WorldWideScience

Sample records for carotenes

  1. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deterioration of the lining of the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn’t appear to prevent the development of oral mucositis during radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer. Taking ...

  2. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  3. Safety evaluation of synthetic β-carotene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Appel, M.J.; Berg, H. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    The safety of β-carotene was reassessed by evaluating the relevant literature on the beneficial and adverse effects of β-carotene on cancer and, in particular, by evaluating the results of toxicity studies. β- Carotene appeared neither genotoxic nor reprotoxic or teratogenic, and no signs of organ t

  4. Isomerization of -carotene by titanium tetrachloride catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Rajendran; B H Chen

    2007-05-01

    Isomerization of all-trans--carotene occurs during shaking with 0.5% of titanium tetrachloride catalyst in methylene chloride at room temperature. In the present study we compared two types of columns C18 and C30 and various solvent systems for the separation of -carotene and its cis isomers by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that -carotene isomers were resolved by employing a C30 column with a mobile phase of methanol (100%) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) under a gradient elution condition. A total of eleven cis isomers and one all-trans--carotene isomer were resolved within 50 min at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection wave-length of 470 nm.

  5. β-Carotene Biosynthesis in Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer K; Harrison, M Travis; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Endsley, Aaron N; Yin, Fangfang; Kodukula, Krishna; Watson, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    Susceptibility to deadly diarrheal diseases is partly due to widespread pediatric vitamin A deficiency. To increase vitamin A coverage in malnourished children, we propose to engineer a probiotic bacterium that will produce β-carotene in the intestine, which will be metabolized to vitamin A. Such a therapy has the potential to broadly stimulate mucosal immunity and simultaneously reduce the incidence and duration of diarrheal disease. To that end, a β-carotene-producing variant of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN-BETA) was generated. Notably, the strain produces β-carotene under anaerobic conditions, reflective of the gut environment. EcN-BETA also retains β-carotene production capability after lyophilization, suggesting that it may be amenable to dry formulation. Moreover, EcN-BETA activates murine dendritic cells in vitro, suggesting that the presence of β-carotene may not diminish the immunostimulatory capacity of EcN. Finally, we present a framework through which further improvements may enable approaches such as the one described in this report to yield innovative life-saving therapies for the developing world. PMID:26782732

  6. Industrial Production of High-carotene-content Carrot Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scientific experiments have shown that β-carotene from fresh carrots and other fruits and vegetables, rather than chemosynthetic ones, could have preventive effects on the lung cancer. This makes β-carotene processing an industry with great prospects.

  7. Techniques for measuring vitamin A activity from β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen

    2012-11-01

    Dietary β-carotene is the most important precursor of vitamin A. However, the determination of the efficiency of in vivo conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A requires sensitive and safe techniques. It presents the following challenges: 1) circulating β-carotene concentration cannot be altered by eating a meal containing ≤6 mg β-carotene; 2) because retinol concentrations are homeostatically controlled, the conversion of β-carotene into vitamin A cannot be estimated accurately in well-nourished humans by assessing changes in serum retinol after supplementation with β-carotene. In the past half-century, techniques using radioisotopes of β-carotene and vitamin A, depletion-repletion with vitamin A and β-carotene supplements, measurement of postprandial chylomicron fractions after consumption of a β-carotene dose, and finally, stable isotopes as tracers to follow the absorption and conversion of β-carotene in humans have been developed. The reported values for β-carotene to vitamin A conversion showed a wide variation from 2 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for synthetic pure β-carotene in oil) and 28 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for β-carotene from vegetables). In recent years, a stable isotope reference method (IRM) was developed that used labeled synthetic β-carotene. The IRM method provided evidence that the conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A is likely dose dependent. With the development of intrinsically labeled plant foods harvested from a hydroponic system with heavy water, vitamin A activity of stable isotope-labeled biosynthetic β-carotene from various foods consumed by humans was studied. The efficacy of plant foods rich in β-carotene, such as natural (spinach, carrots, spirulina), hybrid (high-β-carotene yellow maize), and bioengineered (Golden Rice) foods, to provide vitamin A has shown promising results. The results from these studies will be of practical importance in recommendations for the use of pure β-carotene and foods

  8. Blakeslea trispora Genes for Carotene Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, M.; Paz, B.; de la Fuente, J L; López-Nieto, M J; Cabri, W.; Barredo, J L

    2004-01-01

    We cloned the carB and carRA genes involved in β-carotene biosynthesis from overproducing and wild-type strains of Blakeslea trispora. The carB gene has a length of 1,955 bp, including two introns of 141 and 68 bp, and encodes a protein of 66.4 kDa with phytoene dehydrogenase activity. The carRA gene contains 1,894 bp, with a single intron of 70 bp, and encodes a protein of 69.6 kDa with separate domains for lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase. The estimated transcript sizes for carB and c...

  9. New simple spectrophotometric assay of total carotenes in margarines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Pozgaj, R.

    2006-01-01

    Direct and reliable spectrophotometric method for assaying total carotenes (TC) in margarines with the minimum of sample manipulation is proposed. For the first time saponification step used in determination of carotenes in margarines was omitted leading to a substantial cost saving and reduction of

  10. [Production of β-carotene by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Yang, Hongjiang; Dai, Zhubo; Zhang, Xueli

    2014-08-01

    β-carotene has a wide range of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. For microbial production of β-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the supply of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) was firstly increased in S. cerevisiae BY4742 to obtain strain BY4742-T2 through over-expressing truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR), which is the major rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, and GGPP synthase (GGPS), which is a key enzyme in the diterpenoid synthetic pathway. The β-carotene synthetic genes of Pantoea agglomerans and Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were further integrated into strain BY4742-T2 for comparing β-carotene production. Over-expression of tHMGR and GGPS genes led to 26.0-fold increase of β-carotene production. In addition, genes from X. dendrorhous was more efficient than those from P. agglomerans for β-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. Strain BW02 was obtained which produced 1.56 mg/g (dry cell weight) β-carotene, which could be used further for constructing cell factories for β-carotene production. PMID:25507473

  11. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  12. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of beta-carotene bioaccessability and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honey dew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honey dew, are excellent sources of ß-carotene. Although ß-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precu...

  13. Statement on the safety of ?-carotene use in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request by the European Commission the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to conclude on the possible link between the ingestion of β-carotene and cancer enhancement in heavy smokers. The safety of (synthetic β-carotene [E 160a (ii] has been evaluated previously by JECFA (1975 and by the SCF (2000a.  In 2000, the SCF concluded that there were insufficient data to set a precise figure for a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL of β-carotene (SCF, 2000b. Unexpectedly, two independent trials revealed that heavy smokers (at least 1 package/day for 36 years on average receiving long-term β-carotene (20 mg/day supplementation or β-carotene (30 mg/day + retinol (25 000 International Unit (IU vitamin A supplementation, showed increased rather than decreased incidences of lung cancer. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT demonstrated absence of any protective effect associated with β-carotene supplementation with regard to cancer risk. Epidemiological studies reported no increased lung cancer incidence in heavy smokers at supplemental dose levels of β-carotene varying from 6 – 15 mg/day for about 5 up to 7 years. The Panel concluded that exposure to β-carotene from its use as food additive and as food supplement at a level below 15 mg/day do not give rise to concerns about adverse health effects in the general population, including heavy smokers.

  14. β-Carotene and its cleavage enzyme β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (CMOI) affect retinoid metabolism in developing tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Wassef, Lesley; Chung, Stacey; Jiang, Hongfeng; Wyss, Adrian; Blaner, William S.; Quadro, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian embryo relies on maternal circulating retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) for development. β-Carotene is the major human dietary provitamin A. β-Carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (CMOI) has been proposed as the main enzyme generating retinoid from β-carotene in vivo. CMOI is expressed in embryonic tissues, suggesting that β-carotene provides retinoids locally during development. We performed loss of CMOI function studies in mice lacking retinol-binding protein (RBP), an established model ...

  15. Carotene and novel apocarotenoid concentrations in orange-fleshed Cucumis melo melons: determinations of β-carotene bioaccessibility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Matthew K; Lester, Gene E; Riedl, Ken M; Kopec, Rachel E; Narayanasamy, Sureshbabu; Curley, Robert W; Schwartz, Steven J; Harrison, Earl H

    2011-05-11

    Muskmelons, both cantaloupe (Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group) and orange-fleshed honeydew (C. melo Inodorus Group), a cross between orange-fleshed cantaloupe and green-fleshed honeydew, are excellent sources of β-carotene. Although β-carotene from melon is an important dietary antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, its bioaccessibility/bioavailability is unknown. We compared β-carotene concentrations from previously frozen orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe melons grown under the same glasshouse conditions, and from freshly harvested field-grown, orange-fleshed honeydew melon to determine β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability, concentrations of novel β-apocarotenals, and chromoplast structure of orange-fleshed honeydew melon. β-Carotene and β-apocarotenal concentrations were determined by HPLC and/or HPLC-MS, β-carotene bioaccessibility/bioavailability was determined by in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell uptake, and chromoplast structure was determined by electron microscopy. The average β-carotene concentrations (μg/g dry weight) for the orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 242.8 and 176.3 respectively. The average dry weights per gram of wet weight of orange-fleshed honeydew and cantaloupe were 0.094 g and 0.071 g, respectively. The bioaccessibility of field-grown orange-fleshed honeydew melons was determined to be 3.2 ± 0.3%, bioavailability in Caco-2 cells was about 11%, and chromoplast structure from orange-fleshed honeydew melons was globular (as opposed to crystalline) in nature. We detected β-apo-8'-, β-apo-10', β-apo-12'-, and β-apo-14'-carotenals and β-apo-13-carotenone in orange-fleshed melons (at a level of 1-2% of total β-carotene). Orange-fleshed honeydew melon fruit had higher amounts of β-carotene than cantaloupe. The bioaccessibility/bioavailability of β-carotene from orange-fleshed melons was comparable to that from carrot (Daucus carota). PMID:21417375

  16. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com; Ovidiu, Oprea [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Bojin, Dionezie [Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene-Sq and grape seed oil-GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers-NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive {beta}-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 Division-Sign -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the {beta}-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation {beta}-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a {beta}-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichiacoli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a

  17. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-09-01

    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  18. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids.

  19. Ubiquinone and carotene production in the Mucorales Blakeslea and Phycomyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzina, Vera; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Blakeslea trispora (Zygomycota, Mucorales) are actual or potential industrial sources of beta-carotene and lycopene. These chemicals and the large terpenoid moiety of ubiquinone derive from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. We measured the ubiquinone...... and carotene contents of wild-type and genetically modified strains under various conditions. Light slightly increased the ubiquinone content of Blakeslea and had no effect on that of Phycomyces. Oxidative stress modified ubiquinone production in Phycomyces and carotene production in both fungi. Sexual...... does not affect even indirectly the production of ubiquinone, as would be expected if terpenoids were synthesized through a branched pathway that could divert precursor flows from one branch to another....

  20. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Terlecki; Paulina Chwil; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Sobstyl; Lidia Kotuła

    2014-01-01

    β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of th...

  1. Statement on the safety of ?-carotene use in heavy smokers

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission the Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) was asked to conclude on the possible link between the ingestion of β-carotene and cancer enhancement in heavy smokers. The safety of (synthetic) β-carotene [E 160a (ii)] has been evaluated previously by JECFA (1975) and by the SCF (2000a).  In 2000, the SCF concluded that there were insufficient data to set a precise figure for a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of ...

  2. : beta-carotene, alpha-linolenate and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Virginie; Hoinard, Claude; Arab, Khelifa; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content alters the effect of beta-carotene on mammary carcinogenesis, we conducted a chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis experiment in rats randomly assigned to four nutritional groups (15 rats per group) varying in beta-carotene supplementation and ALA content. Two oil formula-enriched diets (15 %) were used: one with 6 g ALA/kg diet in an essential fatty acids (EFA) ratio of linoleic acid:ALA of 5:1 w/w (EFA 5 diet), the other w...

  3. α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Zaccari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1 in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg, followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg, and immature fruits (18.82 mg. Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis and α-carotene (34.1%. Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3% and mature (34.5% fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04 vs. raw pulp (0.96.

  4. ß-carotene conversion products and their effects on adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourniaire, F.; Gouranton, E.; Lintig, von J.; Keijer, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Amengual, J.; Lietz, G.; Landrier, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that ß-carotene may be protective against metabolic diseases in which adipose tissue plays a key role. Adipose tissue constitutes the major ß-carotene storage tissue and its functions have been shown to be modulated in response to ß-carotene breakdown products, es

  5. Integration of {beta}-carotene molecules in small liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Popova, Antoaneta, E-mail: andreeva@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The most typical feature of carotenoids is the long polyene chain with conjugated double bonds suggesting that they can serve as conductors of electrons, acting as 'molecular wires', important elements in the molecular electronic devices. Carotenoids are essential components of photosynthetic systems, performing different functions as light harvesting, photoprotection and electron transfer. They act also as natural antioxidants. In addition they perform structural role stabilizing the three-dimensional organization of photosynthetic membranes. Carotenoids contribute to the stability of the lipid phase, preserving the membrane integrity under potentially harmful environmental conditions. Carotenoids can be easily integrated into model membranes, facilitating the investigation of their functional roles. In carotenoid-egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes ss-carotene is randomly distributed in the hydrocarbon interior of the bilayer, without any preferred, well defined orientation and retains a substantial degree of mobility. Here we investigate the degree of integration of ss-carotene in small unilamellar EPC liposomes and the changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra due to the lipid-pigment interaction. All observed changes in ss-carotene absorption and Raman spectra may be regarded as a result of the lipid-pigment interactions leading to the polyene geometry distortion and increasing of the environment heterogenety in the liposomes as compared to the solutions.

  6. Use of oral contraceptives and serum beta-carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antioxidants, in particular carotenoids, may influence the risk for cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on the serum concentration of beta-carotene, which may in turn affect the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its antioxidative...

  7. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Bosin, E; Feldman, B; Giat, Y; Miinster, A; Danilenko, M; Sharoni, Y

    1995-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties of lycopene, the major tomato carotenoid, were compared with those of alpha- and beta-carotene. Lycopene, delivered in cell culture medium from stock solutions in tetrahydrofuran, strongly inhibited proliferation of endometrial (Ishikawa), mammary (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H226) human cancer cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 1-2 microM; alpha- and beta-carotene were far less effective inhibitors. For example, in Ishikawa cells, a 4-fold higher concentration of alpha-carotene or a 10-fold higher concentration of beta-carotene was needed for the same order of growth suppression. The inhibitory effect of lycopene was detected after 24 hours of incubation, and it was maintained for at least three days. In contrast to cancer cells, human fibroblasts were less sensitive to lycopene, and the cells gradually escaped growth inhibition over time. In addition to its inhibitory effect on basal endometrial cancer cell proliferation, lycopene also suppressed insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. Insulin-like growth factors are major autocrine/paracrine regulators of mammary and endometrial cancer cell growth. Therefore, lycopene interference in this major autocrine/paracrine system may open new avenues for research on the role of lycopene in the regulation of endometrial cancer and other tumors. PMID:8610045

  8. THE BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRET CAROTENE-9', 10'-MONOOXYGENASE CATALYZING CLEAVAGE OF CAROTENOIDS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that beta -carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO1) catalyzes the cleavage of beta -carotene at the central carbon 15, 15’-double bond, but cleaves lycopene with much lower activity. However, expressing the mouse carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO2) in beta-carotene/lycopene...

  9. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies

  10. Effect of Beta-Carotene on Oxidative Stress and Expression of Cardiac Connexin 43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Rosangela; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@fmb.unesp.br; Paiva, Sergio A. R. [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista ' Júlio de Mesquita Filho' , Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Intervention studies have shown an increased mortality in patients who received beta-carotene. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are still unknown. Evaluate the influence of beta-carotene on oxidative stress and the expression of connexin 43 in rat hearts. Wistar rats, weighing approximately 100 g, were allocated in two groups: Control Group (n = 30), that received the diet routinely used in our laboratory, and Beta-Carotene Group (n = 28), which received beta-carotene (in crystal form, added and mixed to the diet) at a dose of 500 mg of beta carotene/kg of diet. The animals received the treatment until they reached 200-250g, when they were sacrificed. Samples of blood, liver and heart were collected to perform Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for connexin 43; morphometric studies, dosages of beta carotene by high performance liquid chromatography as well as reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipids hydroperoxides were performed by biochemical analysis. Beta-carotene was detected only in the liver of Beta-Carotene Group animals (288 ± 94.7 μg/kg). Levels of reduced/ oxidized glutathione were higher in the liver and heart of Beta-Carotene Group animals (liver - Control Group: 42.60 ± 1.62; liver - Beta-Carotene Group: 57.40 ± 5.90; p = 0.04; heart: - Control Group: 117.40 ± 1.01; heart - Beta-Carotene Group: 121.81 ± 1.32 nmol/mg protein; p = 0.03). The content of total connexin 43 was larger in Beta-Carotene Group. Beta-carotene demonstrated a positive effect, characterized by the increase of intercellular communication and improvement of anti-oxidizing defense system. In this model, mechanism does not explain the increased mortality rate observed with the beta-carotene supplementation in clinical studies.

  11. Microbial beta – carotene use as a food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Buţu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents one of the possibilities to use in the food industry a microbial bio product type of vitamin A precursor. The microbial bioproduct has a high level of beta–carotene and has been obtained from the biomass resulted from the cultivation in optimum conditions of a yeast strain. The strain used is from Rhodotorula spp. and it has been selected from the natural environment. We studied the possibility to enrich with beta–carotene some natural syrups, by adding the microbial product in the original recipe. The bioproduct has been used in several recipes, in different concentrations and under several forms of presentation. We analyzed the following: the degree of bioproduct integration in the syrup, the physico–chemical and microbiological parameters of the syrup and the stability over time.

  12. Stability of β-carotene in polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, I.; Mason, M.; Romano, A.; Biasioli, F.; Scampicchio, M.

    2016-05-01

    β-carotene (βc) was successfully incorporated into electrospun nanofibers of poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with the aim of prolonging its shelf life and thermal stability. The physical and thermal properties of the βc-PEO-nanofibers were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), color analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nanofibers of PEO and βc-PEO exhibited average fiber diameters of 320 ± 46 and 230 ± 21 nm, with colorimetric coordinates L* = 95.7 ± 2.4 and 89.4 ± 4.6 and b* = -0.5 ± 0.1 and 6.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Proton Transfer-Mass Spectroscopy (TGA/PTR-ms) demonstrated that coated βc inside PEO nanofibers increased thermal stability when compared to standard βc in powder form. In addition, β-carotene in the membranes showed higher stability during storage when compared with β-carotene in solution with a decrease in concentration of 57 ± 4% and 70 ± 2% respectively, thus should extend the shelf life of this compound. Also, TGA coupled with PTR-MS resulted in a promising technique to online-monitoring thermal degradation.

  13. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18. PMID:26941414

  14. Regulation of carbon partitioning into carotenes by MPTA, a substituted tertiary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mature citrus fruits, synthesis and turnover of carotenes appears to be low. Treatment of lemon pieces with the substituted tertiary amine, 2-(4-methylphenoxyl)triethylamine, MPTA, induces the synthesis of carotenes. Exposure of tissue slices (lemon flavedo) to MPTA for 72 hrs results in the production of 29.6 μg gfrwt-1 lycopene whereas control slices showed only trace amounts of lycopene. An identical incorporation of 14C-glucose into sugars, amino acids and organic acids, in both treated and control tissue slices indicates the non-disturbance of fruit respiration by MPTA treatment. Incorporation of 14C-glucose into carotenes is negligible in mature citrus fruits, but in MPTA treated tissue slices there is a pronounced incorporation of 14C-glucose into carotenes. MPTA treatment induces the synthesis of carotene enzymes, thus effecting an increased partitioning of glucose into the MVA pathway for carotene synthesis

  15. Efficacy of beta-carotene topical application in melasma: An open clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kar H

    2002-01-01

    Beta-carotene, a structural analogue of vitamin A, works as an agonist of this vitamin, by reversibly sticking the chemical mechanism of melanogenesis by saturating the nuclear receptors of melanocytes and /or binding protein. To study the safety and efficacy of Beta-carotene lotion on topical application in melasma, clinically diagnosed 31 adults (26Fand 5M) with melasma were included in this trial. All of them applied Beta-carotene lotion daily, morning and evening to the affected areas. Tw...

  16. Combined Effects of Soy Isoflavones and β-Carotene on Osteoblast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Nishide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and its metabolite equol, as well as β-carotene have been reported to be effective for maintaining bone health. However, it remains to be elucidated whether combining soy isoflavones with β-carotene is beneficial to bone formation. This study investigated the combined effect of soy isoflavones and β-carotene on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. Daidzein and genistein alone did not affect cell growth but increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Beta-carotene alone inhibited cell growth and markedly enhanced ALP activity. Soy isoflavones combined with β-carotene resulted in higher ALP activity than treatment with isoflavones or β-carotene alone. We observed significant main effects of β-carotene on the enhanced expression of Runx2, ALP, and ostepontin mRNA, whereas there was a significant main effect of soy isoflavones on the expression of osterix mRNA. To investigate how β-carotene affected osteoblast differentiation, MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with retinoic acid receptor (RAR pan-antagonist combined with β-carotene. Osteopontin and ALP mRNA expression levels, which were increased following treatment with β-carotene, were significantly suppressed by the RAR pan-antagonist. This suggests treatment with β-carotene enhanced early osteoblastic differentiation, at least in part via RAR signaling. These results indicate that a combination of isoflavones and β-carotene may be useful for maintaining a positive balance of bone turnover by inducing osteoblast differentiation.

  17. Associations Between α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and Retinol and Prostate Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, Joanne L; Gail, Mitchell H.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carotenoids and tocopherols (vitamin E compounds) may be inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, yet little is known about how they affect prostate cancer progression and survival. We investigated whether serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol concentrations, or the α-tocopherol and β-carotene trial supplementation, affected survival of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a ran...

  18. Biosynthesis of β-carotene in engineered E. coli using the MEP and MVA pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianming; Guo, Lizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background β-carotene is a carotenoid compound that has been widely used not only in the industrial production of pharmaceuticals but also as nutraceuticals, animal feed additives, functional cosmetics, and food colorants. Currently, more than 90% of commercial β-carotene is produced by chemical synthesis. Due to the growing public concern over food safety, the use of chemically synthesized β-carotene as food additives or functional cosmetic agents has been severely controlled in recent years...

  19. Selection of Indonesia Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Genotype as Source of β-Carotene

    OpenAIRE

    DODY PRIADI; DJUMHAWAN RATMAN PERMANA; SRI ELIN DONA; SRI HARTATI; ENNY SUDARMONOWATI

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen genotypes of Indonesia cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) of two generations were evaluated for β-carotene content. The β-carotene content of tubers and leaves were determined by spectrophotometry method. Other parameters such as water and ash contents were also evaluated. Results showed that β-carotene content of tubers of fourth generation (planted in 2006-2007) was higher than that of first generation (planted in 2002-2003), with the exception of Apuy, Iding and Sarewen genotypes....

  20. Influence of emulsion nature on radiation response of β-carotene in an aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation response of β-carotene was followed in lipid solvents and in aqueous preparations. The nature of the solvent was found to have a marked influence on the response of β-carotene to γ-radiation. In aqueous emulsions radiation destruction of β-carotene was far less than that observed in solutions. Oil in water (O/W) emulsions of petroleum ether offered maximum protection to β-carotene against radiation damage. This observation was attributed to the multiphase nature of the emulsion since a transparent aqueous preparation was observed to offer no protection upon irradiation. Solubility of crystalline β-carotene in water was found to increase with the emulsifier concentration. Irradiation revealed that the extent of β-carotene destruction was dose dependent and increased with the solubility of β-carotene in water. In the presence of a free radical scavenger DPPH β-carotene exhibited varied radiation response depending upon the nature of solvents used. Thus, in transparent aqueous preparations the protection afforded by added DPPH to β-carotene was almost complete, while its influence was insignificant in O/W emulsions. The significance of these observations in radiation processing of foods is discussed. (author)

  1. 9-cis -carotene Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Female LDLR-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown that diets rich in carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, administration of synthetic all-trans -carotene was reported to have no effect on cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that the 9-cis -carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella bardawil inhibits atherogenesis and reduces plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels in mice. Context and purpose of this study: We sought to study whether isolated 9-cis -carotene inhibits atherogenesis in a murine model of atherosclerosis. Results: Twelve-week-old female LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/- were pretreated for 2 weeks with regular chow diet fortified with the alga Dunaliella powder, 9-cis β-carotene isomer, all-trans β-carotene isomer, or 9-cis retinoic acid, followed by 10 weeks of a high-fat diet with the same fortifications. In contrast to Dunaliella, 9-cis β-carotene did not inhibit the high fat dietinduced elevation of plasma cholesterol. In addition, diet fortification with Dunaliella powder, β-carotene isomers, or 9-cis retinoic acid did not change the plasma retinol or retinoic acid levels.Nevertheless, 9-cis β-carotene significantly inhibited atherogenesis compared to the control mice (39% reduction. Conclusions: The results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene should be considered as an antiatherogenic agent in the human diet

  2. Influence of Emulsion Nature on Radiation Response of β-Carotene in an Aqueous Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation response of β-carotene was followed in lipid solvents and in aqueous preparations. The nature of the solvent was found to have a marked influence on the response of β-carotene to γ -radiation. In aqueous emulsions radiation destruction of β-carotene was far less than that observed in solutions. Oil in water (O/W) emulsions of petroleum ether offered maximum protection to β-carotene against radiation damage. This observation was attributed to the multiphase nature of the emulsion since a transparent aqueous preparation was observed to offer no protection upon irradiation. Solubility of crystalline β-carotene in water was found to increase with the emulsifier concentration. Irradiation revealed that the extent of β-carotene destruction was dose dependent and increased with the solubility of β-carotene in water. In the presence of a free radical scavenger DPPH β-carotene exhibited varied radiation response depending upon the nature of solvents used. Thus, in transparent aqueous preparations the protection afforded by added DPPH to β-carotene was almost complete, while its influence was insignificant in O/W emulsions. The significance of these observations in radiation processing of foods is discussed. (author)

  3. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Evans, Anne M; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective was to compare the on-study change in metabolomic profiles of men randomly assigned to receive or not receive β-carotene supplements in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Design: The ATBC Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary cancer prevention trial; participants were Finnish male smokers assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups: 1) α-tocopherol, 2) β-carotene, 3) both, or 4) placebo. Fifty participants with both baseline and follow-up fasting serum samples were randomly selected from each of these groups. Metabolomic profiling was conducted by mass spectrometry. The association between change in each metabolite over time and trial assignment (β-carotene or no β-carotene) was estimated by linear regression. Results: We measured 489 metabolites, and 17 changed significantly (P < 0.05) in response to β-carotene supplementation. More of these 17 metabolites were of xenobiotic origin than would be expected by chance (9 of 60, or 15%; P = 0.00004). We also found a suggestive association with 1,5-anhydroglucitol—a marker of glycemic control (β = −0.379, P = 0.0071). Conclusions: Male smokers supplemented with β-carotene developed metabolomic profiles consistent with the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, the primary metabolizers of xenobiotics in humans. These findings may shed light on the increased mortality associated with β-carotene supplementation in the ATBC Study and suggest the need to explore potential interactions between medication use and dietary supplements, particularly among smokers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342992. PMID:23803886

  4. Metabolomic profile of response to supplementation with β-carotene in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Moore, Steven C.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Evans, Anne M.; Karoly, Edward D; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two chemoprevention trials found that supplementation with β-carotene increased the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. The biologic basis of these findings remains poorly understood.

  5. Waste cooking oil: A new substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Konstantina; Roukas, Triantafyllos

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a waste, waste cooking oil (WCO) as substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in shake flask culture. WCO was found to be a useful substrate for carotene production. B. trispora formed only pellets during fermentation. The oxidative stress in B. trispora induced by hydroperoxides and BHT as evidenced by increase of the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly the production of carotenes. The highest concentration of carotenes (2021 ± 75 mg/l or 49.3 ± 0.2 mg/g dry biomass) was obtained in culture grown in WCO (50.0 g/l) supplemented with CSL (80.0 g/l) and BHT (4.0 g/l). In this case the carotenes produced consisted of β-carotene (74.2%), γ-carotene (23.2%), and lycopene (2.6%). The external addition in the above medium glucose, Span 80, yeast extract, casein acid hydrolysate, l-asparagine, thiamine. HCl, KH2PO4, and MgSO4·7H2O did not improve the production of carotenes. PMID:26724551

  6. Content of carotene and vitamins of antioxidant action in animals on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant lack of carotene and vitamins of antioxidant action was revealed in the animals kept for 5 months on the radionuclide contaminated territory and fed by the diet of local production. The intensity of the lipids peroxidation process was lowered and the carotene, tocopherol, retinol and ascorbate levels were normalized by the antioxidant complex vitamins introduction. 11 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Vitamin E and Beta Carotene Composition in Four Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab. G.M. Top

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Some vegetable oils contains natural antioxidants such as beta carotene and vitamin E namely tocopherol and tocotrienol. Different vegetable oils contained different amount of vitamin E and β-carotene. Approach: Study was carried out to investigate the natural antioxidants (vitamin E and beta carotene composition in four different vegetable oils [Red Palm Olein (RPO, palm plein (PO, Corn Oil (CO and Coconut Oil (COC]. Results: The results showed that RPO contained the highest amount of vitamin E and β-carotene compared to the other three types of vegetable oils studied. Conclusion: The RPO can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant (tocopherol, tocotrienol and β-carotene.

  8. Ultratraces of carotenes in tomato purées: HPLC-TLS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterotti, S.; Marković, K.; Franko, M.; Bicanic, D.; Vahčić, N.; Doka, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide information about (i) the profile of carotene pigments and (ii) trace quantities of lycopene and β-carotene left in tomato purées. The ultrasensitive method comprising HPLC and thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled us to detect as low as 0.3 and 1.1 ng ml-1 lycopene and β-carotene in purée extracts, respectively. Total concentration of β-carotene and lycopene (varying from 3 to 170 ng g-1) in the examined tomato purées may serve as an indicator of the carotene-specific antioxidative capacity of these products. Although conventional spectrophotometry can be used to rapidly assess the quality of products derived from tomatoes, a highly sensitive and selective method such as HPLC-TLS is needed for reliable analyses of samples such as, for example, those subjected to inappropriate storage and/or handling.

  9. Mutation Breeding of β-carotene Producing Strain B. trispora by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ning; Yu Long

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam bioengineering technology as a new mutation approach has been widely used in the biological breeding field.In this paper the application of low energy nitrogen ion implantation in the β-carotene producing strain,Blakeslea trispora(-)was investigated. The efflects of difflerent fermentation conditions on β-carotene production by a high yield strain were examined.Results showed that two β-carotene high yielding strains B.trispora(-)BH3-701 and BH3-728 were screened out and the averaged production of β-carotene was raised by 178.7%and 164.6%respectively after five passages in the shaking flasks.Compared with the original strain, the highest yield strain BH3-701 was potent in accumulating fl-carotene·especiallY in the later stage,and greatly increased production efficiency.

  10. Causes of cell death following ultraviolet B and C exposures and the role of carotenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet B radiation (wavelength 290-310 nm) does not induce any specific lethal effects in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus, according to a heterokaryon test that responds to the nature of the lethal damage. This agent is about 10 times less lethal than UVC radiation from germicidal lamps (254 nm), but it kills cells through the same photoreactivable lesions, due to the UV absorption of DNA. Carotenes do not protect Phycomyces against UV damage, either B or C, lethal or not. This was shown by Darwinian competition experiments between strains containing very different carotene concentrations and between strains containing similar concentrations of different carotenes (phytoene, lycopene, β-carotene). A shading effect of carotenes against UV radiation is likely, but it was insignificant under the conditions of the experiments. (Author)

  11. In vitro conversion of ß-carotene to retinal in bovine rumen fluid by a recombinant ß-carotene- 15, 15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Esperanza; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Antaramián, Anaid; González-Dávalos, María Laura; Shimada, Armando; Varela-Echavarria, Alfredo; Mora, Ofelia

    2012-04-01

    Pasture-fed cattle yield carcasses with yellow fat; consumers often reject the resulting meat products because they assume they come from old and/or culled animals. Recombinant bacteria expressing beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase, introduced into the rumen of the animal, might help to reduce the coloration since this enzyme converts carotene to retinal, thereby eliminating the source of yellowness. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of a recombinant beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) from Gallus gallus, expressed in Escherichia coli. The genetically modified microbe was introduced into ruminal fluid, and carotene conversion to retinal was measured. Under optimum conditions the enzyme produced 6.8 nmol of retinal per 1 mg of protein in 1 hour at 37 °C. The data on in vitro digestibility in ruminal fluid showed no differences in beta-carotene breakdown or in retinal production (p > 0.1) between E. coli with pBAD vector alone and E. coli with pBAD/BCMO1. The pBAD/BCMO1 plasmid was stable in E. coli for 750 generations. These results indicate that the protein did not break beta-carotene into retinal in ruminal fluid, perhaps due to its location in the periplasmic space in E. coli. Future research must consider strategies to release the enzyme into the rumen environment. PMID:23065834

  12. Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of ß-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metabolic precursor of vitamin A, ß-carotene, is essential for human health. The gene(s) controlling ß- carotene quantity (QßC) has been introgressed from Xishuangbanna gourd (XIS, possessing ß-carotene; Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) into cultivated cucumbe...

  13. Exploitation of natural variability in maize for β - carotene content using HPLC and gene specific markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tura Safawo, N. Senthil*, M. Raveendran, S. Vellaikumar, K. N. Ganesan, G. Nallathambi, S. Saranya, V. G. Shobhana, B. Abirami and E. Vijaya Gowri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is a major world health problem, affecting up to 127 million pre-school children and 7 millionpregnant women worldwide (West, 2003. Human selection for yellow endosperm has led to diversification of graincarotenoid content and composition. This variation has remained largely untapped in modern breeding programs thathave focused nearly exclusively on yield gains. Maize displays considerable natural variation for carotenoidcomposition, including vitamin A precursors α-carotene, β-carotene, and β -cryptoxanthin. Sixty four maize inbred linesof India were grown and evaluated for whole kernel carotenoids and beta carotene content using high performanceliquid chromatography (HPLC. The lines averaged 14 :g/g for total carotenoids (5.58 to 63.9 :g/g and 1.69 :g/g for β-carotene (0.122 to 4.74 :g/g. High level of β - carotene was observed in UMI 946, UMI 176, UMI 79, UMI 34 andUMI 12 and these would be used in the breeding programs to enhance the β – carotene contents. Previous study showedfour natural lcyE polymorphisms explained 58% of the variation in these two branches and a threefold difference in provitaminA compounds. In screening for polymorphisms in key haplotypes, four regions were selected and scored acrossthe entire panel of favourable haplotype using SNP and SSR markers. The polymorphs were obtained for all primer usedand the presence of the amplification of for particular marker showed the increase in β - carotene content across theinbreds. Development of LCYE based breeding markers for maize alone will not be effective unless hydroxylation isalso controlled, for non pro vitamin A xanthophylls compounds will predominate. So in our future study, we should beaiming at breeding for high β - carotene in maize by emphasizing on characterization of β - carotene hydroxylase genesfor enhancing the relative levels of seed β - carotene.

  14. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization. PMID:3027282

  15. Effects of beta-carotene and vitamin A on bovine luteal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially, the direct effects of B-carotene and vitamin A on progesterone (P4) production were studied by exposing dispersed luteal cells to these compounds in vitro. There were no positive relationships between P4 and B-carotene or vitamin A. However, a negative, and perhaps toxic, effect of a large dose of B-carotene on P4 reproduction was noted. A positive relationship between plasma B-carotene and percent change of P4 in the medium of dispersed luteal cells was demonstrated when these plasma metabolites were measured in slaughterhouse cows from which CL were obtained for incubation. This relationship was only present during the winter when plasma levels of B-carotene and vitamin A were considerably lower. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of action of B-carotene and/or vitamin A were initiated. Luteal tissue ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the RNA to DNA ratio and total protein concentration were measured to study the influence of plasma levels of B-carotene and vitamin A on the protein synthetic capacity of luteal tissue. There were no relationships detected, however, RNA concentration and the RNA to DNA ratio of luteal tissue were greater during the summer. The percent binding of radiolabeled vitamin A was greater in the nuclear than in the cytoplasmic component of the luteal cell

  16. Nanoemulsion delivery systems: influence of carrier oil on β-carotene bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Decker, Eric Andrew; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of carotenoids may reduce the incidences of certain chronic diseases, but their use in foods is currently limited because of their poor water-solubility, low bioavailability and chemical instability. We examined the impact of carrier oil type on the bioaccessibility of β-carotene encapsulated within nanoemulsion-based delivery systems. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (dorange oil as carrier oils. The influence of carrier oil type on β-carotene bioaccessibility was established using an in vitro model to simulate the oral, gastric and small intestinal phases of the gastrointestinal tract. The rate and extent of free fatty acid production in the intestine decreased in the order LCT≈MCT≫orange oil; whereas β-carotene bioaccessibility decreased in the order LCT≫MCT>orange oil. The bioaccessibility of β-carotene was negligible (≈0%) in orange oil nanoemulsions because no mixed micelles were formed to solubilise β-carotene, and was relatively low (≈2%) in MCT nanoemulsions because the mixed micelles formed were too small to solubilise β-carotene. In contrast, β-carotene bioaccessibility was relatively high (≈66%) in LCT nanoemulsions. Our results have important implications for the design of effective delivery systems for encapsulation of carotenoids and other lipophilic bioactive components. PMID:22953878

  17. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Niklas; Milota, Franz; Nemeth, Alexandra; Sperling, Jaroslaw; Kauffmann, Harald F; Pullerits, Tönu; Hauer, Jürgen

    2009-12-24

    Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D) has been applied to beta-carotene in solution to shine new light on the ultrafast energy dissipation network in carotenoids. The ability of 2D to relieve spectral congestion provides new experimental grounds for resolving the rise of the excited state absorption signal between 18,000 and 19,000 cm(-1). In this spectral region, the pump-probe signals from ground state bleach and stimulated emission overlap strongly. Combined modeling of the time-evolution of 2D spectra as well as comparison to published pump-probe data allow us to draw conclusions on both the electronic structure of beta-carotene as well as the spectral densities giving rise to the observed optical lineshapes. To account for the experimental observations on all time scales, we need to include a transition in the visible spectral range from the first optically allowed excited state (S(2)-->S(n2)). We present data from frequency resolved transient grating and pump-probe experiments confirming the importance of this transition. Furthermore, we investigate the role and nature of the S* state, controversially debated in numerous previous studies. On the basis of the analysis of Feynman diagrams, we show that the properties of S*-related signals in chi(3) techniques like pump-probe and 2D can only be accounted for if S* is an excited electronic state. Against this background, we discuss a new interpretation of pump-deplete-probe and intensity-dependent pump-probe experiments. PMID:19954155

  18. The role of oxidative stress on carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukas, Triantafyllos

    2016-01-01

    In aerobic metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed during the fermentation that can cause oxidative stress in microorganisms. Microbial cells possess both enzymatic and non-enzymatic defensive systems that may protect cells from oxidative damage. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase are the two key defensive enzymes to oxidative stress. The factors that induce oxidative stress in microorganisms include butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), hydrogen peroxide, metal ions, dissolved oxygen tension, elevated temperature, menadione, junglone, paraquat, liquid paraffin, introduction to bioreactors of shake flask inocula and synthetic medium sterilized at initial pH 11.0. Carotenes are highly unsaturated isoprene derivatives. They are used as antioxidants and as coloring agents for food products. In fungi, carotenes are derived via the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. The key genes in carotene biosynthesis are hmgR, ipi, isoA, carG, carRA and carB. Among microorganisms, Βlakeslea trispora is the main microorganism used for the production of carotenes on the industrial scale. Currently, the synthetic medium is considered the superior substrate for the production of carotenes in a pilot plant scale. The fermentation systems used for the production of carotenes include shake flasks, stirred tank fermentor, bubble column reactor and flat panel photobioreactor. This review summarizes the oxidative stresses in microorganisms and it is focused on the current status of carotene production by B. trispora including oxidative stress induced by BHT, enhanced dissolved oxygen levels, iron ions, liquid paraffin and synthetic medium sterilized at an initial pH 11.0. The oxidative stress induced by the above factors increases significantly the production of carotenes. However, to further reduce the cost of carotene production, new biotechnological methods with higher productivity still need to be explored. PMID:25600464

  19. Beta-carotene supplementation in smokers reduces the frequency of micronuclei in sputum.

    OpenAIRE

    Poppel, G. van; Kok, F. J.; Hermus, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    beta-carotene has been hypothesised to reduce lung cancer risk. We studied the effect of 14 weeks of beta-carotene supplementation (20 mg d-1) on the frequency of micronuclei in sputum in 114 heavy smokers in a double-blind trial. Micronuclei reflect DNA damage in exfoliated cells and may thus provide a marker of early-stage carcinogenesis. Pre-treatment blood levels of cotinine, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins C and E were similar in the placebo group (n = 61) and the treatment group (n ...

  20. Estimation of β-carotene content in flour using color analysis of reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotov, Leonid E.; Sinichkin, Yury P.; Tuchin, Svyatoslav V.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we present two methods for estimation of β-carotene content in flour with use of color analysis of the flour samples. One method is based on the fact that the color parameter "chroma" (the color saturation) in the CIE1976 (L*a*b*) - system can be used as the "yellowness index" of the flour that is proportional to β-carotene content in the flour. Another method is based on comparison of the flour diffuse reflection coefficients at 460 nm (absorption band of β-carotene) and 650 nm. The value of contrast of absorption band manifestation can be also used as the "yellowness index" of the flour.

  1. [Preparation and stability of β-carotene loaded using mesoporous silica nanoparticles as carriers system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Zhi-hui; Wang, Hai-yuan; Jin, Xing-hua

    2015-09-01

    1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB) was used as the pore-enlarging modifier to expand the pore size of MCM-41 (mobil company of matter) mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The solvent impregnation method was adopted to assemble non-water-soluble β-carotene into the pore channel of MCM-41. The MCM-41 and drug assemblies were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, elemental analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results showed that MCM-41 has good sphericity and regular pore structure. The research also investigated the optimal loading time, the drug loading and the vitro stability of the β-carotene. As a drug carrier, the modified MCM-41 showing a shorter drug loading time, the drug loading as high as 85.58% and the stability of β-carotene in drug assemblies has improved. The study of this new formulation provides a new way for β-carotene application. PMID:26983203

  2. The effect of solar radiation on beta-carotene and other carotenoid content in carrot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three following cultivars of carrot - Napoli F1, Fantazja, Kazan F1 - were grown in the years 1998-00. The seeds were sown in ridges from the end of April until the beginning of June. Throughout the growth period the total solar radiation was recorded by an automatic system. Every 2 weeks, the leaf area index and the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were calculated. Correlation was found between solar radiation and beta-carotene as well as other carotenoid content in carrot roots. It was found that beta-carotene content depended mainly on the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation by single carrot plants, and not by area unit. Differences in beta-carotene content in carrot cultivars were caused by the time of root formation, rate of beta-carotene production, and total absorbed PAR (PARa)

  3. RECEIVING FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE ON THE BASIS OF BENTONITE CLAYS AND CAROTENE CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova I. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have shown the results of studying of biologically active connections in bentonite clays, carotene containing raw materials for the purpose of receiving functional feed additive for agricultural birds

  4. Sensitized Triplet Formation of Chlorophyll-A and beta-Carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina Mejlhede; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1980-01-01

    The naphthalene-sensitized formation of triplet excited chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and all-transß-carotene has been studied by pulse radiolysis. The rate constants for transfer of triplet energy from naphthalene to Chl-a and all-transß-carotene in benzene at 25°C are (3.6 ± 0.6)·109M-1 s-1 and (10.7 ±...

  5. Lycopene and beta-carotene ameliorate catechol estrogen-mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Muzandu, Kaampwe; El. Bohi, Khlood; Shaban, Zein; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of various ailments, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, are natural constituents of edible plants and may protect against disease. In this study, the influence of lycopene and beta-carotene on DNA damage caused by catechol-estrogens in vitro is examined. One possible mechanism by which catechol estrogens such as 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 2-hydroxyestradi...

  6. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  7. Chemistry, encapsulation, and health benefits of β-carotene - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Gul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a principle carotenoid in carrots, and of the most common and widely studied carotenoids. Carotenoids are the phytonutrients that impart a distinctive yellow, orange, and red color to various fruits and vegetables. β-carotene is important not only for the color that it imparts to the food stuffs, but also because of the myriad of associated health benefits. It is the most potent precursor of vitamin A and is present naturally as a mixture of various isomers (cis and trans of β-carotene molecule. It has a potent antioxidant capacity and offers an array of health benefits such as lowering the risk of heart diseases and certain types of cancers, enhancing the immune system, and protection from age-related macular degeneration—the leading cause of irreversible blindness among adults. Consumer attitude towards bioactive compounds, including β-carotene, as natural colorants and for health benefits is promising. Incorporation of β-carotene in various food systems is limited by its poor water solubility and instability in presence of light, heat, and oxygen. Encapsulation can be a way forward to improve the stability and help in effective delivery of β-carotene.

