovos frescos e armazenados Addition of natural and synthetic carotenoids, in hen feed: effects in the egg quality and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar os atributos de qualidade e de durabilidade dos ovos de duas diferentes linhagens de poedeiras, com dietas contendo aditivos artificiais ou naturais, em diferentes períodos de armazenamento. Foram quantificadas durante o armazenamento as variáveis perda de peso, pH da gema e albúmen, gravidade específica, índice de gema (IG e foi realizada também classificação por peso e Unidade Haugh (UH. Os resultados foram avaliados segundo teste de Tukey (P≤0,05. As linhagens diferiram quanto à classificação extra dos ovos, com maior porcentagem para a Isa Brown. Os ovos obtidos das poedeiras Carijó apresentaram maior porcentagem de gema (Carijó 30,66 e Isa-Brown 24,55. O tempo de armazenamento fez com que a porcentagem de gema aumentasse nas duas linhagens (Carijó 30,66 tempo zero para 34,85 depois de 36 dias; e Isa- Brown de 24,55 para 27,48. As dietas com aditivos artificiais ou naturais não influenciaram a porcentagem de clara (% Clara 58,72 Controle; 59,52 Aditivo; 60,11 Urucum 1,5%; 59,43 e de gema %Gema 27,64 Controle; 27,90 Aditivo; 27,21 Urucum 1,5%; 27,66 Urucum 2%. O pH da clara diferiu entre os tratamentos no tempo inicial e aos 36 dias de armazenamento, mas o pH da gema não diferiu durante todo o armazenamento. O índice de gema diferiu nos tempos de armazenamento, mas não diferiu considerando os tratamentos. Em dietas com aditivos artificiais ou naturais, as linhagens e os tempos de armazenamento influenciam na qualidade e durabilidade dos ovos.The research has the aim of evaluating quality and durability attributes of eggs from two hens lines feed with and without natural or synthetics additives, at several storage periods. During storage, weight lost, albumen and yolk pH, specific gravity andyolk index (IG were quantified , as well as, weight classification and Haugh Unit (HU The results were analyzed by Tukey test (P≤0.05. Quality differences are bigger by lines and storage time and the extra classification of eggs were higher for Isa Brown. The egg of Carijó hens presented more yolk percentage (Carijó 30.66 e Isa-Brown 24.55. The storage higher increased yolk percentage (Carijó 30.66 time zero for 34.85 after 36 days; and Isa- Brown 24.55 for 27.48. Two lines diets with natural or synthetics additives didn't influence the white and yolk percentage (%white 58.72 Control; 59.52 Aditive; 60.11 Urucum 1.5%; 59.43 e de yolk and 27.64 Control; 27.90 Aditive; 27.21 Urucum 1.5%; 27.66 Urucum 2%. Clear pH differs among treatments at initial time and at 36 days of storage, but the yolk pH didn't chage during all storage. The yolk index differed in the storage time, but not at treatments. So, it's possible to concluded that diets with natural and synthetics additives, lines and storage times had influenced quality and durability attributes in the eggs.

  6. 78 FR 8040 - National Organic Program; Proposed Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... photosensitization. Carotenoids commonly exhibit antioxidant activity in food. In the human body, beta-carotene is... extraction from certain algae (Dunnaliella salina) and vegetables. Obtaining beta-carotene from natural sources generally involves propagation and harvest of the source and solvent extraction of the beta...

  7. Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables : individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Delaimy, WK; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Pala, [No Value; Johansson, [No Value; Nilsson, S; Mattisson, [No Value; Wirfalt, E; Galasso, R; Palli, D; Vineis, P; Tumino, R; Dorronsoro, M; Pera, G; Ocke, MC; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Overvad, K; Chirlaque, MAD; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Tjonneland, A; Olsen, A; Lund, E; Alsaker, EHR; Barricarte, A; Kesse, E; Boutron-Ruault, MC; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Key, TJ; Spencer, E; Bingham, S; Welch, AA; Sanchez-Perez, MJ; Nagel, G; Linseisen, J; Quiros, [No Value; Peeters, PHM; van Gils, CH; Boeing, H; van Kappel, AL; Steghens, JP; Riboli, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24- h dietary recall

  8. Intake of the major carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koushik, A.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Buring, J.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; Marshall, J.R.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Carotenoids, found in fruits and vegetables, have the potential to protect against cancer because of their properties, including their functions as precursors to vitamin A and as antioxidants. We examined the associations between intakes of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin

  9. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol,

  10. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Area covered by lycopene and β-carotene standards rep- resenting their concentration in μg/g fresh weight of tissue through. HPLC analysis of Pusa Rohini variety of tomato (shown by arrow mark on the peak in figure 1 in electronic supplementary material). Concentration. Lycopene std. β-carotene std. (in μg/g ...

  11. The Effect of Vitamin Supplementation on Oxidative Stress During Strenuous Cold Weather Training at Moderate Altitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Donald

    1999-01-01

    ...) 500 mg ascorbic acid; (2) 400 lU alpha-tocopherol; (3) 20,000 U Beta-carotene; (4) 500 mg ascorbic acid, 400 U alpha- tocopherol, 20,000 U Beta-carotene, 100 microng selenium, and 30 mg zinc; or (5...

  12. Regional heritability mapping provides insights into dry matter (DM) content in African white and yellow cassava populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HarvestPlus program for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fortifies cassava with beta-carotene by breeding for carotene-rich tubers (yellow cassava). However, a negative correlation between yellowness and dry matter (DM) content has been identified. Here, we investigated the genetic control of ...