  8. Enhancing beta-carotene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-08-01

    Beta-carotene is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological and nutraceutical benefits to human health. Metabolic engineering of beta-carotene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been attracting the interest of many researchers. A previous work has shown that S. cerevisiae successfully integrated with phytoene synthase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous could produce beta-carotene. In the present study, we achieved around 200% improvement in beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae through specific site optimization of crtI and crtYB, in which five codons of crtI and eight codons of crtYB were rationally mutated. Furthermore, the effects of the truncated HMG-CoA reductase (tHMG1) from S. cerevisiae and HMG-CoA reductase (mva) from Staphylococcus aureus on the production of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae were also evaluated. Our results indicated that mva from a prokaryotic organism might be more effective than tHMG1 for beta-carotene production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23718229

  9. Influence of deuterated solvents on the chlorophyll-carotene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra of chlorophyll a (chl-a) and (chl-a + #betta#-carotene (#betta#-car)) mixture in nondeuterated and deuterated solvents (C6D6, CDCl3, CH3OD, CD3COCD3) were measured. Significant differences between absorption spectra of chl-a and (chl-a + #betta#-car) mixture in deuterated and nondeuterated solvents were observed. The dark decomposition (changes of the absorption and fluorescence intensity, spectral width and the wavelength of the absorption and fluorescence maxima during the time of storage in dark after preparation) of chl-a in deuterated solvents is quicker than that in nondeuterated ones and strongly depends on the kind of solvent. The most pronounced changes of chl-a absorption spectrum can be observed in a case of deuterated acetone (CD3COCD3). The differential circular dichroism spectra of the chl-a, #betta#-car and (chl-a + #betta#-car) mixture in different kind of nondeuterated and deuterated solvents differ in the experimental error only. Results on effect of deuterated solvents on photosynthetic pigments can be of value when comparing the data of the different spectroscopic methods with that of nuclear magnetic resonance. (author)

  10. Ultrafast multiphoton transient absorption of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckup, Tiago [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Chemistry, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Physical-Chemistry Institute, D-69120 (Germany); Weigel, Alexander; Hauer, Juergen [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Chemistry, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Motzkus, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Motzkus@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Philipps University Marburg, Department of Chemistry, D-35043 Marburg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Physical-Chemistry Institute, D-69120 (Germany)

    2010-07-19

    Multiphoton spectroscopy is able to directly excite electronic states, which are one-photon forbidden. Under single photon conditions, such one-photon forbidden states are exclusively populated via internal relaxation. Hence, transient absorption with two-photon excitation has the potential of clarifying complex relaxation networks by using aimed excitation. In this work we exploited ultrafast two-photon spectroscopy to investigate the excitation of dark states of {beta}-carotene in solution. After direct excitation of the vibronic manifold of S{sub 1}(2A{sub g}{sup -}) from S{sub 0} via two-photon transition, the characteristic internal conversion via hot-S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 1} {yields} S{sub 0} was observed in the respective spectral region. Additional slow dynamics in the blue-wing of excited-state absorption (ESA) and in the NIR were detected, which is not directly observable with one-photon excitation transient absorption. These features are associated here to resonant multiphoton processes, which lead simultaneously to ultrafast intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet systems as well as to excitation of doublet states. Furthermore, we identify a 340-400 fs relaxation component in the near-infrared region after two-photon resonant excitation and discuss the role of additional dark states (3A{sub g}{sup -} and 1B{sub u}{sup -}) in this process.

  11. β-Carotene Supplementation Decreases Placental Transcription of LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1 in Wild-Type Mice and Stimulates Placental β-Carotene Uptake in Marginally Vitamin A-Deficient Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Hong, Alice; Spiegler, Elizabeth; Quadro, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    The human diet contains β-carotene as the most abundant precursor of vitamin A, an essential nutrient for embryogenesis. Our laboratory previously showed the importance of β-carotene metabolism via β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase (CMOI) to support mouse embryonic development. However, the mechanisms regulating embryonic acquisition and utilization of β-carotene from the maternal circulation via placenta remain unknown. We used wild-type (WT) and Lrat−/−Rbp−/− (L−/−R−/−) mice, the latter being a m...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF CAROTENE-15, 15'-OXYGENASE AND CAROTENE-9', 10'-OXYGENASE IN SELECTED FERRET TISSUES AFTER BETA-CRYPTOXANTHIN SUPPLEMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake of foods rich in carotenoids, including beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lycopene, continue to be associated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases. While this association continues to persist, the metabolic fate of many carotenoids continues to be elucidated. The car...

  13. Influence of parenteral application of beta-carotene on fertility in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Holstein breed cows from the breeding stock of high yielding dairy cattle were selected for testing. The cows were selected during their high gravidity and fell into two groups. The i.m beta-carotene, Carofertin, of 20 ml (200 mg of beta-carotene was applied to the experimental group (n=15 two weeks before the expected parturition date. Another injection of the beta-carotene preparation was applied to the experimental group two weeks after parturition. Simultaneously, a physiological solution of 20 ml was injected i.m to the experimental group (n=15. The blood samples for testing of the beta-carotene and vitamin A concentration were taken during high gravidity and in the early puerperium two days after the beta-carotene application and on the day of parturition. Two-of parenteral application of beta-carotene before parturition does not have an impact significantly on the frequency of the occurrence of retained placenta in experimental cows comparing to the cows of the control group (x=33.3 % and x=20.0 % and length of the service period (x =97.20±31.64 and x=98.8±35.8 days. Based on the results obtained during this research, it can be concluded that the parenteral application of the beta-carotene (Carofertin as 200 mg per cow, which is meant for protection of the reproductive disorders of cows, does not affect the level of carotinemia when its concentration in the blood serum is within the physiological limits. Therefore, no significant discrepancy in values of the reproduction figures between the cows of the experimental and control group was found. All in all, its usage is advisable only during scarce feeding.

  14. Conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin : two separate enzymes or a bifunctional hydroxylase-ketolase protein?

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña Eduardo; Martín Juan F; Barredo José L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll of great interest in animal nutrition and human health. The market prospect in the nutraceutics industries for this health-protective molecule is very promising. Astaxanthin is synthesized by several bacteria, algae and plants from β-carotene by the sequential action of two enzymes: a β-carotene, 3,3'-hydroxylase that introduces an hydroxyl group at the 3 (and 3') positions of each of the two β-ionone rings of β-carotene, and a β-carotene ketolase that in...

  15. Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Beta-Carotene in Relation to Common Cold Incidence in Male Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Heinonen Olli P; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, as well as long-term vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation, on the incidence of common cold episodes. A cohort of 21,796 male smokers was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, which examined the effects of 50 mg per day vitamin E and 20 mg per day beta-carotene on lung cancer. Diet and background characteristics were recorded at the study entry, and subjects were queried three time...

  16. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  17. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  18. Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, S.R.; Lin, Y.; Follett, J.R.; Clifford, A.J.; Buchholz, B.A.

    2000-01-31

    {beta}-Carotene is a tetraterpenoid distributed widely throughout the plant kingdom. It is a member of a group of pigments referred to as carotenoids that have the distinction of serving as metabolic precursors to vitamin A in humans and many animals [1,2]. We used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) [3] to determine the metabolic behavior of a physiologic oral dose of {beta}-[{sup 14}C]carotene (200 nanoCuries; 0.57 {micro}mol) in a healthy human subject. Serial blood specimens were collected for 210-d and complete urine and feces were collected for 17 and 10-d, respectively. Balance data indicated that the dose was 42% bioavailable. The absorbed {beta}-carotene was lost slowly via urine in accord with the slow body turnover of {beta}-carotene and vitamin A [4]. HPLC fractionation of plasma taken at early time points (0-24-h) showed the label was distributed between {beta}-carotene and retinyl esters (vitamin A) derived from intestinal metabolism.

  19. Temperature dependence of aggregated structure of β-carotene by absorption spectral experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liping; Wu, Jie; Wei, Liangshu; Wu, Fang

    2016-12-01

    β-carotene can self-assemble to form J- or H-type aggregate in hydrophilic environments, which is crucial for the proper functioning of biological system. Although several ways controlling the formation of the two types of aggregate in hydrated ethanol have been investigated in recent years, our study provided another way to control whether J- or H- β-carotene was formed and presented a method to investigate the aggregated structure. For this purpose, the aggregates of β-carotene formed at different temperatures were studied by UV-Vis spectra and a computational method based on Frenkel exciton was applied to simulate the absorption spectra to obtain the aggregated structure of the β-carotene. The analysis showed that β-carotene formed weakly coupled H-aggregate at 15°C in 1:1 ethanol-water solvent, and with the increase of temperature it tended to form J-type of aggregate. The absorption spectral simulation based on one-dimensional Frenkel exciton model revealed that good fit with the experiment was obtained with distance between neighbor molecules r=0.82nm, disorder of the system D=1500cm(-1) for H-type and r=1.04nm, D=1800cm(-1) for J-type. PMID:27348046

  20. β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiye, Shadrack O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Shiundu, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in β-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for β-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. β-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative β-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a β-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the β-carotene. As much as 280 μRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through β-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post-cooking, kales had statistically comparable β-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of β-carotene content. Measures to prevent β-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high β-carotene content. PMID:27222406

  1. The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion--evidence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marjorie J

    2012-11-01

    β-Carotene is an important dietary source of vitamin A for humans. However, the bioavailability and vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene are highly variable and can be affected by food- and diet-related factors, including the food matrix, food-processing techniques, size of the dose of β-carotene, and the amounts of dietary fat, fiber, vitamin A, and other carotenoids in the diet as well as by characteristics of the target population, such as vitamin A status, nutrient deficiencies, gut integrity, and genetic polymorphisms associated with β-carotene metabolism. The absorption of β-carotene from plant sources ranges from 5% to 65% in humans. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene to vitamin A from plant sources range from 3.8:1 to 28:1, by weight. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene from biofortified Golden Rice or biofortified maize are 3.8:1 and 6.5:1, respectively, and are lower than ratios for vegetables that have more complex food matrices (10:1 to 28:1). The vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is likely to be context-specific and dependent on specific food- and diet-related factors and the health, nutritional, and genetic characteristics of human populations. Although the vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is highly variable, the provision of vegetable and fruit sources of β-carotene has significantly increased vitamin A status in women and children in community settings in developing countries; these results support the inclusion of dietary interventions with plant sources of β-carotene as a strategy for increasing vitamin A status in populations at risk of deficiency. PMID:23053560

  2. Improvement of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements Using Excipient Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of excipient nanoemulsions on β-carotene bioaccessibility from commercial dietary supplements (tablets or soft gels) was studied employing an in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient nanoemulsions were formulated from long or medium chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT) to determine the impact of lipid type on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Dietary supplements were tested using the GIT model in the absence or presence of excipient nanoemulsions. β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (0.3%) or soft gels (2.4%) was low when tested in isolation. LCT nanoemulsions greatly improved β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (20%) and slightly improved it from soft gels (5%), whereas MCT nanoemulsions only slightly improved bioaccessibility. These results were attributed to the ability of large carotenoid molecules to be incorporated into large mixed micelles formed by LCT digestion but not by small ones formed by MCT digestion. Our results indicate that excipient nanoemulsions have considerable potential for improving nutraceutical bioavailability from dietary supplements. PMID:27198626

  3. β-carotene protects rats against bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宝森; 王辰; 翁心植; 唐小奈; 张红玉; 牛淑洁; 毛燕玲; 辛平; 黄秀霞; 张海燕; 祝锦

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of β-carotene in rats against the development of chronic bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking. Results Long-term cigarette smoking caused an obvious increase in the amount of IL-6, IL-8 and LPO and a sharp decrease in the levels of NO and SOD in smoking animals compared to controls. β-carotene intake reversed all the changes induced by smoking and alleviated the pathological changes caused by chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Quantitative oral intake of β-carotene had protective effects against chronic bronchitis induced by long-term cigarette smoking, which was associated with the increased production of NO, the clearance of some oxidative free radicals (OFR) and the alleviation of chronic inflammation.

  4. Isolation of carrot plant lines with altered carotene contents from gamma irradiated explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary vitamin A is mainly obtained from carotenes of vegetables and fruits. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the major sources of carotene. Carrot cultivars have been obtained mainly through classical breeding, and genetic selection has permitted the creation of new varieties with high carotene contents. The fact that in several crops agronomically important mutants/variants have been generated by in vitro culture techniques prompted us to combine gamma irradiation and in vitro somatic embryogenesis to obtain regenerants with variations in carotene content in carrot. To test the effect of gamma rays on somatic embryogenesis and on the carotene level, aseptically germinated seedlings of 8 carrot varieties were exposed to 5; 10 and 500 Gy before culturing petiole segments on LN1 medium. Non-irradiated petioles produced calli with somatic embryos, while irradiated explants reacted differently according to radiation dose. After 4 weeks of culture on LN1 medium, petiole segments of different varieties irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy gave more callus with embryos than those with non-irradiated segments. However, after the subculture on LN medium, the development of embryos into plantlets was rare. It was also noted that after irradiation with 5 Gy, the petiole segments gave voluminous calli. Further, in variety 'Chantenay', the irradiated calli were deep orange while non-irradiated calli were green. However, embryo formation was not observed in these calli. This orange coloration suggests an appreciable synthesis of carotene in the calli. Gamma rays, probably produced cell lines with different colors and carotene content. Of the 8 cultivars tested, normal plantlets of 3 varieties were regenerated from somatic embryos irradiated with 10 Gy, and were transferred to greenhouse to develop roots. For each assay, the carotene analysis was carried out on 2 roots, and compared with plants produced from non-irradiated somatic embryos. Carotene level in the plants, derived from

  5. Optimization of beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM28 in fermented radish brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisorn, C; Suntornsuk, W

    2008-05-01

    A face-centered central composite design was applied to optimize a cultivation condition for improved beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM28 in a stirred tank reactor using 30 g/l total soluble solid of fermented radish brine as a sole substrate. The experiments were performed with regression models, where temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were considered as variables. Results showed that an optimum condition for beta-carotene production of the yeast was at 30 degrees C, pH 6 and 80% dissolved oxygen. Under this condition, the yeast yielded 2.7 g/l biomass and the maximum beta-carotene of 201 microg/l after 24-h fermentation indicating approximately 15% higher than those under an initial condition (2.3g/l and 178 microg/l, respectively). PMID:17587568

  6. Fenólicos e carotenóides totais em pitanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência de uma ampla diversidade genética, a pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. apresenta cor que varia do alaranjado até o vermelho escuro quase negro. Em Pernambuco, no entanto, é comum encontrá-la com coloração laranja-avermelhada. Como muitos fitoquímicos presentes em frutos exibem propriedades antioxidantes, com destaque para carotenóides e compostos fenólicos, e frente a escassez de informações sobre seus teores em pitanga, objetivou-se quantificá-los nas seleções cujos frutos apresentam coloração vermelha e roxa. Assim, foram determinados espectrofotometricamente os teores de carotenóides e fenólicos totais nos frutos destas seleções nos estádios maduro e semi-maduro. Na pitanga roxa madura e em sua película também foram determinados os teores de antocianinas, flavonóis e carotenóides totais. Os compostos fenólicos e os carotenóides totais na pitanga roxa madura encontram-se em maiores teores do que na pitanga vermelha no mesmo estádio de maturação. A seleção roxa exibiu quantidade significante de antocianinas, cujo teor foi mais elevado no fruto maduro do que no semi-maduro. Os carotenóides, antocianinas e flavonóis encontram-se mais concentrados na película do que na polpa deste fruto maduro. A presença de antocianinas, flavonóis e carotenóides totais na pitanga roxa fazem deste fruto uma fonte promissora de compostos antioxidantes cujo cultivo deveria ser estimulado.

  7. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Sommerburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  8. Effects of processing, cooking, and storage on ß-carotene retention and bioaccessibility in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofortification of cassava with beta-carotene is currently being tested in African populations where cassava is a staple food and vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem. Measuring the impact of traditional African processing and cooking on beta-carotene concentration and bioaccessibility ...

  9. Conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin: Two separate enzymes or a bifunctional hydroxylase-ketolase protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudiña Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll of great interest in animal nutrition and human health. The market prospect in the nutraceutics industries for this health-protective molecule is very promising. Astaxanthin is synthesized by several bacteria, algae and plants from β-carotene by the sequential action of two enzymes: a β-carotene, 3,3'-hydroxylase that introduces an hydroxyl group at the 3 (and 3' positions of each of the two β-ionone rings of β-carotene, and a β-carotene ketolase that introduces keto groups at carbons 4 and 4' of the β-ionone rings. Astaxanthin is also produced by the yeast-like basidiomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. A gene crtS involved in the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin has been cloned simultaneously by two research groups. Complementation studies of X. dendrorhous mutants and expression analysis in Mucor circinelloides reveals that the CrtS enzyme is a β-carotene hydroxylase of the P-450 monooxygenase family that converts β-carotene to the hydroxylated derivatives β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, but it does not form astaxanthin or the ketolated intermediates in this fungus. A bifunctional β-carotene hydroxylase-ketolase activity has been proposed for the CrtS protein. The evidence for and against this hypothesis is analyzed in detail in this review.

  10. Monitoring the Therapeutic and Protective Role of the Anti oxidative Nutritional Factor β Carotene in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenoids are those substances, synthesized, only in plants that serve to protect the plants from free radicals. β-carotene, one of the carotenoids, has been thought to be of value to humans and other species, not only as precursors to vitamin A, but also for having excellent antioxidant properties. Four groups of rats were used to gain insight into the protective action of carotenes: control, β-carotene treated (30 mg/ kg body wt for 10 days), irradiated (4 fractions, each of 1.5 Gy gamma-rays during 10 days) and protracted group: rats received the same fractionated gamma-rays at the same time gavaged with β-carotene along the 10 days. Irradiated rats revealed significant decreases in p-carotene and glutathione (GSH) concentrations and significant increases in the activities of blood alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), catalase and contents of blood thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In liver , tissue, TBARS content and catalase activity were raised while GSH was declined. The oral intake of β-carotene to irradiated rats was found to maintain the parameters measured near the control mean levels; i.e., increased content of blood β-carotene and GSH and modulated activities of ALP, ACP, ALT, GGT, catalase and TBARS level. It also, modulated the alterations of liver TBARS, catalase and GSH. Conclusion: β-carotene therapy significantly modulates oxidative damage induced by ionising radiation in rats

  11. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  12. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents of forage species in four-cut system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, H.; Nadeau, A.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Søegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations were measured in herbage of birdsfoot trefoil (Bft), red clover (Rc), white clover (Wc), timothy (Ti) and perennial ryegrass (Pr) grown in four mixtures (Bft+Ti, Rc+Ti, Rc+Pr and Wc+Pr) in a small-plot field experiment at Foulum, Denmark, over 2 years......-carotene concentrations were 54 and 62 mg kg−1 DM. In conclusion, herbage of birdsfoot trefoil generally had higher vitamin concentrations than white or red clover, but differences between the two grass species were small and inconsistent....

  13. Serum beta-carotene and subsequent risk of cancer: results from the BUPA Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Thompson, S G; Densem, J W; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A

    1988-01-01

    In the BUPA Study, a prospective study of 22,000 men attending a screening centre in London, serum samples were collected and stored. The concentration of beta-carotene was measured in the stored serum samples from 271 men who were subsequently notified as having cancer and from 533 unaffected controls, matched for age, smoking history and duration of storage of the serum samples. The mean beta-carotene level of the cancer subjects was significantly lower than that of their matched controls (...

  14. A New Method to Simultaneously Quantify the Antioxidants: Carotenes, Xanthophylls, and Vitamin A in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Miralles, Esther; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and accurate reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneously determining and quantifying the antioxidants carotenes, xanthophylls, and retinol in human plasma is presented in this paper. Compounds were extracted with hexane, a C30 column, and a mobile phase of methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, and water were used for the separation of the compounds. A total of 8 carotenoids, 3 Z-β-carotene isomers, and 1 fat-soluble vitamin (retinol) were resolved within 72 min at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Detection was achieved at 450 nm for carotenoids and 330 nm for retinol. To evaluate the effectiveness of themethod, it has been applied to an intervention study conducted on eight volunteers. Results. Limits of detection were between 0.1 μg/mL for lycopene and astaxanthin and 1.3 μg/mL for 15-Z-β-carotene. Recoveries were ranged between 89% and 113% for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Accuracy was between 90.7% and 112.2% and precision was between 1% and 15% RSD. In human plasma samples compounds studied were identified besides three lycopene isomers, demonstrated to be suitable for application in dietary intervention studies. Conclusions. Due to its accuracy, precision, selectivity, and reproducibility, this method is suitable to dietary habits and/or antioxidants status studies. PMID:26697143

  15. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  16. Stability of β-carotene in protein-stabilized oil-in-water delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Leonardo; Roos, Yrjo H

    2011-07-13

    Inclusion of liposoluble bioactive compounds in fortified foods represents a complex challenge due to the labile nature of such compounds and the instability of oil-in-water emulsion-based delivery systems. In the present study, dispersions prepared with 10% (w/w) sunflower oil (SO) or hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) containing 0.05% (w/w) β-carotene were stabilized by various concentrations of whey protein isolate (WPI) or sodium caseinate (NaCas) (0.1 to 2.0% w/w) in 30% (w/w) sucrose aqueous solutions. Physicochemical characterization of emulsions was done considering the particle size, the particle surface protein coverage, and the physical state of continuous and dispersed phases. Physical stability of the systems and their protection properties on β-carotene were compared. The lipid carrier type and interfacial structure were investigated as the two key factors which regulate the stability of labile lipophilic bioactive molecules in food model systems. Our results showed high β-carotene stability when O/W systems were stable (protein concentration ≥0.8% w/w.) A (partially) solid lipid carrier (HPKO) enhanced protection compared to the liquid carrier (SO) as the bioactive molecules were entrapped in isolated domains within the solid lattice and kept apart from reactive species in the surroundings. NaCas provided a better barrier than WPI due to the different amino acid composition and interface structure which significantly reduced β-carotene degradation rate. PMID:21591770

  17. Hot compressed water extraction curve for palm oil and beta carotene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizan, M. S. M.; Azian, M. N.; Yoshiyuki, Y.; Kamal, A. A. M.; Che Yunus, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Hot compressed water extraction (HCWE) is a promising green alternative for palm oil milling. The kinetic characteristic of HCWE for palm oil and it β-carotene concentration was experimentally investigated in this study at the different temperature and pressure. Semi-batch HCW extractor from 120 to 180 oC and 30 to 50 bar was used to evaluated the process for 60 mins of extraction in 10 mins interval. The results obtain using the HCWE process was compared with other extraction method. The oil extraction achieved the maximum extraction rate within 20 mins of extraction in most of the condition and starting to decrease until 60 mins of extraction time. The extraction rate for β-carotene was achieved the maximum rate in 10 mins and starting to decrease until 30 mins. None of β-carotene concentration had been extracted out from the palm oil mesocarp after 30 mins of extraction in all condition. The oil recovery of using HCWE was relatively low compare with the mechanical screw press, subcritical R134b, supercritical carbon dioxide and hexane extraction due to the oil loses in the oil-water emulsion. However, the β-carotene concentration in extracted oil using HCWE was improved compare with commercial crude palm oil (CPO) and subcritical R134a extraction.

  18. [Dietary plant phospholipids as stabilizers of oil solutions of beta-carotene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodina, Z V; Lupinovich, V L; Risnik, V V; Levachev, M M

    1995-01-01

    A study of stability of oil solutions beta-carotene to oxidizing damage is carried out. As stabilizers were used dietary plant phospholipids produced by Krasnodar's company ECOTECH in concentrations 5, 10, 20% in a combination with alpha-tocopherol. Oxidizing changes in samples were evaluated by determination of peroxide level ('peroxidation number') and contents diene conjugates. Effect of these antioxidants was studied in experiments with accelerated oxidation at 60 C in darkness during 15 days. Phospholipids entered in a sample acted as antioxidants. Reverse correlation was found between quantity added phospholipids an level of accumulated primary peroxidation products. It was shown that during experimental oxidation together with oxidizing damage of oil the loss of beta-carotene was also occurred: without antioxidants on 68%, with alpha-tocopherol alone on 27%, with phospholipids and alpha-tocopherol on 34%. Phospholipids protect an oil from oxidizing damage not rendering of direct action on safety (-carotene being only as synergists in a combination with alpha-tocopherol. Phospholipids increase thus antioxidant potentiation of a product lying as consider in the basis of antioxidant action of beta-carotene. PMID:7483481

  19. Serum a- and b-carotene concentrations qualitatively respond to sustained carrot feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    b-Carotene is a predominant source of vitamin A in developing countries. Genetically selected ‘‘high carotene’’ carrots could have an impact on the vitamin A and antioxidant status of people if widely adopted. A 3 3 3 crossover study in humans (n = 10) evaluated the difference in uptake and clearanc...

  20. Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Taguchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’ and the curdlan water slurry (W was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W dispersion. The (O/W dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’ and stirred to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene.

  1. Continuous Production of Oils and B-Carotene from Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    High intensity lighting lowered the fatty acid content of D. bardawil and D. salina strains while these levels remained essentially the same in both D. tertiolecta cultures. High light intensity significantly raised the amount of ß-carotene in D. bardawil samples with little impact on the other t...

  2. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  3. Qualitative Aspects of UV-Vis Spectrophotometry of Beta-Carotene and Lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Barrie; Soderstrom, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the structural behavior of polyenic pi systems such as isomerization and conjugation. Uses the simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a beta-carotene and lycopene mixture. Presents an empirical method to determine the number of double bonds in the polyenic carotenoid. (MVL)

  4. Iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in different mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Maria de Arruda Germano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron availability in the diet is very important because iron deficiency affects a large population in the world. The matrix where iron is present has an influence in its availability. The presence of β-carotene is a factor that alters the availability of iron. This research aims to estimate the iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in food mixtures: M1 = egg and pumpkin; M2 = spinach and pumpkin; M3 = spinach and cabbage; M4 = egg and cabbage; M5 = spinach and carrot; M6 = egg and carrot; M7 = bean and carrot; M8 = bean and pumpkin and M9 = bean and cabbage. After cooking, the following figures were determined: proximate composition, oxalic acid, phytic acid, tannin, iron, iron availability in vitro and β-carotene. The data were analyzed by Tukey test (5%. There were no significant statistical differences for oxalic acid. Tannin presented greater results in mixtures with spinach (M2 and M5; phytic acid was greater in bean samples (M7, M8 and M9 and with spinach (M2. Mixtures M5 e M7, with carrot, presented more β-carotene than the others. The best result for iron availability appeared in mixture (M6. A positive correlation was verified between protein and iron dialysis, and between lipids and iron dialysis. Dietetic fiber was an inhibitor to iron availability. Mixtures with egg showed greater iron availability

  5. Beta-carotene encapsulated in food protein nanoparticles reduces peroxyl radical oxidation in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC) was encapsulated by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soybean protein isolate (SPI) by the homogenization-evaporation method forming nanoparticles of 78, 90 and 370 nm diameter. Indices of the chemical antioxidant assays, the reducing power, DPPH radical scave...

  6. Organ specificity of beta-carotene induced lung gene-expression changes in Bcmo 1-/- mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R.W.L.; Schooten, van F.J.; Keijer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Scope - Whole genome transcriptome analysis of male and female beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase knockout (Bcmo1-/-) and Bcmo1+/+ (wild-type) mice with or without 14 wk of BC supplementation was done. We previously showed that only 1.8% of the genes regulated by BC in lung were also regulated in li

  7. Inheritance of the Quantity of ß-carotene and Fruit Maturity of Melon (Cucumis Melon L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit production in U.S. can be improved through the introgression of early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of fruit color [i.e., quantity of ß-carotene (QßC); orange fruit mesocarp]. However, the genetics of FM and QßC have not been clearly defined in U.S. Western Sh...

  8. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplemen...

  9. Effects of antioxidants on the stability of β-Carotene in O/W emulsions stabilized by Gum Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Hou, Zhanqun; Yang, Jia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-06-01

    The potential of oil-in-water emulsions as a β-carotene delivery system was examined in this study. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing β-carotene were formed by gum arabic with α-tocopherol, tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and ascorbyl palmitate, respectively. The influence of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of β-carotene in gum arabic stabilized emulsions was investigated at 4, 25, 45 and 65 °C in the dark, respectively. An accelerated photo-oxidation test was carried out at 45 °C (450 W/m(2)). Moreover, β-carotene degradation rate constants (k 1-value), activation energy (E a ) and decimal reduction time (D-value) were estimated to interpret the degradation kinetics. The impact of antioxidants on the thermal stability of β-carotene in diluted emulsions was generally in the following order: α-tocopherol > TBHQ > ascorbyl palmitate. α-Tocopherol was found to be the most effective to the antioxidation of β-carotene at the concentration of 0.10 wt% under light exposure. It was concluded that the stability of β-carotene in oil-in-water emulsions could be improved by the presence of different antioxidants. PMID:26028711

  10. Effects of antioxidants on the stability of β-Carotene in O/W emulsions stabilized by Gum Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuwei; Hou, Zhanqun; Yang, Jia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-01-01

    The potential of oil-in-water emulsions as a β-carotene delivery system was examined in this study. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing β-carotene were formed by gum arabic with α-tocopherol, tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and ascorbyl palmitate, respectively. The influence of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of β-carotene in gum arabic stabilized emulsions was investigated at 4, 25, 45 and 65 °C in the dark, respectively. An accelerated photo-oxidation test was carried out at...

  11. Composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) in natura

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Sandra Regina da; Mercadante Adriana Z.

    2002-01-01

    A composição de carotenóides de maracujá-amarelo in natura (Passiflora edulis) comercializado em Campinas, Brasil, foi avaliada utilizando-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Em todas as amostras foram encontrados os seguintes carotenóides: beta-criptoxantina, prolicopeno, cis-zeta-caroteno, zeta-caroteno, beta-caroteno e 13-cis-beta-caroteno, além de neurosporeno e gama-caroteno em alguns lotes. Em geral, os teores de carotenóides nos diversos lotes foram significativamente diferent...

  12. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of β-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). β-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that β-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in β-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  13. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan_markovic57@yahoo.co [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). {beta}-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that {beta}-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in {beta}-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  14. β-Carotene-induced apoptosis is mediated with loss of Ku proteins in gastric cancer AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoona; Choi, Jiyeon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-07-01

    High dietary intakes and high blood levels of β-carotene are associated with a decreased incidence of various cancers. The anticancer effect of β-carotene is related to its pro-oxidant activity. DNA repair Ku proteins, as a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80, play a crucial role in DNA double-strand break repair. Reductions in Ku70/80 contribute to apoptosis. Previously, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate caspase-3 which induces degradation of Ku proteins. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of β-carotene-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer AGS cells by determining cell viability, DNA fragmentation, apoptotic indices (increases in cytochrome c and Bax, decrease in Bcl-2), ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activity, Ku70/80 levels, and Ku-DNA-binding activity of the cells treated with or without antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine and caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVED-fmk. As a result, β-carotene induced apoptosis (decrease in cell viability, increases in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic indices) and caspase-3 activation, but decreased Ku70/80 levels and Ku-DNA-binding activity. β-Carotene-induced alterations (increase in caspase-3 activity, decrease in Ku proteins) and apoptosis were inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine and z-DEVED-fmk. Increment of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were suppressed by N-acetyl cysteine, but not by z-DEVED-fmk in β-carotene-treated cells. Therefore, β-carotene-induced increases in ROS and caspase-3 activity may lead to reduction of Ku70/80 levels, which results in apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Loss of Ku proteins might be the underlying mechanism for β-carotene-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. PMID:25981694

  15. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  16. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  17. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  18. Modulation of antioxidant and phosphatase enzymes by beta-carotene against gamma radiation induced testicular disorders in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. It is a precursor for vitamin A and an important antioxidant. This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of β-carotene against gamma radiation induced disorders in the testis of male albino rats, it included 4 groups: control group, treated group; animals of this group received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/kg body wt) for 1 week, irradiated group; animals of this group were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy, and treated-irradiated group; animals received a daily oral dose of β-carotene (30 mg/ kg body wt) for 1 week before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 Gy. 6 animals of each group were autopsied at 1, 3 and 5 days after β-carotene treatment and/ or irradiation. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in testis homogenate. In irradiated animals there was a highly significant decrease in testis alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity. On the other hand, significant increase in acid phosphatase activity was observed. Treatment with β-carotene before irradiation causes significant increase in alkaline phosphatase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity and significant decrease in acid phosphatase activity compared to the irradiated group. The results of the present study indicated that β-carotene ameliorated oxidative stress and the loss of cellular antioxidants and suggest that β-carotene may reduce the radiation damage in testis of male albino rats

  19. Hepatic and duodenal expression of β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase in beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Mexico most bovines are finished on pasture: the adipose tissue of those animals shows a yellow pigmentation which results in an important economic loss for the producer, because pg downgrading or even rejection of resulting carcasses. Yellowness of fat is caused by excessive carotenoids in the diet, of which β-carotene is predominant. β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase (β-ox) is the enzyme that cleaves it into two molecules of vitamin A. In cattle not all the absorbed β-carotene is transformed into vitamin A; the excess is transported to the liver where it might be cleaved by the enzyme and stored or packaged with other lipid compounds and carried to different tissues, including the adipose. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of β-ox in duodenal mucosae and hepatic tissue of grass-fed compared with grain-fed cattle. Biological samples were taken at Queretaro's Municipal abattoir from bovines at slaughter. For tRNA assays, intestinal mucosae was taken in Trizol reagent (Gibco BRL cat. 15595- 026), homogenized and transported on ice to the laboratory. For in situ hybridization duodenal and hepatic tissue samples were taken and fixed on 3.5% paraformaldehyde. A partial cDNA for β-ox of 744 nt was obtained by RT-PCR amplification, this product was inserted into TOPO vector 4.0 (Invitrogen cat. K457501) and cloned into E. coli bacteria. Then two sense and antisense digoxygenin labeled probes were synthesized and used for the hybridization of duodenal and hepatic cryosections of 15 μm from four pigmented and four non-pigmented carcasses. The hybridization conditions were a four-hour pre-hybridization at 65 deg. C and a overnight hybridization at the same temperature. The slides were washed and incubated overnight at 4 deg. C with digoxygenin/alkaline phosphatase antibody. The slides were washed and incubated with alkaline phosphatase-nitro blue tetrazolim/5-bromo-4-cloro-3- indoly-phosphate in darkness overnight at room

  20. Efficient scavenging of β-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min;

    2014-01-01

    by the anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 × 10 L mol s, but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced......The radical cation generated during photobleaching of β-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k = 3.2 × 10 L mol s in 9:1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 °C, less efficiently...... rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the β-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  1. Carotene-degrading activities from Bjerkandera adusta possess an application in detergent industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Diana; Leonhardt, Robin; Eisele, Nadine; Petersen, Laura M; Riemer, Stephanie; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-06-01

    Four extracellular enzymes, a versatile peroxidase, a manganese peroxidase, a dye-decolorizing peroxidase and a lignin peroxidase were discovered in liquid cultures of the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta. All of them cleaved β-carotene effectively. Expression was enhanced in the presence of β-carotene or Coomassie Brilliant Blue and peaked after 7-9 days. The monomeric proteins were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography and exhibited molecular masses of 41, 43, 51 and 43 kDa, respectively. The coding sequences showed homologies from 61 to 89 % to peroxidases from other basidiomycetes. The novel enzymes retained strong activity even in the absence of hydrogen peroxide and at alkaline pH. De-staining of fabrics using detergent-tolerant enzymes may help to save the most important bio-resources, energy and water, in washing processes and led to green processes in textile cleaning. PMID:25614450

  2. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  3. β-carotene Protects the Physiological Antioxidants Against Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Carcinogenesis in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Patel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of β-carotene on the body growth and physiological antioxidants, male weanling rats were fed with low and high amount of β-carotene before four weeks and after six months of Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 treatment (0.5 mg kg-1 body wt., on alternate days, total 10 doses, i.p. The results were compared with animals treated with AFB1. The final body weight of AFB1 treated animals was significantly reduced in the normal group (NVE. Plasma vitamin E was reduced significantly in NVE group whereas vitamin C levels decreased significantly in NVE and low β-carotene (LBE fed group. The maximum reduction was found in NVE group. Plasma GSH levels were increased significantly in animals in high β-carotene (HBC fed group. Liver protein showed significant reduction in NVE group. Liver lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in NVE and LBE groups. Liver vitamin A showed dose dependent increased levels in animals fed with high amount of β-carotene. Vitamin E was decreased significantly in NVE group. Liver antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase levels were reduced significantly in the treated animals of the NVE group. Results obtained indicated that β-carotene supplementation elevated the levels of vitamin C, glutathione and glutathione related enzymes which act as a free radical scavenger and reduced the toxicity effect of AFB1 in rats.

  4. Nonradiative transitions in the media of different polarity and their simulation for 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of nonradiative transitions based on the model of orientation broadening of electronic levels has been used to interpret known data on the medium polarity and temperature effect on the S1(Ag-) state lifetime of 12'-apo-b-caroten-12'-al and 8'-apo-b-caroten-8'-al. The effect of promotion vibrations on the rate constant of the nonradiative transitions has been considered. The results allow assuming that the internal electric field produced by the environment heavily perturbs molecules of the pigments. In consequence of this, at both pigments in the excited S1(Ag-) state exist in the form of different conformers I and II. Their structure differs by 180° turn of the cyclohexene ring relative to the polyene chain. Conformer II dominates in the polar media, and it is in the intramolecular charge transfer state S1(Ag-/ICT). In addition, it can also be in the charge separated state S1(Ag-/CS) due to the fluctuations of internal electric field. (authors)

  5. Efficacy of beta-carotene topical application in melasma: An open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available b-carotene, a structural analogue of vitamin A, works as an agonist of this vitamin, by reversibly sticking the chemical mechanism of melanogenesis by saturating the nuclear receptors of melanocytes and/or binding protein. To study the safety and efficacy of b-carotene lotion on topical application in melasma, clinically diagnosed 31 adults (26F and 5M with melasma were included in this trial. All of them applied b-carotene lotion daily, morning and evening to the affected areas. Twenty six of them completed regular 8 weeks treatment. Nine of them continued same treatment for 16 more weeks. All cases were evaluated clinically using melasma intensity (MPi index (Grade I, II, III and size of the lesion. Clinical photograph was taken for each case at 0 week, 8′h week and 24th week. Initial 8 weeks treatment revealed that the single case with grade-I pigmentation included in this study recovered completely. Two out of 13 cases with grade-II pigmentation, showed no change, in 10 cases, pigmentation became lighter to grade-I (76. 9% and one case recovered completely. Out of 12 grade-III cases, one did not show any change, 10(83. 3% converted to grade-II and one to grade-I. At the end of 24 weeks, all the nine cases (2 grade-II and 7 grade III showed further clearing of the pigmentation to the next lower grade. Side-effects like mild erythema and local irritation were observed in two cases each, who were advised to discontinue treatment as per the protocol. In conclusion, topical application of b-carotene lotion appears to bean effective and safe for melosma. Longer duration of application is associated with better result.

  6. Non-invasive laser Raman detection of lycopene and ž-carotene antioxidants in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2003-07-01

    The predominant long-chain carotenoids found in the human skin are lycopene and β-carotene. They are powerful antioxidants and thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and single oxygen that are formed by excessive exposure of skin to sunlight. However the role of the particular representatives of the carotenoid antioxidants family in the skin defense mechanism is still unclear and has to be clarified. We demonstrate the opportunity for fast non-invasive selective quantitative detection of β-carotene and lycopene in human skin employing Raman spectroscopy. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the molecules under blue and green laser excitation we were able to characterize quantitativly the concentrations of each carotenoid in alive human skin. In this method we take an advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profile for β-carotene and lycopene molecules. This novel technique allows the quantitative assessment of individual carotenoid species in the skin rather then the cumulative level of long-chain carotenoids mixture as we could measure in our previous works. The required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Prelimininary dichoromatic Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different volunteer's skin: even in statistically small group of seven subjects the ratio of β-carotene-to-lycopene in their skin vary from 0.5 to 1.6. This technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of carotenoids composition of human skin in large populations and suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  7. The modifying effect of beta-carotene on radiation and chemotherapy induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study of 20 patients with advanced squamous carcinoma of the mouth was to monitor the dose modifying effect of supplemental dietary beta-carotene on the progression of the oral mucosal reaction and treatment outcome during an intensive course of synchronous radiation and chemotherapy. Tumour response and long term normal tissue changes have been carefully recorded. Results and freedom from toxic side effects suggest further studies. (author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of beta-carotene nanodispersions prepared by solvent displacement technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Boon-Seang; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Kanafusa, Sumiyo; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2007-08-01

    This work demonstrated the preparation of protein-stabilized beta-carotene nanodispersions using the solvent displacement technique. The emulsifying performance of sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, 18% degree of hydrolysis) was compared in terms of particle size and zeta-potential of the nanodispersions. SC-stabilized nanodispersions exhibited a bimodal particle size distribution: large particles (stabilized by casein micelles) with a mean particle size of 171 nm and small particles (stabilized by casein submicelles) of 13 nm. This was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Most of the beta-carotene precipitated (87.6%) was stabilized in the small particles. On the other hand, the nanodispersions stabilized by the whey proteins were polydispersed with larger mean particle sizes. The mean particle size of WPC and WPI was 1730 and 201 nm, respectively. The SC-stabilized nanodispersion was expected to be more stable as indicated by its higher absolute zeta-potential value (-31 mV) compared to that of WPC (-15 mV) and WPI (-16 mV). Partially hydrolyzed whey protein possessed improved emulsifying properties as shown by WPH-stabilized samples. It was interesting to note that increasing the SC concentration from 0.05 to 0.5 wt % increased the particle size of beta-carotene stabilized by casein micelles, while the reverse was true for those stabilized by SC submicelles. Microfluidization at 100 MPa of SC solution dissociated the casein micelles, resulting in a decrease in mean particle size of the casein micelle-stabilized particles when the SC solution was used to prepare nanodispersions. The results from this work showed that protein-stabilized beta-carotene nanodispersions could be prepared using the solvent displacement technique. PMID:17630759

  9. Vibrationally coherent crossing and coupling of electronic states during internal conversion in beta-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Liebel, Matz; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wavepacket dynamics during the S2-S1 internal conversion in beta-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direc...

  10. Relationship between vegetable and carotene intake and risk of prostate cancer: the JACC study

    OpenAIRE

    Umesawa, M; Iso, H.; Mikami, K.; Kubo, T.; K. Suzuki; Watanabe, Y.; M. Mori; Miki, T; Tamakoshi, A; ,

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the associations of intakes of vegetables and carotenes with risk of prostate cancer in Japanese. Methods: A total of 15 471 Japanese men participating in the Japan Collaborative Cohort study completed a questionnaire including food intake. Of them, 143 incident prostate cancers were documented. We examined the associations stated above by using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Vegetable intake was not associated with the risk of prostate cancer, but so was diet...

  11. DNA repair genotype and lung cancer risk in the beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Jennifer A; Sakoda, Lori C.; Loomis, Melissa M; Barnett, Matt J.; Julianto, Liberto; Thornquist, Mark D; Neuhouser, Marian L; Weiss, Noel S.; Goodman, Gary E.; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    Many carcinogens in tobacco smoke cause DNA damage, and some of that damage can be mitigated by the actions of DNA repair enzymes. In a case-control study nested within the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a randomized chemoprevention trial in current and former heavy smokers, we examined whether lung cancer risk was associated with variation in 26 base excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination repair genes. Analyses were limited to Caucasians (744 cases, 1477 co...

  12. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Victoria A.; Hayes, Richard B; Mayne, Susan T; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Subar, Amy F; Dixon, L. Beth; Albanes, Demetrius; Gerald L. Andriole; Urban, Donald A.; Peters, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers Dietary item or component studied: Vitamin E, caroteniods, vitamin COutcome studied (cancer or cancer biomarker): prastate cancerStudy type (in vitro, animals, humans): humansStudy design (if human): cross-sectionalStudy size (if human):29361 menMode of exposure (if in vivo): through normal diet (no administration)Impact on outcome (including dose-response): inverse association between β-carotene intake and prostate cancer risk (RR for >2000μg...

  13. Beta-carotene metabolites enhance inflammation-induced oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    van Helden, Yvonne G. J.; Keijer, Jaap; Knaapen, Ad M; Heil, Sandra G.; Briede, Jacob J.; Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2009-01-01

    beta-Carotene (BC) intake has been shown to enhance lung cancer risk in smokers and asbestos-exposed subjects (according to the ATBC and CARET studies), but the mechanism behind this procarcinogenic effect of BC is unclear. Both smoking and asbestos exposure induce an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the airways, which results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and formation of promutagenic DNA lesions. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects o...

  14. The Effect of Beta-Carotene Intake on Lung Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Brar, Rondeep Singh

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, comprising nearly 30% of all cancer-related mortality. Investigation into nutritional supplementation with beta-carotene as a means of reducing lung cancer incidence remains an active and intriguing area of research. The present review summarizes the salient findings in the literature to date. Although a number of observational studies have suggested an association between carotenoid consumption and reduced...

  15. Modelling potential β-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Josh M.; La Frano, Michael R.; Winter, Carl K.; Burri, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its β-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk–benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were...

  16. Concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Miljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of high-productive dairy cows of the Holstein breed, 40 cows were selected for an experiment. The animals were chosen at the period of advanced gravidity. Data on mean values of beta-carotene concentrations in blood serum of the cows show that significantly higher values (p<0.01 were established in advanced gravidity (x=9.53± 3.49 μmol/l in comparison with the values on calving day (x=5.69±3.14 μmol/l and in early puerperium (x=2.25±1.00 μmol/l. The average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows varied approximately the same as the concentration of beta-carotene. The highest average concentration of vitamin A in blood serum of cows was determined in advanced gravidity (x=1.856±0.52 μmol/l, and the lowest in early puerperium (x=0.988±0.31 μmol/l (p<0.05. It can be concluded on the grounds of the results obtained in this work that the average concentration of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving is within the limits of physiological values and in keeping with the values cited in literature, and that concentrations of beta-carotene and vitamin A in blood serum of cows two weeks after calving are significantly lower than the values obtained in advanced gravidity and on the day of calving and are lower than the physiological values most often reported in literature for this animal specie.

  17. A Metagenomics Analysis on B-Carotene Synthesis in Neurospora Crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Gedela; Naga Sai Babu Makke; Dinesh Karra

    2015-01-01

    We have studied insilico on evolutionary uniqueness of phytoene synthase, which is one of the regulatory enzymes of ?-carotene synthesis in Neurospora crassa. This study reveals multiple sequence alignments showed high sequences with similarity within a species of bacteria, fungi and higher plants. This results designate interestingly between species of bacteria-fungi, fungi-plant, and among the species of bacteria-fungi-plant, showed tremendously less sequence with similarity, except bacte...

  18. Eugenol improves physical and chemical stabilities of nanoemulsions loaded with β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Wu, Jine; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-03-01

    Food-grade nanoemulsions are potential vehicles of labile lipophilic compounds such as β-carotene, but much work is needed to improve physical and chemical stabilities. The objective of this work was to study impacts of eugenol on physical and chemical stabilities of β-carotene-loaded nanoemulsions prepared with whey protein and lecithin. The combination of whey protein and lecithin resulted in stable nanoemulsions with eugenol added at 10% mass of soybean oil. Nanoemulsions, especially with eugenol, drastically reduced the degradation of β-carotene during ambient storage, heating at 60 and 80°C, and UV radiation at 254, 302, and 365nm. The droplet diameter of the nanoemulsion without eugenol increased from 153.6 to 227.3nm after 30-day ambient storage, contrasting with no significant changes of nanoemulsions with eugenol. Heating or UV radiation up to 8h did not significantly change the droplet diameter. Therefore, eugenol can be used to improve the stability of nanoemulsion delivery systems. PMID:26471619

  19. A novel in vivo β carotene biosensor for heavy metals detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling Shing; Lee, Bei Ru; Koh, Chia En; Ong, Yun Qiu; Choong, Chieh Wean

    2015-11-01

    A novel whole cell-based biosensor was constructed using Daucus carota cell as a biological component, with in vivo β-carotene as a reporter group. In this biosensor, the cells were immobilized using agarose gel, and change in in vivo β-carotene, before and after exposure of cells to heavy metals was noted using spectrophotometer at λ = 450 nm. Biosensor was found to operate at its optimum condition using cells from day-14 culture with density of 8 x 10(5) cells/cuvette, and immobilized with 0.5 % agarose at 45°C. The performance of biosensor was affected by pH with the best response produced at pH 7.5. Pb and Cu tests showed that biosensor was able to detect the presence of both heavy metals within the range of 0.01 ppm- 10.00 ppm. The performance of biosensor decreased in stability test with prolonged storage of 40 days, with a stable performance obtained after 10 days of storage. The results showed that β-carotene contain in naturally available cell D. carota responded well to the presence of heavy metals. It is a good indication that biosensor designed is a good candidate to be used for environmental toxicity assessment. PMID:26688961

  20. {beta}-Carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alster, J. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Polivka, T. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Arellano, J.B. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Chabera, P. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Vacha, F. [Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic); Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Psencik, J., E-mail: psencik@karlov.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, University of South Bohemia, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-19

    Carotenoids are together with bacteriochlorophylls important constituents of chlorosomes, the light-harvesting antennae of green photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of bacteriochlorophyll molecules form self-assembling aggregates inside the chlorosomes. Aggregates of bacteriochlorophylls with optical properties similar to those of chlorosomes can also be prepared in non-polar organic solvents or in aqueous environments when a suitable non-polar molecule is added. In this work, the ability of {beta}-carotene to induce aggregation of bacteriochlorophyll c in aqueous buffer was studied. Excitation relaxation and energy transfer in the carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll assemblies were measured using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A fast, {approx}100-fs energy transfer from the S{sub 2} state of {beta}-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll c was revealed, while no evidence for significant energy transfer from the S{sub 1} state was found. Picosecond formation of the carotenoid triplet state (T{sub 1}) was observed, which was likely generated by singlet homo-fission from the S{sub 1} state of {beta}-carotene.

  1. Genetic stability developed for β-carotene synthesis in BR29 rice line using dihaploid homozygosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Datta

    Full Text Available Obtaining transgenic crop lines with stable levels of carotenoids is highly desirable. We addressed this issue by employing the anther culture technique to develop dihaploid lines containing genes involved in β-carotene metabolism. First, we used Agrobacterium- mediated transformation to develop primary transgenic plants containing the β-carotene biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (psy and phytoene desaturase (crtI, which were engineered for expression and accumulation in the endosperm. Transgenic plants were recovered by selecting for the expression of the phosphomannose isomerase (pmi gene. Dihaploid plants in addition to haploid and tetraploid plant were generated from anther cultures of these primary transgenic plants. In addition to anatomical features of stomata, pollen of different ploidy-plants, molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration of the genes in the anther culture-derived dihaploid plants, and the yellow color of the polished seeds indicated the accumulation of carotenoids in the endosperm. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the carotenoid extract further confirmed the levels of β-carotene accumulation in the endosperms of the transgenic dihaploid rice seeds.

  2. The microarray expression analysis identifies BAX as a mediator of beta-carotene effects on apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzioch, Marek; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Lapicka-Bodzioch, Katarzyna; Banas, Agnieszka; Polus, Anna; Grzybowska, Joanna; Wybranska, Iwona; Dulinska, Joanna; Gil, Dorota; Laidler, Piotr; Placha, Wojciech; Zawada, Magdalena; Balana-Nowak, Agnieszka; Sacha, Tomasz; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Skotnicki, Aleksander; Moehle, Christoph; Langmann, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a ubiquitous compound rich in foods. However, there are conflicting reports regarding its role in carcinogenesis. We performed a microarray expression analysis in normal [human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)] and neoplastic (melanoma A375 and myelomonocytic leukemia U937) actively proliferating cells and found evidence that beta-carotene stimulated vital cellular functions in the former and suppressed them in the latter. These differential effects correlated with the expression of the proapoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), which was downregulated in HUVECs and upregulated in the two neoplastic cell lines. The quantitative expression analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction largely confirmed the inhibition of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) pathway-mediated apoptosis in HUVECs and its activation in melanoma and leukemic cells. The assays for apoptosis, detecting DNA breaks and caspase activation, showed consistent proapoptotic and antiapoptotic effects in U937 and HUVEC lines, respectively. However, beta-carotene-induced expression changes of BAX and other BCL2 pathway genes did not lead to the predicted induction of apoptosis in the A375 cells. PMID:15860445

  3. Can {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cariology; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-31

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and no {beta}-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and 6 mg {beta}-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author).

  4. Preparation of β-carotene nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation under power ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Fei, E-mail: shengf@ices.a-star.edu.sg; Chow, Pui Shan; Dong, Yuancai; Tan, Reginald B. H., E-mail: reginald.tan@ices.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    This work seeks to produce β-carotene nanoparticles by ultrasound-assisted antisolvent precipitation and to understand the influences of the various process parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles. At the active concentration of 5–15 mg/ml, 112–141 nm β-carotene particles were precipitated under 1 min ultrasound (18 W); while precipitation without ultrasound resulted in 144–365 nm particles. Without ultrasound, addition of the active solution to water (antisolvent) produced 241 nm particles while addition of water to active solution led to bigger particles, i.e., 519 nm. When the precipitation was carried out under ultrasound, the particle size had only a small increment from 117 to 132 nm. Furthermore, active/antisolvent volume ratio influenced particle size significantly; the particle size decreased from 432 to 223 nm as the active/antisolvent volume ratio decreased from 1:1 to 1:4 without ultrasound. However, the smallest β-carotene particles (117 nm) were precipitated with active/antisolvent volume ratio at 1:2 under ultrasound. Nanoparticles precipitated under ultrasound showed faster dissolution rate in comparison with the raw active and nanoparticles precipitated without ultrasound.

  5. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis. Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm: ethanol (ml of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were modeled with seven different mathematical models, including Power law, Peleg, Weinbull’s equation, Pseudo 2nd order, Intraparticle diffusion, Logarithmic, Weinbull’s distribution and one RSM model developed in this study. Pseudo 2nd order model was best fitted model (R2 - 0.99, χ 2 - 0.0091, RMSE- 0.1566, MAE- 0.0115 to describe extraction kinetics of β-carotene from carrot. The extraction time has significant effect on extraction process at p<0.05 level.

  6. Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression by 9-cis-β-Carotene Rich Alga Dunaliella in apoE-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Harari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Aims. The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice. Methods. In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old were allocated into 3 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%; (3 low-fat diet + β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3 high fat-diet; (4 high-fat diet + Dunaliella. Results. In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

  7. Kinetics and thermodynamics of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll adsorption onto acid-activated bentonite from Xinjiang in xylene solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhansheng [School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Li Chun, E-mail: lichun@bit.edu.cn [School of Life Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll adsorption from xylene solution onto acid-activated bentonite (AAB) within the temperature range 65-95 deg. C were investigated. Adsorption of {beta}-carotene was described well with the Langmuir isotherm, whereas chlorophyll adsorption was determined well with the Freundlich isotherm, and the experimental data on chlorophyll adsorption were also fitted by the Langmuir isotherm to a certain extent, as reflected by correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) over 0.9865. In addition, the adsorption of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll onto AAB are favorable. The pseudo-second-order model was found to explain the kinetics of adsorption of both pigments more effectively. Increase of temperature enhanced the adsorption rate and equilibrium adsorption capacity of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll on AAB. The activation energy for the sorption of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll on AAB was 19.808 kJ/mol and 16.475 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters {Delta}H{sup {theta}}, {Delta}S{sup {theta}} and {Delta}G{sup {theta}}, computed from K{sub F} of the adsorption isotherm constant, were 21.766 kJ/mol, 92.244 J/K mol and -9.554 kJ/mol respectively for the adsorption of {beta}-carotene on AAB at 65 deg. C, and for adsorption of chlorophyll on AAB at 65 deg. C were 31.051 kJ/mol, 93.549 J/K mol and -0.729 kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption of {beta}-carotene and chlorophyll in xylene solution on AAB was a spontaneous and endothermic process with increasing in the randomness at the solid-solution interface.

  8. Mode of action of the massively accumulated beta-carotene of Dunaliella bardawil in protecting the alga against damage by excess irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When grown under defined conditions Dunaliella bardawil accumulates a high concentration of beta-carotene, which is composed primarily of two isomers, all-trans and 9-cis beta-carotene. The high beta-carotene alga is substantially resistant to photoinhibition of photosynthetic oxygen evolution when compared with low beta-carotene D. bardawil or with Dunaliella salina which is incapable of accumulating beta-carotene. Protection against photoinhibition in the high beta-carotene D. bardawil is very strong when blue light is used as the photoinhibitory agent, intermediate with white light, and nonexistent with red light. These observations suggest that the massively accumulated beta-carotene in D. bardawil protects the alga against damage by high irradiation by screening through absorption of the blue region of the spectrum. Irradiation of D. bardawil by high intensity blue light results in the following temporal sequence of events: photoinhibition of oxygen evolution, photodestruction of 9-cis beta-carotene, photodestruction of all-trans beta-carotene, photodestruction of chlorophyll and cell death

  9. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option. PMID:16488912

  10. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    . The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition......, retinol and b-carotene concentration also differed according to sire. The concentrations of all three vitamins in milk and milk fat differed according to sire and stage of lactation. Furthermore, the total secretion of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene into milk (expressed as mg}d) differed with sire...... to sire. Overall means for Vmax for a-tocopherol and b-carotene were 32±4 and 2±5 mg}d. Thus, the daily secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene is limited in quantity, and is independent of the yields of milk and milk fat. It follows that continuing breeding and management systems that focus solely...

  11. A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  12. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moench-Pfanner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO, for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  13. Effect of lycopene and β-carotene on peroxynitrite-mediated cellular modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide is a highly reactive species with a role in various pathological processes such as cancer, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. In the present study, the effect of the carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, on peroxynitrite-mediated modifications in plasmid DNA as well as cellular DNA and proteins were investigated. In pUC18 plasmid DNA, these carotenoids strongly inhibited DNA strand breaks caused by peroxynitrite generated from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). SIN-1 was also used to determine effects on DNA damage and protein tyrosine nitration in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. SIN-1 dose-dependently increased nitration of proteins in cells above basal levels as determined by Western blotting. This nitration was inhibited in the presence of the uric acid as well as lycopene. Physiological concentrations (0.31-10 μM) of lycopene and β-carotene also had protective effects on DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay. Lycopene significantly reduced DNA damage particularly, in the median range of concentrations (2.5 μM). The protective effects of lycopene and β-carotene could be due to their scavenging of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or nitrogen species (RNS) as they reduce the amount of intracellular ROS/RNS produced following treatment with SIN-1 by as much as 47.5% and 42.4%, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that carotenoids may alleviate some of the deleterious effects of peroxynitrite and possibly other reactive nitrogen species as well in vivo

  14. Role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys in subacute apap induced renal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of beta carotene on histomorphology of rat kidneys In subacute Acetaminophen (APAP)- induced renal damage. Study Design: Lab based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy Army Medical College, Rawalpindi; in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabd for one week in June 2009. Material and Methods: Sixty young adult (4-6 weeks old) Sprague -Dawley rats of both sexes weighing 180-240 g were randomized into three groups. Experimental group A was treated with 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP orally once daily for 7 consecutive days. Experimental group B was administered beta carotene 30 mg/kg body weight once daily one hour before 700 mg/kg body weight subacute APAP once daily for 7 consecutive days. Control group C animals were fed NIH laboratory diet. Kidney specimens were collected 24 hours after the last dose. Five micron thick sections of kidney were stained with H and E for histomorphological study. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the variables p-values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: Microscopic examination in experimental group A demonstrated tubular necrosis of level 2 (35% animals) and level 3 (65% animals). Mild vacuolar degeneration was also observed in 90% of the experimental group A animals. In experimental group B, there was statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.001 in levels of renal tubular necrosis (15% animals) and grades of vacuolar degeneration (5% animals) as compared to experimental group A.Findings in experimental group B were not significantly different from that of control group C. Conclusion: Beta carotene has protective role on histomorphology of kidneys in subacute APAP-induced renal damage in rats. (author)

  15. Abiotic stress modifies the synthesis of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in phytoplankton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häubner, Norbert; Sylvander, Peter; Vuori, Kristiina; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    We performed laboratory experiments to investi-gate whether the synthesis of the antioxidants α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene in phytoplankton depends on changes in abiotic factors. Cultures of Nodularia spumigena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Prorocentrum cordatum, and Rhodomonas salina were incubated at different tempe-ratures, photon flux densities and salinities for 48 h. We found that abiotic stress, within natural ecological ranges, affects the synthesis of the two antioxidants in different ways in different species. In most cases antioxidant production was stimulated by increased abiotic stress. In P. tricornutum KAC 37 and D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591, both good producers of this compound, α-tocopherol accumulation was negatively affected by environmentally induced higher photosystem II efficiency (Fv /Fm ). On the other hand, β-carotene accumulation was positively affected by higher Fv /Fm in N. spumigena KAC 7, P. tricornutum KAC 37, D. tertiolecta SCCAP K-0591 and R. salina SCCAP K-0294. These different patterns in the synthesis of the two compounds may be explained by their different locations and functions in the cell. While α-tocopherol is heavily involved in the protection of prevention of lipid peroxidation in membranes, β-carotene performs immediate photo-oxidative protection in the antennae complex of photosystem II. Overall, our results suggest a high variability in the antioxidant pool of natural aquatic ecosystems, which can be subject to short-term temperature, photon flux density and salinity fluctuations. The antioxidant levels in natural phytoplankton communities depend on species composition, the physiological condition of the species, and their respective strategies to deal with reactive oxygen species. Since α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as many other nonenzymatic antioxidants, are exclusively produced by photo-synthetic organisms, and are required by higher

  16. Vibrationally coherent crossing and coupling of electronic states during internal conversion in β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, M; Schnedermann, C; Kukura, P

    2014-05-16

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wave packet dynamics during the S2 → S1 internal conversion in β-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direct feedback on the role of different vibrational coordinates in the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. PMID:24877970

  17. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  18. Efficacy of beta-carotene topical application in melasma - An open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Beta-carotene, a structural analogue of vitamin A, works as an agonist of this vitamin, by reversibly sticking the chemical mechanism of melanogenesis by saturating the nuclear receptors of melanocytes and /or binding protein. To study the safety and efficacy of Beta-carotene lotion on topical application in melasma, clinically diagnosed 31 adults (26Fand 5M with melasma were included in this trial. All of them applied Beta-carotene lotion daily, morning and evening to the affected areas. Twenty six of them, completed regular 8 weeks treatment. Nine of them continued same treatment for 16 more weeks. All cases were evaluated clinically using melasma intensity (MPI index (Grade I, II, III and size of the lesion. Clinical photograph was taken for each case at 0 week, 8th week and 24th week. Initial 8 weeks treatment revealed that the single case with grade-I pigmentation included in this study recovered completely. Two out of 13 cases with grade-II pigmentation, showed no change, in 10 cases, pigmentation became lighter to grade-I (76.9% and one case recovered completely. Out of 12 grade-III cases, one did not show any change, 10(83.3% converted to grade-II and one to grade-I. At the end of 24 weeks, all the nine cases (2 grade-II and 7 grade-III showed further clearing of the pigmentation to the next lower grade. Side effects like mild erythemo and local irritation were observed in two cases each, who were advised to discontinue treatment as per the protocol. In control group, out of 12 (two with grade -II, six in grade - II, and four in grade-III cases 11 showed no improvement, only one case with grade-II melasma revealed reduction of pigmentation to grade-I. One case developed local irritation. In conclusion, topical application of Beta-carotene lotion appears to be an effective and safe for melasma. Longer duration of application is associated with better result.

  19. Utilization of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw for production of bioethanol and carotene-enriched biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrik, SiniŠa; Márová, Ivana; Kádár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    In this work hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw was used for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and carotene-enriched biomass by red yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Cystofilobasidium capitatum and Sporobolomyces roseus. To evaluate the convertibility of pretreated wheat straw into...... ethanol, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of S. cerevisiae was performed under semi-anaerobic conditions. The highest ethanol production efficiency of 65-66% was obtained following pretreatment at 200°C without the catalytic action of acetic acid, and at 195 and 200°C respectively in the...

  20. Beta-carotene Reduces Body Adiposity of Mice Via BCMO1

    OpenAIRE

    Amengual, J.; Gouranton, E.; Helden, Y.G.J.; Keijer, J.; Kramer, E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that ß-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1) and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2) are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into ß-10'-apocarotenal and ß-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mic...

  1. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren K; Sehested, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge about the vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage on organic commercial farms and to analyze the vitamin content in the milk. Roughages produced at the five organic dairy farms were monitored from harvest when the silage was laid in the silo and until the roughage was fed during the winter. The roughages had average α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents during the feeding period of, respectively, 30 mg and 21 mg per k...

  2. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  3. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87–95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84–93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  4. Lycopene and ß-carotene protect in vivo iron-induced oxidative stress damage in rat prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Matos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that iron overload may be carcinogenic. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of plasma and prostate carotenoid concentration on oxidative DNA damage in 12-week-old Wistar rats treated with intraperitoneal (ip ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA (10 mg Fe/kg. Plasma ß-carotene and lycopene concentrations were measured as a function of time after ip injection of carotenoids (10 mg kg-1 day-1 ß-carotene or lycopene in rats. The highest total plasma concentration was reached 3 and 6 h after ip injection of lycopene or ß-carotene, respectively. After 5 days of carotenoid treatment, lycopene and ß-carotene were present in the 0.10-0.51 nmol/g wet tissue range in the prostate. Using a sensitive method to detected 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo by HPLC/EC, the level of 8-oxodGuo in rat prostate DNA was significantly higher (6.3 ± 0.6 residues/10(6 dGuo 3 h after Fe-NTA injection compared with control rats (1.7 ± 0.3 residues/10(6 dGuo. Rats supplemented with lycopene or ß-carotene for 5 days prior to Fe-NTA treatment showed a reduction of about 70% in 8-oxodGuo levels to almost control levels. Compared with control rats, the prostate of Fe-NTA-treated animals showed a 78% increase in malondialdehyde accumulation. Lycopene or ß-carotene pre-treatment almost completely prevented lipid damage. Epidemiological studies have suggested a lower risk of prostate cancer in men reporting a higher consumption of tomato products. However, before associating this effect with tomato sauce constituents, more information is required. The results described here may contribute to the understanding of the protective effects of carotenoids against iron-induced oxidative stress.

  5. β-carotene-producing bacteria residing in the intestine provide vitamin A to mouse tissues in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Lesley; Wirawan, Ruth; Chikindas, Michael; Breslin, Paul A S; Hoffman, Daniel J; Quadro, Loredana

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an overwhelming public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. A definitive solution to VAD has yet to be identified. Because it is an essential nutrient, vitamin A or its carotenoid precursor β-carotene can only be obtained from food or supplements. In this study, we wanted to establish whether β-carotene produced in the mouse intestine by bacteria synthesizing the provitamin A carotenoid could be delivered to various tissues within the body. To achieve this, we took advantage of the Escherichia coli MG1655*, an intestine-adapted spontaneous mutant of E. coli MG1655, and the plasmid pAC-BETA, containing the genes coding for the 4 key enzymes of the β-carotene biosynthetic pathway (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene cyclase) from Erwinia herbicola. We engineered the E. coli MG1655* to produce β-carotene during transformation with pAC-BETA (MG1655*-βC) and gavaged wild-type and knockout mice for the enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase with this recombinant strain. Various regimens of bacteria administration were tested (single vs. multiple and low vs. high doses). β-Carotene concentration was measured by HPLC in mouse serum, liver, intestine, and feces. Enumeration of MG1655*-βC cells in the feces was performed to assess efficiency of intestinal colonization. We demonstrated in vivo that probiotic bacteria could be used to deliver vitamin A to the tissues of a mammalian host. These results have the potential to pave the road for future investigations aimed at identifying alternative, novel approaches to treat VAD. PMID:24598882

  6. Beta-carotene Antioxidant Use During Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer Outcome in the Physicians' Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@lroc.harvard.edu [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kasperzyk, Julie L. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sesso, Howard D. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gaziano, John Michael [Division of Aging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Veterans' Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ma, Jing [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A. [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The safety of antioxidant supplementation during radiation therapy (RT) for cancer is controversial. Antioxidants could potentially counteract the pro-oxidant effects of RT and compromise therapeutic efficacy. We performed a prospective study nested within the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) randomized trial to determine if supplemental antioxidant use during RT for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. Methods and Materials: PHS participants (383) received RT for prostate cancer while randomized to receive beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time from RT to lethal prostate cancer, defined as prostate cancer death or bone metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival probabilities and the log-rank test to compare groups. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of beta-carotene compared with that of placebo during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there was no significant difference between risk of lethal prostate cancer with the use of beta-carotene during RT compared with that of placebo (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.24; p = 0.24). After we adjusted for age at RT, prostate-specific antigen serum level, Gleason score, and clinical stage, the difference remained nonsignificant. The 10-year freedom from lethal prostate cancer was 92% (95% CI, 87-95%) in the beta-carotene group and 89% (95% CI, 84-93%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of supplemental antioxidant beta-carotene during RT was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death or metastases. This study suggests a lack of harm from supplemental beta-carotene during RT for prostate cancer.

  7. ZmcrtRB3 Encodes a Carotenoid Hydroxylase that Affects the Accumulation of α-carotene in Maize Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhou; Yingjia Han; Zhigang Li; Yang Fu; Zhiyuan Fu; Shutu Xu; Jiansheng Li; Jianbing Yan; Xiaohong Yang

    2012-01-01

    α-carotene is one of the important components of pro-vitamin A,which is able to be converted into vitamin A in the human body.One maize (Zea mays L.) ortholog of carotenoid hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana,ZmcrtRB3,was cloned and its role in carotenoid hydrolyzations was addressed.ZmcrtRB3 was mapped in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) cluster for carotenoid-related traits on chromosome 2 (bin 2.03) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from By804 and B73.Candidate-gene association analysis identified 18 polymorphic sites in ZmcrtRB3 significantly associated with one or more carotenoid-related traits in 126 diverse yellow maize inbred lines.These results indicate that the enzyme ZmcrtRB3 plays a role in hydrolyzing both α- andβ-carotenes,while polymorphisms in ZmcrtRB3 contributed more variation in α-carotene than that inβ-carotene.Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),SNP1343 in 5'untranslated region and SNP2172 in the second intron,consistently had effects on α-carotene content and composition with explained phenotypic variations ranging from 8.7% to 34.8%.There was 1.7- to 3.7-fold change between the inferior and superior haplotype for α-carotene content and composition.Thus,SNP1343 and SNP2172 are potential polymorphic sites to develop functional markers for applying marker-assisted selection in the improvement of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in maize kernels.

  8. Role of continuous phase protein, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and carrier oil on β-carotene degradation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The chemical instability of β-carotene limits its utilization as a nutraceutical ingredient in foods. In this research, the effect of continuous phase alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on β-carotene degradation in medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT)- and corn oil-in-water emulsions was examined. EGCG significantly inhibited β-carotene degradation in both MCT and corn oil-in-water emulsions in a dose dependent manner. α-LA was not able to protect β-carotene in MCT emulsions and the combination of EGCG and α-LA had a similar effect as EGCG alone. EGCG had no effect on lipid oxidation in corn oil-in-water emulsions but can protect β-carotene. β-Carotene was more stable in corn oil emulsions stabilized by α-LA compared to emulsions stabilized by Tween 20. These results show that EGCG is effective at protecting β-carotene in different emulsion systems without negatively impacting lipid oxidation suggesting that it could be utilized to increase the incorporation of β-carotene into food emulsions. PMID:27211644

  9. POTENSI MIKROEMULSI β-KAROTEN DALAM MENGHAMBAT FOTOOKSIDASI VITAMIN C SISTEM AQUEOUS [The Potential Inhibition of Β-Carotene Microemulsion on Vitamin C Photooxidation in Aqueous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningrum Ariviani1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation in food system causes nutritional losses and produces undesirable flavor, toxic and color compounds, which make foods unacceptable to consumers. The objective of this research was to determine β–carotene microemulsion inhibitory effect on vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous food model. Into aqueous food models containing vitamin C (450 ppm for model 1; 300 ppm for model 2 2% microemulsion or β–carotene microemulsion and erythrosine as photosensitizer, were added. The final β–carotene content in aqueous food model was equal to 0.6 or 12 ppm. The result indicated that microemulsion have ability to inhibit vitamin C photodegradation under light but did not show the ability under dark condition. The inhibitory effectiveness of both 6 and 12 ppm β-carotene microemulsion on vitamin C photodegradation were insignificant. The 6 ppm β-carotene microemulsion was proven to effectively inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous food model better than that of empty microemulsion or free β-carotene. The vitamin C photodegradation rate on model system 1 and 2 were 9.5 ± 2.48 and 6.4 ± 1.58 mg.L-1. hour-1 (β-carotene microemulsion; -14.8 ± 1.69 and -9.5 ± 1.23 mg.L-1. hour -1 (empty microemulsion; -16.0 ± 1.64 and -10.3 ± 0.46 mg.L-1. hour -1 (freeβ-carotene, respectively.

  10. Beta-carotene and the application of transcriptomics in risk-benefit evaluation of natural dietary components

    OpenAIRE

    Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; PALOU, A.; Franssen-Hal, van, N.L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Beta-carotene is a natural food component that is present in fruits and vegetables and is also used as a food colorant and a supplement. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and a source of vitamin A. It is endowed with health beneficial properties, but a number of studies showed that with high intakes it may increase the risk for lung cancer in at risk individuals (heavy smokers, asbestos workers and alcohol users). To establish the window of benefit, it is necessary to identify early markers of...

  11. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Mackerras, D; Irwig, L.; Simpson, J M; Weisberg, E; Cardona, M.; Webster, F.; Walton, L.; Ghersi, D

    1999-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, factorial study using a daily oral administration of 30 mg beta-carotene and/or 500 mg vitamin C was conducted in 141 women with colposcopically and histologically confirmed minor squamous atypia or cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) I. Over approximately 2 years of follow-up, 43 lesions regressed to normal and 13 progressed to CIN II. The regression rate was slightly higher, but not significantly so, in those randomized to beta-carotene ...

  12. Physical Activity and the Risk of Pneumonia in Male Smokers Administered Vitamin E and β-Carotene

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri; Kaprio Jaakko; Albanes Demetrius; Virtamo Jarmo

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that moderate exercise may enhance the immune system. We evaluated whether physical activity at work or at leisure is associated with the risk of pneumonia, and whether the antioxidants vitamin E and β-carotene affect pneumonia risk in physically active people. A cohort of 16 804 male smokers aged 50 – 69 years and working at study entry was drawn from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which examined the effect of vitamin E, 50 mg/day,...

  13. Dual Association of beta-carotene with risk of tobacco-related cancers in a cohort of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intervention studies have demonstrated that, in smokers, beta-carotene supplements had a deleterious effect on risk of lung cancer and may have a deleterious effect on digestive cancers as well. We investigated a potential interaction between beta-carotene intake and smoking on the risk of tobacco-related cancers in women. METHODS: A total of 59,910 women from the French Etude Epid?ologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle G?rale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective investigation we...

  14. Beta-carotene affects gene-expression in lungs of male and female Bcmo1-/-mice in opposite directions

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms triggered by high dietary beta-carotene (BC) intake in lung are largely unknown. We performed microarray gene expression analysis on lung tissue of BC supplemented beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 −/−) mice, which are—like humans—able to accumulate BC. Our main observation was that the genes were regulated in an opposite direction in male and female Bcmo1 −/− mice by BC. The steroid biosynthetic pathway was overrepresented in BC-supplemented male Bcmo1...

  15. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry Ag in the C2h group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν66 and ν67. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue

  16. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  17. Simulations of the polarisation-dependent Raman intensity of β-carotene in photosystem II crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brose, K., E-mail: katharina.brose@gmx.net [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Zouni, A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Müh, F. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Mroginski, M.A. [Institut für Chemie, Max-Volmer-Laboratorium, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Maultzsch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-03

    Highlights: • First polarisation-dependent Raman spectroscopy on photosystem II crystals. • Orientation-dependent Raman intensity simulations for di- and monomeric crystals. • Simulations account for all β-carotenes (β-Car) in the unit cell for the first time. • Prediction for identificationy of the β-Car cation in side-path electron transport. - Abstract: In order to clarify possibilities to identify the β-carotene (β-Car) radicals in secondary electron transfer (ET) reactions in the photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc), Raman intensities of all 96 β-Car cofactors in the unit cell of PSIIcc-dimer crystals as a function of polarisation and crystal orientation were simulated based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure. The Raman-active symmetry A{sub g} in the C{sub 2h} group is assigned to the β-Car modes ν{sub 66} and ν{sub 67}. Simulations are in agreement with experiment for off-resonant excitation at 1064 nm. Resonant measurements at 476 and 532 nm excitation can not be explained, which is attributed to mode mixing in the excited state and the existence of different spectral pools. The identity of the β-Car oxidised in secondary ET can not be resolved by Raman measurements on PSIIcc-dimer crystals. Additional simulations show that similar measurements on PSIIcc-monomer crystals could provide a possible route to solve this issue.

  18. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Thahir2); Asep Sopian; Tien R. Muchtadi 2)

    2005-01-01

    Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanchi...

  19. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R.; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplement had significant effects on post-trial cancer incidence. Relative risk (RR) for lung cancer (n=2,881) was 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–1.11) among β-carotene recipients compared with nonrecipients. For prostate cancer (n=2,321) RR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89–1.05) among α-tocopherol recipients compared with nonrecipients with the preventive effect of α-tocopherol continuing approximately 8 years post-intervention. Body mass index significantly modified the effect of α-tocopherol on prostate cancer (P for interaction=0.01): RR 1.00 (95% CI, 0.88–1.14) in normal-weight men, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77–0.98) in overweight men, and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.01–1.55) in obese men. The post-trial relative mortality (based on 16,686 deaths) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98–1.05) for α-tocopherol recipients compared with nonrecipients and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.99–1.05) for β-carotene recipients compared with nonrecipients. α-Tocopherol decreased post-trial prostate cancer mortality (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70–0.99), whereas β-carotene increased it (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42). In conclusion, supplementation with α-tocopherol and β-carotene appeared to have no late effects on cancer incidence. The preventive effect of moderate-dose α-tocopherol on prostate cancer continued several years post-trial and resulted in lower prostate cancer mortality. PMID:24338499

  20. Stimulation or inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis by irradiation with γ-rays of Calendula Officinalis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to see what is the effect of irradiation with gamma rays of Calendula officinalis (marigolds) seeds. Could it be a stimulation or a inhibition of beta-carotene's biosynthesis? This paper presents results of irradiation of germinated seeds of marigolds. It was carried out irradiation of seeds at 8 different doses ( 1 kRad, 3.3 kRad, 10 kRad, 25 kRad, 50 kRad, 100 kRad, 200 kRad, 500 krad), one set of seeds being unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of β-carotene was realized through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chemical concentrations of β-carotene in leaves and stalks of marigolds had been determined by Varian spectrophotometer. Quantitative determination of β-carotene was carried out through spectral analysis using a standard spectrum of carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b. (authors)

  1. The physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in oil-in- water sodium caseinate emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC), the most important dietary source of provitamin A, is necessary for optimum human health. BC is insoluble or only slightly soluble in most liquids but its bioavailability improves when ingested with fat. Therefore lipid emulsions are ideal matrices for BC delivery. BC (0.1%) in ...

  2. Study on the interaction of β-carotene and astaxanthin with trypsin and pepsin by spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangrong; Li, Peihong

    2016-05-01

    β-Carotene and astaxanthin are two carotenoids with powerful antioxidant properties, but the binding mechanisms of β-carotene/astaxanthin to proteases remain unclear. In this study, the interaction of these two carotenoids with trypsin and pepsin was investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the quenching mechanisms of trypsin/pepsin by the two carotenoids are static processes. The binding constants of trypsin and pepsin with these two carotenoids are in the following order: astaxanthin-trypsin > astaxanthin-pepsin > β-carotene-trypsin > β-carotene-pepsin, respectively. Thermodynamic investigations revealed that the interaction between the two carotenoids and trypsin/pepsin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and hydrophobic forces and electrostatic attraction have a significant role in the reactions. In addition, as shown by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and CD, the two carotenoids may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes in trypsin/pepsin. The study provides an accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanisms of the two carotenoids with trypsin/pepsin and is helpful in understanding their effect on protein function and their biological activity in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358735

  3. Biofortified cassava increases ß-carotene and vitamin A concentrations in the TAG-rich plasma layer of American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Biofortification of cassava with the provitamin A (PVA) carotenoid beta-carotene (BC) is a potential mechanism for alleviating vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Cassava is a staple food in the African diet, but the human bioavailability of BC within this food is unknown. Objective: To evaluat...

  4. Effect of light intensity on Beta-carotene production and extraction by Dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Application of two-phase bioreactors is a useful technique for improvement of the productivity of fermentations. Fermentative extraction of the products in situ is performed in this technique. The effect of light intensity on the extraction of ß-carotene from Dunaliella salina, in the fermentative e

  5. Rare Genetic Variation at Zea mays crtRB1 Increases B-Carotene in Maize Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding to increase b-carotene levels in cereal grains, termed Provitamin A biofortification, is an economical approach to address the challenge of dietary vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. We draw upon experimental evidence from DNA sequence, transcriptional expression, and recombinant...

  6. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these g

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the content {beta}-carotene and volatile compounds of cantaloupe melon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Stefania P. de; Cardozo, Monique; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br, E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME - Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Japanese melon or cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) is characterized by fruits with almost 1.0 Kg, pulp usually salmon and musky scent. The fruits when ripe are sensitive to post harvest handling. This low transport resistance and reduced shelf-life makes it necessary to delay the ripening of fruit. In this way the use of irradiation technique is a good choice. Irradiation is the process of exposing food to high doses of gamma rays. The processing of fruits and vegetables with ionizing radiation has as main purpose to ensure its preservation. However, like other forms of food processing, irradiation may cause changes in chemical composition and nutritional value. This study aims to assess possible changes in carotene content and volatile compounds caused by exposure of cantaloupe melon fruit to gamma irradiation. Irradiation of the samples occurred in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (Guaratiba-RJ), using Gamma irradiator (Cs{sub 137} source, dose rate 1.8 kGy/h), being applied 0.5 and 1.0 kGy doses and separated a control group not irradiated. Carotenoids were extracted with acetone and then suffered partition to petroleum ether, solvent was removed under nitrogen flow and the remainder dissolved in acetone again. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph, with C30 column. For volatile compounds, we used gas chromatography (GC) associated with mass (MS). As a result, it was verified in analysis of carotenoids that cantaloupe melon is rich in {beta}-carotene. Both total content of carotenoids and specific {beta}-carotene amount wasn't suffer significant reduction in irradiated fruits at two doses, demonstrating that the irradiation process under these conditions implies a small loss of nutrients. The major volatile compounds were: 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, n-hexyl acetate, benzyl acetate, 6-nonenyl acetate and {alpha} -terpinyl acetate. For all compounds we observed an increase in the volatile content in 0.5 k

  8. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  9. Application of derivative ratio spectrophotometry for determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Hui; HE Guo-qing; RUAN Hui; CHEN Qi-he; CHEN Feng

    2005-01-01

    A derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was used for the simultaneous determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin produced from Phaffia rhodozyma. Absorbencies of a series of the standard carotenoids in the range of 441 nm to 490nm demonstrated that their absorptive spectra accorded with Beer's law and that the additivity when the concentrations of β-carotene and astaxanthin and their mixture were within the range of 0 to 5 μg/ml, 0 to 6 μg/ml, and 0 to 6 μg/ml, respectively.When the wavelength interval (△λ) at 2 nm was selected to calculate the first derivative ratio spectra values, the first derivative amplitudes at 461 nm and 466 nm were suitable for quantitatively determining β-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Effect of divisor on derivative ratio spectra could be neglected; any concentration used as divisor in range of 1.0 to 4.0 μg/ml is ideal for calculating the derivative ratio spectra values of the two carotenoids. Calibration graphs were established for β-carotene within 0-6.0 μg/ml and for astaxanthin within 0-5.0 μg/ml with their corresponding regressive equations in: y=-0.0082x-0.0002 and y=0.0146x-0.0006, respectively. R-square values in excess of 0.999 indicated the good linearity of the calibration graphs. Sample recovery rates were found satisfactory (>99%) with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 5%. This method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of β-carotene and astaxanthin in the laboratory-prepared mixtures and the extract from the Phaffia rhodozyma culture.

  10. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  11. The Effect of β-Carotene Supplementation on the Pharmacokinetics of Nelfinavir and Its Active Metabolite M8 in HIV-1-infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayoun Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Carotene supplements are often taken by individuals living with HIV-1. Contradictory results from in vitro studies suggest that β-carotene may inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters. The study objective was to investigate the effect of β-carotene on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir and its active metabolite M8 in HIV-1 infected individuals. Twelve hour nelfinavir pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted at baseline and after 28 days of β-carotene supplementation (25,000 IU twice daily. Nelfinavir and M8 concentrations were measured with validated assays. Non-compartmental methods were used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Geometric mean ratios comparing day 28 to day 1 area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0–12 h, maximum (Cmax and minimum (Cmin concentrations of nelfinavir and M8 are presented with 90% confidence intervals. Eleven subjects completed the study and were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in nelfinavir AUC0–12 h and Cmin (−10%, +4% after β-carotene supplementation. The M8 Cmin was increased by 31% while the M8 AUC0–12 h and Cmax were unchanged. During the 28 day period, mean CD4+ % and CD4+:CD8+ ratio increased significantly (p < 0.01. β-carotene supplementation increased serum carotene levels but did not cause any clinically significant difference in the nelfinavir and M8 exposure.

  12. Combining Ability and Parent-Offspring Correlation of Maize (Zea may L.) Grainβ-Carotene Content with a Complete Diallel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; CAO Mo-ju; XIAO Lan-hai; WANG Jing; LU Yan-li; RONG Ting-zhao; PAN Guang-tang; WU Yuan-qi; TANG Qi-lin; LAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has become a worldwide problem. Biofortified foods can potentially be an inexpensive, locally adaptable, and long-term solution to dietary-nutrient deficiency. In order to improve theβ-carotene content in maize grain by breeding and minimize vitamin A deficiency, a complete diallel cross was designed with eight inbred lines of maize, and 64 combinations were obtained in this study. The experimental combinations were planted in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, respectively, with a random complete block design. Theβ-carotene contents in the grains of the experimental materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the tested materials, the effect difference of general combining ability of theβ-carotene content was significant;however, the effect difference of the special combining ability and the reciprocal effect were not significant. Theβ-carotene content of maize grain was not influenced significantly by the cross and the reciprocal cross. There was a significant correlation about theβ-carotene content in the maize grains between the F1 and their parents. The combinations with high β-carotene content were obviously influenced by the environment, and the mean value ofβ-carotene content for the experimental materials planted in Ya’an of Sichuan was higher than that planted in Yuanjiang of Yunnan, with the results being significant at the 0.01 level.

  13. Structural changes of β-carotene and some retinoid pharmaceuticals induced by environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maciej; Kaczor, Agnieszka; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz.; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2013-04-01

    Four pharmaceuticals (β-carotene (1), retinoic acid (2), isotretinoin (3), and etretinate (4)) were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations followed by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis to gain deeper insight into the experimental vibrational spectra. Small shifts of characteristic bands of (4) upon change of solvent and pH were interpreted as a result of molecular aggregation. Temperature-dependent studies on the Raman spectrum of (1) were performed in the temperature region of -150 °C to +150 °C. The observed small shifts in the experimental spectra upon heating were explained by increase of the high-energy conformers (of the trans type) in the population of (1) related to weakening of the intermolecular interactions that enables rotation of the terminal rings with respect to the polyene chain. Deconvolution of the ν1 band showed changes in intensity and position of the deconvoluted bands with the increase of temperature.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  15. Systematic Evaluation and Mechanistic Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Fullerenols Using β-Carotene Bleaching Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of hydroxylated fullerenes, so-called fullerenols, against lipid peroxyl radical was evaluated by β-carotene bleaching assay. All samples showed moderate to high antioxidant activity (%AOA, especially for C60(OH12 (70.1 and C60(OH44 (66.0 as compared with 8, 24, 26, and 36 hydroxylated ones (31.7–62.8. The detection of the possible products was conducted in the model reaction of both fullerenols and C60 with methyl linoleate by MALDI-TOF-MS. These results suggested that the two possible mechanisms, such as C-addition to double bonds and H-abstraction from –OH groups, are involved in the present radical scavenging reaction.