  13. Volume 10 No. 5 May 2010 2587 EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... protein, crude fat, dietary fibre and micro nutrient determination of β-carotene, vitamin C and .... ones, it could explain why more β -carotene loss took place in sun-dried vegetables than solar dried ones. ... Traditional sun drying registered the highest loss of vitamin C in all dried samples probably because it ...

  14. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.

    1996-01-01

    The adipose tissue carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) and retinol levels and their predictors were determined in 686 male and 339 female middle-aged and elderly subjects from eight European countries and Israel during the years 1991 to 1992. Adipose tissue carotenoid levels in

  15. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R.; Watzl, B.; Bub, A.; Miller, E.R., III; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Pasman, W.J.; Hof, K. van het; Chopra, M.; Karlsen, A.; Dragsted, L.O.; Winkels, R.; Itsiopoulos, C.; Brazionis, L.; O'Dea, K.; Loo-Bouwman, C.A. van; Naber, T.H.J.; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C

  16. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

  17. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  18. 10428 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    beta carotene contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the level of substitution increased. The standard recorded ... Key words: Cookies, sweet potato, mango mesocarp, physical, Chemical, Sensory, Beta carotene ... baking powder and eggs were purchased from Wurukum Market, Makurdi, Benue State. Preparation of ...

  19. Composition and (in)homogeneity of carotenoid crystals in carrot cells revealed by high resolution Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maciej; Marzec, Katarzyna M.; Grzebelus, Ewa; Simon, Philipp W.; Baranska, Malgorzata; Baranski, Rafal

    2015-02-01

    Three categories of roots differing in both β/α-carotene ratio and in total carotenoid content were selected based on HPLC measurements: high α- and β-carotene (HαHβ), low α- and high β-carotene (LαHβ), and low α- and low β-carotene (LαLβ). Single carotenoid crystals present in the root cells were directly measured using high resolution Raman imaging technique with 532 nm and 488 nm lasers without compound extraction. Crystals of the HαHβ root had complex composition and consisted of β-carotene accompanied by α-carotene. In the LαHβ and LαLβ roots, measurements using 532 nm laser indicated the presence of β-carotene only, but measurements using 488 nm laser confirmed co-occurrence of xanthophylls, presumably lutein. Thus the results show that independently on carotenoid composition in the root, carotenoid crystals are composed of more than one compound. Individual spectra extracted from Raman maps every 0.2-1.0 μm had similar shapes in the 1500-1550 cm-1 region indicating that different carotenoid molecules were homogeneously distributed in the whole crystal volume. Additionally, amorphous carotenoids were identified and determined as composed of β-carotene molecules but they had a shifted the ν1 band probably due to the effect of bonding of other plant constituents like proteins or lipids.

  20. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Assam University, Silchar 788 011, India ... In this study, we quantified the β-carotene and lycopene content at green, breaker and red-ripe stages of .... Table 1. Genotypic differences in lycopene and β-carotene content of tomato during different stages of fruit ripening.

  1. Served versus actual nutrient intake of hospitalised patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    4 also illustrates that all male patients were consuming less than 67% of the beta- carotene and vitamin E recommended. For females, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C and vitamin K in both hospital food served and that consumed exceeded recommendations (Table III); beta- carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, ...

  2. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, M.G.; Oliveira, L.; Camoes, M.F.G.F.C.; Nunes, B.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the

  3. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  4. Adaption of an in vitro digestion method to screen carotenoid liberation and in vitro accessibility from differently processed spinach preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard; Luu, Amy Y; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    investigated. Lutein liberation and in vitro accessibility were three-fold higher from spinach puree compared to whole leaves. Results for β-carotene liberation were similar, whereas that of β-carotene accessibility was only about two-fold. Steaming had no or a negative effect on carotenoid liberation. Fat...

  5. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jacqueline A; Shipton, Catherine A; Chaggar, Sunandha; Howells, Rhian M; Kennedy, Mike J; Vernon, Gareth; Wright, Susan Y; Hinchliffe, Edward; Adams, Jessica L; Silverstone, Aron L; Drake, Rachel

    2005-04-01

    "Golden Rice" is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency, and it has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content. We hypothesized that the daffodil gene encoding phytoene synthase (psy), one of the two genes used to develop Golden Rice, was the limiting step in beta-carotene accumulation. Through systematic testing of other plant psys, we identified a psy from maize that substantially increased carotenoid accumulation in a model plant system. We went on to develop "Golden Rice 2" introducing this psy in combination with the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (crtI) used to generate the original Golden Rice. We observed an increase in total carotenoids of up to 23-fold (maximum 37 microg/g) compared to the original Golden Rice and a preferential accumulation of beta-carotene.

  6. LIKUIFASI ENZIMATIK β - KAROTEN SEBAGAI FUNCTIONAL FOOD YANG TERDAPAT DALAM POMACE DARI BUAH LABU KUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosa Herry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to separate the β carotene contained in pomace or pulp byproduct pumpkin fruit juicing process(Cucurbitae moschata is potential. The magnitude of benefit of β-carotene as a chemo preventive, high contentof β-carotene in pumpkin, strong pumpkin fruit shelf life and high content of β-carotene in the pomace, an initialconsideration of this research. β-Carotene enzmatik liquefaction using pectinase enzyme combination (P andcellulose (C, subject to the pomace. liquefaction / hydrolysis carried out in a stirred tank reactor to determine:the most influential variable ratio between enzyme ratio P: C; temperature and pH. Influential process variableswas determined using two-level factorial design method Quicker. From the experimental results of the data if itis known that the degree of acidity of pH is the single most influential variable in the process of β-caroteneliquefaction presents in pumpkin fruit pomace.