  16. Role of Frizzled6 in the molecular mechanism of beta-carotene action in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Carotene (BC) is omnipresent in our diet, both as natural food component as well as an additive. BC and its metabolites have important biological functions. For this reason, BC is generally considered to be a health promoting compound. Two human trials, however, have described adverse effects in lung tissue, increasing the risk of lung cancer. We previously applied transcriptomic analyses in a unique animal model, beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1−/−) mice that are, like humans, able to accumulate intact BC. In our search to unravel the molecular action of BC in the lung, we previously identified two genes particularly strongly down-regulated by BC in lung tissue of the male Bcmo1−/− mice: frizzled homologue 6 (Fzd6) and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). In the present study, our aim was to further elucidate the role of FZD6 in lung epithelial cells and to provide a mechanistic explanation for BC increased lung cancer risk in humans. We performed whole genome microarray analysis on silenced FZD6 in non-tumor human type II bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using RNAi. To directly link FZD6 to BC-effects on the lung, we compared the FZD6-silenced BEAS-2B gene expression profile to the BC-dependent gene expression profile of Bcmo1−/− mouse lungs. A number of relevant genes were regulated in the same direction in FZD6− BEAS-2B and in BC-exposed lungs of Bcmo1−/− mice and revealed enrichment of the Gene Ontology terms “oncogenes”, “cell proliferation” and “cell cycle”, which suggests a mediating role of FZD6 in BC-induced uncontrolled proliferation of lung cells

  17. Characterization of microcapsulated β-carotene formed by complex coacervation using casein and gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashay; Thakur, Deepika; Ghoshal, Gargi; Katare, O P; Shivhare, U S

    2016-06-01

    Complex coacervation in casein/gum tragacanth (CAS/GT) mixtures was studied as a function of pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps), total biopolymer concentration, core material load and ionic strength. This study is aimed at understanding how these parameters influence the coacervation kinetics, the coacervate yield, and entrapment efficiency. At a Pr:Ps=2:1, an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found 4.35, at which the intensity of electrostatic interaction was maximum. At these conditions, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate yield and entrapment efficiency were the largest. Moreover, the developed β-carotene loaded microcapsules formulation was found to have particle size 159.71±2.16μm, coacervates yield 82.51±0.412%, entrapment efficiency 79.36±0.541%. Varying the Pr:Ps shifted the value of optimum pH. Electrostatic interaction and formation of coacervates was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectra. Size and surface properties of coacervates were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Entrapment of core material within the coacervates was confirmed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). The resultant formulation was evaluated for release study and antioxidant activity. Stability of encapsulated β-carotene was evaluated under three levels of temperature (5, 25 and 40°C) for 3 months. Encapsulation strongly increased the stability of micronutrients. Our results advocate potential of microcapsules as a novel carrier for the safeguard and sustained release of micronutrient. PMID:26851204

  18. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; OuYang Shun-Li; Wang Wei-Wei; Li Zuo-Wei; Sun Cheng-Lin; Men Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature.

  19. β -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of β- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 μg β carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that β- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  20. A Study of the Cis—Trans Isomers of β—Apo—12′—Carotenal By Resonance Raman Spectroscopy at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingHu; TadashiMizoguchi; 等

    1995-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the cis-trans configurations and the intermolecular interactions of carotenoids bound to pigmentprotein complexes[1,2].In the present invertigation,we studied a set of cis-trans isomers of β-Apo-12′-carotenal,the conjugated chain of which has a length in -between those of β-carotene and retinal,to examine whether the configurational key Raman lines which have been established for β-carotene are still valid for β-Apo-12′-caotenal[3

  1. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)

  2. Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric mucosal damage induced by intensive stress

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Aysin; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Cetin, Asli; Ates, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress has been considered to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. Material and methods Fifty-six male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + saline, stress + melatonin, stress + ascorbic acid and stress + β-carotene groups. The rats from stress group...

  3. Effect of β-carotene oil and bee pollen under the radiation and chemical influence upon ion transport in rat brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of natural antioxidants (β-carotene oil and bee pollen) on the K+ ion transport in brain cells of rats exposed to X chronic fractionated irradiation at 0.25 Gy dose and cadmium chloride and atrazine effects is studied. It is stated that the β-carotene oil and bee pollen firstly repair radiation-induced disorders in the processes of energy-dependent transmembrane ion transport in nerve cells and slightly effect on the diffusion ion transport

  4. The effect of carrot juice, β-carotene supplementation on lymphocyte DNA damage, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and plasma lipid profiles in Korean smoker

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to provide some protection to smokers who are exposed to an increased risk of numerous cancers and other degenerative diseases. Carrot is the most important source of dietary β-carotene. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether carrot juice supplementation to smokers can protect against lymphocyte DNA damage and to compare the effect of supplementation of capsules containing purified β-carotene or a placebo ...

  5. Effect of Carotene and Lycopene on the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Wang

    Full Text Available Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between carotenoids intake and risk of Prostate cancer (PCa. However, results have been inconclusive.We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of dietary intake or blood concentrations of carotenoids in relation to PCa risk. We summarized the data from 34 eligible studies (10 cohort, 11 nested case-control and 13 case-control studies and estimated summary Risk Ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using random-effects models.Neither dietary β-carotene intake nor its blood levels was associated with reduced PCa risk. Dietary α-carotene intake and lycopene consumption (both dietary intake and its blood levels were all associated with reduced risk of PCa (RR for dietary α-carotene intake: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99; RR for dietary lycopene intake: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-0.98; RR for blood lycopene levels: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.69-0.96. However, neither blood α-carotene levels nor blood lycopene levels could reduce the risk of advanced PCa. Dose-response analysis indicated that risk of PCa was reduced by 2% per 0.2mg/day (95%CI: 0.96-0.99 increment of dietary α-carotene intake or 3% per 1mg/day (95%CI: 0.94-0.99 increment of dietary lycopene intake.α-carotene and lycopene, but not β-carotene, were inversely associated with the risk of PCa. However, both α-carotene and lycopene could not lower the risk of advanced PCa.

  6. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Gersonde, I [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Meinke, M [Institute of Medical Physics and Laser Medicine, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Sterry, W [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-08-07

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar{sup +} laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm{sup -1}, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm{sup 2}. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  7. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group

  8. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mark; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2015-04-15

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-trans-β-carotene at the C9'-C10' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-trans-β-apo-10'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9'-C10' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-cis-β-apo-10'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development. PMID:25703194

  9. Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thomas T Y; Edwards, Alison J; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms as well the genetics underlying the bioavailability and metabolism of carotenoids in humans remain unclear. To begin to address these questions, we used cluster analysis to examine individual temporal responses of plasma carotenoids from a controlled-diet study of subjects who consumed carotenoid-rich beverages. Treatments, given daily for 3 weeks, were watermelon juice at two levels (20-mg lycopene, 2.5-mg β-carotene, n=23 and 40-mg lycopene, 5-mg β-carotene, n=12) and tomato juice (18-mg lycopene, 0.6-mg β-carotene, n=10). Cluster analysis revealed distinct groups of subjects differing in the temporal response of plasma carotenoids and provided the basis for classifying subjects as strong responders or weak responders for β-carotene, lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene. Individuals who were strong or weak responders for one carotenoid were not necessarily strong or weak responders for another carotenoid. Furthermore, individual responsiveness was associated with genetic variants of the carotenoid metabolizing enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. These results support the concept that individuals absorb or metabolize carotenoids differently across time and suggest that bioavailability of carotenoids may involve specific genetic variants of β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1. PMID:23517913

  10. Influence of drying by convective air dryer or power ultrasound on the vitamin C and β-carotene content of carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Juana; Peñas, Elena; Ullate, Mónica; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2010-10-13

    Convective air drying and power ultrasound effects on vitamin C and β-carotene contents in carrots were studied. For convective air drying, a central composite face-centered design fitting temperature between 40 and 65 °C and air flow rate between 2 and 6 × 10(-1) m/s were used; previously, carrots were blanched. Likewise, ultrasound drying was performed on both unblanched and blanched carrots at 20, 40, and 60 °C for 120, 90, and 75 min, respectively. Blanching had a sharp effect on vitamin C and β-carotene degradation (80-92% retentions, respectively), and convective air drying led to further losses (32-50% and 73-90% retentions, respectively). According to the response surface model, a combination of 40 °C and 6 × 10(-1) m/s will maximize vitamin C retention in dried carrots, whereas 40 °C and 3.3 × 10(-1) m/s will ensure the highest β-carotene content. Ultrasound drying caused higher vitamin C and β-carotene retention (82-92% and 96-98%, respectively) than convective air drying. Blanched carrots dehydrated by ultrasound showed retentions of 55% and 88% of vitamin C and β-carotene, respectively. Ultrasound drying at 20 °C for 120 min caused the maximum vitamin C and β-carotene contents. Therefore, power ultrasound may be considered a valuable tool to obtain high nutritive dehydrated carrots. PMID:20843024

  11. Comparative studies on the stability of vitamin C and β-carotene of some sliced vegetables and fruit juices exposed to microwaves and γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was to maintain the integrity and contents of vitamin C and β-carotene, carrots, sweet potatoes and mango serving as main sources of β-carotene, while guava, lime and orange were considered as major reservoir for vitamin C. Microwave and γ-irradiation treatments were applied to keep the vitamin C and β-Carotene of the aforementioned natural sources. The samples were exposed to γ-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5,2.0,2.5 and 3 kGy and microwaves for 1,2,3 and 4 min at low power setting. The results indicate that the vitamin C and β-Carotene levels of the samples were variably degraded depending upon the conditions of treatments. Microwave treatment caused decreases in the levels of vitamin C of lime, orange and guava and the extent of reduction was dependent upon the exposure time. In general, γ-irradiation treatment was better than exposure to microwaves for retention of vitamin C and β-carotene and hence extending the shelf life of the food sources under study. The mode of action of these physical methods on vitamin C and β-carotene content is discussed.

  12. The potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 catalyzes a single cleavage of β-ionone ring-containing carotenes and non-epoxidated xanthophylls

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Down-regulation of the potato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (StCCD4) transcript level led to tubers with altered morphology and sprouting activity, which also accumulated higher levels of violaxanthin and lutein leading to elevated carotenoid amounts. This phenotype indicates a role of this enzyme in tuber development, which may be exerted by a cleavage product. In this work, we investigated the enzymatic activity of StCCD4, by expressing the corresponding cDNA in carotenoid accumulating Escherichia coli strains and by performing in vitro assays with heterologously expressed enzyme. StCCD4 catalyzed the cleavage of all-. trans-β-carotene at the C9\\'-C10\\' double bond, leading to β-ionone and all-. trans-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal, both in vivo and in vitro. The enzyme also cleaved β,β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein either at the C9\\'-C10\\' or the C9-C10 double bond in vitro. In contrast, we did not observe any conversion of violaxanthin and only traces of activity with 9-. cis-β-carotene, which led to 9-. cis-β-apo-10\\'-carotenal. Our data indicate that all-. trans-β-carotene is the likely substrate of StCCD4 in planta, and that this carotene may be precursor of an unknown compound involved in tuber development.

  13. Non-invasive in vivo determination of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in the human skin using the Raman spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, M. E.; Gersonde, I.; Meinke, M.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J.

    2005-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used as a fast and non-invasive optical method of measuring the absolute concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene in living human skin. Beta-carotene and lycopene have different absorption values at 488 and 514.5 nm and, consequently, the Raman lines for beta-carotene and lycopene have different scattering efficiencies at 488 and 514.5 nm excitations. These differences were used for the determination of the concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene. Using multiline Ar+ laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra can be obtained which are superimposed on a large fluorescence background. The Raman signals are characterized by two prominent Stokes lines at 1160 and 1525 cm-1, which have nearly identical relative intensities. Both substances were detected simultaneously. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 10 s, and the required laser light exposure level is well within safety standards. The disturbance of the measurements by non-homogeneous skin pigmentation was avoided by using a relatively large measuring area of 35 mm2. It was shown that beta-carotene and lycopene distribution in human skin strongly depends upon the skin region studied and drastically changed inter-individually. Skin beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations are lower in smokers than in non-smokers and higher in the vegetarian group.

  14. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-En Yang; Xing-Qi Huang; Yu Hang; Yin-Yin Deng; Qin-Qin Lu; Shan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of a-and b-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, b-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxy-lase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional comple-mentation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from b-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumu-lation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a b-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible e-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection.

  15. Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E,β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three whitesorghum varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Samiha M Abd El-Salam; Azza A Omran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E,β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties. Methods:The changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of sorghum grains were determined. Results: Total phenols, total flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity in raw sorghum were ranged from 109.21 to 116.70, 45.91 to 54.69, 1.39 to 21.79 mg/100 g, 1.74 to 5.25, 0.54 to 1.19 mg/kg and 21.72% to 27.69% and 25.29% to 31.97%, respectively. The above measured compounds were significantly decreased after soaking. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and cinnamic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Dorado variety. While ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and caffeic acid represent the major phenolic acids in Shandaweel-6. On the other hand, protocatechuic acid represents the major phenolic acids in Giza-15. Regarding flavonoids components, Dorado was the highest variety in kampferol and naringenin while Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in luteolin, apigenin, hypersoid, quercetin and christen. Finally, Giza-15 was the highest variety in catechin. Phenolic acids, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities were decreased after soaking.Conclusions:tannins, phenolic acids compounds, flavonoid components, vitamin E, β-carotene and antioxidant activity which decreased after soaking. Sorghum varieties have moderate quantities from total phenols, total flavonoids

  16. The influence of β-carotene on homocysteine level and oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kasperczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is involved in lead toxicity. This suggests that some antioxidants may play a role in the treatment of lead poisoning. In the light of this, the aim of the study was to determine whether β-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and homocysteine level in workers chronically exposed to lead. Material and Methods: The exposed population included healthy male workers exposed to lead who were randomly divided into 2 groups (mean blood lead level ca. 44 μg/dl. Workers in the 1st group (N = 49, reference group had no antioxidants, drugs, vitamins or dietary supplements administered, while workers in the 2nd group (N = 33 had β-carotene administered in a dose of 10 mg per day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included markers of lead-exposure and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker. We also measured the level of homocysteine (Hcy and thiol groups as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and its isoenzyme EC-SOD in serum. Results: After supplementation, the level of MDA significantly decreased, compared to baseline, by 16%, and to the reference group. When compared to the reference group, Hcy level was also significantly decreased. However, the level of thiol groups was significantly higher after supplementation with β-carotene compared to the reference group. Analogically, the activity of SOD and EC-SOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline and to the reference group. Conclusions: Despite some controversies over antioxidant properties of β-carotene, our results indicate that its antioxidant action could provide some beneficial effects in lead poisoning independent of chelation. Med Pr 2014;65(3:309–316

  17. Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARγ in human intestinal β,β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bingfang

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. β, β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1 catalyzes the central cleavage of β-carotene to all-trans retinal and is the key enzyme in the intestinal metabolism of carotenes to vitamin A. However, human and various rodent species show markedly different efficiencies in intestinal BCMO1-mediated carotene to retinoid conversion. The aim of this study is to identify potentially human-specific regulatory control mechanisms of BCMO1 gene expression. Results We identified and functionally characterized the human BCMO1 promoter sequence and determined the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene in a BCMO1 expressing human intestinal cell line, TC-7. Several functional transcription factor-binding sites were identified in the human promoter that are absent in the mouse BCMO1 promoter. We demonstrate that the proximal promoter sequence, nt -190 to +35, confers basal transcriptional activity of the human BCMO1 gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR binding elements resulted in decreased basal promoter activity. Mutation of both promoter elements abrogated the expression of intestinal cell BCMO1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays and transcription factor co-expression in TC-7 cells showed MEF2C and PPARγ bind to their respective DNA elements and synergistically transactivate BCMO1 expression. Conclusion We demonstrate that human intestinal cell BCMO1 expression is dependent on the functional cooperation between PPARγ and MEF2 isoforms. The findings suggest that the interaction between MEF2 and PPAR factors may provide a molecular basis for interspecies differences in the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene.

  18. Genetic modification of the soybean to enhance the β-carotene content through seed-specific expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was genetically manipulated using the recombinant PAC (Phytoene synthase-2A-Carotene desaturase gene in Korean soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Kwangan. The PAC gene was linked to either the β-conglycinin (β or CaMV-35S (35S promoter to generate β-PAC and 35S-PAC constructs, respectively. A total of 37 transgenic lines (19 for β-PAC and 18 for 35S-PAC were obtained through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the modified half-seed method. The multi-copy insertion of the transgene was determined by genomic Southern blot analysis. Four lines for β-PAC were selected by visual inspection to confirm an orange endosperm, which was not found in the seeds of the 35S-PAC lines. The strong expression of PAC gene was detected in the seeds of the β-PAC lines and in the leaves of the 35S-PAC lines by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses, suggesting that these two different promoters function distinctively. HPLC analysis of the seeds and leaves of the T(2 generation plants revealed that the best line among the β-PAC transgenic seeds accumulated 146 µg/g of total carotenoids (approximately 62-fold higher than non-transgenic seeds, of which 112 µg/g (77% was β-carotene. In contrast, the level and composition of the leaf carotenoids showed little difference between transgenic and non-transgenic soybean plants. We have therefore demonstrated the production of a high β-carotene soybean through the seed-specific overexpression of two carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Capsicum phytoene synthase and Pantoea carotene desaturase. This nutritional enhancement of soybean seeds through the elevation of the provitamin A content to produce biofortified food may have practical health benefits in the future in both humans and livestock.

  19. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Natália F Haddad; Anderson J Teodoro; Felipe Leite de Oliveira; Nathália Soares; Rômulo Medina de Mattos; Fábio Hecht; Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne; Leandro Vairo; Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg; Flávia Carvalho Alcântara Gomes; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Luiz Eurico Nasciutti; Leandro Miranda-Alves

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apopto...

  20. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  1. A single polypeptide catalyzing the conversion of phytoene to zeta-carotene is transcriptionally regulated during tomato fruit ripening.

    OpenAIRE

    Pecker, I; Chamovitz, D; Linden, H; G Sandmann; Hirschberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The cDNA of the gene pds from tomato, encoding the carotenoid biosynthesis enzyme phytoene desaturase, was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Cells of Escherichia coli that expressed the tomato pds gene could convert phytoene to zeta-carotene. This result suggests that one polypeptide, the product of the pds gene, can carry out phytoene desaturation in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Transcripts of the pds gene accumulate in orange tomato fruit, indicating transcriptiona...

  2. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content. PMID:20671108

  3. Study on the stability of β-carotene microencapsulated with pinhão (Araucaria angustifolia seeds) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Jordana Corralo; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Native and hydrolyzed pinhão starches were used as coating materials for β-carotene microencapsulation by freeze-drying. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the stability of β-carotene encapsulated under three different conditions: in the presence of ultraviolet light at 25±2 °C, in the dark at 25±2 °C and in the dark at 10.0±0.2 °C. The color of the samples was also analyzed. Microcapsules prepared with native starch showed the lowest stability during storage. In contrast, microcapsules encapsulated with 12 dextrose equivalent (DE) hydrolyzed starch exhibited the highest stability. First-order kinetic and Weibull models were applied to describe the degradation of β-carotene over time. The R(2) values of the Weibull model were greater than those of the first-order kinetic model. Moreover, multivariate analyses (principal component and cluster analyses) were also conducted. PMID:24750928

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and β-carotene on the semen quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, B; Kazemi, R; Alipour, A; Seidavi, A; Naseralavi, G; Ponce-Palafox, J T

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two carotenoids (astaxanthin and β-carotene) on the sperm quality of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758). For this purpose, six diets containing concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin and β-carotene were added to a basic carp diet. One group of fish was also fed with a control diet (no added carotenoids). Osmolality, spermatocrit value, and sperm concentration significantly increased in the treatment supplemented with 150 mg/kg of astaxanthin (296.6 ± 1.1 mOsm/kg; 29.2 ± 0.6%; 17.2 ± 0.4 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively) and β-carotene (295.2 ± 2.1 mOsm/kg; 32.5 ± 1.6%; 17.9 ± 0.5 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively). The highest concentration of astaxanthin (10.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg) was recorded in the treatment of A150 (P astaxanthin improves osmolality, motility, fertilization rate, and sperm concentration. PMID:26166170

  5. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies. PMID:27405011

  6. A review of vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene in various food matrices for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2014-06-28

    Vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene (VEB) is defined as the amount of ingested β-carotene in μg that is absorbed and converted into 1 μg retinol (vitamin A) in the human body. The objective of the present review was to discuss the different estimates for VEB in various types of dietary food matrices. Different methods are discussed such as mass balance, dose-response and isotopic labelling. The VEB is currently estimated by the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) as 12:1 in a mixed diet and 2:1 in oil. For humans consuming β-carotene dissolved in oil, a VEB between 2:1 and 4:1 is feasible. A VEB of approximately 4:1 is applicable for biofortified cassava, yellow maize and Golden Rice, which are specially bred for human consumption in developing countries. We propose a range of 9:1-16:1 for VEB in a mixed diet that encompasses the IOM VEB of 12:1 and is realistic for a Western diet under Western conditions. For a 'prudent' (i.e. non-Western) diet including a variety of commonly consumed vegetables, a VEB could range from 9:1 to 28:1 in a mixed diet. PMID:24513222

  7. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research. PMID:22692530

  8. A Metagenomics Analysis on B-Carotene Synthesis in Neurospora Crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gedela

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied insilico on evolutionary uniqueness of phytoene synthase, which is one of the regulatory enzymes of ?-carotene synthesis in Neurospora crassa. This study reveals multiple sequence alignments showed high sequences with similarity within a species of bacteria, fungi and higher plants. This results designate interestingly between species of bacteria-fungi, fungi-plant, and among the species of bacteria-fungi-plant, showed tremendously less sequence with similarity, except bacteria-plant (high sequence with similarity respectively. In Phylogenetics tree analysis showed within species of bacteria, fungi and plant 91%, 92% and 99% homology. Whereas in between species of bacteria-fungi, bacteria-plant, fungi-plant, and among the species bacteria-fungi-plant showed 99%, 96%, 100%, and 91%-99% homology respectively. N. crassa phytoene synthase enzyme encode (Isoprenoid Biosynthesis enzymes, Class 1 protein size 610aa, Cyanobacteria phytoene encode (Isoprenoid Biosynthesis enzymes, Class 1 protein size 310aa, and Oryza sativa Indica phytoene synthase 1 (chloroplast, (Isoprenoid Biosynthesis enzymes, Class 1 encode protein size 421aa (e- value 0.0, 0.0 and 0.0; identity 100%, 100% and 100%; Max.score:1238, 644 and 870 respectively. We studied insilico on basis of an evolutionary Endosymbiotic theory; a bacterium is the ancestors to eukaryotes.

  9. Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2005-04-01

    Carotenoids are an important part of the antioxidant system in human skin. Carotenoid molecules, provided by fruits and vegetables, are potent free radical quenchers that accumulate in the body. If not balanced by carotenoids and other antioxidants, free radicals may cause premature skin aging, oxidative cell damage, and even skin cancers. As carotenoids depletion may predispose a person to cancer or other disease, rapid and noninvasive measurement of carotenoid level in skin may be of preventive or diagnostic help. At the very least, such measurement can be used to obtain a biomarker for healthy levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Recently we have developed noninvasive optical technique based on Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we describe compact optical detector for clinical applications that utilizes two-wavelength excitation. It selectively measures the two most prominent skin carotenoids found in the human skin, lycopene and carotenes. According to the medical literature, these two compounds may play different roles in the human body and be part of different tissue defense mechanisms. Dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects.

  10. The shifting perception on antioxidants: the case of vitamin E and β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk, Misha F; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Godschalk, Roger W; Van Schooten, Frederik J; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants are vital for aerobic life, and for decades the expectations of antioxidants as health promoting agents were very high. However, relatively recent meta-analyses of clinical studies show that supplementation of antioxidants does not result in the presumed health benefit, but is associated with increased mortality. The dilemma that still needs to be solved is: what are antioxidants in the end, healthy or toxic? We have evaluated this dilemma by examining the presumed health effects of two individual antioxidants with opposite images i.e. the "poisonous" β-carotene and the "wholesome" vitamin E and focused on one aspect, namely their role in inducing BPDE-DNA adducts. It appears that both antioxidants promote DNA adduct formation indirectly by inhibition of the protective enzyme glutathione-S-transferase π (GST π). Despite their opposite image, both antioxidants display a similar type of toxicity. It is concluded that, in the appreciation of antioxidants, first their benefits should be identified and substantiated by elucidating their molecular mechanism. Subsequently, the risks should be identified including the molecular mechanism. The optimal benefit-risk ratio has to be determined for each antioxidant and each individual separately, also considering the dose. PMID:25625581

  11. The shifting perception on antioxidants: The case of vitamin E and β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha F. Vrolijk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are vital for aerobic life, and for decades the expectations of antioxidants as health promoting agents were very high. However, relatively recent meta-analyses of clinical studies show that supplementation of antioxidants does not result in the presumed health benefit, but is associated with increased mortality. The dilemma that still needs to be solved is: what are antioxidants in the end, healthy or toxic? We have evaluated this dilemma by examining the presumed health effects of two individual antioxidants with opposite images i.e. the “poisonous” β-carotene and the “wholesome” vitamin E and focused on one aspect, namely their role in inducing BPDE-DNA adducts. It appears that both antioxidants promote DNA adduct formation indirectly by inhibition of the protective enzyme glutathione-S-transferase π (GST π. Despite their opposite image, both antioxidants display a similar type of toxicity. It is concluded that, in the appreciation of antioxidants, first their benefits should be identified and substantiated by elucidating their molecular mechanism. Subsequently, the risks should be identified including the molecular mechanism. The optimal benefit–risk ratio has to be determined for each antioxidant and each individual separately, also considering the dose.

  12. Photostability evaluation of five UV-filters, trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2015-10-12

    Trans-resveratrol (RES) is used in cosmetic formulations and beta-carotene (BTC) is a classical sunscreen antioxidant, but their photostability in sunscreens, a property directly correlated to performance and safety has not been addressed in the literature. This paper reports the assessment of RES and/or BTC influence on the photostability of five UV-filters (octyl methoxycinnamate - OMC, avobenzone -AVO, octocrylene - OCT, bemotrizinole - BMZ, octyltriazone - OTZ) in three different combinations after UVA exposure followed by the identification of degradation products and the assessment of photoreactivity. The evaluation of sunscreen photostability was performed by HPLC and spectrophotometric analysis, and degradation products were identified by GC-MS analysis. Components RES, BTC, OMC and AVO were significantly degraded after UV exposure (reduction of around 16% in recovery). According to HPLC analysis, all formulations presented similar photostability profiles. Eleven degradation products were identified in GC-MS analysis, among them products of RES, BTC, OMC and AVO photodegradation. All evaluated formulations were considered photoreactive, as well as the isolated compounds RES and AVO. Considering HPLC, spectrophotometric and GC-MS results, it is suggested that formulations containing BMZ were considered the most photostable. The combination RES+BTC in a sunscreen improved the photostability of AVO. The benefits of using a combination of antioxidants in sunscreens was demonstrated by showing that using RES+BTC+studied UV-filters led to more photostable formulations, which in turn implies in better safety and efficacy. PMID:26159738

  13. Alfa-tocopherol and beta-carotene in roughages and milk in organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Søegaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present on-farm study was to analyse vitamin content in roughage at harvest and during storage and to analyze milk vitamin content when feeding the roughage to dairy cows. Roughages produced at five organic dairy farms were monitored at harvest and several times during winter as...... of α-tocopherol was 876 mg per cow–431 mg from roughages, 89 mg from concentrates and 356 mg from a vitamin supplement. Milk yield was 25.9 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per day with α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents (μg/ml) of 0.82 and 0.17. The study additionally showed the following...... tendency, but due to few observations no final conclusions could be drawn: •For grass–clover silage there were generally no losses of vitamins during the ensiling process and during storage, but there were huge variations between farms. •For wholecrop silage there was a loss of vitamins during the ensiling...

  14. Beta-carotene reduces body adiposity of mice via BCMO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Amengual

    Full Text Available Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that β-carotene-(BC-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1 and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2 are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into β-10'-apocarotenal and β-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mice. To genetically dissect the roles of Bcmo1 and Bcdo2 in this process, we used wild-type and Bcmo1(-/- mice for this study. In wild-type mice, BC was converted into retinoids. In contrast, Bcmo1(-/- mice showed increased expression of Bcdo2 in adipocytes and β-10'-apocarotenol accumulated as the major BC derivative. In wild-type mice, BC significantly reduced body adiposity (by 28%, leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis of inguinal white adipose tissue revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. Despite β-10'-apocarotenoid production, this effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1(-/- mice, demonstrating that it was dependent on the Bcmo1-mediated production of retinoids. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPARγ activity in adipocytes.

  15. 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapir Bechor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a key process in reverse cholesterol transport and, therefore, might inhibit atherogenesis. 9-cis-β-carotene (9-cis-βc is a precursor for 9-cis-retinoic-acid (9-cis-RA, which regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux. Our objective was to assess whether 9-cis-βc increases macrophage cholesterol efflux and induces the expression of cholesterol transporters. Enrichment of a mouse diet with βc from the alga Dunaliella led to βc accumulation in peritoneal macrophages. 9-cis-βc increased the mRNA levels of CYP26B1, an enzyme that regulates RA cellular levels, indicating the formation of RA from βc in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, 9-cis-βc, as well as all-trans-βc, significantly increased cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL by 50% in RAW264.7 macrophages. Likewise, food fortification with 9-cis-βc augmented cholesterol efflux from macrophages ex vivo. 9-cis-βc increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE and the mRNA level of ABCG1. Our study shows, for the first time, that 9-cis-βc from the diet accumulates in peritoneal macrophages and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. These effects might be ascribed to transcriptional induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and APOE. These results highlight the beneficial effect of βc in inhibition of atherosclerosis by improving cholesterol efflux from macrophages.

  16. 1H NMR, electronic-absorption and resonance-Raman spectra of isomeric okenone as compared with those of isomeric β-carotene, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal and spheroidene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Chen, Chun-Hai; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Koyama, Yasushi

    1998-05-01

    Eleven cis- trans isomers of okenone were isolated by means of HPLC using a silica-gel column from an isomeric mixture which was obtained by iodine-sensitized photo-isomerization of the all- trans isomer. The configurations of eight isomers among them were determined by NMR spectroscopy using the isomerization shifts of the olefinic 1Hs and the 1H- 1H NOE correlations to be all- trans, 7- cis, 7- cis,8-s- cis, 9- cis, 9'- cis, 13- cis, 13'- cis and 9,9'-di- cis, and their electronic-absorption and resonance-Raman spectra were recorded. Based on the results: (1) the chemical shifts of the olefinic 1Hs in NMR; (2) the wavelength of the A g-→B u+ transition; and (3) the relative intensity of the A g-→A g+ versus the A g-→B u+ transition in electronic absorption; (4) the CC stretching frequency; and (5) the relative intensity of the C10-C11 (C10'-C11') versus the C14-C15 (C14'-C15') stretching vibration in resonance Raman were compared among the all- trans, 7- cis, 9- cis (9'- cis) and 13- cis (13'- cis) isomers of β-carotene, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal, neurosporene, spheroidene and okenone. Relevance of the systematic changes in the above five different parameters originally found in β-carotene was examined in the rest of the carotenoids, and the effects of the peripheral groups on them were explained in terms of the length and asymmetry of the conjugated system consisting of the CC and CO bonds.

  17. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  18. Utilization of interfacial engineering to improve physicochemical stability of β-carotene emulsions: Multilayer coatings formed using protein and protein-polyphenol conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Sun, Cuixia; McClements, David Julian; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-08-15

    The impact of lactoferrin (LF)-chlorogenic acid (CA) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) conjugates on the physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Formation of lactoferrin-polyphenol conjugates, which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, caused changes in the structure and nature of lactoferrin. Based on layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition, β-carotene bilayer emulsions were prepared by lactoferrin and lactoferrin-polyphenol conjugates at pH 7.0. The physicochemical properties of primary and secondary emulsions were evaluated and the results suggested that LF-polyphenol conjugates-stabilized primary and secondary emulsions exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene bilayer emulsions under freeze-thaw, ionic strength and thermal treatments. In addition, the lactoferrin-polyphenol conjugates could effectively enhance chemical stability of β-carotene in oil-in-water emulsions against heat treatment and ultraviolet light exposure, and the least degradation of β-carotene occurred in LF-EGCG conjugate-stabilized primary emulsion. The interfacial engineering technology utilized in this study may lead to the formation of emulsions with improved physicochemical and functional performance. PMID:27006223

  19. Elevated Serum Retinol and Low Beta-Carotene but not Alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations Are Associated with Dyslipidemia in Brazilian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Mellina Neyla de Lima; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of retinol, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations in adolescents with dyslipidemia. A case series dyslipidemia study was conducted, with an attached control group, including 104 adolescents of public schools in Recife during the months of March/April 2013. Retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations were analysed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical variables were analysed. Dyslipidemic adolescents had high serum concentrations of both retinol (p=0.007) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein A-I ratio (p=0.034); they also had low concentrations of beta-carotene/total cholesterol (p<0.0001) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein B ratios (p=0.033) when compared to the controls. The alpha-tocopherol serum status was not associated with dyslipidemia. Overweight, abdominal obesity, lipid profile markers, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were more prevalent in dyslipidemic adolescents. The findings show an association between vitamin A and dyslipidemia in adolescents. However, additional investigations of this risk group are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action of this nutrient in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, aiming at reducing cardiometabolic risks as of earlier ages. PMID:27264090

  20. Optimization of Processing Parameters for Clarification of Blended Carrot-orange Juice and Improvement of its Carotene Content

    OpenAIRE

    Karangwa Eric; H. Khizar; L. Rao; D.S. Nshimiyimana; M.B.K. Foh; L. Li; S.Q. Xia and X.M. Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the processing parameters for the clarification of blended carrot-orange juice using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and to improve the carotene content. The blended carrot-orange juice was treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L enzyme at different concentrations (0.04- 0.12%), pH (2.5-5), reaction temperature (40-60ºC) and time (70-110 min). The effect of these independent variables on clarity, turbidity, and viscosity of the carrot-orange juice was evaluate...

  1. Plasma retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Boreham, J.; Hayward, J L; Bulbrook, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective study of 5,004 women in Guernsey, plasma samples were collected and stored. Retinol, beta-carotene and vitamin E levels were later measured in the samples from 39 women who subsequently developed breast cancer and from 78 controls who did not develop cancer. Plasma retinol levels were not related to the risk of breast cancer, mean levels among cases and controls being 485 micrograms l-1 and 479 micrograms l-1 respectively. Plasma vitamin E levels showed a clear association, l...

  2. Effects of dietary [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raun Andersen, H.; Andersen, O. (Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Odense, Odense (Denmark))

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH[sub 3]HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of [alpha]-tocopherol (10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) or [beta]-carotene (1000, 10,000 or 100,000 IU/kg) for four weeks, two groups on each diet. The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene used corresponded to deficient, normal and high levels. During the last two weeks, one group on each diet was given 40 mg CH[sub 3]HgCl/l of drinking water. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol protected against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the [alpha]-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, [alpha]-tocopherol did not protect against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary [beta]-carotene further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH[sub 3]HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) in the kidneys in all dietary groups. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol enhanced the activity of Se-GSH-Px in liver and kidney compared to the activity in mice fed the normal level of [alpha]-tocopherol. This occurred in mice exposed to CH[sub 3]-HgCl as well as in unexposed mice, and the difference between CH[sub 3]HgCl exposed and unexposed mice was not diminished. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol increased the activity of both Se-GSH-Px and T-GSH-Px in the brain of CH[sub 3]HgCl-exposed mice. The dietary level of [beta]-carotene did not affect the activity of the two enzymes in the organs investigated. (au) (43 refs.).

  3. Effect of domestic processing treatments on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid and polyphenols of pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Manvesh Kumar Sihag; Vivek Sharma; Ankit Goyal; Sumit Arora; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various processing treatments (individual and combination) on iron, β-carotene, phytic acid, polyphenols and ash content of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanam). Grains were subjected to soaking, pressure cooking, steaming, malting, pearling and extrusion cooking for different time intervals such as soaking for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h; steaming for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min; pressure cooking for 2, 5, 7 and 10 min; controlled germination (m...

  4. Temperature-dependent bifurcation of cooperative interactions in pure and enriched in β-carotene DPPC liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyńska, D; Burda, K; Jemioła-Rzemińska, M; Strzałka, K

    2016-08-25

    We examined the influence of temperature on lipid intermolecular interactions and the organization of bilayers within multilamellar dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes. We also investigated the effect of 0.5 mol% β-carotene, a non-polar carotenoid, on the adhesive properties of these liposomes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to correlate the changes in the physical properties of the liposomal systems with their thermotropic behaviour. Using DSC we detected two transitions in pure DPPC vesicles and in those containing 0.5 mol% β-carotene. In both systems the pretransition occurred at 34.5(1)°C and the main phase transition at 41.4 °C during heating. Upon cooling, the temperatures of the pretransition and the main transition decreased by about 6 °C and 1 °C, respectively. Changes in enthalpy and entropy were also similar in the two investigated systems. Data obtained in parallel AFM force experiments show that the adhesive forces between the liposomal systems and AFM probe strongly depend on the loading rate. Moreover, their characteristic monotonic changes and discontinuities are sensitive to temperature. In the range of temperatures from 27 °C to 31 °C, i.e. below the temperature of phase transition from gel to ripple phase, the adhesive forces measured in a water environment are about an order of magnitude higher in the presence of β-carotene than in pure DPPC liposomes. The observed variable dependence of adhesion on the loading rate suggests that there are changes in the long- and short-range interactions between lipids, and that these may be related to the occurrence of some clustering effects. In addition, the simultaneous existence of different subphases was found in the gel phase of DPPC liposomes. The presence of β-carotene at a level of 0.5 mol% stimulates the structural reorganization of DPPC multilamellar vesicles and enhances the bifurcation phenomenon detected in these

  5. Stimulus-responsive light-harvesting complexes based on the pillararene-induced co-assembly of β-carotene and chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Guo, Fang; Zuo, Tongfei; Hua, Jingjing; Diao, Guowang

    2016-06-01

    The locations and arrangements of carotenoids at the subcellular level are responsible for their designated functions, which reinforces the necessity of developing methods for constructing carotenoid-based suprastructures beyond the molecular level. Because carotenoids lack the binding sites necessary for controlled interactions, functional structures based on carotenoids are not easily obtained. Here, we show that carotene-based suprastructures were formed via the induction of pillararene through a phase-transfer-mediated host-guest interaction. More importantly, similar to the main component in natural photosynthesis, complexes could be synthesized after chlorophyll was introduced into the carotene-based suprastructure assembly process. Remarkably, compared with molecular carotene or chlorophyll, this synthesized suprastructure exhibits some photocatalytic activity when exposed to light, which can be exploited for photocatalytic reaction studies of energy capture and solar conversion in living organisms.

  6. Difference in effect of temperature on absorption and Raman spectra between all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; Li Zuo-Wei; Gao Shu-Qin; Li Shuo; Sun Cheng-Lin; Liu Tian-Yuan; Wu Yong-Ling; Sun Shang; Shan Xiao-Ning; Men Zhi-Wei; Chen Wei

    2012-01-01

    Temperature dependencies (81 ℃-18 ℃) of visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol extremely diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide are investigated in order to clarify temperature effects on different polyenes.Their absorption spectra are identified to be redshifted with temperature decreasing.Moreover,all-trans-β-carotene is more sensitive to temperature due to the presence of a longer length of conjugated system.The characteristic energy responsible for the conformational changes in all-trans-β-carotene is smaller than that in all-trans-retinol.Both of the Raman scattering cross sections increase with temperature decreasing.The results are explained with electron-phonon coupling theory and coherent weakly damped electron-lattice vibrations model.

  7. Stimulus-responsive light-harvesting complexes based on the pillararene-induced co-assembly of β-carotene and chlorophyll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Guo, Fang; Zuo, Tongfei; Hua, Jingjing; Diao, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    The locations and arrangements of carotenoids at the subcellular level are responsible for their designated functions, which reinforces the necessity of developing methods for constructing carotenoid-based suprastructures beyond the molecular level. Because carotenoids lack the binding sites necessary for controlled interactions, functional structures based on carotenoids are not easily obtained. Here, we show that carotene-based suprastructures were formed via the induction of pillararene through a phase-transfer-mediated host-guest interaction. More importantly, similar to the main component in natural photosynthesis, complexes could be synthesized after chlorophyll was introduced into the carotene-based suprastructure assembly process. Remarkably, compared with molecular carotene or chlorophyll, this synthesized suprastructure exhibits some photocatalytic activity when exposed to light, which can be exploited for photocatalytic reaction studies of energy capture and solar conversion in living organisms. PMID:27345928

  8. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Determination of beta-carotene and lutein available from green leafy vegetables by an in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2005-04-20

    Green leafy vegetables (Spinacea oleracea, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, and Solanum americanum) contain a high amount of beta-carotene (27-52 mg/100 g of dry sample) and lutein (140-193 mg/100 g of dry sample). The amount of beta-carotene and lutein released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes ranged from 22 to 67% and from 27 to 77%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the enzymatic release of carotenoids (lutein + beta-carotene) and the content of Klason lignin, nonstarch polysaccharides, and resistant protein. The carotenoids released by the in vitro colonic fermentation ranged from 2 to 11%, and part of them (0.251-4.03 mg/100 g of original dry sample) remained intact in the fermentation media and could be potentially absorbed in the colon. A significant part of carotenoids seems to be unavailable in the intestinal tract (16% in S. oleracea to 58% in C. aconitifolius). PMID:15826042

  10. Randomised β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I-M; Cook, N R; Manson, J E; Buring, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of 513 women with cancer; 130 with cardiovascular disease and equal numbers of controls, we found no effect of randomised beta-carotene on risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease within any quartile of baseline plasma beta-carotene, nor was there a trend across quartiles (P for trend 0.15 and 0.62, respectively). British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 698–701. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600147 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  11. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, D. T.; Assen, N.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Dorant, E.; van't Veer, P; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R. J.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Association between breast cancer risk and the intake of vitamins C and E, retinol, beta (beta)-carotene, dietary fibre, vegetables, fruit and potatoes was examined in The Netherlands Cohort Study, for 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow-up, 650 incident breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, breast cancer risk was not influenced by the intake of beta-carotene, vitamin E, dietary fibre, supplements with vitamin C, vegetables or ...

  12. Downregulation of Fzd6 and Cthrc1 and upregulation of olfactory receptors and protocadherins by dietary beta-carotene in lungs of Bcmo1-/- mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Helden, Y.G.J.; Godschalk, R. W. L.; Heil, S.G.; Bunschoten, A.; Hessel, S.; Amengual, J.; Bonet, M L; Lintig, von, J.; Schooten, van, E.; Keijer, J.

    2010-01-01

    An ongoing controversy exists on beneficial versus harmful effects of high beta-carotene (BC) intake, especially for the lung. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we studied effects of BC on lung gene expression. We used a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) knockout mouse (Bcmo1-/-) model, unable to convert BC to retinoids, and wild-type mice (Bcmo1+/+) mice to dissect the effects of intact BC from effects of BC metabolites. As expected, BC supplementation resulted in a higher BC acc...

  13. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  14. Computer simulations of material ejection during C60 and Arm bombardment of octane and β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations are used to investigate material ejection and fragment formation during keV C60 and Arm (m = 60, 101, 205, 366, 872 and 2953) bombardment of organic solids composed from octane and β-carotene molecules at 0° and 45° impact angle. Both systems are found to sputter efficiently. For the octane system, material removal occurs predominantly by ejection of intact molecules, while fragment emission is a significant ejection channel for β-carotene. A difference in the molecular dimensions is proposed to explain this observation. It has been shown that the dependence of the sputtering yield Y on the primary kinetic energy E and the cluster size n can be expressed in a simplified form if represented in reduced units. A linear and nonlinear dependence of the Y/n on the E/n are identified and the position of the transition point from the linear to nonlinear regions depends on the size of the cluster projectile. The impact angle has a minor influence on the shape of the simplified representation

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of β-carotene content in four varieties of lotus stamens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithida Phonkot

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine -carotene content in lotus stamens.The stamens of four varieties of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn. and ten samples bought from traditional drug stores were determined.Validation of the method was carried out, the linearity of the -carotene concentrations range from 6.50-58.50 g.mL-1were 0.9997-0.9998. The repeatability and intermediate precision were 0.29 %CV (n=9 and 7.48 %CV (n=9, respectively; theaccuracy was 100.10 %w/w, the detection limit was 9.83 ng.mL-1 and the quantitation limit was 29.80 ng.mL-1. The -caroteneof the four varieties were 465.77-1150.80 mg% (n=3, and of the store samples were 4.70-41.73 mg% (n=3. The resultsdemonstrated that the contents varied according to the variety. The contents in the samples obtained from traditionaldrug stores were much lower that those dried in our laboratory, this might due to the source of the stamens, duration, andconditions of storages.

  16. Theoretical study of the low-lying excited states of {beta}-carotene isomers by a multireference configuration interaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron-Carrasco, Jose P., E-mail: jpceron@um.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Requena, Alberto, E-mail: rqna@um.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Marian, Christel M., E-mail: Christel.Marian@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf, Universitaetsstr. 1, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-19

    Graphical abstract: Quantum chemical calculations reveal a linear correlation between the intensity of the cis-band and the shape of {beta}-carotene isomers. - Abstract: The combined density functional theory and multireference configuration interaction method (DFT/MRCI) has been employed to explore the ground and low-lying electronically excited states of various {beta}-carotene monocis and dicis isomers. Although the excitation energies are generally somewhat underestimated by DFT/MRCI, the experimental trends are well reproduced and allow an interpretation of the main bands of the UV-Vis spectra. The optically bright signal is correctly assigned to S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 2}, corresponding to the HOMO {yields} LUMO transition, whereas the so-called cis-band originates mainly from the S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 4} transition and arises from HOMO-1 {yields} LUMO and HOMO {yields} LUMO+1 excitations. The calculations reveal a correlation between the oscillator strengths of these transitions and the C6-C6' distance thus explaining the effect of the molecular configuration on the shape of the UV-Vis spectra.

  17. Comparison between the availability of iron in the presence of vitamin a and β-carotene in foods and medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Camargo Martini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the availability of iron in the presence of vitamin A as components of foods and in combinations with medicines. The iron available was measured in the presence of vitamin A in foods - common bean (B, beef liver (Li and carrot (C - and medicines - Fer-In-Sol® (Fer (Mead Johnson, Arovit® (A (Roche and Neutrofer® (N (Sigma Pharma - as well as in combinations of both. β-carotene, vitamin A, total iron, heme and non heme iron, percentage of dialyzable iron and amount of dialyzable iron was determined. Vitamin A and β-carotene had a positive effect on the percentage of iron dialysis. Carrot and liver had a better percentage of dialyzable iron than their respective medicine at similar concentrations. Therefore, we can conclude that there has been an influence of vitamin A over the dialysis of iron, being the mixtures containing liver the ones which achieved the highest concentrations of dialyzable iron, and also that, according to the amounts needed to obtain the daily recommended intake of iron, they are good for consumption.

  18. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  19. High Preformed Vitamin A Intake during Pregnancy Prevents Embryonic Accumulation of Intact β-Carotene from the Maternal Circulation in Mice123

    OpenAIRE

    Wassef, Lesley; Shete, Varsha; Costabile, Brianna; Rodas, Rebeka; Quadro, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The vitamin A precursor β-carotene (BC) promotes mammalian embryonic development by serving as a source of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) to the developing tissues. In the Western world, increased consumption of dietary supplements, including vitamin A and BC, is common; however, the consequences of maternal high preformed vitamin A intake on embryonic uptake and metabolism of BC are poorly understood.

  20. Neural network analysis of spectroscopic data of lycopene and beta-carotene content in food samples compared to HPLC-UV-vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Montaña; Torrecilla, José S; Caceres, Jorge O; Sánchez Mata, M Cortes; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia

    2010-01-13

    In this study a neural network (NN) model was designed to predict lycopene and beta-carotene concentrations in food samples, combined with a simple and fast technique, such as UV-vis spectroscopy. The measurement of the absorbance at 446 and 502 nm of different beta-carotene and lycopene standard mixtures was used to optimize a neural network based on a multilayer perceptron (MLP) (learning and verification process). Then, for validation purposes, the optimized NN has been applied to determine the concentration of both compounds in food samples (fresh tomato, tomato concentrate, tomato sauce, ketchup, tomato juice, watermelon, medlar, green pepper, and carrots), comparing the NN results with the known values of these compounds obtained by analytical techniques (UV-vis and HPLC). It was concluded that when the MLP-NN is used within the range studied, the optimized NN is able to estimate the beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations in food samples with an adequate accuracy, solving the UV-vis interference of beta-carotene and lycopene. PMID:19919099

  1. Effects of Fat-soluble Extracts From Vegetable Powder and β-carotene on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Lung Cancer Cell YTMLC-90

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN-JUN LU; CHENG-YU HUANG; SHU-XIANG YAO; RUI-SHU WANG; XIAO-NA WU

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of fat-soluble extracts from vegetable powder (FEFVP) and β-carotene on the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured YTMLC-90lung cancer cells. Methods The lung cancer cells were continuously exposed to a broad range of concentration of FEFVP and β-carotene. The proliferation was evaluated in MTT test. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated by morphological change, DNA fragmentation analysis, and DNA content analysis combined with flow cytometric analysis. Results Both FEFVP and β-carotene were found to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce morphologic changes consistent with apoptosis in YTMLC-90 cancer cells, including cellular shrinkage, chromatin condensation and cytometric analysis revealed decreased DNA content and the presence of a sub-G1 apoptotic peak.Conclusion These findings are consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of FEFVP are stronger than those of β-carotene. FEFVP inhibits the growth of YTMLC-90 probably via the induction of apoptosis cancer cells.

  2. Carotenoid absorption, chylomicron response curves, the influence of β-carotene supplementation on immune function and the measurement of natural killer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption of β-carotene from raw, uncooked vegetables can be very low. Particle size of uncooked foods is particularly important; β-carotene absorption from pureed or finely chopped vegetables is considerably higher than from whole or sliced raw vegetables. Cooking procedures (boiling/steaming) improves the chemical extractability of carotenoids from foods and also appears to improve absorption. Dietary fat stimulates bile flow from the gall bladder which facilitates the emulsification of fat and fat soluble dietary components into lipid micelles within the small intestine. Without micelle formation carotenoids are very poorly absorbed. Several studies have shown that the absence of dietary fat or very low fat diets substantially reduces β-carotene absorption in human volunteers. Carotenoid absorption is thought to be a passive process. The assumption is that carotenoids within lipid micelles come into contact with the intestinal epithelial cell membranes and that transport from micelles to the plasma membrane and cytosol of the cell occur together with the transport of fatty acids. β-carotene appears simultaneously in lymph with newly absorbed fat from a meal and thus it is assumed that they move together across the plasma membrane and within the mucosal cell

  3. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  4. A Consensus Linkage Map that Identifies Genomic Regions Controlling Beta-Carotene Quantity and Fruit Maturity in Melon (Cucumis Melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value and yield potential of U.S. Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.) could be improved through the introgression of genes for early fruit maturity (FM) and the enhancement of the quantity of B-carotene (QBC) in fruit mesocarp (i.e., orange mesocarp). Therefore, a set of 116 F3...

  5. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P < 0.0001). In study 2, the absorption of β-carotene and α-carotene increased by 6.6- and 4.8-fold, respectively (P < 0.0001 for both). Most notably, consumption of avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P < 0.0001) and 12.6-fold in study 2 (P = 0.0013). These observations highlight the importance of provitamin A carotenoid consumption with a lipid-rich food such as avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  6. Scientific Opinion on the reconsideration of the ADI and a refined exposure assessment of β-apo-8?-carotenal (E 160e

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS has previously provided a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of β-apo-8′-carotenal (E 160e as a food additive in the EU and establishing an acceptable daily intake (ADI of 0.05 mg/kg body weight (bw/day (EFSA ANS Panel, 2012. Following a request by the European Commission, the ANS Panel was asked to consider newly submitted information on the interpretation of the 13-week study in rats used as a basis to establish the ADI, to clarify its impact on that ADI and to carry out the refined exposure assessment of β-apo-8′-carotenal. The new information comprised an evaluation of all of the original kidney section slides from the 13-week toxicological study under improved visualisation conditions. The ANS Panel has considered that the supplementary information provided by the Commission and the present toxicological database on β-apo-8′-carotenal provides a basis to revise the established ADI and concluded that, based on the NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/day from the 13-week study in rats and an uncertainty factor of 100, a new ADI for β-apo-8′-carotenal of 0.3 mg/kg bw/day can be established. The Panel concluded that using data provided by the food industry, which are based only on a limited number of regulated categories, the reported uses and use levels of β-apo-8’-carotenal (E 160e would not be of safety concern.

  7. The Carotenogenesis Pathway via the Isoprenoid-β-carotene Interference Approach in a New Strain of Dunaliella salina Isolated from Baja California Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available D. salina is one of the recognized natural sources to produce β-carotene, and an useful model for studying the role of inhibitors and enhancers of carotenogenesis. However there is little information in D. salina regarding whether the isoprenoid substrate can be influenced by stress factors (carotenogenic or selective inhibitors which in turn may further contribute to elucidate the early steps of carotenogenesis and biosynthesis of β-carotene. In this study,Dunaliella salina (BC02 isolated from La Salina BC Mexico, was subjected to the method of isoprenoids-β-carotene interference in order to promote the interruption or accumulation of the programmed biosynthesis of carotenoids. When Carotenogenic and non-carotenogenic cells of D. salina BC02 were grown under photoautotrophicgrowth conditions in the presence of 200 µM fosmidomycin, carotenogenesis and the synthesis of β-carotene were interrupted after two days in cultured D. salina cells. This result is an indirect consequence of the inhibition of the synthesis of isoprenoids and activity of the recombinant DXR enzyme thereby preventing the conversionof 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (MEP and consequently interrupts the early steps of carotenogenesis in D. salina. The effect at the level of proteins and RNA was not evident. Mevinolin treated D. salina cells exhibited carotenogenesis and β-carotene levels very similar to those of control cell cultures indicating that mevinolin not pursued any indirect action in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and had no effect at the level of the HMG-CoA reductase, the key enzyme of the Ac/MVA pathway.

  8. Identificação de bergenina e carotenóides no fruto de uchi (Endopleura uchi, Humiriaceae Identification of bergenin and carotenoids in the uchi (Endopleura uchi, Humiriaceae fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyege Amazonas M. Magalhães

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O extrato obtido em metanol da polpa de frutos Endopleura uchi foi submetido a fracionamento utilizando-se técnicas cromatográficas convencionais levando ao isolamento de bergenina. Na análise da composição dos carotenóides foi evidenciada a predominância de beta-caroteno (16,57 mig.g-1. Os isômeros do beta-caroteno foram detectados, trans-beta-caroteno (89,3%, 13-cis-beta-caroteno (8% e 9-cis-beta-caroteno (3%. Considerando a importância do papel nutricional dos carotenóides e a bioatividade do glicosídeo bergenina, esse estudo sugeriu o potencial desse fruto como alimento funcional.The extract obtained in methanol from the fruits pulp of Endopleura uchi was fractionated using conventional chromatographic tecniques to isolate bergenin. In the analysis of the composition of carotenoids was evidenced the predominance of beta-carotene (16.57 mug.g-1. The isomers of beta-carotene: trans-beta-carotene (89.3%, 13-cis-beta-carotene (8% and 9-cis-beta-carotene (3% were detected. Considering the importance of the nutritional role of carotenoids and the bioactivity of the bergenina, this study suggested the potential of this fruit as functional food.

  9. Cytostatica efficiency enhancement by vitamins C, E and β-carotene under irradiation. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented on the enhancement of MMC (mitomycin C) efficiency by the vitamins C, E and β-carotene using E. coil bacteria (AB 1157) and leukemia cells (HL 60) as a model for experiments in vitro. New and previously published spectroscopic and kinetic data of transients obtained by pulse radiolysis of MMC and the above mentioned vitamins were also discussed. Based on all these results a possible cascade electron transfer process from vit. C→ vit. E→β-car.→MMC or oxidants in the living cells is presented. By vit. C deficiency a cell mutation might occur, possibly leading to appearance of cancer. The presented radiation chemical and radiation biological characteristic data are of importance as a basis for the development of an improved chemo-radiation therapy of cancer. (author)

  10. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Ye; Gong, Nan; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car) in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl(-)·Chl⁺ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C₃H₆O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II. PMID:27338363

  11. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl−·Chl+ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C3H6O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II.

  12. Análise, por CLAE, de carotenóides de cinco linhagens de Rhodotorula HPLC analysis of carotenoids from five Rhodotorula strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Squina

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi otimizado para a análise da composição de carotenóides de cinco linhagens de Rhodotorula.A extração com ruptura mecânica da parede celular da levedura com areia tratada mostrou ser mais eficiente que a ruptura química com dimetilsulfóxido. Os carotenóides foram separados e quantificados por CLAE em coluna de C18 utilizando como fase móvel acetonitrila/metanol (0,1% trietilamina/acetato de etila (75:15:10 e 100% metanol (0,1% trietilamina entre as injeções, com vazão de 1 mL/min. Em todas as linhagens, os carotenóides majoritários encontrados foram torularrodina, toruleno, ³-caroteno e ²-caroteno. Os teores totais de carotenóides, em µg/g, foram de 251,7 em R. glutinis,123,5 em R. rubra,113,2 em R. araucariae,105,8 em R. lactosa ede 103,7 em R. minuta.A method for extraction and HPLC separation of carotenoids from fiveRhodotorula strains was optimized. The extraction by mechanical disruption of the yeast cell wall with fine treated sand was shown to be more efficient than chemical disruption with dimethylsulfoxide. The carotenoids were separated and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using as mobile phase acetonitrile/methanol (0.1% triethylamina/ethyl acetate (75:15:10 with 100% methanol (0.1% triethylamine between the injections, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. In all strains, the major carotenoids found were torularhodin, torulene, ³-carotene and ²-carotene. The total carotenoid contents, in µg/g, obtained were 251.7 for R. glutinis,123.5 for R. rubra,113.2 for R. araucariae,105.8 for R. lactosaand 103.7 for R. minuta.

  13. A new microplate procedure for simultaneous assessment of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants and pro-oxidants, using crocin and β-carotene bleaching methods in a single combined assay: Tea extracts as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Lage, Miguel Ángel; Murado García, Miguel Anxo; Vázquez Álvarez, José Antonio; Anders, Yvonne; Curran, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    β-carotene and crocin bleaching reactions are the basis of two methods extensively used to quantify antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities. They are appropriate for lipophilic and hydrophilic matrices, respectively, and can provide useful complementary information in the study of complex natural extracts containing components with variable degrees of polarity. In this regard, a microplate procedure (Carotene Combined Bleaching) is proposed that enables the combination of both methods in a sin...

  14. beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

    OpenAIRE

    Goralczyk, Regina; Bachmann, Heinrich; Wertz, Karin; Lenz, Barbara; Riss, Georges; Buchwald Hunziker, Petra; Greatrix, Brad; Aebischer, Claude-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathways. Dietary item or component studied: beta-carotene Outcome studied: lung adenoma; gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung. Study type: A/J-mice Tissue/biological material/sample size: lung; blood. Mode of exposure: dietaryImpact on outcome (including dose-response): Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was n...

  15. Effects of quercetin and beta-carotene supplementation on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses in rats fed with high-fat diet rich in omega-6 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Yeon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Aruoma, Okezie I; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers. Dietary item or component studied: quercetin; beta-carotene. Outcome studied: aberrant crypt foci in colon; colon tumor incidence; colonic mucosa levels of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and PGE2 levels. Study type: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats. Tissue/biological material/sample size: colon; blood. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): Quercetin or beta-carotene supplementation reduced the number of ACF only in an...

  16. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  17. β-carotene and retinol contents in the meat of herbivorous ungulates with a special reference to their public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin; Eldesoky, Kamal Ibrahim; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate total carotenoids, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in the livers and muscles of some ungulates (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and horses) in comparison with the Wistar rats as a control. Cattle and horses had the highest contents of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Unexpectedly, sheep was the highest accumulator of retinol with a mean concentration of 203 ± 23.34 µg/g, while the least accumulator was buffalo, having a mean value of 58.28 ± 13.77 µg/g. Livers had higher contents of the examined phytochemicals than muscles. Consumption of these tissues may provide human with some needs from these important phytochemicals, though ingestion of livers, especially that of the sheep, is not advisable for the pregnant women. PMID:26498400

  18. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  19. Toward enabling large-scale open-shell equation-of-motion coupled cluster calculations: triplet states of β-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanshi; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Apra, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol

    2014-10-02

    In this paper we discuss the application of novel parallel implementation of the coupled cluster (CC) and equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods (EOMCC) in calculations of excitation energies of triplet states in beta-carotene. Calculated excitation energies are compared with experimental data, where available. We also provide a detailed description of the new parallel algorithms for iterative CC and EOMCC models involving single and doubles excitations.

  20. Carotene and cytochrome c dependent mitotic recombination and killing in response to visible light and UV-C in the smut fungus Ustilago violacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carotene (carotenoid hydrocarbons) and cytochrome c compositions for the ph/ph+ pink diploid strain of Ustilago violacea and three newly developed color variants, white (w), orange (o), and yellow (y) were quantitatively determined using high performance liquid chromatography of lipid extracts and difference spectroscopy of alkali extracts. In addition, the effect of high intensity incandescent and far UV (UV-C) radiation on survival and mitotic recombination in all four ph/ph+ strains were studied. (author)

  1. Biodisponibilidade do beta-caroteno da folha desidratada de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Bioavailability of beta-carotene in dehydrated cassava leaves (manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Isabel Ortega-Flores

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a biodisponibilidade do beta-caroteno da folha de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz foi realizado um ensaio biológico baseado no modelo de esgotamento das reservas hepáticas de vitamina A em ratos. Um grupo de ratos depletados de vitamina A hepática recebeu folha desidratada de mandioca como fonte beta-caroteno durante 25 dias, e foram comparados com um grupo que recebeu ração com vitamina A, outro grupo com ração sem vitamina A e um último grupo com beta-caroteno. O grupo Zero foi constituído de 8 animais que receberam durante 15 dias ração à base de caseína, deficiente de vitamina A. Ao final do experimento todos os animais foram sacrificados e seus fígados e plasmas analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE, sendo verificado que a biodisponibilidade do beta-caroteno da folha desidratada de mandioca foi baixa.The biological availability of beta-carotene in cassava leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz, was verified by means of an assay based on the hepatic depletion of vitamin A reserves model in rats. Rats depleted of hepatic vitamin A received dehydrated cassava leaves as beta-carotene source for 25 days and were compared to groups that received diets with vitamin A, beta-carotene and without vitamin A. The Zero group was formed of 8 animals that received a diet based on casein, lacking vitamin A, during 15 days. At the end of the experiment, all animals were killed and their livers, serum and feces were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and it was verified that the bioavailability of beta-carotene of dehydrated cassava leaves was lower.

  2. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Crataegus Fruits Grown in Tunisia as Determined by DPPH, FRAP, and β-Carotene/Linoleic Acid Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Munevver Sokmen; Atalay Sokmen; Malika Trabelsi-Ayadi; Mohamed Journi; Jamila Kalthoum Chérif; Farouk Mraihi

    2013-01-01

    Crataegus fruit is one of most important fruits in Tunisian flora. Some fruits of this genus are edible. This study was undertaken in order to examine the benefits of these fruits in human health and their composition of antioxidants including total polyphenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins content, and total anthocyanins. The antioxidative properties of the ultrasonic methanolic extract were assessed by different in vitro methods such as the FRAP, DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. We...

  3. Ameliorating effect of wheat bran, Beta-carotene and Curcumin on K-ras gene mutations and expression of ntioxidant enzymes in rat colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, colon cancer has unique characterises differ than other countries, more than third cases happen in people under 40 years, with advanced stage, high grade tumors that carry more mutations . This may be return to increase pollution in food and water. The aim of the present study, is the investigation of the role of some natural products approaches for colorectal carcinoma including curcumin, wheat bran and β-Carotene. Accordingly, animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) and/or dually exposed to ionizing radiation to induce colorectal cancer. The frequency of mutation of K-ras gene, the level activity of SOD, GpX antioxidant enzymes and expression of SOD1, SOD2 and GpX1 in tissue of 120 colon rats from 10 different treated groups were studied. Curcumin, wheat bran and D-carotene have inhibition effect on formation of colon cancer and decrease the mutations in K-ras gene. Moreover, they have ameliorating effect on antioxidants enzymes activities and expressions. The present study revealed that wheat bran and D-carotene have better effect than curcumin.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of neutral and chemically oxidized species of β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: Fluorescence from intermediate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, D.D.D.H [Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala (Sri Lanka); Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Chandrika, U.G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka); Jayaweera, P.M., E-mail: pradeep@sjp.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2015-02-15

    Radical cations, dications and oxidized intermediate species of three carotenoids, namely, β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin, were generated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solutions via chemical oxidation using anhydrous FeCl{sub 3}. UV–vis, fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectroscopic studies were performed to understand and compare the nature of intermediate species generated during the chemical oxidation process and subsequent degradation. The intense emission observed at 550 nm can be assigned to the S{sub 2}→S{sub 0} (1{sup 1}B{sub u}→1{sup 1}A{sub g}) transition of the carotenoid molecules. The 350 nm excitation during the oxidation process for β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin exhibit intense fluorescence peaks at 492 nm, 493 nm and 500 nm, respectively. These peaks are assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy compounds of the three molecules that are formed with molecular oxygen prior to the formation of oxidized short-chain stable compounds. - Highlights: • Fluorescence and UV–vis studies on β-carotene, lycopene and norbixin. • Oxidation, induced by FeCl{sub 3} in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} shows blue shifted fluorescence peaks. • Fluorescence peaks were assigned to intermediate peroxy/epoxy forms of carotenoids. • The D0→D3 transition of radical cations are observed in the near IR region.

  5. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  6. Reduction of chromate and carotene-synthesizing activity of selenite-resistant mutants of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzàdka M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The yeast P. rhodozyma is a perspective microbial producer of carotenoid pigment astaxanthin with a high antioxidant power. The aim of the work was to study the ability of the selenite-resistant strains of this yeast to reduce chrome(VI compounds, as well as to analyze the relations between synthesis of carotenoids, resistance to selenite and chromate-reducing activity of P. rhodozyma. Methods. The yeast cells were grown at standard conditions for this species. The residual chromate content in cultural liquid was determined colorimetrically using diphenylcarbazide. The carotenoid content was determined after extraction of the pigments from the previously permeabilized cells by organic solvents. Results. The selected selenite-resistant mutants of the yeast P. rhodozyma revealed the different combinations of the phenotypes related with tolerance/sensitivity to chromate and selenite, as well as ability to reduce chromate. Conclusions. The obtained results give reasons for suggesting that pathways of detoxification of chromate and selenite by the yeast P. rhodozyma are different, although run through a common reductive type. The isolated mutant strains would be served as the useful models to study relations between homeostasis of Se and Cr oxyanions and biosynthesis of carotenes.

  7. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  8. Effect of zinc and fat intake on absorption and conversion of ingested β-carotene to vitamin A in lactating Indonesian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sufficiently severe to cause night blindness, vitamin A deficiency may also lead to anemia, morbidity from infectious diseases, and maternal and infant death. Interventions to increase the supply of vitamin A to lactating women may also improve vitamin A status of their breastfeeding children. Plant foods are the major source of vitamin A for most of the world's poor population, but low bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids from these foods severely limits the supply of vitamin A. We propose two randomised controlled trials to determine the extent to which bioefficacy of ingested β-carotene may be increased by zinc supplementation or other measures to increase zinc intake. For this purpose, we intend to use a stable isotope technique that we have developed and that may be the best method available to estimate the bioavailability and bioefficacy of dietary carotenoids. A pilot study will be conducted to assess the time from initiation of a controlled diet with fixed content of carotenoids and retinol, and with medium-level intakes of zinc (10 mg/d) and fat (40 g/d), until new homeostatic levels are achieved of concentrations in serum and breastmilk of retinol and carotenoids. We subsequently will carry out two randomised controlled trials, both with a parallel design and two experimental treatments, in lactating women who have received the controlled diet described above for a period sufficient in duration to have achieved stable concentrations in serum and breastmilk of retinol and carotenoids. Of these women, 40 will be randomly allocated to either continue receiving medium of fat (40 g/d) or high intakes of fat (80 g/d) for a period of three weeks. Another 40 lactating women will be randomly allocated to daily supplements of zinc (as sulphate) providing either continued medium intakes (10 mg/d) or in high intakes (30 mg/d), also for a period of three weeks. In addition, all women will daily consume capsules containing 60 μ g 13C10-β-carotene and 60 μ g

  9. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade biológica. A extração de β-caroteno foi feita com metanol:água (90:10 v/v, seguida de saponificação e partição em n-hexano. As análises cromatográficas foram realizadas em coluna Waters Spherisorb S5 ODS 2 (4,6 x 250 mm, usando metanol:tetrahidrofurano (90:10, v/v bombeado a 2 mL min-1, com registro dos cromatogramas em 450 nm. Os suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina apresentaram baixos teores de β-caroteno. A maior concentração foi encontrada em S. platensis cultivada a 24º C com fotoperíodo de 16 h claro e 8 h escuro. Considerando sua atividade provitamínica, os teores de retinol equivalente (RE nas microalgas analisadas no presente trabalho foram calculados a partir do β-caroteno para classificá-las como fonte excelente ou fonte útil de vitamina A.Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that has been used for several centuries due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. This work has evaluated the contents of β-carotene both in Spirulina commercialized as food supplement, purchased from natural product shops, and in S. platensis reared under laboratory conditions. Some carotenoids exhibit pro-vitamin A activity, and β-carotene presents the greatest biological activity. β-Carotene of microalgae was extracted in 90% aqueous methanol. These extracts were saponified and partitioned in n-hexane. Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Spherisorb column S5 ODS 2 (4.6 x 250 mm, with a mobile phase of methanol:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v

  10. In vitro photosafety and efficacy screening of apigenin, chrysin and beta-carotene for UVA and VIS protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2016-06-30

    Currently most of sunscreens provide effective protection in the full UV range but lack VIS protection. The addition of effective antioxidants to sunscreens might afford suitable UV-VIS protection. Apigenin (API), chrysin (CRI) and beta-carotene (BTC) have shown potential for UV-VIS protection. This paper reports a photosafety and efficacy screening of such antioxidants through evaluation of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity as well as UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength. The assessment of the photostability, photoreactivity and phototoxicity of API, CRI and BTC, isolated and combined (CMB) was performed by HPLC, ROS assay and 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, respectively. The phototoxicity test was also performed for CMB plus bemotrizinol (BMZ). The in vitro evaluation of the UVA protection was assessed by the determination of the UVA/UVB ratio and the critical wavelength. The antioxidants API, CRI, BTC and CMB were stable under UVA/VIS and VIS light. However weak photoreactivity after UVA/VIS irradiation was observed for API, CRI and CMB in the ROS assay. In the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test, phototoxic potential was observed for CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ after UVA/VIS exposure, and for BTC and CMB after VIS exposure. BMZ reduced the phototoxic potential of CMB in the VIS range. In the in vitro evaluation of UVA protection API, CRI, BTC, CMB and CMB+BMZ presented ultra UVA protection (UVA/UVB ratio>0.9) and exhibited critical wavelength close to or above 370nm. In conclusion, the use of API, CRI, BTC and their CMB aiming skin photoprotection could be considered safer in the VIS range. Furthermore, API presented the best performance in the photosafety screening among the studied antioxidants, since it was photostable and non-phototoxic in UVA/VIS and photostable, non-photoreactive and non-phototoxic in VIS range. PMID:27130544

  11. Contrasting effects of UV-A and UV-B on photosynthesis and photoprotection of beta-carotene in two Dunaliella spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses following exposure to either ultraviolet-A or ultraviolet-B were contrasted in two species of the unicellular green alga, Dunaliella. Species selection was based on the ability of Dunaliella bardawil (UTEX 2538) to accumulate inter thylakoid (beta-carotene when subjected to environmental stress while Dunaliella salina (UTEX 200) lacks this ability. Cells were cultured in high and low levels of visible light (150 and 35 micro mol photons m sup2 s sup = -1, respectively) and then either ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) or ultraviolet-B (290- 320 nm) was added to visible light for 24-h exposure. A potassium chromate solution was found to be an ideal screen for removal of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-C from ultraviolet-B radiation. There were no significant changes in photosynthetic or antioxidant parameters following exposure to ultraviolet-B. Ultraviolet-A exposure significantly decreased photosynthetic parameters (>70% decrease in Fv/Fm and the ratio of light-limited to light-saturated photosynthesis in low beta-carotene cells) and resulted in 50% increases in ascorbate peroxidase activity and ascorbate concentrations. The results suggest exposure to ultraviolet-A (but not ultraviolet-B) directly affects photosynthesis, observed as a loss of photosystem II electron transport efficiency and increased radical formation. This research indicates that the accumulated beta-carotene in D. bardawil prevents UV-related photosynthetic damage through blue-light/ ultraviolet-A absorption (supported by trends observed for antioxidant enzyme responses)

  12. Effect of supplementation with vitamins E, C and β-carotene on antioxidative/oxidative status parameters in sows during the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vitamins E, C and β-carotene supplementation in sows on the parameters of antioxidative/oxidative status during the postpartum period was investigated. Twenty four primiparous sows, divided into two groups (experimental and control), were included in the study. After the half-way point of pregnancy until farrowing, each experimental sow received feed supplemented twice a week with 200 mg of vitamin E and 1000 mg of vitamin C, and additionally, 70 mg of β-carotene were administered via intramuscular injection, on day 14 and day 7 before farrowing. The control group was not supplemented. Blood samples were collected before supplementation (gestational day 57-58), 48 hours and 7 days after parturition. The following antioxidative and oxidative parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), vitamin C, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and sulfhydryl groups (SH groups). In supplemented sows the erythrocyte activity of GSH-Px and CAT was found to be significantly higher on day 7 after farrowing and the activity of SOD was significantly higher at 48 hours postpartum, compared to the control group. The concentration of vitamins C and E in plasma of the supplemented group was found to be significantly higher and the content of TBARS was found significantly lower at both postpartum measurement points, compared to the control group. The content of SH groups was significantly higher on day 7 postpartum, compared to the control group. The study findings indicate that supplementation of pregnant sows with vitamins E, C and β-carotene in the second half of pregnancy has beneficial effects on the antioxidative/oxidative balance in the postpartum period by increasing the antioxidative potential and reducing lipid and protein peroxidation. PMID:26172179

  13. EFFECT OF NACL SALINITY ON Β-CAROTENE, THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND ASCORBIC ACID CONTENTS IN THE LEAVES OF AMARANTHUS POLYGAMOUS L. VAR. PUSA KIRTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are considered as the accessory nutrients, required in minute quantities. Most of the vitamins are involved in enzyme systems. Vitamin contents of plants are also known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Amaranthus polygamous. The β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid content were found to decrease gradually with increase in the concentrations of NaCl.

  14. Effect of foliar calcium chloride treatment on the level of chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, lutein and tocopherols in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Perucka; Katarzyna Olszówka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to determine the effect of foliar application of CaCl2 on the level of β-carotene, lutein, tocopherols and phenolic compounds in the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 7 and 14 days before harvest, the plants were treated with a solution of CaCl2 with concentr...

  15. Distribution of β-carotene-encapsulated polysorbate 80-coated poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles in rodent tissues following intravenous administration

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Harigae, Takahiro; Onuma, Ryo; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have attracted considerable attention as delivery systems of drugs and antioxidative compounds, such as β-carotene (BC). Intravenous (IV) administration of BC-containing PLGA-NPs (BC-PLGA-NPs) coated with polysorbate 80 (PS80) has been shown to effectively deliver BC to the brain. However, the whole-body distribution profile of BC is still not clear. Therefore, we investigated the accumulation of BC i...

  16. Teores de β-caroteno em suplementos e biomassa de Spirulina Contents of β-carotene in supplements and biomass of Spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barroso Alencar; Kelma Maria dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante; Jefferson Pablo de Souza Saboya; Márcia Barbosa de Sousa; Wladimir Ronald Lobo Farias; Silvana Saker-Sampaio

    2011-01-01

    A cianobactéria Spirulina tem sido utilizada há séculos, tendo em vista suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os teores de β-caroteno tanto em suplementos alimentares a base de Spirulina comercializados em estabelecimentos de produtos naturais no mercado varejista, quanto em S. platensis cultivada em laboratório. Alguns pigmentos carotenóides possuem atividade de vitamina A e, dentre eles, o β-caroteno é o que apresenta maior atividade bi...

  17. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, A.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Ross, R K; Henderson, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of 11,580 residents of a retirement community initially free from cancer were followed from 1981 to 1989. A total of 1,335 incident cancer cases were diagnosed during the period. Relative risks of cancer were calculated for baseline consumption of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, dietary vitamin C, and vitamin supplements. After adjustment for age and smoking, no evidence of a protective effect was found for any of the dietary variables in men. However, an inverse association was o...

  18. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  19. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

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    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  20. Mapeo genético y análisis de QTL para carotenos en una población s1 de yuca Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for carotenes in a s1 population of cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Marín Colorado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La población S1 de la variedad tailandesa de yuca MTAi8 (AM320, la cual presenta patrones de segregación definidos para el contenido de carotenos totales (Beta-caroteno, se sometió a un análisis de agrupamiento segregante (BSA = Bulk Segregant Analysis empleando 700 marcadores moleculares tipo microsatélites o SSR. Se generaron 25 grupos de ligamiento identificando 3 QTL mayores asociados con una región del genoma de yuca con el contenido de carotenos totales. Tres marcadores SSR explicaron el 37.2% (NS109, 32% (rSSRY251 y 27.7% (rSSRY313 de la varianza fenotipica total, situados en el grupo de ligamiento D fuertemente asociados con el contenido de carotenos totales en la familia AM320 S1, se estableció una fuerte correlación positiva entre color de pulpa de raíz y contenido de carotenos totales (r=0.81, y negativa entre carotenos totales y materia seca (r= -0.31. Los tres posibles QTL presentaron efecto positivo y de carácter aditivo para el contenido de carotenos totales, pueden ser la oportunidad para implementar selección asistida por marcadores para carotenos totales en yuca.The S1 population of the Thai variety MTAi8 (AM320, which shows patterns of segregation defined by the content of total carotenes (beta-carotene, underwent an analysis of segregating bulk (BSA = Bulk segregating Analysis using 700 molecular markers type microsatellites or SSR. There were generated 25 tying groups and identifying 3 major QTLs associated with a region of the genome of cassava with the content of total carotenes. Three markers SSR; explained the 37.2% (NS109, 32% (rSSRY251 and 27.7% (rSSRY313 of the total phenotypic variance, placed in the Group D strongly tying, associated with the content of total carotenes in the family AM320 S1, which established a strong positive correlation between color and content root pulp carotenes total (r = 0.81, and between negative and carotenes total dry matter (r = -0.31. The three possible QTLs showed positive

  1. Metagenomic identification of a novel salt tolerance gene from the human gut microbiome which encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn P Culligan

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiome consists of at least 3 million non-redundant genes, 150 times that of the core human genome. Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. Cloning and heterologous expression of brpA in Escherichia coli confers a significant salt tolerance phenotype. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of exogenous β-carotene, cell pellets adopt a red/orange pigmentation indicating the incorporation of carotenoids in the cell membrane.

  2. Metagenomic identification of a novel salt tolerance gene from the human gut microbiome which encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Eamonn P; Sleator, Roy D; Marchesi, Julian R; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiome consists of at least 3 million non-redundant genes, 150 times that of the core human genome. Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. Cloning and heterologous expression of brpA in Escherichia coli confers a significant salt tolerance phenotype. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of exogenous β-carotene, cell pellets adopt a red/orange pigmentation indicating the incorporation of carotenoids in the cell membrane. PMID:25058308

  3. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjilal NB; Doloi Manika; Vijayan V; Kulkarni Indira; Mukherjee Sutapa; Chattopadhyay Mitali; Chatterjee Malay

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight) of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA) induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum) in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight) were performed four ...

  4. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Crataegus Fruits Grown in Tunisia as Determined by DPPH, FRAP, and β-Carotene/Linoleic Acid Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Mraihi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus fruit is one of most important fruits in Tunisian flora. Some fruits of this genus are edible. This study was undertaken in order to examine the benefits of these fruits in human health and their composition of antioxidants including total polyphenol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins content, and total anthocyanins. The antioxidative properties of the ultrasonic methanolic extract were assessed by different in vitro methods such as the FRAP, DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. We concluded that peel fraction of red fruits possessed relatively high antioxidant activity and might be a rich source of natural antioxidants in comparison with the pulp and seed fruit extract. The results also showed that hawthorn yellow fruit presents lower amounts of phenolic content, absence of anthocyanins, and less antioxidant capacity. Most of peel and seed fractions were stronger than the pulp fractions in antioxidant activity based on their DPPH IC50, FRAP values, and results of β-carotene/linoleic acid. The total phenolic compounds contents were also highly correlated with the DPPH method and the FRAP assay.

  5. Early and late trisporoids differentially regulate β-carotene production and gene transcript Levels in the mucoralean fungi Blakeslea trispora and Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, Yamuna; Richter-Fecken, Mareike; Kaerger, Kerstin; Voigt, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-12-01

    The multistep cleavage of carotenoids in Mucorales during the sexual phase results in a cocktail of trisporic acid (C18) sex pheromones. We hypothesized that the C18 trisporoid intermediates have a specific regulatory function for sex pheromone production and carotenogenesis that varies with genus/species and vegetative and sexual phases of their life cycles. Real-time quantitative PCR kinetics determined for Blakeslea trispora displayed a very high transcript turnover in the gene for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, tsp3, during the sexual phase. An in vivo enzyme assay and chromatographic analysis led to the identification of β-apo-12'-carotenal as the first apocarotenoid involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis in B. trispora. Supplementation of C18 trisporoids, namely D'orenone, methyl trisporate C, and trisporin C, increased tsp3 transcripts in the plus compared to minus partners. Interestingly, the tsp1 gene, which is involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis, was downregulated compared to tsp3 irrespective of asexual or sexual phase. Only the minus partners of both B. trispora and Mucor mucedo had enhanced β-carotene production after treatment with C20 apocarotenoids, 15 different trisporoids, and their analogues. We conclude that the apocarotenoids and trisporoids influence gene transcription and metabolite production, depending upon the fungal strain, corresponding genus, and developmental phase, representing a "chemical dialect" during sexual communication. PMID:24056470

  6. Luminescence property and lowest excited singlet state level of various carotenes; Shuju no karochinrui no hako tokusei to saitei reiki -juko jotai jun'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T. [Miyagi Midical Univ., Miyagi (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Specification of the lowest excited singlet state (S{sub l}) of the butadiene which is the simplest {pi} electron conjugated system molecule has not sufficiently clarified at present. Recently, Andersson et al. found the weak light emission which was considered to be the S{sub 1} fluorescence in a near infrared region in a room temperature solution of {beta}- carotene (n=11), and specified the S{sub 1} level in 14,200{+-}500cm {sup -1}. And, Fujii et al. reported the S{sub 1} fluorescence of spheroidine (n=10). In very recent, Christensen et al. measured the comparatively clear fluorescence spectrum of carotenes n=5 to 11 separated by HPLC in EPA glass at 77K, and systematically examined the unique luminescence property observed in polyene. Christensen et al. issued the warning for the rough conventional method that the S{sub 1} level was estimated from the S{sub 1} fluorescence lifetime of the polyene molecule using the comprehensive energy gap law, because the ratio of quantum yield of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} fluorescence is different by the substituent type of the polyene end even if n is same. (NEDO)

  7. Computer simulations of material ejection during C{sub 60} and Ar{sub m} bombardment of octane and β-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palka, G.; Kanski, M.; Maciazek, D. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Garrison, B.J. [Department of Chemistry, 104 Chemistry Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Postawa, Z., E-mail: zbigniew.postawa@uj.edu.pl [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations are used to investigate material ejection and fragment formation during keV C{sub 60} and Ar{sub m} (m = 60, 101, 205, 366, 872 and 2953) bombardment of organic solids composed from octane and β-carotene molecules at 0° and 45° impact angle. Both systems are found to sputter efficiently. For the octane system, material removal occurs predominantly by ejection of intact molecules, while fragment emission is a significant ejection channel for β-carotene. A difference in the molecular dimensions is proposed to explain this observation. It has been shown that the dependence of the sputtering yield Y on the primary kinetic energy E and the cluster size n can be expressed in a simplified form if represented in reduced units. A linear and nonlinear dependence of the Y/n on the E/n are identified and the position of the transition point from the linear to nonlinear regions depends on the size of the cluster projectile. The impact angle has a minor influence on the shape of the simplified representation.

  8. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics. PMID:25573460

  9. Streamlining IRB review in multisite trials through single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements: experience of the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornquist, Mark D; Edelstein, Cim; Goodman, Gary E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2002-02-01

    With their extensive data and specimen repositories, clinical trials are a long-term, valuable resource to health researchers. However, assuring protection of participants' rights can be challenging, particularly when such trials are conducted at multiple sites with multiple Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). One little-used mechanism that can streamline IRB review in multisite trials while maintaining participants' protections is the single-study IRB Cooperative Agreement. This agreement is entirely different from reciprocity agreements between institutions. Beginning in 1996, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial established single-study IRB Cooperative Agreements among its performance sites, which reduced the average time to complete IRB approval from over 6 months to 1 month for each of many substudies. We describe our experience and make recommendations for other multisite clinical trials. PMID:11852169

  10. Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} state in all-trans-{beta}-carotene explored by one- and two-photon pump-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosumi, Daisuke, E-mail: kosumi@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Abe, Kenta; Karasawa, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Center, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); JST/CREST, 4-1-8 Hon-chou, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2010-07-19

    Femtosecond one- and two-photon pump-probe dispersive spectroscopic measurements have been applied to the investigation of the vibrational relaxation kinetics of the dark S{sub 1} (2{sup 1}A{sub g}{sup -}) state in {beta}-carotene, combining a higher sensitive detection system with tunable visible and infrared excitation pulses. The two-photon excitation measurements enable the preferential detection of the dark S{sub 1} state. The tunable infrared excitation pulses allowed selective excitation to a different vibrational level of S{sub 1}. The S{sub 1} dynamics at early delay times depend strongly on excitation energy. A dependence of the initial S{sub 1} dynamics on excitation energy is discussed in term of the vibrational relaxation of S{sub 1}.

  11. Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, sugars, phenols, and heavy metals in sweet potatoes grown in soil fertilized with municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Dennis, Sam O; Unrine, Jason M; Snyder, John C

    2011-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) used for land farming typically contains heavy metals that might impact crop quality and human health. A completely randomized experimental design with three treatments (six replicates each) was used to monitor the impact of mixing native soil with MSS or yard waste (YW) mixed with MSS (YW +MSS) on: i) sweet potato yield and quality; ii) concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in sweet potato plant parts (edible roots, leaves, stem, and feeder roots); and iii) concentrations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, free sugars, and β-carotene in sweet potato edible roots at harvest. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for total and extractable metals using two extraction procedures, concentrated nitric acid (to extract total metals from soil) as well as CaCl₂ solution (to extract soluble metals in soil that are available to plants), respectively. Elemental analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall, plant available metals were greater in soils amended with MSS compared to control plots. Concentration of Pb was greater in YW than MSS amendments. Total concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Cr were greater in plants grown in MSS+YW treatments compared to control plants. MSS+YW treatments increased sweet potato yield, ascorbic acid, soluble sugars, and phenols in edible roots by 53, 28, 27, and 48%, respectively compared to plants grown in native soil. B-carotene concentration (157.5 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight) was greater in the roots of plants grown in MSS compared to roots of plants grown in MSS+YW treatments (99.9 μg g⁻¹ fresh weight). Concentration of heavy metals in MSS-amended soil and in sweet potato roots were below their respective permissible limits. PMID:21207309

  12. {beta} -carotene effect the induction of the sister chromatid exchanges (ICH) by gamma radiation in mouse radiosensibilized osseous marrow cells In vivo; Efecto del {beta}- caroteno la induccion de intercambios en las cromatidas hermanas (ICH) por radiacion gamma en celulas radiosensibilizadas de la medula osea de raton In vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales R, P.; Cruz V, V.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biologia

    1997-07-01

    The effect of {beta}- carotene over the ICH radioinduction in radiosensibilized with BrdU osseous marrow cells of mouse was determined In vivo. The treatment with 50 {mu}g {beta} carotene per se induces a significant increment in the ICH frequency and the pre or post-treatment with the same dose causes an additive effect in the ICH frequency produced by 0.62 Gy of gamma radiation. This implies that {beta}- carotene does not have radioprotective activity, under conditions which was developed this experiment. (Author)

  13. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and antioxidant activity in plant products / Compostos fenólicos, carotenóides e atividade antioxidante em produtos vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz

    2010-09-01

    variedade de doenças crônicas como aterosclerose e câncer, efeitos que têm sido particularmente atribuídos aos compostos que possuem atividade antioxidante nos vegetais: vitaminas C e E, os compostos fenólicos, especialmente os flavonóides, e os carotenóides. Compostos fenólicos agem como antioxidantes, não somente por sua habilidade em doar hidrogênio ou elétrons, mas também em virtude de seus radicais intermediários estáveis, que impedem a oxidação de vários ingredientes do alimento, particularmente de lipídios. Carotenóides são constituídos de cadeias de polienos, em um longo sistema de duplas ligações conjugadas, rico em elétrons, responsável pela atividade antioxidante desses compostos: tanto na absorção do oxigênio singlet quanto de radicais livres, para interromper as reações em cadeia onde eles estão envolvidos. Este trabalho teve por finalidade revisar as diferentes formas de avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa dos principais componentes não-nutrientes antioxidantes em alimentos de origem vegetal: compostos fenólicos e carotenóides.