  7. On the substrate specificity of the rice strigolactone biosynthesis enzyme DWARF27

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2016-03-05

    Main conclusion: The β-carotene isomerase OsDWARF27 is stereo- and double bond-specific. It converts bicyclic carotenoids with at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring. OsDWARF27 may contribute to the formation of α-carotene-based strigolactone-like compounds.Strigolactones (SLs) are synthesized from all-trans-β-carotene via a pathway involving the β-carotene isomerase DWARF27, the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 and 8 (CCD7, CCD8), and cytochrome P450 enzymes from the 711 clade (MAX1 in Arabidopsis). The rice enzyme DWARF27 was shown to catalyze the reversible isomerization of all-trans- into 9-cis-β-carotene in vitro. β-carotene occurs in different cis-isomeric forms, and plants accumulate other carotenoids, which may be substrates of DWARF27. Here, we investigated the stereo and substrate specificity of the rice enzyme DWARF27 in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains and in in vitro assays performed with heterologously expressed and purified enzyme. Our results suggest that OsDWARF27 is strictly double bond-specific, solely targeting the C9–C10 double bond. OsDWARF27 did not introduce a 9-cis-double bond in 13-cis- or 15-cis-β-carotene. Substrates isomerized by OsDWARF27 are bicyclic carotenoids, including β-, α-carotene and β,β-cryptoxanthin, that contain at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring. Accordingly, OsDWARF27 did not produce the abscisic acid precursors 9-cis-violaxanthin or -neoxanthin from the corresponding all-trans-isomers, excluding a direct role in the formation of this carotenoid derived hormone. The conversion of all-trans-α-carotene yielded two different isomers, including 9′-cis-α-carotene that might be the precursor of strigolactones with an ε-ionone ring, such as the recently identified heliolactone. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  8. Why is golden rice golden (yellow) instead of red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

    2005-05-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of beta-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, beta-lycopene cyclase, and beta-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that beta-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, alpha/beta-lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or zeta-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are

  9. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, ζ-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, β-lycopene cyclase, and β-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that β-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, α/β-lycopene cyclase, β-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or ζ-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the β-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are discussed. PMID:15821145

  10. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  11. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  12. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  13. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  14. cDNA cloning of a novel gene codifying for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase from Ficus carica and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomás González

    2011-11-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (β-LCY) is the key enzyme that modifies the linear lycopene molecule into cyclic β-carotene, an indispensable carotenoid of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Owing to its antioxidant activity, it is commercially used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as well as an additive in foodstuffs. Therefore, β-carotene has a large share of the carotenoidic market. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to obtain and clone a cDNA copy of the gene Lyc-β from Ficus carica (Lyc-β Fc), which codes for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY). Expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a single polypeptide of 56 kDa of weight, containing 496 amino acids, that was able to cycle both ends of the lycopene chain. Amino acid analysis revealed that the protein contained several conserved plant cyclase motifs. β-LCY activity was revealed by heterologous complementation analysis, with lycopene being converted to β-carotene as a result of the enzyme's action. The β-LCY activity of the expressed protein was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identification of the β-carotene. The lycopene to β-carotene conversion rate was 90%. The experiments carried out in this work showed that β-LYC is the enzyme responsible for converting lycopene, an acyclic carotene, to β-carotene, a bicyclic carotene in F. carica. Therefore, by cloning and expressing β-LCY in E. coli, we have obtained a new gene for β-carotene production or as part of the biosynthetic pathway of astaxanthin. So far, this is the first and only gene of the carotenoid pathway identified in F. carica. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  15. Establishment of an Arabidopsis callus system to study the interrelations of biosynthesis, degradation and accumulation of carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Patrick; Rodriguez-Franco, Marta; Cazzonelli, Christopher Ian; Álvarez, Daniel; Wüst, Florian

    2018-01-01

    The net amounts of carotenoids accumulating in plant tissues are determined by the rates of biosynthesis and degradation. While biosynthesis is rate-limited by the activity of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), carotenoid losses are caused by catabolic enzymatic and non-enzymatic degradation. We established a system based on non-green Arabidopsis callus which allowed investigating major determinants for high steady-state levels of β-carotene. Wild-type callus development was characterized by strong carotenoid degradation which was only marginally caused by the activity of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases. In contrast, carotenoid degradation occurred mostly non-enzymatically and selectively affected carotenoids in a molecule-dependent manner. Using carotenogenic pathway mutants, we found that linear carotenes such as phytoene, phytofluene and pro-lycopene resisted degradation and accumulated while β-carotene was highly susceptible towards degradation. Moderately increased pathway activity through PSY overexpression was compensated by degradation revealing no net increase in β-carotene. However, higher pathway activities outcompeted carotenoid degradation and efficiently increased steady-state β-carotene amounts to up to 500 μg g-1 dry mass. Furthermore, we identified oxidative β-carotene degradation products which correlated with pathway activities, yielding β-apocarotenals of different chain length and various apocarotene-dialdehydes. The latter included methylglyoxal and glyoxal as putative oxidative end products suggesting a potential recovery of carotenoid-derived carbon for primary metabolic pathways. Moreover, we investigated the site of β-carotene sequestration by co-localization experiments which revealed that β-carotene accumulated as intra-plastid crystals which was confirmed by electron microscopy with carotenoid-accumulating roots. The results are discussed in the context of using the non-green calli carotenoid assay system for approaches targeting high

  16. Disponibilidade de carotenoides em relação a energia e proteinas nos domicilios de familias das regiões metropolitanas brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Maria Padovani

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: o presente trabalho visou analisar, em nove regiões metropolitanas e dois municípios brasileiros, a disponibilidade de carotenóides, particulannente em relação à energia e proteínas, utilizando-se para tanto os dados publicados nos documentos da POF 1995-1996. A base de dados do USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)-Release 14 foi utilizada para os cálculos referentes ao conteúdo de energia, proteínas e carotenóides (quando o teor de carotenóides de um gênero não era encontra...

  17. Excited-State Dynamics of Carotenoids Studied by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ingu; Pang, Yoonsoo; Lee, Sebok

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids, natural antenna pigments in photosynthesis share a symmetric backbone of conjugated polyenes. Contrary to the symmetric and almost planar geometries of carotenoids, excited state structure and dynamics of carotenoids are exceedingly complex. In this paper, recent infrared and visible transient absorption measurements and excitation dependent dynamics of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al and 7',7'-dicyano-7'-apo-β-carotene will be reviewed. The recent visible transient absorption measurements of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al in polar and nonpolar solvents will also be introduced to emphasize the complex excited-state dynamics and unsolved problems in the S 2 and S 1 excited states

  18. SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM QUANTITATIVE THING LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF CAROTENOID COMPOSITION OF TOMATOES SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of tomatoes carote-noid composition is considered to be the basis of tomato selection. Among known methods of identification and carotenoid content determination thing layer chromatography (TLC is characterized by inexpensive, quick and availab-le method of analysis. Comparison of individual tomato carotenoid content data obtained using wellknown empirical formulas and based of TLC separation on chromatoraphic paper was achieved. Empirical formulas for the determination of lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations were shown to give high variations in beta-carotene content and decreased values of total carotenoids concentration values. Developed conditions of chromatographic separation and identification of selected carotenoids are based on different polarity of individual pigments and specific absorption spectra of the latter. Method of thin layer chromatography may serve as a quick and effective method for quality evaluation of tomato fruit of different color and determination of beta-carotene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, lycopene and lutein content.

  19. Provitamin a activity of Brazilian carrots: leaves and roots, raw and cooked and their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo Almeida-Muradian

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine through carotenoid analysis, the provitamin A value of two carrots (Daucus carota L. cultivars (Brasilia and Beta3, leaves and roots, raw and submitted to two ways of cooking: boiling and microwave. Proximate analysis results are also presented for a better characterization of these vegetables (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fiber and total carbohydrates. The main carotenoids sources of provitamin A in this vegetable, both in leaves or roots was β-carotene and α-carotene. α-carotene shows half of the provitamin A value of β-carotene. Samples of the Brasilia cultivar presented the better provitamin A value both for leaves and roots. The results for raw samples of the Brasilia cultivar were 464.48 RE/100g for leaves and 606.42 RE/100g for roots. There were no significant losses of provitamin A with the boiling or microwave cooking methods used.

  20. Indigenous edible plants as sources of nutrients and health benefitting components (nutraceuticals)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, N

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Flavonoids Rutin Quercetin Resveratrol © CSIR 2010 Slide 7 Terpenoids (Carotenoids) Beta carotene Retinol (vitamin A) Lutein © CSIR 2010 Slide 8 Caffeine •Stimulant Beta-sitosterol •Cholesterol lowering Alkaloids and Phytosterols http...

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Canarium schweinfurthii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the -carotene bleaching test. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was employed as a positive control. The essential oil showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities, and it displayed ...

  2. Riboflavin and chlorophyll as photosensitizers in electroformed giant unilamellar vesicles as food models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hui Jing; Liang, Ran; du, Hui Hui

    2017-01-01

    for hydrophilic riboflavin, while lipophilic chlorophyll a initiated GUV budding and subsequent disintegration under light irradiation, indicating that lipophilic photosensitizers are the more important in such structured lipids. Lipophilic β-carotene provided protection against oxidative damage induced...

  3. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnesium Niacin (Vitamin B3) Potassium Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Selenium Sodium Vitamin A and Beta Carotene Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Zinc International Food Composition Resources Food FYI Fruits & Veggies-More Matters ...

  4. Effect of production site, storage duration, and hot water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ascorbic acid), β-carotene, polyphenols (e.g. flavonoids and flavonones, viz. hesperidin and naringin) have antioxidant properties and their presence in the citrus flavedo plays a significant role in mitigating oxidative stress, which could possibly result ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahdi

    2013-06-26

    drying; OVD = oven-drying; STM = steaming. Table 3. Vitamin composition in differently processed G. Latifoluim leaves. Processing. Method. Vitamin Composition (mg/100 g). B-carotene. Pro-VitaminA. Thiamine. (VitaminB1).

  6. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutrients and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The leaves (Ocimum gratissmium and Lasianthera africana) were randomly obtained from Umuahia Main Market and Uyo Central Market, respectively. ... Keywords: Phytochemicals, Ocimum gratissmium, Lasianthera africana proximate composition, mineral composition, Beta-carotene, Vitamin C ...

  7. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotene increased the risk of lung cancer among smokers. The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial ( ... treatment, such as bamboo extract, grape seed extract, white tea, red ginseng, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) ...