  14. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya) com e sem mancha fisiológica

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; José Benício Paes Chaves; Sílvio Lopes Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles). Fruits were harvested in the Southeast R...

  15. Teores de carotenóides em mamão e pêssego determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Carotenoid levels in papaya and peach determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Andriati Sentanin; Delia B. Rodriguez Amaya

    2007-01-01

    Os carotenóides são pigmentos naturais, responsáveis pela cor em muitos alimentos como frutas e vegetais, gema de ovo, pele e músculo de alguns peixes. Porém, sua importância também está relacionada a funções ou ações biológicas nos seres humanos, como atividade pró-vitamínica A, fortalecimento do sistema imunológico, diminuição do risco de doenças degenerativas como câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, degeneração macular e catarata. A determinação da composição de carotenóides em alimentos, po...

  16. Efeito de baixas doses de irradiação nos carotenóides majoritários em cenouras prontas para o consumo Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in read-to-eat carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito das baixas doses da radiação gama na concentração de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenouras minimamente processadas, durante a vida-útil. As cenouras são as principais fontes de carotenóides provitamínicos A (alfa e beta-caroteno de origem vegetal. De acordo com a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos a cenoura é amplamente consumida. A estabilidade dos carotenóides varia grandemente durante o processamento e o armazenamento, dependendo de sua estrutura, temperatura, oxigênio, luz, umidade, atividade de água e presença de ácidos e metais antioxidantes e pró-oxidantes. As cenouras minimamente processadas neste experimento foram manualmente descascadas, lavadas, cortadas mecanicamente, acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2 / 10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy, e armazenadas a 5°C durante 24 dias. Os carotenóides totais foram quantificados por espectrofotometria a 449nm. Para a determinação de alfa e beta-caroteno utilizou-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os diferentes tratamentos e o grupo controle foram, também, avaliados através das análises de cor e voláteis, por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas associada à microextração em fase sólida (CG-EM/MEFS, para estudar as perdas dos carotenóides durante o processamento.This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on the total carotenoids, alpha and beta-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (alpha and beta-carotene. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely

  17. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q A in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680 - or Car + in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q A reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680 * and Car is oxidized by P680 + with consequent recombination of Car + and Chl-680 - (or Pheo

  18. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  19. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor QA in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680- or Car+ in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after QA reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680+ with consequent recombination of Car+ and Chl-680- (or Pheo-). Cyclic

  20. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  1. Distribution of β-carotene-encapsulated polysorbate 80-coated poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles in rodent tissues following intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiki Miyazawa,1,2 Kiyotaka Nakagawa,1,2 Takahiro Harigae,2 Ryo Onuma,2 Fumiko Kimura,2 Tomoyuki Fujii,3 Teruo Miyazawa4,5 1Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA (United States Department of Agriculture-Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, 3Terahertz Optical & Food Engineering Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, 4Food and Biotechnology Innovation Project, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe, 5Food and Health Science Research Unit, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Purpose: Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs composed of poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA have attracted considerable attention as delivery systems of drugs and antioxidative compounds, such as β-carotene (BC. Intravenous (IV administration of BC-containing PLGA-NPs (BC-PLGA-NPs coated with polysorbate 80 (PS80 has been shown to effectively deliver BC to the brain. However, the whole-body distribution profile of BC is still not clear. Therefore, we investigated the accumulation of BC in various organs, including the brain, following IV administration of PS80-coated BC-PLGA-NPs in rats.Methods: PS80-coated and uncoated BC-PLGA-NPs were prepared by solvent evaporation, and administered intravenously to Sprague Dawley rats at a BC dose of 8.5 mg/rat. Accumulation of BC in various organs (brain, heart, liver, lungs, and spleen and blood plasma was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (UV detection, 1 hour after administration.Results: We prepared PS80-coated BC-PLGA-NPs with an entrapment efficiency of 14%, a particle size of 260 nm, and a zeta potential of -26 mV. Coating with PS80 was found to result in significant accumulation of BC in the lungs, rather than in the brain and other tissues. Further, plasma levels of BC in the PS80-coated BC-PLGA-NP group were much lower than those of the uncoated

  2. Analytical and microscopical studies on the protective effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and beta-carotene against the toxicityinduced by fenitrothion on the liver of female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram F. Hashim and Kadry Weshahy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate insecticide feneitrothion is a contact insecticide and selective acaricide. It is used as a fly, mosquito and cockroach, residual contact spray for farms and public health programs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity of fenitrothion on the female rate and the possible protective effects of ascorbic acid (vitamine C and beta­carotene as antioxidant agents against the toxicity induced by fenitrothion. Sixty of adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to six equal groups including control group and groups treat­!"successive days. Ingestion of fenitrtothion caused a significant increase in ALT (alanine transferase, AST (aspartate transferase, and AP (alkaline phosphatase. It decreased signifiantly GL (glucose level, AchE (acetyle cholinesterase and GSH (glutathion reductase activities, while, it had insignificant effects on TB (total bilirubine and a slight decrease in TP (total protein. The histological study of female rat liver tissues by Hx & Eosin,P.A.S, and Methyl Green Pyronine revealed that, fenitrothion showed vascular and degenrative changes in the hepatic cells, Also, it caused a significant decrease in glycogen contents and depletion in of nucleic acids in hepatic cells. Treatments with ascorbic acid and beta­carotene plus fenitrothion hasn't been caused any significant changes in all parameters in serum of female rats. Treatment with ascorbic acid plus fenitrothion resulted a significant improvement in all parameters tested regarding to the histological study, while, beta-carotene plus fenitrothion showed the same improvement except in glycogen content in hepatic cells . Key Words : Fenitrothion ­ Toxicity ­ ALT ­ AST ­ GL ­ AChE ­ Rats ­ Histological ­ beta ­ carotene ­ Ascorbic acid .

  3. 大分子乳化剂稳定的纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解%Degradation of β-carotene in Nanoemulsions Stabilized by Macromolecular Emulsifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘成梅; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    Macromolecular emulsifiers including whey protein isolate, heated whey isolate protein, mixture and maillard reaction products (MRPs) of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin were used to prepared β - carotene nanoemulsions. The particle size distribution as well as the β - carotene degradation at different temperatures of the obtained emulsions were investigated. The results showed that the average particle size of the nanoemulsions stabilized by MRPs was significantly lower and the β - carotene encapsulated in them degradated more rapidly than the other samples. Besides that,the heated whey isolate protein could effectively decrease the β-carotene degradation rate,which might be attributed to the protection effect of the protein aggregates formed during the heat process.%分别以乳清分离蛋白、热处理乳清分离蛋白、乳清分离蛋白与麦芽糖糊精的混合物和美拉德反应复合物为乳化剂,制备β-胡萝卜素纳米乳,并考察其乳滴粒径分布及β-胡萝卜素的降解.结果表明:乳清分离蛋白与麦芽糖糊精共价复合后,形成的纳米乳液平均粒径更小,但复合物加速纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解.而热处理乳清分离蛋白能显著抑制纳米乳中β-胡萝卜素的降解,其机制可能是蛋白质大分子聚集体的形成对β-胡萝卜素起保护作用.

  4. Association between beta-carotene and acute myocardial infarction depends on polyunsaturated fatty acid status. The EURAMIC Study. European Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Kardinaal, Alwine F; Aro, Antti; Kark, Jeremy D; Riemersma, Rudolph A; van't Veer, Pieter; Gomez-Aracena, Jorge; Kohlmeier, Lenore; Ringstad, Jetmund; Martin, Blaise C; Mazaev, Vladimir P; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel; Thamm, Michael; Huttunen, Jussi K; Martin-Moreno, José M; Kok, Frans J.

    1995-01-01

    Because antioxidants may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease by inhibiting the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the combined association of diet-derived antioxidants and PUFAs with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated. This multicenter case-control study included 674 patients and 725 control subjects in eight European countries and Israel. Fatty acid composition and alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene levels were determined in adipose tissue...

  5. PEMBUATAN BAHAN BAKU SPREADS KAYA KAROTEN DARI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIK MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BATCH [Preparation of Red Palm Oil Based-Spreads Stock Rich in Carotene Through Enzymatic Interesterification in Batch-type Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wulandari1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of red palm oil (a mixture of red palm olein/RPO and red palm stearin/RPS in 1:1 weight ratio and coconut oil (CNO blends of varying proportions using a non-specific immobilized Candida antartica lipase (Novozyme 435 was studied for the preparation of spread stock. The interesterification reaction was held in a batch-type reactor. Two substrate blends were chosen for the production of spread stock i.e. 77.5:22,5 and 82.5:17.5 (RPO/RPS:CNO, by weight through enzymatic interesterification in three different reaction times (2, 4, and 6 hours. The interesterification reactions were conducted at 60°C, 200 rpm agitation speed and 10% of Novozyme 435. The interesterified products were evaluated for their physical characteristics (slip melting point or SMP and solid fat content or SFC and chemical characteristics (carotene retention, moisture content, and free fatty acid/FFA content. All of the interesterified products had lower SFC and SMP as compared to the initial blends. The SMP and SFC increased in longer reaction times. The SMP ranged from 30.8°C to 34.9°C. The carotene retention ranged from 74.80% to 81.08%, while the moisture content and FFA content increased in longer reaction times. The interesterified products had desirable physical properties for possible use as a spread stock rich in carotene.

  6. A new method for analysis of plasma carotenoids in poultry Novo método para dosagem de carotenóides plasmáticos em aves domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teixeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate a new quantitative analytical technique for determination of plasma carotenoids in poultry. Plasma carotenoides were extracted and measured from 30 blood samples of male Cobb broilers. The new technique was efficient in detecting plasma carotenoids of chickens and also showed advantages upon those techniques currently in use such as the form of presentation of results, use of a compatible solvent, and the scanning method for reading. The new technique did not increase the cost of the analysis.Avaliou-se uma nova técnica analítica quantitativa para mensuração do teor de carotenóides plasmáticos em aves domésticas. Para extração e dosagem dos carotenóides plasmático, foram utilizadas 30 amostras de sangue de frangos de corte Cobb. A técnica testada foi capaz de detectar carotenóides no plasma das aves de forma eficiente tendo ainda vantagens sobre as técnicas correntes tais como a forma de apresentação dos resultados, uso de solvente compatível e método de leitura por varredura. A nova técnica não aumentou o custo da análise.

  7. Red paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) and its main carotenoids, capsanthin and β-carotene, prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Woo-Moon; Rhee, Han Cheol; Kim, Suna

    2016-07-25

    This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of red paprika extract (RPE) and its main carotenoids, namely, capsanthin (CST) and β-carotene (BCT), on the H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells (WB cells). We found that pre-treatment with RPE, CST and BCT protected WB cells from H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC. RPE, CST and BCT not only recovered connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression but also prevented phosphorylation of Cx43 protein by H2O2 treatment. RPE attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK, whereas pre-treatment with CST and BCT only attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and did not affect JNK in H2O2-treated WB cells. RPE, CST and BCT significantly suppressed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H2O2-treated cells compared to untreated WB cells. These results suggest that dietary intake of red paprika might be helpful for lowering the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. PMID:27154496

  8. Investigating the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a in the content life of halophytes of algae Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are used for many purposes as: food industry, animal feeding, soil enrichment andbiodiesel production. Chlorella is widely cultivated from microalgae species as it is rich in nutrients andhas its implementation as a healthy food use. In this study, the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, betacarotene,and chlorophyll a of Chlorella sp. has been investigated. This study results in three salinities(10, 30, 50 g L-1, respectively have shown that 30 g L-1 concentration has the highest value of cellnumber in day 15th and there was no significant difference between salinities on day 15th (p>0.05. Βetacaroteneresult has shown 50 g L-1 salinity and the highest value of beta-carotene did not indicate anystatistically significant differences between treatments (p>0.05. Chlorophyll a result has shown highestvalue in all treatments (it was in 50 g L-1. However, there was no significant difference betweensalinities on day 5th (p>0.05.

  9. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  10. Characterization of catechin-α-lactalbumin conjugates and the improvement in β-carotene retention in an oil-in-water nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-08-15

    The goal of this study was to prepare and characterize α-lactalbumin (ALA)-catechin conjugates as a novel emulsifier in improving the retention of β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions via a free radical method. Covalent modification was observed and at least one catechin molecule was binding with ALA according to ESI-MS results. Far-UV CD indicated that the secondary structure of ALA was changed after conjugation. The Z-average particle diameters of nanoemulsions stabilized with ALA and ALA-catechin conjugates were 158.8 and 162.7nm, respectively. The increase of mean particle size and the degradation of BC at 50°C were both larger than at 25°C during 30days storage. BC retention stabilized with ALA-catechin conjugates was appreciably greater than ALA (control), which was attributed to the increase of ALA's radicals-scavenging and free metal ion binding ability after grafting with catechin. The chemical antioxidant activities of ALA-catechin conjugates were increased with increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0mg/ml. In general, labile phytochemicals, like BC, can be protected against oxidation during storage by proteins-polyphenols conjugates without any side effects. PMID:27006216

  11. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...... 2005. Forage was wilted to a dry-matter (DM) content of 273 g kg−1 and ensiled without additive or with an inoculant or acid. Wilting decreased α-tocopherol concentration by 30% in the Bft + Ti mixture (P = 0·015). Untreated Bft + Ti silage had higher α-tocopherol content than red clover silages (56......·9 vs. 34·2 mg kg−1 DM; P = 0·015). The α-tocopherol concentration of Bft + Ti forages increased during ensiling from 41·1 mg kg−1 DM in wilted herbage to 56·9, 65·2 and 56·8 mg kg−1 DM in untreated, inoculated and acid-treated silage respectively (P = 0·015). The inoculant increased α-tocopherol...

  12. Convenient solvatochromic probes for the determination of solvent properties: {beta}-carotene and 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoud, Omar A. El; Pires, Paulo A.R.; Loffredo, Carina; Imran, Muhammad; Pulcini, Paolo D.; Correa, Michelle F.; Mustafa, Rizwana, E-mail: elseoud@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-15

    Solvent dipolarity/polarizability (SDP) has been previously calculated from the UV-Vis spectra of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-7-nitro-9H-fluorene and 2-fluoro-7-nitro-9H- fluorene. Based on theoretical calculations (23 solvents) and experimental data (56 solvents), it is shown that 2-chloro-7-nitro-9H-fluorene (commercially available) can be conveniently employed for the calculation of this property, instead of its 2-fluoro-7-nitro counterpart. The splitting of SDP into its components (solvent dipolarity (SD) and polarizability (SP)) requires the use of a synthetic polyene compound whose synthesis is laborious, involving 15 steps. Our research group has recently shown that the natural dye {beta}-carotene can be conveniently employed for the determination of SP, allowing the calculation of SD. Using these solvatochromic probes, SDP, SP and SD for a series of 1-bromo alkanes were calculated. For several homologous series, the dependence of solvent SDP (SD and SP for one series) on the number of carbon atoms in the 1-alkyl- or acyl-group was calculated and discussed. (author)

  13. Toward food analytics: fast estimation of lycopene and β-carotene content in tomatoes based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Andreea Ioana; Ryabchykov, Oleg; Bocklitz, Thomas Wilhelm; Huebner, Uwe; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-07-21

    Carotenoids are molecules that play important roles in both plant development and in the well-being of mammalian organisms. Therefore, various studies have been performed to characterize carotenoids' properties, distribution in nature and their health benefits upon ingestion. Nevertheless, there is a gap regarding a fast detection of them at the plant phase. Within this contribution we report the results obtained regarding the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) toward the differentiation of two carotenoid molecules (namely, lycopene and β-carotene) in tomato samples. To this end, an e-beam lithography (EBL) SERS-active substrate and a 488 nm excitation source were employed, and a relevant simulated matrix was prepared (by mixing the two carotenoids in defined percentages) and measured. Next, carotenoids were extracted from tomato plants and measured as well. Finally, a combination of principal component analysis and partial least squares regression (PCA-PLSR) was applied to process the data, and the obtained results were compared with HPLC measurements of the same extracts. A good agreement was obtained between the HPLC and the SERS results for most of the tomato samples. PMID:27200439

  14. Improved aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) by Captisol (sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Samuel F; O'Malley, Sean; Mosher, Gerold L

    2003-04-01

    Carotenoids are the most widely distributed natural pigments, with over 600 individual compounds identified and characterized from natural sources. A few are commercially important molecules, having found utility as additions to animal feed in the aquaculture, poultry, and swine feed industries. The majority are lipophilic molecules with near zero inherent aqueous solubility. Many different methods have been developed to make the carotenoids "water dispersible," as true water solubility has not been described. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a commercially important oxygenated carotenoid that has gained wide acceptance as a feed additive in the $50 billion salmon and trout aquaculture industry. Recently, interest in the human health applications of astaxanthin has increased, with astaxanthin receiving approval as a dietary supplement in several countries, including the United States. Moving astaxanthin into a pharmaceutical application will require a chemical delivery system that overcomes the problems with parenteral administration of a highly lipophilic, low molecular weight compound. In the current study, the ability of sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (sodium), as the Captisol(R) brand, to increase the aqueous water solubility of crystalline astaxanthin was evaluated. Complexation of crystalline astaxanthin with Captisol increased the apparent water solubility of crystalline astaxanthin approximately 71-fold, to a concentration in the 2 microg/mL range. It is unlikely that this increase in solubility will result in a pharmaceutically acceptable chemical delivery system for humans. However, the increased aqueous solubility of crystalline astaxanthin to the range achieved in the current study will likely find utility in the introduction of crystalline astaxanthin into mammalian cell culture systems that have previously been dependent upon liposomes, or toxic organic solvents, for the introduction of carotenoids into aqueous

  15. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of genome information. Short sequence repeat (SSR) markers are powerful molecular tools for tracking important loci in crops and for molecular-based breeding strategies; however, few SSR markers and marker-trait associations have hitherto been identified in sweet potato. In this study, we identified 1824 SSRs by using a de novo assembly of publicly available ESTs and mRNAs in sweet potato, and designed 1476 primer pairs based on SSR-containing sequences. We mapped 214 pairs of primers in a natural population comprised of 239 germplasms, and identified 1278 alleles with an average of 5.972 alleles per locus and a major allele frequency of 0.7702. Population structure analysis revealed two subpopulations in this panel of germplasms, and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that this panel is suitable for association mapping of starch-related traits. We identified 32, 16, and 17 SSR markers associated with starch content, β-carotene content, and starch composition in the storage root, respectively, using association analysis and further evaluation of a subset of sweet potato genotypes with various characteristics. The SSR markers identified here can be used to select varieties with desired traits and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying starch and carotenoid formation in the starchy roots of sweet potato. PMID:26973669

  16. 一个男运动员的性腺机能低下与富含胡萝卜素饮食的关系%Association of carotene rich diet with hypogonadism in a male athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Adamopoulos; E.Venaki; E.Koukkou; E.Billa; N.Kapolla; S.Nicopoulou

    2006-01-01

    目的:报道了一个年轻男运动员大量摄入胡萝卜素后引发性腺机能低下的独特病例.病例报告:一名20岁的患者,在先前一年里坚持自己设计的高胡萝卜素、低动物脂肪的饮食,就诊时症状为肌肉逐渐萎缩、身体活动能力以及性欲减低、勃起功能下降.临床上,他表现出明显的胡萝卜素过量的体征:掌心和脚底都呈黄色.当他的饮食正常化二周后,胡萝卜素B值达到了正常范围的上限.方法:在恢复均衡饮食前和恢复均衡饮食3、6和12个月后,分别进行下丘脑、垂体和睾丸功能的重复刺激测试.结果:在均衡饮食数月后,促性腺激素和性腺类固醇由最初测得的非常低的基础值和刺激值逐渐恢复正常,并且胡萝卜素B值也有所恢复.诊断9-12个月后,荷尔蒙分泌物和性反应完全恢复.结论:这是第一个与摄入过量胡萝卜素有关的下丘脑式性腺机能低下的病例.%Aim: To report on a unique case of hypogonadism associated with excessive carotene intake in a young male athlete.Case report: A 20-year-old patient presented with a gradual decline in muscular and physical activity, sexual interest and erectile ability associated with a high in carotene and low in animal fat diet of his own design a year prior to the clinical manifestations. Clinically, he presented with very overt signs of carotene excess: his palms and soles were yellow. Moreover, 2 weeks after normalization of his diet, carotene B levels were at the upper end of the normal range. Methods: Repeated stimulation tests of hypothalamic, pituitary and testicular function were performed before and at 3, 6 and 12 months after the introduction of a balanced diet. Results: Very low basal and stimulated values for gonadotropins and gonadal steroids were found at the initial evaluation with a progressive recovery shown after months of a balanced diet and carotene B restoration. Complete androgen secretion and sexual response

  17. Teores de carotenóides em mamão e pêssego determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Carotenoid levels in papaya and peach determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Andriati Sentanin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os carotenóides são pigmentos naturais, responsáveis pela cor em muitos alimentos como frutas e vegetais, gema de ovo, pele e músculo de alguns peixes. Porém, sua importância também está relacionada a funções ou ações biológicas nos seres humanos, como atividade pró-vitamínica A, fortalecimento do sistema imunológico, diminuição do risco de doenças degenerativas como câncer, doenças cardiovasculares, degeneração macular e catarata. A determinação da composição de carotenóides em alimentos, portanto, é considerada prioritária mundialmente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar quantitativamente, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, os principais carotenóides presentes em três cultivares de mamão (Formosa, Golden e Sunrise e três cultivares de pêssego (Xiripá, Coral e Diamante. Para cada cultivar, foram analisados cinco lotes durante o ano para mamão e durante a safra para pêssego. Os três cultivares de mamão apresentaram composição parecida com as médias dos conteúdos totais de licopeno, beta-criptoxantina e beta-caroteno variando de 18,5 a 23,9, 8,2 a 11,7 e 0,5 a 1,2 µg.g -1, respectivamente. Em relação ao pêssego, os cultivares Coral e Xiripá tiveram níveis muito baixos de carotenóides. O cultivar Diamante teve um teor total médio de 6,4 µg.g -1 de beta-criptoxantina, o carotenóide principal.Carotenoids are natural pigments responsible for the color of many foods such as fruit, vegetables, egg yolk, skin and the flesh of some fish. However, its importance is also related to biological functions or actions in humans, such as the provitamin A activity, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, macular degeneration and cataract. The determination of the carotenoid composition of foods is therefore considered a priority worldwide. The objective of the present study was to analyze quantitatively, by

  18. Efeito do congelamento e do tempo de estocagem da polpa de acerola sobre o teor de carotenóides Effect of freezing and storing time of pulp of acerola on the carotenoid contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é uma das principais fontes naturais de vitamina C e, também, excelente fonte de carotenóides. O potencial vitamínico destes pigmentos e sua possível associação com o processo de carcinogênese têm despertado grande interesse na química e estabilidade dos carotenóides em alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do processo industrial de congelamento da polpa de acerola, praticado em pequena empresa do município de Fortaleza-CE, visando à manutenção da estabilidade dos carotenóides durante a estocagem da mesma. Os carotenóides foram determinados na polpa recém-processada não congelada (controle e nas polpas congeladas em álcool -20ºC, estocadas por onze meses. Após quatro meses de estocagem, o conteúdo de beta-caroteno da polpa congelada apresentou redução significativa de 20%, em relação ao conteúdo da polpa-controle (7,09 µg/g, sem alteração significativa após esse período. A beta-criptoxantina (1,7µg/g de polpa foi reduzida em 37% após o primeiro mês de estocagem, mantendo estes teores estáveis até o décimo primeiro mês, quando totalizou uma perda de 62%. O alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em pequenas quantidades. Quanto ao potencial vitamínico, a polpa-controle apresentou 1338 UI/100g, correspondendo, aproximadamente, a 25% das recomendações diárias de vitamina A /100g de polpa para uma pessoa adulta. Este potencial foi mantido até o terceiro mês de estocagem, quando houve uma redução de 20%, sem alteração significativa após este período.Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. is one of the main natural sources of vitamin C and is an excellent source of carotenoids. Due to the vitamin potential of carotenoids, and their possible association with the carcinogenesis process, there is an increasing concern of the scientific community about their chemistry and stability in food. The objective of this research was to study the effect of commercial freezing and

  19. Resíduos do beneficiamento do camarão cultivado: obtenção de pigmentos carotenóides Waste from the processing of farmed shrimp: a source of carotenoid pigments

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    Masayoshi Ogawa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A extração de pigmentos carotenóides constitui uma possível alternativa, de grande agregação de valor, para o aproveitamento da cabeça do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a identificação, a extração e a quantificação dos principais pigmentos desta matéria-prima, coletados a partir de uma planta de beneficiamento de camarão no Ceará - Brasil. Após cocção dos resíduos a 100 °C, na proporção 1:2 cabeça de camarão e água durante 15 minutos, obteve-se uma pasta de pigmentos brutos extraindo-se os carotenóides com acetona resfriada e, posteriormente, com hexano, obtendo a fase pigmento-hexano. Obteve-se também a fase DMSO, após o material ser particionado com dimetilsulfóxido, e uma fração acidificada. Estas frações sofreram evaporação e secagem, sendo os carotenóides identificados em coluna aberta, utilizando-se o parâmetro de eluição das frações, o espectro de absorção visível e o valor de Rf na camada delgada de sílica gel. Os espectros de absorção de cada fração foram obtidos a 350 a 550 nm e quantificados por cromatografia de camada delgada. Para o cálculo de carotenóides totais (37,62 µg.g-1 da pasta de pigmentos, utilizou-se o somatório das frações hexano, DMSO e acidificada, e coeficientes de extinção 2592, 2100 e 1690 referentes ao beta-caroteno, astaxantina e astaceno, respectivamente. A astaxantina foi o pigmento mais abundante (45,5%, seguido do beta-caroteno-5,6-epóxido (33,5% e do astaceno (21,0%.The extraction of carotenoid pigments from shrimp heads left over from the processing of Litopenaeus vannamei has been shown to constitute an economically feasible alternative for aggregating value to shrimp processing waste. The objective of the present study was to extract, identify and quantify the main pigments found in shrimp heads collected at a shrimp processing plant in Ceará (Brazil. Samples were cooked for 15 minutes at 100 °C in water at a

  20. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

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    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  1. Metagenomic Identification of a Novel Salt Tolerance Gene from the Human Gut Microbiome Which Encodes a Membrane Protein with Homology to a brp/blh-Family β-Carotene 15,15′-Monooxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    Culligan, Eamonn P.; Sleator, Roy D.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiome consists of at least 3 million non-redundant genes, 150 times that of the core human genome. Herein, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel stress tolerance gene from the human gut metagenome. The locus, assigned brpA, encodes a membrane protein with homology to a brp/blh-family β-carotene monooxygenase. Cloning and heterologous expression of brpA in Escherichia coli confers a significant salt tolerance phenotype. Furthermore, when cultured in th...

  2. Carotenóides: uma possível proteção contra o desenvolvimento de câncer Carotenoids: a possible protection against cancer development

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    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as possibilidades de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer, proporcionadas por carotenóides provenientes da alimentação, com base em uma revisão da literatura. Os carotenóides têm demonstrado uma ação protetora contra a carcinogênese, tanto em estudos in vitro como in vivo, com animais e humanos. Entre eles, a beta-criptoxantina, a fucoxantina, a astaxantina, a capsantina, a crocetina e o fitoeno, têm sido pouco explorados, e a literatura ainda se mostra extremamente limitada e pouco conclusiva. Estudos experimentais com humanos demonstraram não haver efeito, ou efeito reverso, do beta-caroteno, no entanto, não incluíram anteriormente variáveis intervenientes e interativas que deveriam ter sido controladas. A partir da evidência científica, baseada em estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios experimentais recentes, e da elucidação dos mecanismos de atuação de fitoquímicos relacionados à maior proteção contra o câncer, conclui-se que a alimentação rica em carotenóides provenientes das frutas, legumes e verduras, representa um possível fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento do câncer.This study is a literature review that discusses the likelihood of dietary carotenoids offering protection against cancer. Carotenoids have been demonstrating a protective action against carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, in animals and humans. Among them, beta-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, capsanthin, crocetin and phytoene have been little explored and literature is still very lacking and little conclusive. Experimental studies with humans have shown beta-carotene to have no effect or reverse effect; however, they have never included intervenient and interactive variables that should have been controlled. Scientific evidence based on epidemiological studies and recent experimental assays and the elucidation of phytochemical activity mechanisms associated with greater protection against

  3. Fatty acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and lutein contents in forage legumes, forbs, and a grass-clover mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-12-11

    Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins and fatty acids in ruminant diets, and their concentrations in forage species are important for the quality of animal-derived foods such as dairy and meat products. The aims of this study were to obtain novel information on vitamins and fatty acids (FA) in a variety of forage legumes and non-legume forb species compared to a grass-clover mixture and to explore implications for animal-derived products. Seven dicotyledons [four forbs (salad burnet ( Sanguisorba minor ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), chicory ( Cichorium intybus ), and ribwort plantain ( Plantago lanceolata )) and three legume species (yellow sweet clover ( Melilotus officinalis ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ))] and a perennial ryegrass-white clover mixture were investigated in a cutting trial with four harvests (May-October) during 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, and analyses of variance were performed. In addition, three other forbs were grown: borage ( Borago officinalis ), viper's bugloss ( Echium vulgare ), and chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium ). Lucerne and yellow sweet clover had the lowest α-tocopherol concentrations (21-23 mg kg(-1) DM) and salad burnet and ribwort plantain the highest (77-85 mg kg(-1) DM); β-carotene concentrations were lowest in lucerne, salad burnet, and yellow sweet clover (26-33 mg kg(-1) DM) and highest in caraway, birdsfoot trefoil, and ribwort plantain (56-61 mg kg(-1) DM). Total FA concentrations were lowest in lucerne, ribwort plantain, chicory, and yellow sweet clover (15.9-19.3 g kg(-1) DM) and highest in caraway and birdsfoot trefoil (24.5-27.0 g kg(-1) DM). Birdsfoot trefoil had the highest (53.6 g 100 g(-1) FA) and caraway and lucerne the lowest (33.7-35.7 g 100 g(-1) FA) proportions of n-3 FA. This study demonstrated higher vitamin concentrations in some forbs compared with major forages such as lucerne and grass

  4. Supplementation of Adult Rats with Moderate Amounts of β-Carotene Modulates the Redox Status in Plasma without Exerting Pro-Oxidant Effects in the Brain: A Safer Alternative to Food Fortification with Vitamin A?

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    Carlos Eduardo Schnorr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the antioxidant potential of vitamin A, recent studies reported that chronic retinol ester supplementation can also exert pro-oxidant effects and neurotoxicity in vivo and raises the mortality rates among healthy subjects. Our aim was to find evidence for a safer (i.e., less toxic molecule with provitamin A activity. Therefore, we investigated whether chronic supplementation of healthy Wistar rats with β-carotene (0.6, 3, and 6 mg/kg/day would demonstrate antioxidant characteristics without leading to pro-oxidant side effects in the brain. Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, thiobarbituric reactive species level (TBARS, and total reduced thiol content (SH were evaluated in plasma. TBARS and SH were additionally evaluated in selected brain regions together with superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity. In the present study, we show that β-carotene is able to exert antioxidant activity in plasma without triggering pro-oxidant events in the brain, providing evidence that may justify its further evaluation as a safer nutritional supplement with provitamin A activity.

  5. A novel extraction method for β-carotene and other carotenoids in fruit juices using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoen, Phitchan; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-07-15

    Green extraction using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets (AA-LDS-LLME-SFOD) prior to spectrophotometry was successfully applied for quantitation of carotenoids in fruit juices. Under optimal conditions, β-carotene could be quantified with a linear response up to a concentration of 60 μg mL(-1). The procedure was performed in a microcentrifuge tube with 40 μL of 1-dodecanol as the extraction solvent and a 1.0 mL juice sample containing 8% NaCl under seven extraction cycles of air pumping by syringe. This method was validated based on linearity (0.2-30 μg mL(-1), R(2) 0.998), limit of detection (0.04 μg mL(-1)) and limit of quantification (0.13 μg mL(-1)). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the calibration curve slope (n=12), for inter-day and intra-day analysis was 4.85% and 7.92%, respectively. Recovery of β-carotene was in the range of 93.6-101.5%. The newly proposed method is simple, rapid and environmentally friendly, particularly as a useful screening test for food analysis. PMID:26948629

  6. Influence of different pre - treatments on the extracting ratio, the contents of soluble solids and carotene of carrot juice%不同前处理对胡萝卜汁榨出率等参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志民; 王文振; 李诚志

    2001-01-01

    Experiment results indicated that the extracting ratio of carrot juice was the highest after carrots were treated by the freezing and thawing method. The contents of soluble solids and carotene in extracted carrot juice were the highest when carrots were blanched for 21 min by steam. The weights of soluble solids and carotene drawn from per unit weight of carrots were the heaviest when carrots were blanched for 30 min by steam.%研究表明,胡萝卜经过冻融处理后,胡萝卜汁的榨出率最高;经过蒸汽热烫21 min处理后,榨汁中的可溶性固形物和胡萝卜素的含量均最高;经过蒸汽热烫30min处理后,单位重量的胡萝卜的可溶性固形物和胡萝卜素的榨出率最高.

  7. The effect of a negative energy balance status on β-carotene availability in serum and follicular fluid of nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bie, J; Langbeen, A; Verlaet, A A J; Florizoone, F; Immig, I; Hermans, N; Fransen, E; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolic pressure due to a cow's negative energy balance (NEB) has a negative effect on oocyte quality as a result of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we hypothesized that a NEB status may negatively affect the availability of β-carotene (bC, an antioxidant) in the micro-environment of the oocyte or follicular fluid (FF) and that daily bC supplementation can increase bC availability. We aimed to (1) determine the effect of a nutritionally induced NEB on bC concentrations in serum and FF as well as on the presence of bC metabolites, oxidative stress levels, and follicular growth in a nonlactating dairy cow model, and (2) investigate how this effect could be altered by dietary bC supplementation. Six multiparous nonlactating Holstein Friesian cows were subjected to 4 consecutive dietary treatments, 28 d each: (1) 1.2 × maintenance (M) or positive energy balance (PEB) without bC supplement (PEB-bC), (2) 1.2 × M with daily supplement of 2,000mg of bC comparable to the level of bC intake at grazing (PEB+bC), (3) 0.6 × M with 2,000mg of bC (NEB+bC), and (4) 0.6 × M (NEB-bC). At the end of each treatment, estrous cycles were synchronized and blood and FF of the largest follicle were sampled and analyzed for bC, retinol, α-tocopherol, free fatty acids, estradiol, and progesterone. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, insulin growth factor 1, growth hormone, total antioxidant status (TAS), and red blood cell glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined as well. All cows lost body weight during both energy restriction periods and showed increased serum free fatty acid concentrations, illustrating a NEB. A dietary induced NEB reduced FF bC, but not plasma bC or plasma and FF retinol concentrations. However, bC and retinol concentrations drastically increased in both fluid compartments after bC supplementation. Follicular diameter was increased in supplemented PEB cows. Energy restriction reduced the TAS and red blood cell GSH, whereas daily b

  8. Influence of the extraction procedure on the antioxidative activity of lentil seed extracts in a β-carotene-linoleate model system

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    Chavan, U.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from lentil seeds using three solvent systems: 80% (v/v acetone, 80% (v/v methanol, and 80% (v/v ethanol. Each extract was subsequently separated into two fractions by chromatoghraphy on a column with Toyo Pearl HW-40 using water (fraction I and methanol (fraction II for elution. Antioxidative activity of extracts and their respective fractions were examined in a β-carotene-linoleate model system. All three extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activity. Considering the level of phenolic compounds in extracts it seems that phenolic compounds from the acetone extract were less active than those from either the methanolic and ethanolic ones. Because the content of phenolics was about 16-fold lower in fraction I of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts compared to fraction II, the phenolics in fraction I of the methanol and ethanol extracts from lentil seeds are much more active than these in fraction II. A stronger antioxidant activity of fraction I from the acetone extract compared to the crude acetone extract was observed during the latter incubation stage. The reason was a relatively high level of phenolic compounds in this fraction. UV spectra confirmed that the phenolic compounds from the acetone extract were different compared to methanolic and ethanolic extracts.Los compuestos fenólicos fueron extraídos de semillas de lenteja usando tres sistemas de disolventes: acetona del 80% (v/v, metanol del 80% (v/v, y etanol del 80% (v/v. Cada extracto fue separado posteriormente en dos fracciones por cromatografía en columna con Toyo Pearl HW-40 usando agua (fracción I y metanol (fracción II para la elución. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos y de sus fracciones respectivas fueron examinadas en un sistema modelo β-caroteno-linoleato. Los tres extractos exhibieron actividad antioxidante similar. Atendiendo al nivel de compuestos fenólicos en los extractos parece que los compuestos del extracto

  9. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a β-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio

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    Fiore Alessia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophylls contribute to the assembly and stability of light-harvesting complex, to light absorbance and to photoprotection. The first step in xanthophyll biosynthesis from α- and β-carotene is the hydroxylation of ε- and β-rings, performed by both non-heme iron oxygenases (CHY1, CHY2 and P450 cytochromes (LUT1/CYP97C1, LUT5/CYP97A3. The Arabidopsis triple chy1chy2lut5 mutant is almost completely depleted in β-xanthophylls. Results Here we report on the quadruple chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant, additionally carrying the lut2 mutation (affecting lycopene ε-cyclase. This genotype lacks lutein and yet it shows a compensatory increase in β-xanthophylls with respect to chy1chy2lut5 mutant. Mutant plants show an even stronger photosensitivity than chy1chy2lut5, a complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of non-photochemical quenching, and a peculiar organization of the pigment binding complexes into thylakoids. Biochemical analysis reveals that the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant is depleted in Lhcb subunits and is specifically affected in Photosystem I function, showing a deficiency in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. Moreover, by analyzing a series of single, double, triple and quadruple Arabidopsis mutants in xanthophyll biosynthesis, we show a hitherto undescribed correlation between xanthophyll levels and the PSI-PSII ratio. The decrease in the xanthophyll/carotenoid ratio causes a proportional decrease in the LHCII and PSI core levels with respect to PSII. Conclusions The physiological and biochemical phenotype of the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant shows that (i LUT1/CYP97C1 protein reveals a major β-carotene hydroxylase activity in vivo when depleted in its preferred substrate α-carotene; (ii xanthophylls are needed for normal level of Photosystem I and LHCII accumulation.

  10. Atividade antioxidante do beta-caroteno e da vitamina A. Estudo comparativo com antioxidante sintético beta-carotene and vitamin A antioxidant activity. Comparative study with synthetic antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Afonso PASSOTTO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade antioxidante da vitamina A na forma de acetato de retinol e de seu principal precursor, o beta-caroteno, adicionados a um sistema de óleo de soja previamente sensibilizado à oxidação. Os parâmetros utilizados como grau de atividade oxidativa foram: índice de peróxidos, teores de malonaldeído durante os intervalos de 24 a 72 horas, e perfil dos ácidos linoléico e linolênico após 144 horas de oxidação. Pelos resultados pode-se verificar que o retinol apresentou atividade antioxidante superior ao beta-caroteno. As determinações das atividades antioxidantes foram comparadas à do butilhidroxitolueno (BHT. A eficiência antioxidante da vitamina A e do beta-caroteno foram proporcionais às suas resistências à decomposição no sistema oxidativo. O acetato de retinol, a exemplo do BHT, mostrou uma rápida interação com os radicais ativos, pois já no início de sua adição ao óleo de soja, reduziu o nível da oxidação em relação ao respectivo controle.In soybean oil suceptible to oxidation the authors studied the antioxidant activity of the vitamin A as retinol acetate and the beta-carotene was studied. The oxidation index of the system was determined by peroxide and malonaldehyde values during the intervals from 24 to 72 hours and profile of the linoleic and linolenic acids after 144 hours of oxidation. It was observed that the retinol acetate had an antioxidant activity greater than beta-carotene. The antioxidant activity of retinol acetate and beta-carotene were compared to the butyl hidroxi toluene (BHT and was observed that the antioxidant efficiency was directly proportional to degradation resistance of them in the oxidative system. The retinol acetate, as such BHT, showed a fast interaction with actives radicals, in the beginning of the addition to the soybean oil, reducing the oxidation level when compared to the control.

  11. Avaliação dos níveis séricos das vitaminas A, E, C e B2, de carotenóides e zinco, em idosos hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Vannucchi Hélio; Cunha Daniel Ferreira da; Bernardes Mônica M.; Unamuno Maria R. Del Lama

    1994-01-01

    Foram verificados os níveis séricos de zinco, carotenóides e vitaminas A, E, C, B2 em todos os idosos (n = 202) internados nas diversas enfermarias do hospital estudado, no período de fevereiro de 1986 a outubro de 1988. Foram estudados 130 homens e 72 mulheres que apresentaram média de idade de 67,8 anos, com variação entre 60 a 88. A percentagem de níveis séricos deficitários foi de 59,5 para o zinco, 56,5% para a vitamina C, 34,5% para a vitamina B2, 26% para a vitamina E, 13,2% para a vit...

  12. Níveis de retinol e carotenóides séricos e intercorrências gestacionais em puérperas Vitamin A serum and gestational intercurrences in postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ferreira Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre intercorrências gestacionais e níveis de retinol e carotenóides em puérperas atendidas em maternidade pública do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 262 puérperas atendidas na Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. O estado nutricional antropométrico foi avaliado pelo do índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e pelo ganho ponderal gestacional, e foram coletadas informações sobre intercorrências gestacionais nos registros médicos dos prontuários. Foram adotados os pontos de corte 1,05µmol/L e 80µg/dL para definir inadequação dos níveis de retinol e carotenóides séricos, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e dois vírgula sete por cento da amostra foi acometida por intercorrências gestacionais, destacando-se anemia (29,0%, inadequação dos níveis de retinol (24,4%, e síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez (5,7%. Observou-se maior proporção de obesidade pré-gestacional entre mulheres com síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez, em comparação com as não portadoras de tal intercorrência. Verificou-se menor nível médio de carotenóides séricos entre as que desenvolveram síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez e 91,7% destas apresentaram inadequação destes nutrientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados revelam acometimento importante de mulheres por intercorrências gestacionais e por deficiências nutricionais. Além disso, apontam a obesidade pré-gestacional como um possível fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez e sugerem uma associação entre baixos níveis de carotenóides e tal intercorrência.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate an association between pregnancy complications and serum retinol and carotenoid levels in puerpere seen at a public maternity of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The sample consisted of 262 puerpere seen at the Maternity School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

  13. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12 e normotensos (n=12 com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica diária, durante 14 dias para cada dose, intercaladas por um período de wash-out de 7 dias; os grupos controle receberam apenas o veículo (óleo de coco. Foram ainda submetidos à avaliação ectoscópica para possível detecção de efeitos tóxicos ou interação entre nutrientes, e à análise dos parâmetros biológicos; a pressão sistólica foi aferida por pletismografia duas vezes na semana, em dias alternados. Após o período de suplementação os animais foram sacrificados, e tiveram o peso do fígado determinado pelo método de Scherle. RESULTADOS: A administração de beta-caroteno não levou a alterações dos parâmetros biológicos dos animais, assim como não foi detectado efeito tóxico. Quanto à pressão arterial sistólica, as duas linhagens apresentaram redução significante (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate if supplementation with supraphysiological doses of beta-carotene has a positive effect on controlling hypertension and detect possible adverse effects of this supplementation. METHODS: 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=12 and normotensive rats (n=12 were submitted to a basal period of 10 days, then divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and supplemented daily by orogastric gavage with beta-carotene in 3 different doses: 2.5mg, 3.75mg and 5.0mg/animal during 14 days for each dose that was inserted by a seven day wash-out period; control groups received only coconut oil. Animals were submitted to ectoscopic evaluation to

  14. HPLC法测定大麦苗提取物中β-胡萝卜素的含量%Determination of β-carotene in Barley Grass Extract by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郦红岩; 朱惠芬; 杨琴; 魏福荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定大麦苗提取物中β-胡萝卜素的含量测定方法.方法 色谱柱为Kromasil C18(5 μm,250 mm×4.6 mm);流动相:甲醇-三氯甲烷-正己烷(50:35:15);检测波长:448 mm,柱温:30℃.结果 β-胡萝卜素的回收率为100.4%;线性范围为0.03952~0.7904 μg.结论 结果准确,重复性好,可用于该产品的质量控制.%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of β-carotene in Barley Grass extract. Methods HPLC was used for quantitative analysis. The Kromasil C18 column(5μm,250 mm×4.6mm) was used, and mobile phase was composed of methanol- Chloroform- normal hexane ( 50:35:15 ) . Detection wavelength was set at 448 nm at 30 ℃. Results The average recovery of β-carotene was 100.4%, and the linearity was good in the range of 0.039 52~0.790 4 μg. Conclusion The result is accurate and reproducibility is good. The method can be used for the quality control of the products.