  8. RESULTS OF THE SELECTION OF BREEDING SAMPLES OF CARROT BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Cherkasova; O. N. Shabetya

    2014-01-01

    12 samples of carrot were analyzed for biochemical components in roots. 5 genotypes with high content of vitamin C, β-carotene, and total sugar were selected as genetic sources of high biochemical components.

  9. 7 CFR 94.102 - Analyses available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... analyses for total ash, fat by acid hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene, catalase... glycol, SLS, and zeolex. There are also be tests for starch, total sugars, sugar profile, whey, standard...

  10. Estudos com carotenoides de leveduras do genero Rhodotorula : desenvolvimento de metodo analitico, influencia de inibidores e cultivo em meio alternativo a base de caldo de cana-de-açucar

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Marcio Squina

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: Os carotenóides compõem um grupo de pigmentos naturais amplamente distribuídos na natureza com grande diversidade de estruturas e funções. O interesse pelos carotenóides tem aumentado onsideravelmente nos últimos anos, havendo uma potencial demanda por fontes naturais destes compostos nas indústrias de alimentos, farmacêutica e cosmética. As principais fontes industriais de carotenóides são a síntese química e a extração a partir de plantas, porém são poucos os carotenóides que possue...

  11. Environ: E00772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00772 Marigold Medicinal herb Carotene, Xanthophyll, Taraxasterol [CPD:C08636], Q...uercetin [CPD:C00389], Amaroid, Polysaccharide [CPD:C00420], Essential ... oil Calendula officinalis [TAX:41496] ... Asteraceae Marigold flower ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: xeroderma pigmentosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes. These abnormalities can include hearing loss, poor coordination, difficulty walking, movement problems, loss of intellectual function, ... Carotene Xeroderma Pigmentosum Society, Inc.: Ultraviolet Radiation and Protection General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  13. A Health and Environmental Effects Data Base Assessment of U.S. Army Waste Material, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-04

    the tomato (Lcopersicon esculentam Kill) (15). C2. Uptake - Data not available C3. Metabolism -- Diphenylamine has been shown to be an effective...inhibitor of overall carotene synthesis in a soluble tomato plastid enzyme system; and in pumpkin cotyledons, the compound also reduced carotene...of a new electrochemical detector for GC that uses a pyrolysis furnace to decompose halogenated compounds with analysis via a potentiometric chloride

  14. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 CruA (sll0147) encodes lycopene cyclase and requires bound chlorophyll a for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-03-01

    The genome of the model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, encodes two paralogs of CruA-type lycopene cyclases, SynPCC7002_A2153 and SynPCC7002_A0043, which are denoted cruA and cruP, respectively. Unlike the wild-type strain, a cruA deletion mutant is light-sensitive, grows slowly, and accumulates lycopene, γ-carotene, and 1-OH-lycopene; however, this strain still produces β-carotene and other carotenoids derived from it. Expression of cruA from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (cruA 6803 ) in Escherichia coli strains that synthesize either lycopene or γ-carotene did not lead to the synthesis of either γ-carotene or β-carotene, respectively. However, expression of this orthologous cruA 6803 gene (sll0147) in the Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cruA deletion mutant produced strains with phenotypic properties identical to the wild type. CruA 6803 was purified from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 by affinity chromatography, and the purified protein was pale yellow-green due to the presence of bound chlorophyll (Chl) a and β-carotene. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the partly purified protein in the presence of lithium dodecylsulfate at 4 °C confirmed that the protein was yellow-green in color. When purified CruA 6803 was assayed in vitro with either lycopene or γ-carotene as substrate, β-carotene was synthesized. These data establish that CruA 6803 is a lycopene cyclase and that it requires a bound Chl a molecule for activity. Possible binding sites for Chl a and the potential regulatory role of the Chl a in coordination of Chl and carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  15. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  16. Effect of incorporation of pumpkin (Cucurbita moshchata) powder and guar gum on the rheological properties of wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Himani; Grewal, Raj Bala; Goyal, Ankit; Upadhyay, Neelam; Prakash, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to study the effect of incorporation of fibre rich pumpkin powder and guar gum on the farinographic characteristics of wheat flour. The flour and pumpkin powder were assessed for proximate composition, total dietary fibre, minerals and β-carotene. Pumpkin powder contained appreciable amount of fibre, minerals and β-carotene. The effects of incorporation of different levels of pumpkin powder and guar gum along with pumpkin powder on farinographic characteristi...

  17. Identification and Quantification of Major Carotenoids in Some Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar M. EL-Qudah

    2009-01-01

    An HPLC study of 6 raw vegetables (Okra, green beans, eggplant zucchini, carrot and tomato) most frequently consumed worldwide was carried out to determine their carotenoid composition. The samples were purchased from supermarket in the city of Boston, USA. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin and lutein were contained in all samples except tomato for neoxanthin, carrot and tomato for violaxanthin and carrot for lutein. β-carotene was contained in all samples while α-carotene was contained only...

  18. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN ION LOGAM Cu2+ TERHADAP PRODUKSI ??-KAROTEN OLEH FITOPLANKTON

    OpenAIRE

    Asyhari, Muh. Hasriandy

    2015-01-01

    Research about ???the influence of Cu2+ metal ion addition toward ??-carotene production from phytoplankton Isochrysis aff. galbana??? had been done. Phytoplankton were cultured with addition of Cu2+ metal ion in various concentrations. Analysis method was carried out by the sonication extraction in the lysis cell of phytoplankton biomass, infra red (IR) to find out the interaction of metal ion and UV/VIS spectrophotometer to determine ??-carotene concentration. The result showed that intera...

  19. Lipophilic antioxidant activity of guava fruit varieties Palmira ICA I, Regional Roja and Regional Blanca in four ripening stages

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Espinal R; Jorge Iván Daza A; Luz Patricia Restrepo S

    2012-01-01

    We determined the lipophilic antioxidant activity and β-carotene content with HPLC-UV in guava fruit Psidium guajava L.) varieties Palmira ICA I, Regional Roja and Regional Blanca in the ripening stages: green, semi-ripe, mature and senescent. It was established that the β-carotene content and lipophilic antioxidant activity increased during the ripening process up to the climacteric maximum and decreased during senescence; lipophilic antioxidant activity being higher in the varieties Palmira...

  20. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Effects of low energy radiations on the stability of red palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzulkefly, K.; Zarida, Z.; Hamdan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Red palm oil (R-PO) is a new generation of cooking oil in which the carotenes are retained in the refined oil. In this study, the oxidative effects of low energy radiations (sunlight and ultra-violet radiation) on RPO were investigated. The red palm oil was exposed to sunlight and ultra-violet (UV) radiation for various time intervals. The concentrations of carotene, peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene value (CD) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were measured. The irradiation was also performed in the presence of antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Results showed that carotene contents were significantly reduced as the irradiation doses increase. The destruction of carotenes were 23.9 % and 24.1 % respectively under sunlight and UV radiation after 5 hours exposure. Measurements of PV, CD and FFA have indicated that both UV and sunlight radiations caused deterioration of red palm oil. In the presence of antioxidant, the extent of deterioration of RPO and the destruction of carotene were suppressed. This study has shown that the natural antioxidant (carotenes and tocopherols) did not give complete protection to RPO against oxidative deterioration induced by low energy radiations. Additional antioxidant (BHT) was needed to suppress the oxidative deterioration of RPO. (Author)

  2. Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Naqvi, Shaista; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ketocarotenoids such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin have important applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetic, food and feed industries. Astaxanthin is derived from beta-carotene by 3-hydroxylation and 4-ketolation at both ionone end groups. These reactions are catalyzed by beta-carotene hydroxylase and beta-carotene ketolase, respectively. The hydroxylation reaction is widespread in higher plants, but ketolation is restricted to a few bacteria, fungi, and some unicellular green algae. The recent cloning and characterization of beta-carotene ketolase genes in conjunction with the development of effective co-transformation strategies permitting facile co-integration of multiple transgenes in target plants provided essential resources and tools to produce ketocarotenoids in planta by genetic engineering. In this review, we discuss ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in general, and characteristics and functional properties of beta-carotene ketolases in particular. We also describe examples of ketocarotenoid engineering in plants and we conclude by discussing strategies to efficiently convert beta-carotene to astaxanthin in transgenic plants.

  3. Associations of serum carotenoid concentrations and fruit or vegetable consumption with serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Anja; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention may alter the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and thereby cancer risk. In a qualitative review, eleven of twenty studies showed a link between one or more carotenoids, vegetable or fruit intake and the IGF system, however, with partly contrary findings, such that no firm conclusion can be drawn. Therefore, we evaluated associations between serum carotenoid concentrations or the intake of fruits and vegetables with IGF-1, IGF binding protein (BP)-3 and their molar ratio (IGF-1:IGFBP-3) within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). In our analysis, we included 6061 NHANES III participants and used multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. IGF-1 concentrations were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin in men and women. Statistically significant positive associations were observed for serum concentrations of α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin and intake of fruits with serum IGFBP-3 concentrations in women, but not in men. The IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio was significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene and α-carotene in men and with β-carotene in women. In conclusion, dietary interventions with carotenoids, fruits and vegetables may affect the IGF system, although the direction of these effects is currently unclear.

  4. Genetics of serum carotenoid concentrations and their correlation with obesity-related traits in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, Vidya S; Reddivari, Lavanya; Mummidi, Srinivas; Puppala, Sobha; Arya, Rector; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Fowler, Sharon P; Chittoor, Geetha; Resendez, Roy G; Kumar, Birunda Mohan; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Curran, Joanne E; Lehman, Donna M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Lynch, Jane L; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Blangero, John; Hale, Daniel E; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Vanamala, Jairam Kp

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary intake of phytonutrients present in fruits and vegetables, such as carotenoids, is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related traits, but the impact of genetic variation on these associations is poorly understood, especially in children. Objective: We estimated common genetic influences on serum carotenoid concentrations and obesity-related traits in Mexican American (MA) children. Design: Obesity-related data were obtained from 670 nondiabetic MA children, aged 6-17 y. Serum α- and β-carotenoid concentrations were measured in ∼570 (α-carotene in 565 and β-carotene in 572) of these children with the use of an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array. We determined heritabilities for both carotenoids and examined their genetic relation with 10 obesity-related traits [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fat mass (FM), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance] by using family data and a variance components approach. For these analyses, carotenoid values were inverse normalized, and all traits were adjusted for significant covariate effects of age and sex. Results: Carotenoid concentrations were highly heritable and significant [α-carotene: heritability ( h 2 ) = 0.81, P = 6.7 × 10 -11 ; β-carotene: h 2 = 0.90, P = 3.5 × 10 -15 ]. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found significant ( P ≤ 0.05) negative phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and the following traits: BMI, WC, FM, and triglycerides (range: α-carotene = -0.19 to -0.12; β-carotene = -0.24 to -0.13) and positive correlations with HDL cholesterol (α-carotene = 0.17; β-carotene = 0.24). However, when the phenotypic correlations were partitioned into genetic and environmental correlations, we found marginally significant ( P = 0.051) genetic correlations only between β-carotene

  5. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa; Schumacher, Tracy; Burrows, Tracy; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare

    2017-08-17

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (K w ). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids ( r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin ( r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene ( r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene ( r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (K w 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (K w 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (K w 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids ( p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations.