  15. Vantagens e desvantagens das colunas C18 e C30 para a separação de carotenóides por CLAE Advantages and disadvantages of C18 and C30 columns for HPLC separation of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm demonstrado uma alta associação entre ingestão ou nível plasmático de carotenóides e a diminuição do risco ou proteção contra algumas doenças. Estes fatos, bem como a elevada suscetibilidade destes compostos à luz e calor, com formação de isômeros cis, os quais apresentam menor atividade biológica, torna importante o desenvolvimento de sistemas que permitam a separação destes carotenóides em alimentos. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a separação de isômeros geométricos de licopeno, e dos isômeros de posição luteína e zeaxantina, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, utilizando colunas C18 (monomérica, 4 mm, 300 x 3,9 mm e C30 (polimérica, 3 mm, 250 x 4,6 mm e diferentes fases móveis, tanto com eluição isocrática como com gradiente. Os carotenóides foram identificados através das características espectrais e co-cromatografia com padrões. As melhores condições cromatográficas foram obtidas em coluna C30 com temperatura de 33 ºC, eluição isocrática a 1 mL/min e fase móvel com metanol (0,1% trietilamina/éter metil-terc-butílico (50:50 para separar isômeros de licopeno e (95:5 para luteína e zeaxantina. Entretanto, para análise quantitativa, é necessário verificar a repetibilidade da área dos picos na coluna C30. Além disso, a coluna C18 monomérica pode ser empregada para separar luteína e zeaxantina.Several studies have demonstrated a high association between dietary intake or plasma levels of carotenoids and the decrease of risk or the protection against some diseases. Taking this into consideration, as well as the high susceptibility of these compounds to light and heat, leading to the formation of cis isomers with lower biological activity, it is important to develop systems that allow the separation of such compounds in foods. This work evaluated the separation of the geometric isomers of lycopene and of the position isomers, lutein and zeaxanthin, by high

  16. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama nos teores de carotenóides, ácido ascórbico e açúcares do futo buriti do brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.) Evaluation of gamma irradiation rffects on carotenoids, ascorbic acid and sugar contents of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Luís dos Santos Lima; Keila dos Santos Cople Lima; Maysa Joppert Coelho; Jaqueline Michele Silva; Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy; Sidney Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Buriti do Brejo (Mauritia flexuosa L.) é um típico fruto da Amazônia, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste brasileiro, muito utilizado na culinária para produção de sucos, doces e vinhos. É considerado uma excelente fonte de carotenóides precursores da vitamina A, apresentando maior concentração de β-caroteno. Além dos carotenóides também encontramos ácido ascórbico e açúcares. O ácido ascórbico administrado em quantidades suficientes pode prevenir os sinais clínicos de deficiência conhecida como esc...

  17. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  18. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of carotenoids, fruits and vegetables among adolescents: the method of triads Validação de um questionário de frequência alimentar para avaliar o consumo de carotenóides, frutas e hortaliças: o método das tríades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betzabeth Slater

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate the intake of carotenoids, fruits and vegetables estimated by the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA using the method of triads. Blood samples were collected from 80 elementary school adolescents to assess serum levels of β-carotene. Partial correlation coefficients (r were calculated between an estimated intake of carotenoids, fruits and vegetables and the serum levels of β-carotene. Validity coefficients were calculated using the method of triads. With the exception of carotenoids, partial r from the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were greater than those of the 24-hour recall (24hR. The fruit/vegetable group showed the highest partial r for the FFQ (r = 0.235 and the 24hR (r = 0.137. The highest validity coefficient was obtained for the vegetable group, as assessed by the FFQ (r = 0.873. On average, the validity coefficient values for the FFQ were greater than those obtained for the 24hR or the β-carotene serum levels. The FFQA is an accurate tool for estimating the intake of carotenoids, fruits and vegetables in this population group.O objetivo do estudo foi validar a ingestão de carotenóides, frutas e hortaliças estimada pelo Questionário de Frequência Alimentar para Adolescentes (QFAA utilizando o método das tríades. Foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas de 80 adolescentes de uma escola de Ensino Fundamental para análise do b-caroteno plasmático. Coeficientes de correlação (r parciais foram obtidos entre a ingestão de carotenóides, frutas e hortaliças e o b-caroteno plasmático. Os coeficientes de validade foram estimados a partir do método das tríades. O QFA apresentou valores de r parcial superiores ao recordatório alimentar de 24 horas (R24h, exceto para carotenóides. O grupo das frutas/hortaliças apresentou os maiores valores de r parciais tanto para o questionário de frequência alimentar (QFA (r = 0,235 quanto para R24h (r = 0,137. O maior coeficiente de

  19. HPLC Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and Fat-Soluble Vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-Carotene of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus

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    Rokayya Sami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra is consumed as a vegetable by populations in Africa and Asia and particularly in Egypt. In this study, we investigated some nutritional components of okra grown in four different geographical locations of Egypt. A comparative analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, and C and fat-soluble vitamins (E, K, D, A, and β-carotene in okra pods was carried out. Results of principal component analysis (PCA showed three clusters of varieties. The first cluster included the Dakahlia (D and Kafr El-Sheikh (K varieties. The second and the third clusters separated out the Suez (S and Mansoura (M varieties independently. The S pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B6 (49.81 μg/100 g and E (1.47 mg/100 g but contained the lowest contents of vitamins B3 (1.42 μg/100 g and B12 (undetected. The K pod showed the lowest vitamin C content (11.60 mg/100 g. The M pod showed the highest contents of vitamins B3 (22.70 μg/100 g, B12 (91.20 μg/100 g, C (27.14 mg/100 g, and K (0.21 mg/100 g. The D pod showed the lowest contents of vitamins E (0.15 mg/100 g, K (0.05 mg/100 g, and B6 (11.50 μg/100 g. These findings could help develop meal planning at the community level by incorporating okra varieties with high vitamin content.

  20. 乳清蛋白-麦芽糖糊精的Maillard反应复合物制备β-胡萝卜素纳米乳液%Preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions stablilized by Maillard Reaction Products of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘成梅; 刘伟; 钟俊桢

    2013-01-01

    系统考察乳液制备参数对乳液粒径分布及稳定性的影响,同时以干热法制备乳清分离蛋白(Whey Protein Isolate,WPI)-麦芽糖糊精(Maltodextrin,MD)的Maillard反应复合物(Maillard Reaction Products,MRPs).以此为基础,制备WPI-MD MRPs稳定的β-胡萝卜、素纳米乳液,并进一步考察乳液的物理稳定性及β-胡萝卜、素的化学稳定性.结果表明,WPI-MD的MRPs能够显著降低纳米乳液的粒径,并提高纳米乳液的物理稳定性.同时,WPI-MD的MRPs可加速油相中β-胡萝卜素的降解,其机理有待进一步研究.%Conditons for preparing nanoemulsions were investigated systematically. The Maillard Reaction Products(MRPs) were prepared by dry heating which were further used to prepare β-carotene nanoemulsions. The physical stability of the obtained nanoemulsions and the β-carotene degregation kinetics were simultaneously studied. The result showed that nanoemulsions stabilized by MRPs with smaller fat globe size were much physically stable compared with the nanoemulsions stablized by native WPI. However,the β-carotene in MRPs stablized nanoemulsions degradated more rapidly which mechanism should be futher studied in future.

  1. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano = Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Andrade Batista

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de a-caroteno, b-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações doano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Devido ao conteúdo inexpressivo de a-caroteno em todas as amostras, foi possível quantificar apenas o b-caroteno. Não se verificou diferença estatisticamente significativa (a = 0,05 no conteúdo de b-caroteno das hortaliças entre os diferentes estabelecimentos, nem entre as estações do ano. As hortaliçasmostraram-se excelentes fontes de provitamina A, e se consumidas regularmente, contribuem de forma importante na adequação diária de vitamina A para adultos e crianças. Além disso, esses alimentos são acessíveis à população por apresentarem baixo custo e serem facilmente encontrados.This study aimed to investigate the level of a-carotene, b-carotene and to calculate the value of vitamin A in vegetables sold at local markets and informal markets of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, as wellas to evaluate the seasonal and commercial effects on the content of these pigments. The vegetables (basella, green onion, cilantro, sweet basil and parsley were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, being b-carotene the only pigment present in all the analyzed samples. No significant statistical differences (a = 0.05 were found in the contents of b-carotene of the vegetables either among the different stores, or among the different seasons. The vegetables analyzed are great provitamin A sources and, ifeaten on a regular basis, they can fit the daily requirements of vitamin A for adults and children. Besides, these foods are very accessible due to their

  2. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute BIANCHINI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1 e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de fluorescência, ligado em série com o anterior. Os valores de vitamina A dos leites foram calculados com e sem a consideração do beta-caroteno. A maior contribuição deste nutriente no valor de vitamina A esteve entre os leites em pó, cerca de 17% em uma das marcas. Os altos teores das vitamina A e E encontrados em alguns leites, indicam que os mesmos provavelmente receberam adição destas vitaminas, não trazendo, entretanto, tal informação no rótulo. A análise de vitaminas nestes produtos indica a necessidade de maior controle de qualidade dos mesmos.The amount of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha -tocopherol in powder, pasteurized and sterilized milk, comercialized in the city of São Paulo, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After saponification and extraction, compounds were determined simultaneously through a normal-phase column, mobile phase composed by hexan:2-propanol (99:1 and 2 mL/min flow. The retinol and beta-carotene were analysed by a UV/visible detector and the alpha-tocopherol by a fluorescence detector, both linked in series. The milk vitamin A values were calculated with and without beta-carotene. The major contribution of beta-carotene in the vitamin A value was in powder milks, around 17% in one of the brands. The high amounts of vitamin A and E found in some milks indicate that they probably were enriched with these vitamins but nothing is mentioned about this in their labels. The analysis of

  3. 盐生杜氏藻β-胡萝卜素羟化酶基因(chyb)的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of β-carotene Hydroxylase Gene(chyb)from Dunaliella salina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章丽; 龚一富; 刘晓丹; 张文青

    2013-01-01

    Zeaxanthin is a derivative of β-carotene found in nature and it is the most curcial portion of the macula and retina,helping protect the macular region of the eye from harmful form of light can cause photoxidative damage to the eye.The biosynthesis of zeaxanthin is regulated by a series if enzymes,β-carotene hydroxylase(HYB) is the rate-limiting enzyme during the synthesis.To investigate the changes of Dschyb expression and content of zeaxanthin in Dunaliella salina under some stress,the full-length cDNA of chyb (GenBank accession No.JN118489) had been obtained from D.salina based on RACE technology,and four factors influencing Dschyb and zeaxanthin were analyzed.The cDNA was comprised of 1 433 bp containing a 969 bp open reading fragment,which encoded a polypeptide of 322 amio acids with a predicted molecular mass of 35.5 kDa and theoretical pI of 9.01.It had four conserved histidine residue motifs and was homologous with Volvox carteri f.nagariensis (64%) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii(58%).Sequence analysis showed that D.salina CHYB had four transmembrane domains and chloroplast transit peptide,which further proved that β-carotene hydroxylase was located in the thylakoid membrane,no signal peptide was predicted in DsCHYB.Phylogenetic tree demostrated CHYB in D.salina and CHYBs from other green algae like Volvox carteri f.nagariensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were grouped into one clade.Upon the observation of chyb regulation expression,the Dschyb expression level had little fluctuation when treated with intensive light at the treatment groups of 6 and 12 h,but with a significant rise from 24 h (P<0.01),and at the peak of 48 h (P<0.01).When darked-cultured cells were exposed to high light,sodium acetate and ferrous sulfate,the Dschyb transcription obviously increased within the initial 6 h (P<0.01),but then declined after 12 h of the treatment.When D.sallina was exposed to glucose,the expression level of Dschyb reached a peak after 1.5 h

  4. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Genetic diversity and total carotene content in accessions of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is a perennial shrub cultivated in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. It is an important dietary source for humans in tropical countries. Carotenoids are natural pigments that are widely distributed in the nature, where about 50 of them have provitamin A activity, b-carotene has been the most efficient. Among the procedures to fortify (enrich or increase the nutritional content of foods or crops cassava varieties, the study of genetic variability of the content of carotenoids in the root is one of the most common to carried out processes of selection and recombination in the breeding program which will allow the

  5. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  6. 不同浓度β-胡萝卜素对三角帆蚌(Hyriopsiseumingii)早期珍珠色泽形成的影响%THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF p-CAROTENE ON EARLY PEARL COLOR AND LUSTRE DEGREES IN HYRIOPSIS CUMINGII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩继卫; 罗文; 郑大恒; 张玉明

    2011-01-01

    采用生理生化、激光拉曼和电镜扫描等方法进行添加不同浓度β-胡萝卜素对三角帆蚌早期珍珠色泽形成的研究。实验共分五组,I至V组β-胡萝卜素终浓度分别为0、0.000625%、0.00125%、0.0025%和0.005%。结果显示,当β-胡萝卜素的添加浓度为0.000625%时,SOD、POD的比活力均下降,而CAT的比活力升高;其早期珍珠在708cm、1088cm^-1处的CaCO3拉曼峰和1136cm-1、1528cm-1处的β-胡萝卜素拉曼峰强度值最高,分别为1761、6003和2630、3359,扫描电镜结果也显示此时珍珠层的文石结晶最好。结果表明,当三角帆蚌的生长水域中添加0.000625%浓度的β-胡萝卜素时,能够有效促进CaCO3文石规则有序地结晶,较好地提高三角帆蚌早期珍珠的色泽度。%Physiological and biochemical, laser Raman and scanning electron microscopy methods were used to investigate the effect of different concentrations of β-carotene on early pearl color formation in Hyriopsis cumingii. The experiment was divide into five groups, the last concentrations of β-carotene was 0, 0.000625%, 0.00125%, 0.0025% and 0.005% respectively. The results showed that SOD and POD enzyme specific activity were decreased, but CAT enzyme specific activity was increased when the concentration of β-carotene was 0.000625%. At the same concentration, the intensity values of CaCO3 laser Raman peak in 708cm-1 and 1088cm-1, β-carotene laser Raman peak in 1136cm-1 and 1528cm-1 were all the highest. They were 1761, 6003, 2630, 3359 respectively. The nacre aragonite crystal was also verified the best by scanning electron microscopy. The results suggested that the concentration of 0.000625% β-carotene can effectively promote the orderly crystallization of CaCO3 aragonite and optimum enhanced the early pearl's color and lustre derees in H. cumingii.

  7. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura (Daucus carota L. , planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS e o convencional e analisar a composição centesimal da cenoura in natura. O teor de β-caroteno obtido pela extração por EFS e por convencional foi de 2.457 e 2.455 µg/100g, respectivamente. Os valores médios encontrados para a matéria-seca da cenoura foram de: matéria-seca = 8,9%; extrato etéreo = 0,29%; cinzas = 8,11%; fibra bruta = 14,57%, proteína bruta = 6,4%, extrato não nitrogenado = 6,3% e valor calórico = 27,7kcal. Conclui-se que a extração de carotenóides em cenoura pelo fluido supercritico é uma técnica de separação viável, pois este fluido é inerte, não deixa resíduo final e não gera resíduo ambiental. Pelos teores encontrados conclui-se também que as cenouras são boas fontes de fibras, apresentam alto teor de umidade e baixo teor de gorduras, cinzas e valor calórico.The carrot (Daucus carota L. is a plant of the Umbelliferae family. It produces an aromatic and edible root, and is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable in Brazil. It represents the main source of plant-origin, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, especially α and β-carotene, and is also a great source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and minerals. This study aimed to evaluate two methods of extraction of β-carotene, supercritical fluid (SFE and conventional, and to examine the proximate composition of the carrot in nature. The contents of β-carotene obtained by SFE and by conventional extraction were 2,457 and 2,455 µg/100g, respectively. The average values found

  8. Clone and Analysis ζ- Carotene Desaturase of Dunaliella bardawil%巴氏杜氏藻ξ-胡萝卜素脱氢酶基因的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖岚; 劳永民; 姜建国

    2012-01-01

    ζ-Carotene desaturase (ZDS) is one of the key enzymes in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. According to the full-length sequence of the ZDS cDNA in D. Bardawil that our laboratory has obtained before, the coding region sequence of ZDS were isolated by the approach of PCR and then flanking sequence of the coding region were amplified by the method of genome walking, including promoter and terminator of ZDS, followed by analysis of these sequences by bioinformarics tools. The whole sequence of ZDS was 11896 bp. It contained 6435 bp coding region (from ATG to TAA), 4091 bp upstream of the coding region, and 1370 downstream of the coding region. Blastn the coding region and ORF of ZDS showed that there were 12 exons and 11 introns in coding region. The total length of the introns was 4086 bp, about 2.68 fold of the total length of exons (1749bp). Each intron started with GT and end with AG, belonging to the most common style of exon. By analyzing the promoter of ZDS gene, we found that there are many transcription factor binding sites, including "GAGA box", ASF1, related with plant light regulation; "ACGT box", required for etiolation-induced expression of early responsive to dehydration.%ζ-胡萝卜素脱氢酶(ZDS)基因是胡萝卜素生物合成途径中的一个关键酶之一.根据实验室已获得的巴氏杜氏藻ZDS基因的cDNA序列,设计引物,通过分段PCR的方法,获得ZDS基因的编码区序列.然后根据获得编码区序列,利用染色体步移的方法获得其两端侧翼序列:启动子和终止子,并利用生物信息学工具对获得序列进行分析.实验获得的完整ZDS基因全长11896 bp,其中编码区序列(从”ATG”到”TAA”)长度为6435,编码区上游序列4091 bp(包括33bp的5'UTR序列),编码区下游序列1370bp(包括411bp的3'UTR序列).将编码序列与cDNA(开放阅读框)进行比对,发现整个编码区序列含有12个外显子和11个内含子,其中内含子长度达4686 bp

  9. Influência da embalagem e estocagem no conteúdo de betacaroteno e ácido ascórbico em suco de manga “Ubá” industrializado = Influence of package and storage on the content of beta-carotene and ascorbic acid in industrialized “Ubá” mango juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Silva Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou o conteudo e avaliou a estabilidade de doisantioxidantes naturais - β-caroteno e acido ascorbico (AA - em suco de manga "Uba" industrializado e armazenado em diferentes tempos de estocagem e correlacionou as recomendacoes de vitaminas A e C com o teor encontrado nos sucos. O β-caroteno e o AA foram analisados nos sucos comercializados em embalagem tetra pak, em cinco tempos de estocagem (1 a 5 meses e em embalagem de vidro, em tres tempos de estocagem (apos 3, 4 e 5 meses de armazenamento. A analise foi realizada por Cromatografia Liquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE. Nao foram detectadas diferencas estatisticamente significativas (α = 5% entre os diferentes tempos de estocagem, para ambos os componentes analisados, tanto em embalagens tetra pak quanto em embalagens de vidro. Alem disso, nao foram observadas diferencas significativas entre o conteudo de β-caroteno dos sucos comercializados nas duas embalagens. No entanto, houve diferenca significativa no teor de AA entre as diferentes embalagens, e a embalagem de vidro apresentou maior teor em relacao a embalagem tetrapak. Assim, as perdas ocasionadas especialmente pela permeabilidade da embalagem ao oxigenio deveriam ser alvo de atencao das industrias de alimentos.This work investigated the content and stability of two natural antioxidants . β-carotene and ascorbic acid (AA - in mango juice industrialized and stored during different storage times, correlating the recommendations of vitamins A and C with the content found in the juice. β-carotene and AA were analyzed in juice sold in tetra pak packaging, during five storage times (1 to 5months and in glass containers, during three storage times (after 3, 4 and 5 months of storage. The analysis was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. No statically differences (α = 5 % were found between the different times of storage for both compounds analyzed, both in tetra pak package and glass container

  10. L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya with or without physiological skin freckles Conteúdo de ácido l-ascórbico, β-caroteno e licopeno em frutos de mamão (Carica papaya com e sem mancha fisiológica

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    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Skin Freckles is a papaya skin disorder that depreciates de fruit appearance and hampers its commercialization, although not lowering its nutritive value. Being the papaya a good source of ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene this research aimed at determining L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and licopene content in papaya fruits, from 'Formosa' and 'Solo' group varieties, with and without apparent physiological skin disease (skin freckles. Fruits were harvested in the Southeast Region of Brazil. L-ascorbic acid content was determined by titration technique. β-carotene and licopene contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC. L-ascorbic acid content in papaya fruits ranged from (59.9 ± 3.4 mg 100 g-1 to (112.4 ± 12.6 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. β-carotene content ranged from (0.19 ± 0.07 mg 100 g-1 to (0.56 ± 0.09 mg 100 g-1 and that of licopene ranged from (1.44 ± 0.28 mg 100 g-1 to (3.39 ± 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in fresh papaya pulp. L-ascorbic acid contents of papaya fruits with skin disease averaged 7.0 mg 100 g-1 to 10.0 mg 100 g-1 higher than those of papaya fruits without skin freckles (P A Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM é uma desordem da casca do mamão, que deprecia a aparência do fruto e prejudica a sua comercialização, embora não prejudique o seu valor nutritivo. Considerando ser o mamão, uma boa fonte de ácido L-ascórbico, b-caroteno e licopeno, esta pesquisa visou determinar o índice destes componentes em frutas de mamão, das variedades do grupo 'Formosa' e 'Solo', com e sem Mancha Fisiológica do Mamão (MFM aparente na pele. As frutas foram colhidas na região do sudeste de Brasil. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico foi determinado pela técnica de titulação. Os índices do b-caroteno e do licopeno foram determinados pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. O teor de ácido L-ascórbico variou de (59,9 ± 3,4 mg 100 g-1 a (112,4 ± 12,6 mg 100 g-1

  11. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs) e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) and conventional methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado; Leonardo da Silva Patto; Denise Alvarenga Rocha; Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Custódio Donizete dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A cenoura (Daucus carota L. ), planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS) e o convencio...

  12. Concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno séricos e perfil nutricional de crianças em Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, and nutritional status of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilane Alves Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações séricas de retinol e beta-caroteno de pré-escolares em Teresina, Piauí, com caracterização do perfil antropométrico e do consumo alimentar. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 135 crianças em creche municipal, com avaliação do estado nutricional pelos métodos: bioquímico (concentração sérica de retinol e beta-caroteno, antropométrico (índices de peso para estatura - P/E e estatura para idade - E/I e dietético (freqüência de consumo alimentar. RESULTADOS: Observou-se prevalência de deficiência de vitamina A (DVA de 8,9% (IC95%: 4,7 - 15,0% e existência de associação entre suplementação anterior e concentrações de retinol, com maior proporção de crianças com níveis normais de retinol entre as suplementadas (p = 0,025. As concentrações de retinol e de beta-caroteno mostraram-se correlacionadas, porém com força leve a moderada (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene of children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and to evaluate their anthropometric profile and consumption of food sources of vitamin A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 135 children from 36 to 83 months of age who attended a public child day care center. Nutritional status was evaluated by: biochemical (serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, anthropometric (weight for height - W/H and height for age - H/A indexes, and dietary (frequency of consumption of food sources of vitamin A methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD was 8.9% (95%CI: 4.7-15.0%. An association between previous supplementation with vitamin A and serum concentrations of retinol was observed, with a higher proportion of children with normal concentrations of retinol among those supplemented (p=0.025. There was a weak to moderate statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene, (p<0.021. The prevalence of low W/H and low H

  13. Processing Technology of Low-sugar Preserved Carrot and Effects on Contents of β-Carotene and Vitamin C%低糖胡萝卜果脯加工工艺及对β-胡萝卜素和维生素C含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翔宇; 严勃; 王振南

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the processing technology of low-sugar preserved carrot with fresh carrot as the material. Methods The effects of the processing conditions on the contents of P-carotene and vitamin C were investigated by an orthogonal experiment, and the senses index was evaluated. Results The optimal processing conditions of low-sugar preserved carrot were as follows: slice thickness of 0.8 cm, 50% sugar concentration and sugar boiling time of 30min. The compositions of sugar liquid were 25% sucrose, 25% fructose syrup, 0.5% citric acid, 0.1% stevioside and 0.4% gelatin. Conclusion Under the optimal processing conditions, the product of low-sugar preserved carrot can contain P-carotene 3.55mg / l00g and have the retention rate of vitamin C of 51%.%目的 研究以新鲜胡萝卜为原料,制作低糖胡萝卜果脯的加工工艺.方法 以正交试验法研究工艺条件对β-胡萝卜素和维生素C含量的影响,并评价其感官指标.结果 胡萝卜果脯最佳生产工艺组合:切片厚度0.8 cm,糖液浓度50%,糖煮时间30 min;渗糖液添加组分:25%蔗糖,25%果葡糖浆,0.5%柠檬酸,0.1%甜菊糖苷和0.4%明胶.结论 最佳工艺条件下产品β-胡萝卜素含量达3.55 mg/100 g,维生素C保存率为51%.

  14. Cloning and soluble expression of β-carotene converting enzyme (Asy) gene from Phaffia rhodozyma%法夫酵母β-胡萝卜素转化酶(Asy)基因的克隆及可溶性表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹樱; 蔡慧农; 李利君; 倪辉; 苏文金

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] We cloned the cDNA of P-carotene converting enzyme gene (asy) from Phaffia rhodozyma 7B12, a high astaxanthin-producing strain, and expressed the recombi-nant pET32-asy in E. coli BL21(DE3). Our work could lead to an important use for the study of Asy properties and further applications in vitro. [Methods] Using RACE method, we cloned the asy cDNA from Phaffia rhodozyma 7B12, and constructed recombinant plasmid pET32-asy. After optimizing the temperature and IPTG concentration, the soluble expression of Asy was achieved in E. coli BL21(DE3). pET32-asy and pACCAR16Acrtx which carried the genes chain on the synthesis of beta-carotene by acetyl CoA were co-transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3), and the changes of carotenoid species were analyzed by HPLC to detect the activity of Asy. [Results] The homology between new cloned cDNA sequence of asy gene (accession No. HM204708.1) and the only reported asy mRNA sequence (accession No. DQ002007.1) was 97%. The obtained cDNA was 1 971 bp in length, the longest open reading frame was 1 614 bp encoding 538 amino acids, and therefore the fusion protein expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) was about 70 kD. At the optimizing condition (induced by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG, at 26 癈, 5 h), 85% fusion protein expressed by recombinant pET32-asy was soluble. Compared the components of pigment in the E. coli strain only transformed with pAC-CAR16Acrtx with the strain co-transformed with pACCAR16Acrtx and pET32-asy, we found some changes of carotenoid components. The peak presented a-carotene was disappeared and three new peaks were shown, suggested that p-cryptoxanthin which is one of themetabolic intermediates between P-carotene and astaxanthin were produced because of Asy expression. [Conclusion] Astaxanthin synthase cDNA was cloned from Phaffia rhodozyma 7B12 and the soluble expression of astaxanthin synthase in E. coli BL21(DE3) was obtained. The fusion protein had a certain activity to transform p-carotene.%[目的]从高

  15. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122 Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benício Paes Chaves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de α-caroteno, β-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações do ano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Devido ao conteúdo inexpressivo de α-caroteno em todas as amostras, foi possível quantificar apenas o β-caroteno. Não se verificou diferença estatisticamente significativa (α = 0,05 no conteúdo de β-caroteno das hortaliças entre os diferentes estabelecimentos, nem entre as estações do ano. As hortaliças mostraram-se excelentes fontes de provitamina A, e se consumidas regularmente, contribuem de forma importante na adequação diária de vitamina A para adultos e crianças. Além disso, esses alimentos são acessíveis à população por apresentarem baixo custo e serem facilmente encontrados.This study aimed to investigate the level of α-carotene, β-carotene and to calculate the value of vitamin A in vegetables sold at local markets and informal markets of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, as well as to evaluate the seasonal and commercial effects on the content of these pigments. The vegetables (basella, green onion, cilantro, sweet basil and parsley were analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, being β-carotene the only pigment present in all the analyzed samples. No significant statistical differences (α = 0.05 were found in the contents of β-carotene of the vegetables either among the different stores, or among the different seasons. The vegetables analyzed are great provitamin A sources and, if eaten on a regular basis, they can fit the daily requirements of vitamin A for adults and children. Besides, these foods are very

  16. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as alterações de b-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais na polpa de frutos de clones de aceroleira conservada por congelamento. Os frutos dos clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor e II 47/1 foram colhidos no estádio de maturação comercial (vermelho maduro em Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil, transportados para a Planta Piloto de Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, despolpados, acondicionada a polpa em sacos de polietileno (100 g, congelada, mantida em freezer a -20 °C, e avaliada a cada 30 dias durante 12 meses. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 13 (clones x tempo, com 3 repetições. A concentração de beta-caroteno foi estável no clone Cereja, enquanto, nos demais, houve decréscimo durante todo o período do experimento. Houve pequeno decréscimo no teor de ácido ascórbico em todos os clones estudados durante o armazenamento, provavelmente devido à alta acidez da polpa, que auxilia na manutenção deste nutriente. O teor de antocianinas totais foi estável nos clones Frutacor e Sertaneja, enquanto nos demais houve diminuição. O clone II 47/1 foi dentre os estudados o que apresentou maiores teores de ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais, mantendo estas características durante todo o armazenamento. De um modo geral, os clones em que se determinou menor teor de beta-caroteno foram observadas as mais elevadas concentrações de antocianinas totais.The objective of the work was to evaluate b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total anthocyanins alterations in fruit pulp of acerola tree clones conserved by the cold. The fruit clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja, BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor and II 47/1 were harvested in a commercial maturation stage (ripe red in Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil, carried to Planta Piloto de

  17. Efeito do tratamento térmico na concentração de carotenóides, compostos fenólicos, ácido ascórbico e capacidade antioxidante do suco de tangerina murcote Effect of thermal treatment on the carotenoid, phenolic compound and ascorbic acid concentrations, and the antioxidant capacity of murcott tangerine juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Souza Dutra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento térmico do suco de tangerina murcote em relação ao teor de carotenóides totais, ao perfil de carotenóides (luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina e β-caroteno, aos compostos fenólicos totais, ao ácido ascórbico e à capacidade antioxidante. No processo, utilizou-se um trocador de calor tubular, sendo avaliados 11 tratamentos seguindo um ensaio fatorial completo 2² com três repetições no ponto central, com quatro pontos axiais e uma região de observação de 88 a 100 ºC e 16 a 44 s. O teor de caratenóides totais decresceu de forma significativa em quase todos os tratamentos aplicados, se comparado ao valor encontrado para o suco in natura. A maioria dos tratamentos não reduziu de forma significativa os teores dos caratenóides luteína, zeaxantina e β-criptoxantina. Além disso, o teor de β-caroteno não sofreu alterações significativas em todos os tratamentos avaliados. A análise de variância mostrou que, para os caratenóides, não ocorreram interações significativas entre as variáveis temperatura e tempo. Os teores de ácido ascórbico e compostos fenólicos totais apresentaram reduções em seis condições avaliadas, ao passo que, em quatro, observou-se um aumento dos teores de compostos fenólicos totais, causado provavelmente pela evaporação da água presente no suco. A maior redução do teor de ácido ascórbico e o maior aumento para compostos fenólicos totais foi observado para o binômio 100 ºC/30 s. O teor de ácido ascórbico sofreu de forma significativa a influência da temperatura e esse processo de degradação pode ser descrito por meio de um modelo quadrático. Todos os tratamentos utilizados reduziram a capacidade antioxidante do suco, sendo mais intensa para o binômio 100 ºC/30 s. As variações observadas não alteraram de maneira considerável as características nutricionais do suco e os tratamentos térmicos realizados a 94 ºC por 16 a 44 s

  18. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH• Evaluation of the antioxidant activity using the b-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH scavenging method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante de extratos de frutas (acerola, amora, açaí e morango e compostos puros foi avaliada por meio de dois métodos: sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH• - 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila. As metodologias foram previamente adaptadas para a realização em microplacas, de forma a reduzir a quantidade de reagentes e amostras necessárias, aumentar o número de análises simultâneas e permitir a automatização das leituras de absorbância. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade antioxidante dos extratos metanólicos dos frutos estava de acordo com a apresentada pelos compostos puros, isto é ácido ascórbico e compostos fenólicos, nos dois sistemas. O extrato de acerola, devido ao seu alto conteúdo de vitamina C, comportou-se como pró-oxidante e os de açaí, amora e morango como antioxidantes no sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico. Entretanto, quando avaliado pelo método de seqüestro de radicais livres, o extrato de acerola apresentou a maior atividade antioxidante, seguido pelos extratos de amora, açaí e morango. As adaptações realizadas nos métodos de avaliação de atividade antioxidante utilizando microplaca permitiram a realização de múltiplas análises simultâneas, além de minimizar significativamente o uso de reagentes e amostras.The antioxidant activity of fruit extracts (acerola, açaí, black-berry and strawberry and pure compounds has been analysed by two methods: beta-carotene/linoleic acid and DPPH•(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. First, those methodologies were adapted to be performed in microplates, in order to reduce the sample and reagent amounts, to increase the number of simultaneous analyses and to automate absorbance lectures. The results showed that the antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts was in accordance with those of pure ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, in the two systems. The acerola

  19. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene quantification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2012), s. 541-546. ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * Microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * Biotechnology * Carotenoids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2012

  20. 转盐生杜氏藻β-胡萝卜素羟化酶基因(chyb)烟草的获得及耐盐性鉴定%Acquisition and Salt-tolerance Evaluation of Transgenic Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with β-carotene Hydroxylase Gene (chyb) from Dunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰; 龚一富; 刘林; 周静; 孙娇璐; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    β-胡萝卜素羟化酶(β-carotene hydroxylase,chyb)作为盐生杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis胡萝卜素合成代谢途径中的关键酶,催化β-胡萝卜素经两步反应合成玉米黄素.盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物抗逆性方面有重要研究价值.本研究利用前期克隆得到的盐生杜氏藻chyb基因(GenBank登录号:JN118489),构建了植物表达载体pC AMB IA3 301-chyb.通过根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404介导的叶盘法将其转入烟草(Nicotiana tabacum),获得16株草铵膦抗性再生植株,经PCR及RT-PCR扩增分析表明,chyb基因已转入其中13株烟草植株中,并可以进行正常转录.通过测定转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量、叶片相对电导率和脯氨酸含量对转基因烟草的耐盐性进行了检测,结果表明,与对照组相比,转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量均极显著提高(P<0.01),其中转基因烟草平均株高为37.82cm,是对照组烟草平均株高的1.37倍.在100 mmol/L NaC1胁迫处理下,转基因烟草的成活率为84.45%,是对照组烟草的1.58倍;在200 mmol/L NaC1胁迫下对照组烟草萎蔫死亡,而转基因烟草仍可生长存活.经检测转基因烟草叶片的相对电导率升高但变化幅度较小,脯氨酸含量较对照组极显著增加(P<0.01).研究结果说明转基因烟草的耐盐性得到了提高,为进一步探讨盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物耐盐性方面的功能提供基础资料.

  1. Retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin D status in European adolescents; regional differences an variability: A review Estado de retinol, β-caroteno, α-tocopherol y vitamina D en adolescentes europeos; diferencias regionales y variabilidad: revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valtueña

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, blood levels to define vitamin deficiency or optimal status in adolescents are extrapolated from adults. This may be not adequate as vitamin requirements during adolescence depend on the process of sexual maturation, rapid increasing height and weight, among other factors. In order to establish the state of the art, Medline database (www.ncvi.nlm.nih.gov was searched for studies published in Europe between 1981 and 2010 related to liposoluble vitamin status in adolescents. A comparison of the vitamin status published in the reviewed articles was difficult due to the lack of studies, lack of consensus on cut-off levels indicating deficiency and optimal vitamin levels and the different age-ranges used. In spite of that, deficiency prevalence varied for vitamin D (13-72%, vitamin A (3%, E (25% and β-carotene (14-19%. Additional factors were considered as possible determinants. We conclude that it is necessary to establish a consensus on acceptable ranges and cut-offs of these vitamins during adolescence. Representative data are still missing; therefore, there is a high need to get deeper into the investigation on liposoluble vitamins in this population group.En la actualidad, los diferentes valores sanguíneos que definen un estado óptimo o deficiente de vitaminas liposolubles en los adolescentes son extrapolados de los adultos. Sin embargo, podría no ser lo adecuado debido a que los requerimientos vitamínicos de los adolescentes están marcados por el proceso de maduración sexual y crecimiento entre otros factores. Para establecer el punto de partida, la base de datos Medline (www.ncvi.nlm.nih.gov ha sido el medio utilizado para la búsqueda de los estudios publicados sobre el estado en vitaminas liposolubles en adolescentes europeos entre los años 1981 y 2010. Comparar los diferentes resultados obtenidos en los diferentes estudios fue difícil debido a la carencia de estudios, a la falta de consenso en los puntos de corte que

  2. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil Influência do método de extração e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenóides do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.Este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenoides totais do óleo de pequi (OP obtido por diferentes métodos de extração, bem como avaliar a conservação dessas propriedades e dos pigmentos durante o armazenamento. O OP foi obtido por extração com solventes, extração mecânica e flotação com água quente, e armazenado por 180 dias em frascos âmbar sob condições ambientes. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos índices de acidez, peróxido, saponificação e iodo, da coloração e do teor de carotenoides totais e de β-carotenos. Verificou-se que a extração com solventes promoveu um maior rendimento em óleo e o maior valor de carotenoides totais. A extração mecânica resultou em um óleo com acidez (5,44 mg KOH.g-1 e índice de peróxido (1,07 mEq.kg-1 elevados. Ao longo do armazenamento do OP, houve aumento da

  3. Fotofísica de carotenóides e o papel antioxidante de b-caroteno Photophysics of carotenoids and the antioxidant role of b-carotene

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Luis Cardoso

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid polyenes play a wide role in nature and their photophysical properties make of these pigments a focus of research in photochemistry, photobiology and photomedicine. Some aspects of the singlet and triplet states and, their interaction with molecular and singlet oxygen and free radicals are briefly reviewed in this article.

  4. Fotofísica de carotenóides e o papel antioxidante de b-caroteno Photophysics of carotenoids and the antioxidant role of b-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luis Cardoso

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid polyenes play a wide role in nature and their photophysical properties make of these pigments a focus of research in photochemistry, photobiology and photomedicine. Some aspects of the singlet and triplet states and, their interaction with molecular and singlet oxygen and free radicals are briefly reviewed in this article.

  5. Prediction of ß-Carotene Solubility at Supercritical Conditions Using Regular Solutions Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Davarnejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to model the extraction of carotenoid with supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent used. Experimental data for the high pressure vapor liquid phase equilibrium of the binary system carbon dioxide-carotenoid are reviewed for the elevated temperature 313.15, 323.15, 333.15 K and pressure up to 500 bar. The experimental data were correlated and modeled using Redlich Kwong equation of state and regular solution methods. The use of equation of state as an empirical correlation for collating and predicting liquid-liquid and liquid-dense fluid equilibria is discussed. It is concluded that the estimation of some of theparameters required for these calculations would be difficult if the solute (carotenoid was a complex substance about which little was known apart from its structural formula. An alternative procedure is to apply activity coefficient expression of the regular solution theory type to each phase. Calculations along these lines are described and the physical basis for applying these methods under the relevant conditions discussed. The regular solution theory approach in particular has been found to be encouraging for the mutual miscibility calculations for heavy components (such as carotenoid particularly substances sensitive to temperature, though the interaction parameters for the prediction activity coefficients must be regarded as pressure dependent.

  6. Modelling potential ß-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava, a staple crop in Africa, can be crossbred to improve its pro-vitamin A (PVA) content and used as an alternative to capsule supplementation. However it contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic...

  7. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Gupta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2% from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk. The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano-capsules could be achieved using isabgol fiber as encapsulant. However it was observed that the nano-capsules followed a non-Fickian diffusion pattern. Good DPPH-radical scavenging and metal-chelation activities were observed for encapsulated carotenoids. Shelf-life studies showed that the nano-capsules gradually degraded at 97% relative humidity, as the moisture-induced rancidity was evidently not extensive.En el presente trabajo los carotenos fueron aislados (1,2% a partir de aceite de palma crudo y encapsulados con fibra de isabgol (cáscara de psyllium. La eficiencia de encapsulación fue 82,23±1,42 %. La morfología de las cápsulas mostró una textura áspera de la superficie con mínimos poros. La naturaleza amorfa de las nanocápsulas fue evidenciada a partir de patrones de difracción de rayos X. Los estudios de DSC mostraron una alta estabilidad térmica de las nanocápsulas entre 20–120 °C. En los estudios de liberación in vitro se vió que la liberación controlada de las nanocápsulas se podría lograr mediante fibra isabgol como encapsulante. Sin embargo se observó que las nanocápsulas siguieron un patrón de difusión no- Fickian. Se observaron buenas actividades DPPH captadoras de radicales y actividades de quelación de metal para carotenoides encapsulados. Los estudios sobre la vida útil mostraron que las nanocápsulas se degradan gradualmente con una humedad relativa del 97%, y aunque la humedad indujo el enranciamiento, este hecho no se puede generalizar.

  8. Raman microspectroscopy of algal lipid bodies: beta-carotene as a volume sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilát, Zdeněk; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír; Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, L.; Trtílek, M.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2011, 83060L:1-7. ISBN 978-0-8194-8953-1. [Photonics, Devices, and Systems V. Praha (CZ), 24.08.2011-26.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Raman microspectroscopy * microalgae * Trachydiscus minutus * biotechnology * optical tweezers * microfluidics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  9. Beta-carotene to bacteriochlorophyll-c energy transfer in self-assembled aggregates mimicking chlorosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alster, J.; Polívka, Tomáš; Arellano, J.B.; Chábera, P.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2010), s. 90-97. ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * chlorosomes * energy transfer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  10. An investigation of anti-oxidant properties of salvia, conducting beta-carotene bleaching assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; ABEDPOUR, Marziyeh; ABDOSHEIKHI, Meysam; AHMADI, Elmira; ABEDI, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the large amount of oils, Salvia (officinalis species) has always been one of the most popular medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. In this theses, the aerial parts of the plant Salvia officinalis were collected from greenhouses of Shiraz city and dried in shade for 15 days. Its essential oil was extracted using Clevenger method and analyzed using Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectrometer. Twenty compound was analyzed in the essential oil of salvia as the main compounds...

  11. Synthesis, characterization, stability evaluation and release kinetics of fiber-encapsulated carotene nano-capsules

    OpenAIRE

    Sen Gupta, S.; Ghosh, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, carotenoids were isolated (1.2%) from crude palm oil and encapsulated with isabgol fiber (Psyllium husk). The efficiency of encapsulation was 82.23±1.42%. The morphology of the capsules showed rough surface texture with minimal pores. The amorphous natures of the nano-capsules was obvious from X-ray diffraction patterns. DSC studies showed high thermal stability of the nano-capsules between 20–120 °C. In vitro release studies revealed that controlled release from the nano...

  12. Beta-Carotene in Prevention of Cow’s Obstetric- Gynecological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiia DMITRIEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the livestock industry is the decisive role of healthy reproduction. The aim of this study was to use "Carofertin" for the preventive purpose of obstetric pathology in high-productive cows (every 10 days and compare with the action of vitamin A. Prophylactic effectiveness of "Carofertin" was defined for prevention of obstetric pathology of high-productive cows whose were predisposed to diseases of parturient (the incidence of retention placenta: 21.7±0.4%, 43.5±0.41%, 65.2±0.38% (P<0.01 and postnatal periods too. The incidence of uterus subinvolution was 13.0±0.34% in the first group, 43.48±0.5% in the second group and 56.5±0.49% in the third group (P<0.001. The incidence of acute puerperal endometritis was 26.0±0.44% in the first group, 34.78±0.49% in the second group and 52.0±0.49% in the third group (P<0.001. We used biochemical and clinical analysis of blood samples to assess the impact of the drug on the functional metabolism and general methods of clinical examination (including rectal and vaginal examination for control over the parturition and puerperal period. It is important to study the problems of obstetric pathology in cows especially during the late stall period and to improve preventive measures.

  13. Effect of β-carotene integration to Italian trotter mares in peripartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Falaschini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy trotter horses begin racing activity in the summer, two years after their birth year, so that the foals born in the first months of the year are better developed than those born in late spring-summer. As it is known, mares are characterised by an oestrus cyclic activity, which founds its best time in spring. The management of trotter mares tries to anticipate the foaling at first months of the year and therefore the next oestrus cycle, too...

  14. Overexpression of beta-carotene hydroxylase enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, P.A.; Hunter, C N; Horton, P.