  6. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. PMID:28817083

  7. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  9. Effects of Mixed Carotenoids on Adipokines and Abdominal Adiposity in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, J Atilio; Lochrie, Amanda; McGowan, Amy Galena; Hossain, Jobayer; Schettino, Christopher; Balagopal, P Babu

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. To compare the effects of mixed-carotenoid supplementation (MCS) versus placebo on adipokines and the accrual of abdominal adiposity in children with obesity. Randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial to evaluate the effects of MCS over 6 months in a subspecialty clinic. Twenty (6 male and 14 female) children with simple obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 90%], a mean age (± standard deviation) of 10.5 ± 0.4 years, and Tanner stage I to V were enrolled; 17 participants completed the trial. MCS (which contains β-carotene, α-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, astaxanthin, and γ-tocopherol) or placebo was administered daily. Primary outcomes were change in β-carotene, abdominal fat accrual (according to magnetic resonance imaging), and BMI z-score; secondary outcomes were adipokines and markers of insulin resistance. Cross-sectional analysis of β-carotene showed inverse correlation with BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at baseline. MCS increased β-carotene, total adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin compared with placebo. MCS led to a greater reduction in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT compared with placebo. The percentage change in β-carotene directly correlated with the percentage change in SAT. The decrease in BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and SAT and the concomitant increase in the concentration of β-carotene and high-molecular-weight adiponectin by MCS suggest the putative beneficial role of MCS in children with obesity.

  10. Vitamin A status in healthy women eating traditionally prepared spirulina (Dihé) in the Chad Lake area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudy, Imar Djibrine; Minet-Quinard, Régine; Mahamat, Alhadj Djidda; Ngoua, Hadjé Fatimé; Izzedine, Abdelaziz Arada; Tidjani, Abdelsalam; Ngo Bum, Elisabeth; Lambert, Céline; Pereira, Bruno; Desjeux, Jehan-François; Sapin, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Chad Lake is a central place in a region with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. Spirulina, a natural source of β-carotene, is traditionally produced and eaten as "Dihé" around Chad Lake. β-carotene spirulina has been found to have a high conversion factor to retinol. The aim of the study was to assess if the retinol status between healthy women eating spirulina Dihé daily (SPI+) and not (SPI-) in the Chad Lake area was different. This study was observational: 88 healthy women were recruited and selected according to clinical criteria and their willingness to participate. They were divided in two groups according to their Dihé daily consumption: those who eat Dihé (SPI+; n = 35) and those who do not (SPI-; n = 35). After anthropometric and dietary assessments, blood retinol, β-carotene, retinol binding, and inflammatory/nutritional proteins were measured. The diet between groups was identical, except for β-carotene consumption, which was higher in SPI+ than in SPI- (10.8 vs. 1.8 mg/day). The serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were significantly higher in SPI+ than in SPI- at 1.26 ± 0.36 μmol/l versus 1.03 ± 0.31 μmol/l (p = 0.008) and 0.59 ±0.37 μmol/l versus 0.46± 0.31 μmol/l (p = 0.04), respectively. Seventy-seven percent of SPI+ versus 29% of SPI- had an adequate blood retinol value (p = 0.01). The results confirm that β-carotene in spirulina is an effective positive modulator of blood retinol status. Dihé is a potential natural source of β-carotene to achieve a proper vitamin A status in healthy women living near Chad Lake.

  11. [Recent knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, P; Drai, J; Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Laromiguière, M; Le Moël, G

    2005-01-01

    Our knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids has rapidly grown during the last years. New facts about carotenoid absorption have emerged while some controversies about cleavage are close to end. The knowledge of the absorption and conversion processes is indispensable to understand and interpret the perturbations that can occur in the metabolism of carotenoids and vitamin A. Recently, it has been shown that the absorption of certain carotenoids is not passive - as believed for a long time - but is a facilitated process that requires, at least for lutein, the class B-type 1 scavenger receptor (SR-B1). Various epidemiological and clinical studies have shown wide variations in carotenoid absorption from one subject to another, such differences are now explained by the structure of the concerned carotenoid, by the nature of the food that is absorbed with the carotenoid, by diverse exogenous factors like the intake of medicines or interfering components, by diet factors, by genetic factors, and by the nutritional status of the subject. Recently, the precise mechanism of beta-carotene cleavage by betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.36) - formerly called beta-carotene 15,15' dioxygenase (ex EC 1.13.11.21) - has been discovered, and a second enzyme which cleaves asymmetrically the beta-carotene molecule has been found. beta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase only acts on the 15,15' bond, thus forming two molecules of retinal from one molecule of beta-carotene by central cleavage. Even though the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is much more active on the beta-carotene molecule, a study has shown that it can act on all carotenoids. Searchers now agree that other enzymes that can catalyse an eccentric cleavage of carotenoids probably exist, but under physiological conditions the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is by far the most active, and it is mainly effective in the small bowel mucosa and in the liver. However the

  12. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  13. Carotenogenesis and asparagine in leptosphaeria michotii (West) sacc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerebzoff-Quintin, S.; Jerebzoff, St.

    1980-01-01

    In Leptosphaeria michotii U 14 C-asparagine was incorporated into the coloured carotenoids, the synthesis of which carried on till day 8. The pigment turnover, obvious from day 6, was not modified by the light conditions used. Nicotine (0.25 to 4.5mM) has been used to study carotenogenesis and sporulation rhythm regulation in L. michotii fed with asparagine 2.6mM control cultures contained in darkness β-carotene only and in continuous light β-carotene 98% and lycopene 2%. The mold receiving nicotine 0.25mM in darkness contained β-carotene 98% and lycopene 2%. For nicotine 0.5mM and upwards β-carotene decreased, lycopene increased and γ-carotene appeared, the balance between these pigments also depending on the light conditions. Whereas period length (tau) of the sporulation rhythm increased from one cycle to the next in control cultures in darkness, it was stabilized either by continuous light (tau27h) or by nicotine 0.25mM (tau30h). For nicotine >= 0.5mM sporulation was uniform in darkness or in light. (author)

  14. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in nostoxanthin biosynthesis of Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhu

    Full Text Available Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2'-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2'-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.

  15. Cloning and characterization of genes involved in nostoxanthin biosynthesis of Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Wu, Xuechang; Li, Ou; Qian, Chaodong; Gao, Haichun

    2012-01-01

    Most Sphingomonas species synthesize the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin. However, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of these species remains unclear. In this study, we cloned and characterized a carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster containing four carotenogenic genes (crtG, crtY, crtI and crtB) and a β-carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) located outside the cluster, from the gellan-gum producing bacterium Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Each of these genes was inactivated, and the biochemical function of each gene was confirmed based on chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the intermediates accumulated in the knockout mutants. Moreover, the crtG gene encoding the 2,2'-β-hydroxylase and the crtZ gene encoding the β-carotene hydroxylase, both responsible for hydroxylation of β-carotene, were confirmed by complementation studies using Escherichia coli producing different carotenoids. Expression of crtG in zeaxanthin and β-carotene accumulating E. coli cells resulted in the formation of nostoxanthin and 2,2'-dihydroxy-β-carotene, respectively. Based on these results, a biochemical pathway for synthesis of nostoxanthin in S. elodea ATCC 31461 is proposed.

  16. Neuromorphometrical study on the radioprotective role of betacarotene on mice cerebellum with relation to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, M.; Bhatia, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Carotenoids are those substances, synthesized, only in plants which serve to protect the plants from free radicals, generated during photosynthesis. Beta-carotene, one of the carotenoids, has been thought to be of value to humans and other species, not only as precursors to vitamin A, but also for having excellent antioxidant properties. Besides being an antioxidant and precursor to vitamin A, beta-carotene may be more important in our diet than vitamin A for the following reasons: People with low tissue level of beta-carotene were found to be usually prone towards getting a number of different types of cancer. It has been reported that beta-carotene is a potent free radicals quencher, singlet oxygen scavenger. As radiation damage also occurs due to the attack of free radicals on cell membranes, removal of free radicals might lead to decrease in the extent of damage. The present study is an endeavor to explore the possible role of beta-carotene as an antioxidant against radiation induced free radicals in cerebellum of mice in early developing postnatal period

  17. Enzymatic study on AtCCD4 and AtCCD7 and their potential to form acyclic regulatory metabolites

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2016-09-29

    The Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (AtCCD4) is a negative regulator of the carotenoid content of seeds and has recently been suggested as a candidate for the generation of retrograde signals that are thought to derive from the cleavage of poly-cis-configured carotene desaturation intermediates. In this work, we investigated the activity of AtCCD4 in vitro and used dynamic modeling to determine its substrate preference. Our results document strict regional specificity for cleavage at the C9–C10 double bond in carotenoids and apocarotenoids, with preference for carotenoid substrates and an obstructing effect on hydroxyl functions, and demonstrate the specificity for all-trans-configured carotenes and xanthophylls. AtCCD4 cleaved substrates with at least one ionone ring and did not convert acyclic carotene desaturation intermediates, independent of their isomeric states. These results do not support a direct involvement of AtCCD4 in generating the supposed regulatory metabolites. In contrast, the strigolactone biosynthetic enzyme AtCCD7 converted 9-cis-configured acyclic carotenes, such as 9-cis-ζ-carotene, 9\\'-cis-neurosporene, and 9-cis-lycopene, yielding 9-cis-configured products and indicating that AtCCD7, rather than AtCCD4, is the candidate for forming acyclic retrograde signals.

  18. Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethiya, Neeraj K; Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Mishra, Shri Hari

    2013-01-01

    Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts.

  19. Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana: A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj K Sethiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae, Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae, Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae, and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts.

  20. On the substrate- and stereospecificity of the plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Strigolactones are phytohormones synthesized from carotenoids via a stereospecific pathway involving the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 (CCD7) and 8. CCD7 cleaves 9-cis-β-carotene to form a supposedly 9-cis-configured β-apo-10′-carotenal. CCD8 converts this intermediate through a combination of yet undetermined reactions into the strigolactone-like compound carlactone. Here, we investigated the substrate and stereo-specificity of the Arabidopsis and pea CCD7 and determined the stereo-configuration of the β-apo-10′-carotenal intermediate by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Our data unequivocally demonstrate the 9-cis-configuration of the intermediate. Both CCD7s cleave different 9-cis-carotenoids, yielding hydroxylated 9-cis-apo-10′-carotenals that may lead to hydroxylated carlactones, but show highest affinity for 9-cis-β-carotene. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.