    2002-01-01

    Plant stress caused by extreme environmental conditions is already a principal reason for yield reduction in crops. The threat of global environment change makes it increasingly important to generate crop plants that will withstand such conditions. Stress, particularly stress caused by increased sunlight, leads to the production of reactive oxygen species that cause photo-oxidative cell damage. Carotenoids, which are present in the membranes of all photosynthetic organisms, help protect again...

  15. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.; Hof, K.H.V.; Linssen, J.P.H.; West, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P <0.01) erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and lower (P <0.05) erythrocyte catalase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...... with the control group. Consumption of the carotenoid supplement led to lower alpha-tocopherol responses (P = 0.02) compared with the basic diet only. Our data suggest that the short-term changes in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration can be attributed to...

  16. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.;

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...

  17. Efficacy of beta-carotene rich sweet potato to improve vitamin a status of Bangladeshi women - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children, which also increases the risk of disease and death from severe infections. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is a good source of pro-vitamin A and has been successfully tried in African countries as an effective means to ensure adequate intake of pro-vitamin A by mothers and children. We have conducted a randomized controlled trial in an urban poor community of Bangladesh to examine the efficacy of two different preparations of OFSP in women with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The subjects (n=120) were aged between 18-35 years with serum retinol 90 g/L and CRP 2H4]-retinyl acetate) was given orally to determine total body vitamin A pool size. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatment groups to receive 6 d/wk for 60 days: (1) boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP); (2) 600 μg RAE as boiled OFSP; (3) 600 μg RAE as fried OFSP; or (4) 600 μg RAE as a retinyl palmitate capsule, and boiled WFSP. Night vision of the subjects was assessed, as a proxy for vitamin A status, before and after intervention by performing 'dark adaptation test'. Blood samples collected before and after intervention were light-protected and stored on ice until plasma was separated, and then stored at - 20C until shipment to University of California Davis under frozen condition. The samples will be analyzed in UC Davis for plasma isotopic ratios using GC-MS following the isolation of retinol from plasma with HPLC, to determine vitamin A pool size before and after supplementation. The preliminary results from partial analysis of the available data will be presented. (author)

  18. An intramolecular charge transfer state of carbonyl carotenoids: implications for excited state dynamics of apo-carotenals and retinal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kaligotla, S.; Chábera, P.; Frank, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 22 (2011), s. 1463-9076. ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoid * retinal * excited-state dynamics * charge-transfer state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  19. The effects of supraphysiological supplementation of b-carotene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and SHR-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Karlos Alvim Fiorelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effect of administration of supraphysiological âcaroteno on biological parameters (ectoscopy and blood pressure, laboratory (malondialdehyde and histological (liver and carotid arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats prone to stroke (SHR-sp. Methods: we used 36 male rats were divided into three groups, each containing 12 rats Wistar, SHR and SHR-sp, subdivided into six control animals and six animals treated with supraphysiological doses of âcaroteno for two periods of ten weeks interspersed with one week interruption. In the experiment were assessed daily physical examination and blood pressure (plethysmography. At sacrifice, blood was collected for measurement of serum malondialdehyde, liver and carotid arteries for histological examination. Results: temporary change in color of the fur, decreased significantly (p<0.0001 blood pressure (20mg supplementation âcaroteno and serum levels of malondialdehyde (p<0.05 and increased amount of elastic fibers in the carotid wall of SHR and SHR-sp. Conclusion: supplementation of supraphysiological âcaroteno caused no toxic effects, showed positive response in the modulation of blood pressure and lower serum malondialdehyde. No significant morphological changes were found in both groups, except an increase in the number of elastic fibers in the muscle layer carotid suggesting elastosis in SHR and SHR-sp.

  20. Polycistronic expression of a ß-carotene biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae coupled to ß-ionone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, J.; Rossum, H.M.; Koopman, F.; Sonntag, F.; Buchhaupt, M.; Schrader, J.; Hall, R.D.; Bosch, H.J.; Pronk, J.T.; Maris, van A.J.A.; Daran, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The flavour and fragrance compound ß-ionone, which naturally occurs in raspberry and many other fruits and flowers, is currently produced by synthetic chemistry. This study describes a synthetic biology approach for ß-ionone production from glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is partially based

  1. Serum retinol of Chadian nomadic pastoralist women in relation to their livestocks' milk retinol and beta-carotene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Daoud, Saada; Schierle, Josef; Hofmann, Peter; Diguimbaye, Colette; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Ndoutamia, Guelmbaye; Knopf, Lea; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel

    2002-07-01

    Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% were moderately retinol-deficient (0.35 mol/L fresh vegetables were reported consumed in the past 24 hours. Milk is the almost exclusive source of vitamin A for these populations. Goats (n = 6) had the highest average milk retinol level (329 +/- 84 micrograms/kg [mean +/- SEM]), followed by cattle (n = 25; 247 +/- 32 micrograms/kg), and camels (n = 12; 120 +/- 18 micrograms/kg). Milk retinol levels did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons. Human serum retinol depends significantly on livestock milk retinol levels (partial slope 0.23; 95% CI: 0.008-0.47). Our study supports the use of goat and cow milk as an important source of vitamin A in pastoral nomadic settings. However, the levels still require to be complemented further by promoting green leafy vegetables, fruits, and supplements. PMID:12214559

  2. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition. PMID:17147745

  3. Iron in Relation to Gastric Cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Michael B.; Kamangar, Farin; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Philip R.; Abnet, Christian C.; Wood, Richard J.; Petty, Gayle; Cross, Amanda J.; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential micronutrient that can have carcinogenic effects when at high or low concentrations. Previous studies of iron in relation to gastric cancer have not assessed subtype-specific relationships. We used the prospective ATBC Cancer Prevention Study to assess whether iron metrics were associated with gastric cardia cancer (GCC) and gastric noncardia cancer (GNCC). Methods We selected 341 incident gastric cancer cases (86 cardia, 172 noncardia, and 83 non-specified), accrued during 22 years of follow-up, and 341 individually matched controls. We measured prediagnostic serum iron, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), and C-reactive protein. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation were estimated from these metrics. Dietary iron exposures were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Serum iron metrics were not associated with GCC, except for a potential ‘n’-shaped relationship with TIBC (global p=0.038). GNCC was inversely associated with serum ferritin (global p=0.024), serum iron (global p=0.060) and, possibly, transferrin saturation. TIBC appeared to share a ‘u’shaped relationship with GNCC (global p=0.033). Dietary iron exposures were not associated with either subsite. Adjustment for Helicobacter pylori and gastric atrophy had little effect on observed associations. Conclusions We found little evidence for the involvement of iron exposure in the pathogenesis of GCC. GNCC was associated with an iron profile similar to that of iron deficiency. PMID:23001240

  4. Penentuan Kadar Karoten Pada Crude Palm Oil (Cpo) Dengan Menggunakan Pelarut N-Heksan Secara Spektrofotometri

    OpenAIRE

    Sibarani, Fitrya Novi

    2015-01-01

    One of substance in Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is carotene as orange to bright red colour. The content of carotene based on ISO (International Standard Organisation) in which the good carotene content is minimal 500 ppm.Carotene consist of 36% α-carotene dan 54% β-carotene in CPO. In order to calculate the carotene content, analysis and observation is conducted by using spectrophotometric genesys.Based on result of analysis, the average of carotene is minimal 500-700 ppm, because the kind of crude ...

  5. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    fatty acids (FA) in a variety of forage legumes and non-legume forb species compared to a grass-clover mixture and to explore implications for animal-derived products. Seven dicotyledons [four forbs (salad burnet ( Sanguisorba minor ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), chicory ( Cichorium intybus ), and ribwort...... 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, and analyses of variance were performed. In addition, three other forbs were grown: borage ( Borago officinalis ), viper's bugloss ( Echium vulgare ), and chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium ). Lucerne and yellow sweet clover had the...... (33.7-35.7 g 100 g(-1) FA) proportions of n-3 FA. This study demonstrated higher vitamin concentrations in some forbs compared with major forages such as lucerne and grass-clover, more total FA in salad burnet, caraway, and birdsfoot trefoil than in lucerne, and higher n-3 FA concentrations in all...

  6. Beta-Carotene chemical stability in nanoemulsions was improved by stabilized with Beta-Lactoglobulin-Catechin conjugates through free radical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-catechin conjugates were prepared by a free radical method and investigated with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Covalent binding between BLG and cat...

  7. Effect of zinc and fat intake on absorption and conversion of ingested β-carotene to vitamin A in lactating Indonesian women. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant foods are the major source of vitamin A for most of the world's poor population, but low bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids from these foods severely limits the supply of vitamin A. Enhancement of this bioefficacy is required to increase the efficacy and effectiveness of dietary interventions aimed at controlling vitamin A deficiency disorders in developing countries

  8. Development and identification of SSR markers associated with starch properties and β-carotene content in the storage root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kai eZhang; Zheng-dan eWu; Dao-bin eTang; Chang-wen eLv; Kai eLuo; Yong eZhao; Xun eLiu; Yuan-xin eHuang; Ji-chun eWang

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of...

  9. Development and Identification of SSR Markers Associated with Starch Properties and β-Carotene Content in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhengdan; Tang, Daobin; Lv, Changwen; Luo, Kai; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xun; Huang, Yuanxin; Wang, Jichun

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a nutritious food crop and, based on the high starch content of its storage root, a potential bioethanol feedstock. Enhancing the nutritional value and starch quantity of storage roots are important goals of sweet potato breeding programs aimed at developing improved varieties for direct consumption, processing, and industrial uses. However, developing improved lines of sweet potato is challenging due to the genetic complexity of this plant and the lack of...

  10. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  11. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2014-01-01

    (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...... were measured in Swedish Holstein cows (n = 28) during 2 complete lactations. All cows were fed a 100% organic diet containing grass-legume silage, cold-pressed rapeseed cake, peas, cereal grains, and minerals. Blood samples were collected from each cow 3 wk before expected calving, at calving, and 3...... wk, 3 to 5 mo, and 7 to 9 mo after calving. Samples of colostrum were taken and milk samples were collected 4 d after calving and at the same time as the 3 blood samplings after calving. The only difference in vitamin status between groups was found in colostrum in yr 1, when CON cows tended to have...

  12. Controlled release of B-carotene in B-lactoglobulin-dextran conjugates nanoparticles in vitro digestion and the transport with Caco-2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undesirable aggregation of nanoparticles stabilized by proteins may may occur at the protein’s isoelectric point when the particle has zero net charge. Aggregation may be reduced bychanging the isoelectric point by conjugation of free amino groups with reducing sugars (Maillard reaction). Alternativ...

  13. Influência da borra de café no desenvolvimento de hortícolas: clorofilas e carotenóides em alfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Raquel; Ferreira, Anabela Dias; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, J. A.; Casal, Susana

    2010-01-01

    A utilização de borra de café na agricultura domestica é uma prática popular, apesar de não existir evidencia cientifica da sua efectividade ou mesmo segurança. A borra de café é um resíduo orgânico ainda com uma importante quantidade de compostos, alguns dos quais com bioactividade, como sejam a cafeína ou os ácidos clorogénicos.

  14. A dietary oxidative balance score of vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron intakes and mortality risk in male smoking Belgians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoydonck, van P.G.A.; Temme, E.H.M.; Schouten, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in smokers, whether the oxidative balance of their dietary pattern affected mortality risk. To evaluate the oxidative balance of the dietary pattern, an oxidative balance score was constructed that summarized the combined intake of dietary antioxidants (

  15. Vitamin A-Deficient Diet Accelerated Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E−/− Mice and Dietary β-Carotene Prevents This Consequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is involved in regulation of glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, and inflammation, which are major risk factors for atherogenesis. However, the effect of vitamin A deficiency on atherogenesis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine whether vitamin A deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE−/−. ApoE−/− mice were allocated into the following groups: control, fed vitamin A-containing chow diet; BC, fed chow diet fortified with Dunaliella powder containing βc isomers; VAD, fed vitamin A-deficient diet; and VAD-BC group, fed vitamin A-deficient diet fortified with a Dunaliella powder. Following 15 weeks of treatment, liver retinol concentration had decreased significantly in the VAD group to about 30% that of control group. Vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased both plasma cholesterol concentrations and the atherosclerotic lesion area at the aortic sinus (+61% compared to the control group. Dietary βc fortification inhibited the elevation in plasma cholesterol and retarded atherogenesis in mice fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. The results imply that dietary vitamin A deficiency should be examined as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and that dietary βc, as a sole source of retinoids, can compensate for vitamin A deficiency.

  16. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aya Aoki; Maiko Inoue; Elizabeth Nguyen; Ryo Obata; Kazuaki Kadonosono; Shoji Shinkai; Hideki Hashimoto; Satoshi Sasaki; Yasuo Yanagi

    2016-01-01

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were c...

  17. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    OpenAIRE

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expres...

  18. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A. PMID:12012567

  19. Prevention of radiation damages with antioxidative nutritional factors and analysis of the modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the good conditions of diet to storage of carotene and not to decrease vitamin E in organ. When carotene and Na cholate were added to diet, the cumulative dose in rat organ (plasma, liver and bone marrow) increased about ten times, and the vitamin E did not decrease. The best conditions were 50 mg carotene and 50 mg Na cholate per 100 mg diet. Next, using the above diet, the protective effect of carotene in palm oil to the radiation damage was investigated. It was clear that the palm oil carotene with α-carotene and β-carotene protected increase of DNA damage in bone marrow, and decrease of peripheral leukocyte and survival of rat after irradiation, α-carotene was thought to have these activities. (S.Y.)

  20. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carotenoid is beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by substances called ... A can lead to hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. If you get too much vitamin A, you ...

  1. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran K; Nair P

    1992-01-01

    A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  2. Sebzelerin Hazırlanması ve Pişirilmesi Sırasında Oluşan Vitamin Kayıpları

    OpenAIRE

    Ünver, Bahtiyar

    1988-01-01

    Preparation, cooking procedures, various storage conditions and processing procedures, holding cooked vegetables several days and reheating affect vitamin content of vegetables. Provitamin A, carotene, is water insoluble and fairly stable to heat. Loss of carotene in vegetables during processing occurs by conversion of all-trans carotene to cis-isomers with lower biopotency values. Loss of carotene in fresh vegetables is related to time, temperature and humidity of the storage conditions. Con...

  3. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations......, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago...

  4. Study on Content of Nitrate, Vitamin C and Carotene in Basella Rubra%落葵中硝酸盐、维生素C及胡萝卜素含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书霞; 肖生鸿

    2006-01-01

    对野生落葵不同生长发育阶段所含的硝酸盐、维生素C及胡萝卜素进行了测定和分析,并将野生落葵和人工栽培落葵所含的以上成分进行了比较.结果表明,落葵富含胡萝卜素,维生素C含量中等,野生落葵硝酸盐含量较低,人工栽培落葵硝酸盐含量比野生落葵高出近1倍,须经煮熟后方可安全食用.

  5. Investigating the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a in the content life of halophytes of algae Chlorella sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Fathi; Alireza Asem

    2013-01-01

    Algae are used for many purposes as: food industry, animal feeding, soil enrichment andbiodiesel production. Chlorella is widely cultivated from microalgae species as it is rich in nutrients andhas its implementation as a healthy food use. In this study, the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, betacarotene,and chlorophyll a of Chlorella sp. has been investigated. This study results in three salinities(10, 30, 50 g L-1, respectively) have shown that 30 g L-1 concentration has the highest value ...

  6. 观赏向日葵ζ-胡萝卜素脱氢酶基因HaZDS的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression of ζ-carotene Desatura Gene in Ornamental Sunflower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟淮钦; 吴建设; 黄敏玲; 樊荣辉; 罗远华; 林兵; 叶秀仙

    2015-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从观赏向日葵新品种闽葵3号黄色花瓣中克隆获得类胡萝卜素合成途径关键酶基因ZDS,命名为HaZDS(GenBank No.KF263657),该基因cDNA全长2069 bp,具有一个1761 bp的完整开放阅读框(ORF),编码587个氨基酸.推导氨基酸序列分析表明,HaZDS蛋白在N-末端区域含有一个叶绿体转运肽序列,含有一个典型的氨基氧化酶结构域和NAD(P)结合结构域,存在一个特征序列.系统发育分析表明,观赏向日葵HaZDS与万寿菊、菊花蛋白的同源性分别达96.4%、90.1%,亲缘关系较近.利用实时荧光定量PCR技术分析结果显示,HaZDS基因在盛花期表达量最高,不同组织中的表达量舌状花瓣>绿色管状花>苞片>叶片>黑色管状花,随着花瓣黄色的加深,基因表达量逐渐增加.推测HaZDS基因在转录水平上参与观赏向日葵花色形成的调控.

  7. Fatores que influenciam a reação de saponificação dos carotenóides presentes no urucum (Bixa orellana L. Factors that influence saponification reaction in annatto (Bixa orellana L. carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Ibrahim Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de KOH (0,6%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% e 5% e temperatura de extração (25ºC, 50°C, 60°C e 70°C na reação de saponificação dos principais pigmentos de urucum. O progresso da reação foi acompanhado pela quantificação do teor de bixina e de norbixina por meio de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. A maior concentração de base propiciou a maior conversão de bixina em norbixina (KOH 5% - bixina: 0,44 g.100g-1, norbixina: 1,43 g.100g-1 e com a menor concentração não ocorreu conversão (KOH 0,6% - bixina: 2,00 g.100g-1, norbixina: não detectada. A elevação da temperatura de extração esteve associada à redução do teor de bixina no meio e ao aumento do teor de norbixina (T70°C - bixina: 0,01 g.100g-1, norbixina: 2,34 g.100g-1; T25ªC - bixina: 1,04 g.100g-1, norbixina: 0,78 g.100g-1. Sendo assim, para extração de bixina seria recomendado o uso de soluções alcalinas pouco concentradas, ao passo que para a obtenção do pigmento hidrossolúvel são aconselhadas concentrações mais elevadas, podendo estar associadas a aquecimento.This research aimed to evaluate the effect of different KOH concentrations (0.6%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% and extraction temperature (25ºC, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C on the progress of saponification reaction in annatto pigments. The progress of the reaction was monitored by quantification of bixin and norbixin using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The highest alkali concentration made possible the maximum conversion of bixin into norbixin (KOH 5% - bixin: 0.44 g.100g-1, norbixin: 1.43 g.100g-1 and using the lowest concentration, saponification didn't take place (KOH 0.6% - bixin: 2.00 g.100g-1, norbixin: not detected. The elevation of extraction temperature was associated to a decrease of bixin content and to an increase of norbixin content (T70°C - bixin: 0.01 g.100g-1, norbixin: 2.34 g.100g-1; T25ºC - bixin: 1.04 g.100g-1, norbixin: 0.78 g.100g-1. Therefore, for the extraction of bixin is recommended to use alkaline solutions in low concentrations. To obtain the hydrossoluble pigment, higher concentrations are suggested, and they could be associated to heating.

  8. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira; Álvaro Souto Padrón de Figueiredo; Rosane de Souza Santos; Lucia Marques Vianna

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Investigar se a suplementação com doses suprafisiológicas de beta-caroteno exerce efeito positivo no controle da hipertensão arterial, e detectar possíveis efeitos adversos dessa suplementação. MÉTODOS: Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (n=12) e normotensos (n=12) com 20 semanas, foram submetidos a um período basal de 10 dias, e subdivididos em 4 grupos de 6 animais, suplementados com beta-caroteno em três diferentes doses: 2,5mg, 3,75mg e 5,0mg por animal, via gavagem orogástrica d...

  9. Carotenóides: propriedades, aplicações e biotransformação para formação de compostos de aroma Carotenoids: properties, applications and biotransformation in flavor compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Uenojo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are widely distributed in nature, providing yellow, orange or red color in a great number of vegetables, microorganisms and in some animals. Carotenoids act as biological antioxidants and seem to play an important role in human health by protecting cells and tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Several authors describe the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids in flavor compounds as occuring through chemical or photochemical degradations or through biotechnological processes. Biotransformation of carotenoids seems to be a reasonable alternative to produce flavor compounds since these compounds are considered 'natural' ingredients. In this work we describe the properties of some carotenoids, as well as biotechnological approaches to obtain its oxyfunctionalized derivatives.

  10. A new method for analysis of plasma carotenoids in poultry Novo método para dosagem de carotenóides plasmáticos em aves domésticas

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, M.; C.H.A. Meleiro

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate a new quantitative analytical technique for determination of plasma carotenoids in poultry. Plasma carotenoides were extracted and measured from 30 blood samples of male Cobb broilers. The new technique was efficient in detecting plasma carotenoids of chickens and also showed advantages upon those techniques currently in use such as the form of presentation of results, use of a compatible solvent, and the scanning method for reading. The new technique did n...

  11. Efeitos do betacaroteno e do tabagismo sobre a remodelação cardíaca pós-infarto do miocárdio Effects of beta-carotene and smoking on heart remodeling after myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. M. Zornoff; Duarte, Daniella R; Marcos F. Minicucci; Azevedo, Paula S.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Luiz S. Matsubara; Álvaro O. Campana; Paiva, Sergio A.R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do betacaroteno no processo de remodelação ventricular após o infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), em ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro. MÉTODOS: Após o IAM, os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1) grupo C, 24 animais que receberam dieta-padrão; 2) grupo BC, 26 animais que receberam betacaroteno; 3) grupo EFC, 26 animais que receberam dieta-padrão e foram expostos à fumaça de cigarro; e 4) grupo BC+EFC, 20 animais que receberam betacaroteno e foram expostos...

  12. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K; Jensen, S K; Steinshamn, H; Thuen, E; Gustavsson, A - M

    2012-01-01

    three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...

  13. Vegetable consumption and carotenoids in plasma and adipose tissue in Malaga, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Aracena, J.; Bogers, R.P.; Veer, van 't P.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Wedel, H.; Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas, J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study relationships between habitual dietary intake, adipose tissue concentrations of alpha-carotene; beta carotene and lycopene, and plasma concentrations of alpha- and beta-carotene. Design: Cross-sectional study including assessment of food habits by a food frequency questionnaire a

  14. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-β), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-ϵ) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-β gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-β gene. PMID:19574250

  15. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes among different genotypes and fruit developmental stages identified Actinidia lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-beta) as the gene whose expression pattern appeared to be associated with both total carotenoid and beta-carotene accumulation. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) expression was the least variable among the different genotypes, while zeta carotene desaturase (ZDS), beta-carotene hydroxylase (CRH-beta), and epsilon carotene hydroxylase (CRH-epsilon) showed some variation in gene expression. The LCY-beta gene was functionally tested in bacteria and shown to convert lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene respectively. This indicates that the accumulation of beta-carotene, the major carotenoid in these kiwifruit species, appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCY-beta gene. PMID:19574250

  16. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXXII. Carotenoids occurring in the thalli of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cartenoids in nineteen species of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa was studied by column and thinlayer chromatography. This investigations revealed the presence of the following carotenoids: neurosporene, α-carotene, β-carotene, rubixanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, torularhodin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, echinenone, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, β-carotene epoxide, antheraxanthin, lutein epoxide, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, flavoxanthin, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-apo-10'-carotenal and apo-12'-violaxanthal. Five of these, torularhodin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal and β-apo-10'-carotenal, are reported for the first time from lichens. The total carotenoid content of the material ranged from 15.88 (Pyxine cocoes to 135.44 µg g-1 dry weight (Telaschistes chrysophthalmus.

  17. The kiwifruit lycopene beta-cyclase plays a significant role in carotenoid accumulation in fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; McGhie, Tony; Wibisono, Reginald; Montefiori, Mirco; Hellens, Roger P.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    The composition of carotenoids, along with anthocyanins and chlorophyll, accounts for the distinctive range of colour found in the Actinidia (kiwifruit) species. Lutein and beta-carotene are the most abundant carotenoids found during fruit development, with beta-carotene concentration increasing rapidly during fruit maturation and ripening. In addition, the accumulation of beta-carotene and lutein is influenced by the temperature at which harvested fruit are stored. Expression analysis of car...

  18. Diet and subsequent survival in women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, D

    1994-01-01

    Our findings from a previous study, that increased consumption of beta-carotene and vitamin C is associated with favourable prognostic indices in patients with breast cancer, have been borne out by our current study of patient survival over a 6-year period. The results of the current study point to beta-carotene consumption as the dietary variable most significantly associated with improved survival. Only one death occurred in the group with the highest consumption of beta-carotene, while the...

  19. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, M.G.; Oliveira, L.; Camoes, M.F.G.F.C.; Nunes, B.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the ana

  20. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R.; Watzl, B.; Bub, A.; Miller, E.R., III; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Pasman, W.J.; Hof, K. van het; Chopra, M.; Karlsen, A.; Dragsted, L.O.; Winkels, R.; Itsiopoulos, C.; Brazionis, L.; O'Dea, K.; Loo-Bouwman, C.A. van; Naber, T.H.J.; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C concentr

  1. Selection of Astaxanthin-Overproducing Mutants of Phaffia rhodozyma with β-Ionone

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. J.; Ragot, N.; Berlant, M. C.; Miranda, M

    1990-01-01

    β-Ionone, an end ring analog of β-carotene, inhibits astaxanthin production in the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Astaxanthin-overproducing mutants of this yeast are easily spotted on β-ionone-containing yeast malt agar plates. β-Ionone appears to block astaxanthin synthesis at the β-carotene level.

  2. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  3. Application of Photothermal Methods for Quantification of Carotenoids in Apricot Jams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Stéger-Máté, M.; Végvári, Gy

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes, found in a diversity of fruit-containing foods, are important sources of antioxidants; a good example is apricot jam. In the study described in this paper, both the total carotenoid content (TCC) as well as the content of $$\\\\upbeta $$β-carotene in six different apricot jams were quant

  4. Composition and (in)homogeneity of carotenoid crystals in carrot cells revealed by high resolution Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maciej; Marzec, Katarzyna M.; Grzebelus, Ewa; Simon, Philipp W.; Baranska, Malgorzata; Baranski, Rafal

    2015-02-01

    Three categories of roots differing in both β/α-carotene ratio and in total carotenoid content were selected based on HPLC measurements: high α- and β-carotene (HαHβ), low α- and high β-carotene (LαHβ), and low α- and low β-carotene (LαLβ). Single carotenoid crystals present in the root cells were directly measured using high resolution Raman imaging technique with 532 nm and 488 nm lasers without compound extraction. Crystals of the HαHβ root had complex composition and consisted of β-carotene accompanied by α-carotene. In the LαHβ and LαLβ roots, measurements using 532 nm laser indicated the presence of β-carotene only, but measurements using 488 nm laser confirmed co-occurrence of xanthophylls, presumably lutein. Thus the results show that independently on carotenoid composition in the root, carotenoid crystals are composed of more than one compound. Individual spectra extracted from Raman maps every 0.2-1.0 μm had similar shapes in the 1500-1550 cm-1 region indicating that different carotenoid molecules were homogeneously distributed in the whole crystal volume. Additionally, amorphous carotenoids were identified and determined as composed of β-carotene molecules but they had a shifted the ν1 band probably due to the effect of bonding of other plant constituents like proteins or lipids.

  5. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  6. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

  7. LIKUIFASI ENZIMATIK β - KAROTEN SEBAGAI FUNCTIONAL FOOD YANG TERDAPAT DALAM POMACE DARI BUAH LABU KUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosa Herry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to separate the β carotene contained in pomace or pulp byproduct pumpkin fruit juicing process(Cucurbitae moschata is potential. The magnitude of benefit of β-carotene as a chemo preventive, high contentof β-carotene in pumpkin, strong pumpkin fruit shelf life and high content of β-carotene in the pomace, an initialconsideration of this research. β-Carotene enzmatik liquefaction using pectinase enzyme combination (P andcellulose (C, subject to the pomace. liquefaction / hydrolysis carried out in a stirred tank reactor to determine:the most influential variable ratio between enzyme ratio P: C; temperature and pH. Influential process variableswas determined using two-level factorial design method Quicker. From the experimental results of the data if itis known that the degree of acidity of pH is the single most influential variable in the process of β-caroteneliquefaction presents in pumpkin fruit pomace.

  8. Reaction of carotenoids with CCl3OO· by using pulse radiolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文恩; 姚思德; 王强; 钱素平; 王文峰; 韩雅珊

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of carotenoids (bixin, β-carotene and lycopene) with CCl3OO@ in aqueous and i-propylalcohol solution saturated with air have been studied by pulse radiolysis. For bixin and β-carotene reaction products from forming process, absorbing in the region of 650 nm, is observed with concomitant carotenoid bleaching (bixin at 500 nm, β-carotene at 450 nm). Their rate constants from forming process are 1.78×108 and 7.8×107 mol-1@L@s-1 respectively. However, in the case of lycopene, no such a forming process of reaction as bixin and β-carotene can be observed although there is the bleaching reaction (rate constant 4×107 mol-1@L@s-1). The results suggest that the carotenoid radical cationand an additional radical are produced in the case of bixin and β-carotene, whereas lycopene undergoes electron transfer with CCl3OO@, forming cation radical.

  9. Studies on Cultivation of D.Salina and Its Accumulation of β-Carotene by the Use of a Novel Helix Tube Photo Bioreactor%小型螺旋管式光生物反应器培养盐藻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建国; 朱跃辉; 黄洋

    2004-01-01

    遵循光生物反应器设计的普适原则试制了1 L容积的新型玻璃螺旋管式光生物反应器,设计了玻璃螺旋管内嵌日光灯的光照单元.光生物反应器培养和室外同体积培养的对比试验结果表明,在培养末期,小型螺旋管式光生物反应器的藻细胞生物量比对照高出50mg/L;β-胡萝卜素产量高出10 mg/L.光生物反应器培养在生物量和β-胡萝卜素累积量上均优于室外自然条件下的培养.

  10. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano = Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Andrade Batista; Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana; José Benício Paes Chaves; Flávia Aparecida Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de a-caroteno, b-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações doano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa) foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Devido ao conteúdo inexpr...

  11. Pré-tratamentos de melaço de cana-de-açúcar e água de maceração de milho para a bioprodução de carotenóides Pretreatment of sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor for the production of carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the pretreatment of sugarcane molasses (CM and corn steep liquor (CS for the production of carotenoids by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636. The acid pretreatment removed less micronutrients than that with activated carbon and led to high removals of Cu and Mn. Reduction in optical density of the prepared medium and removal of glucose from it were 22% and 7% for CM and 95% and 38% for CS, respectively. Total carotenoids obtained with substrates pretreated with acids (541 mg/L were higher than the results obtained when the medium was treated with activated carbon (208 mg/L.

  12. Expression of β-carotene ketolase gene from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast%雨生红球藻β-胡萝卜素酮化酶基因在莱茵衣藻叶绿体中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀琮萍; 阎斌伦; 梁成伟; 苏忠亮; 秦松

    2007-01-01

    雨生红球藻(Haematococcus pluvialis)的β-胡萝卜素酮化酶是虾青素生物合成途径中关键酶之一,本研究通过基因枪法将克隆出的β-胡萝卜素酮化酶基因(bkt),转入莱茵衣藻(Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)的叶绿体中,经过含100mg/L壮观霉素固体培养基筛选得到转化子.通过PCR和基因组酶切Southern杂交分析,证明bkt基因通过同源重组定点整合到转化子的叶绿体基因组中.进一步通过RT-PCR和RT-PCR Southern杂交分析,表明bkt在衣藻转化子中得到表达.

  13. 外源β-胡萝卜素、光照对青霉PT95菌株菌核分化和类胡萝卜素产率的影响%Effect of exogenous β-carotene and illumination on sclerotial differentiation and carotenoid yield of Penicillium sp. PT95

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文婧; 高宇英; 韩建荣

    2005-01-01

    初步研究了外源β-胡萝卜素和光照对青霉PT95菌株菌核分化和类胡萝卜素产率的影响.结果表明,在培养基中加入外源β-胡萝卜素后,PT95菌株渗出液出现的时间、菌核出现的时间延迟了,但菌核成熟的时间没变.培养基中的外源β-胡萝卜素浓度越大,其渗出液、菌核出现的时间越迟.外源β-胡萝卜素亦能降低PT95菌株的脂质过氧化水平和菌核中的类胡萝卜素含量.高氧胁迫的光照培养条件有利于PT95菌株的菌核分化和色素在菌核中的积累;与低氧胁迫的黑暗培养条件相比,其菌核生物量和类胡萝卜素产率分别增加了18.7%和101%.以上实验结果表明,若想获得高的菌核生物量和类胡萝卜素产率,应该尽可能在高氧胁迫、无抗氧化剂存在的条件下培养PT95菌株.

  14. Teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol em leites bovinos comercializados na cidade de São Paulo Amounts of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in cow milk comercialized in the city of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    BIANCHINI Rute; Marilene de Vuono Camargo PENTEADO

    1999-01-01

    Os teores de retinol, beta-caroteno e alfa-tocoferol foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em leites em pó, pasteurizados e esterilizados, comercializados na Cidade de São Paulo. Após a saponificação e extração, os compostos foram determinados simultaneamente utilizando-se coluna de sílica, fase móvel constituída por hexano:isopropanol (99:1) e fluxo de 2,0mL/min. O retinol e o beta-caroteno foram determinados no detector UV/visível e o alfa-tocoferol no detector de ...

  15. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante utilizando sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH• Evaluation of the antioxidant activity using the b-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH scavenging method

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida; Ricardo José dos Santos; Maria Inês Genovese; Franco Maria Lajolo

    2006-01-01

    A atividade antioxidante de extratos de frutas (acerola, amora, açaí e morango) e compostos puros foi avaliada por meio de dois métodos: sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e método de seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH• - 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila). As metodologias foram previamente adaptadas para a realização em microplacas, de forma a reduzir a quantidade de reagentes e amostras necessárias, aumentar o número de análises simultâneas e permitir a automatização das leituras de absorbân...

  16. Carotenóides da cianobactéria Synechocystis pevalekii produzida em condições normais e sob limitação de nutrientes Carotenoids of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis pevalekii produced under normal conditions and under nutrient limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Coelho Müller; Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya; Sergio O. Lourenço

    2003-01-01

    O uso de microalgas e cianobactérias como fontes de nutrientes e substâncias bioativas para alimentos e suplementos alimentares vem despertando grande interesse nos últimos anos. Por meio de cromatografia em coluna aberta com espectrofotometria de absorção, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de conjunto de diodos, cromatografia em camada delgada e reações de grupos funcionais, foram identificados trans-e cis-²-caroteno, equininona, ²-criptoxantina,3-hidroxi-4'-cetocarotenói...

  17. Retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin D status in European adolescents; regional differences an variability: A review Estado de retinol, β-caroteno, α-tocopherol y vitamina D en adolescentes europeos; diferencias regionales y variabilidad: revisión

    OpenAIRE

    J. Valtueña; C. Breidenassel; J. Folle; González-Gross, M

    2011-01-01

    Currently, blood levels to define vitamin deficiency or optimal status in adolescents are extrapolated from adults. This may be not adequate as vitamin requirements during adolescence depend on the process of sexual maturation, rapid increasing height and weight, among other factors. In order to establish the state of the art, Medline database (www.ncvi.nlm.nih.gov) was searched for studies published in Europe between 1981 and 2010 related to liposoluble vitamin status in adolescents. A compa...

  18. 蔬菜粉提取物和β-胡萝卜素对人肺癌细胞增殖和凋亡的影响%EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM VEGETABLE POWDER AND β-CAROTENE ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕全军; 黄承钰; 姚树祥; 吴晓娜; 王瑞淑

    2002-01-01

    目的: 探讨蔬菜粉脂溶性提取物(FEVP)、β-胡萝卜素对人肺癌细胞YTMLC-90增殖和凋亡的影响. 方法: 采用体外培养,细胞毒(MTT法)试验、形态学、DNA凝胶电泳、流式细胞术等方法. 结果: 高、中、低浓度FEVP(分别为相当于β-胡萝卜素2.5×10-6、2.5×10-7、5×10-8 mol/L)和高、中浓度β-胡萝卜素(1×10-4 和1×10-5 mol/L)能显著抑制YTMLC-90细胞增殖.高、中浓度FEVP和高浓度β-胡萝卜素可显著抑制YTMLC-90细胞核分裂.高、中浓度FEVP、高浓度β-胡萝卜素组细胞出现细胞核固缩,染色质凝聚;典型DNA断裂梯状条带;细胞凋亡峰.这些现象符合细胞凋亡的特征. 结论: 蔬菜、β-胡萝卜素可能通过抑制细胞核分裂、诱导凋亡抑制人肺癌细胞增殖,有剂量反应关系,且蔬菜的作用比β-胡萝卜素的作用强.

  19. [Main carotenoids in pressed seeds (Cucurbitae semen) of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. pepo var. styriaca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Z; Molnár, P; Szabó, L G

    1993-09-01

    Various use of the oil-pumpkin offers reason for the phytochemical analysis of seed-meal's carotene pigments. Column chromatography was performed on the adsorbents MgO, Celite and CaCO3 with hexane and benzene as eluents. HPLC separation of different pigments was carried out on a 6 microns reverse phase packing with a ternary gradient elution method using a diode-array detector. The main components of the press-residue were lutein [3,3'-dihydroxy-alpha-carotene = (3R,3'R,6'R)-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol; 52.5%] and beta-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene; 10.1%). In addition to the above-mentioned pigments it was successful to reveal the presence of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, auroxanthin epimers, lutein epoxide, flavoxanthin, chrysanthemaxanthin, 9(9')-cis-lutein, 13(13')-cis-lutein, 15-cis-lutein (central-cis)-lutein, alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene) in small quantities. PMID:8249609

  20. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  1. Conversion of carotenoids into vitamins A(1) and A(2) in two species of freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J; Budowski, P

    1966-12-01

    1. Examination of two zooplankton species predominating in fish ponds, Daphnia magna and Chironomus larvae, revealed the presence of alpha- and beta-carotene, echinenone, canthaxanthin and 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-beta-carotene in Daphnia, and beta-carotene and cryptoxanthin ester in Chironomus. No specific provitamins A(2) (containing a 3,4-dehydro-beta-ionone ring) were detected. 2. Guppies (Lebistes reticulatus) and platies (Xiphophorus variatus) were found to form vitamin A from beta-carotene and from its oxygen-containing derivatives isozeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin. Slight conversion into vitamin A(2) seemed to occur simultaneously. 3,4-Dehydro-3'-hydroxy-beta-carotene formed little vitamin A, and the latter was mainly of the A(2) type. Lutein was devoid of provitamin A properties. 3. In addition to vitamin A, beta-carotene was detected in fish receiving the 4-oxo- and 4-hydroxy-carotenoids. A reaction scheme for the conversion of carotenoids into retinal and and 3,4-dehydroretinal is presented. 4. It is concluded that natural 4-oxo derivatives of beta-carotene may play a significant role as vitamin A precursors for fish. PMID:16742455

  2. Conversion of carotenoids into vitamins A1 and A2 in two species of freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jeana; Budowski, P.

    1966-01-01

    1. Examination of two zooplankton species predominating in fish ponds, Daphnia magna and Chironomus larvae, revealed the presence of α- and β-carotene, echinenone, canthaxanthin and 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-β-carotene in Daphnia, and β-carotene and cryptoxanthin ester in Chironomus. No specific provitamins A2 (containing a 3,4-dehydro-β-ionone ring) were detected. 2. Guppies (Lebistes reticulatus) and platies (Xiphophorus variatus) were found to form vitamin A from β-carotene and from its oxygen-containing derivatives isozeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin. Slight conversion into vitamin A2 seemed to occur simultaneously. 3,4-Dehydro-3′-hydroxy-β-carotene formed little vitamin A, and the latter was mainly of the A2 type. Lutein was devoid of provitamin A properties. 3. In addition to vitamin A, β-carotene was detected in fish receiving the 4-oxo- and 4-hydroxy-carotenoids. A reaction scheme for the conversion of carotenoids into retinal and and 3,4-dehydroretinal is presented. 4. It is concluded that natural 4-oxo derivatives of β-carotene may play a significant role as vitamin A precursors for fish. PMID:16742455

  3. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

  4. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton1875 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton1875 beta-carotene -monooxygenase Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 443 CAGACGAAGACATGT ... CGCTTTATGGAAGTACAGATACAAGTGTGAAG mb05043 1 Retinal pigment ... epithelium-specific protein b [Danio rerio] AAH921 ...

  5. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... and showed that an experimental combination of three anti-oxidant vitamins (C, E, and beta carotene) and ...

  6. Provitamin a activity of Brazilian carrots: leaves and roots, raw and cooked and their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo Almeida-Muradian

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine through carotenoid analysis, the provitamin A value of two carrots (Daucus carota L. cultivars (Brasilia and Beta3, leaves and roots, raw and submitted to two ways of cooking: boiling and microwave. Proximate analysis results are also presented for a better characterization of these vegetables (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fiber and total carbohydrates. The main carotenoids sources of provitamin A in this vegetable, both in leaves or roots was β-carotene and α-carotene. α-carotene shows half of the provitamin A value of β-carotene. Samples of the Brasilia cultivar presented the better provitamin A value both for leaves and roots. The results for raw samples of the Brasilia cultivar were 464.48 RE/100g for leaves and 606.42 RE/100g for roots. There were no significant losses of provitamin A with the boiling or microwave cooking methods used.

  7. When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beta carotene. Grapefruit juice, orange juice, papaya nectar, apricot nectar, and carrot juice are good choices. Avoid ... Baxley EG, Cline MK, Sakornbut EL, eds. Family Medicine Obstetrics . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008: ...

  8. 7 CFR 94.102 - Analyses available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... analyses for total ash, fat by acid hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene, catalase... plate count, direct microscopic count, Campylobacter, coliforms, presumptive Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, proteolytic count, psychrotrophic bacteria, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, thermoduric bacteria,...

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK287823 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287823 J065184D15 AJ937781.1 AJ937781 Crocus sieberi subsp. atticus partial bch gene for beta- ... carotene hydroxylase enzyme, exon 2, population ... variant 18412. PLN 5e-46 1 1 ...

  10. Hyperspectral radiometric observation of the northeast Arabians Sea during April 2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarangi, R.K.; Singh, S.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    of chlorophyll-a, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene and pheophytin and their absorptions are interpreted at wavelengths 443, 490, 515 and 536 nanometers, respectively. A dip around 515 nm was seen in the Ed and Lu profiles in our study...

  11. Nutrition and the Aging Eye | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... and showed that an experimental combination of three anti-oxidant vitamins (C, E, and beta carotene) and ...

  12. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... study showed that an experimental combination of three anti-oxidant vitamins (C, E and beta carotene) and ...

  13. Effect of Pressure on Absorption Spectra of Lycopene in n-Hexane and CS2 Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption spectra of lycopene in n-hexane and CS2 are measured under high pressure and the results are compared with β-carotene. In the lower pressure range, the deviation from the linear dependence on the Bayliss parameter (BP) for β-carotene is more visible than that for lycopene. With the further increase of the solvent BP, the 0–0 bands of lycopene and β-carotene red shift at almost the same rate in n-hexane; however, the 0–0 band of lycopene red shifts slower than that of β-carotene in CS2. The origins of these diversities are discussed taking into account the dispersion interactions and structures of solute and solvent molecules. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Protective effect of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) against experimentally induced fibrosarcoma on wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rathinam; Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The beta-carotene-yielding microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's medium was harvested and lyophilized. Fibrosarcoma was induced in rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. 0.5 g and 1.0 g of lyophilized D. salina powder was administered to the rats orally through carboxy methyl cellulose. Cisplatin was administered along with vitamin E to compare the protective effect of D. salina against fibrosarcoma. Administration of D. salina decreased the levels of cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, serum aspartate aminotransaminase, serum alanine aminotransferase, when compared to control. A significant reduction in the levels of hepatic and renal RNA and DNA was observed in the sarcoma rats when treated with D. salina powder. Histopathological studies of tumor tissues showed regenerative and regressive changes. beta-carotene globules isolated from the powder of Dunaliella salina confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene. PMID:16713216

  15. Environ: E00772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00772 Marigold Medicinal herb Carotene, Xanthophyll, Taraxasterol [CPD:C08636], Qu...Asteraceae Marigold flower Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) E00772 Marigold ...

  16. Radioprotective effect of Rajgira leaf extract against radiation induced lesions in liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic or accidental exposure to ionizing radiation has deleterious effects on living system. Amaranth has taken as a radioprotector for the present study because its leaves are rich in proteins and vitamins especially provitamin A (β-carotene)

  17. The perspectives of involvement of Acer platanoides L. in medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Cherpak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of tannins, flavonoids, β-carotene, chlorophyll a, anthocyanins, coumarins and alkaloids in leaves of Acer platanoides was ascertained on the basis of phytochemical study.

  18. Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) or Protoporphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not recommended. Beta-carotene provides protection by quenching reactive oxygen products that form when protoporphyrin is activated ... of biochemical markers versus molecular analysis as diagnostic strategies. J Investig Med. 1999;47:278-84. Asada ...

  19. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beta carotene and lycopene that may promote good health. Dr. Connie W. Bales, Ph.D., R.D.: ... lycopenes, which are associated with a number of health benefits. Richard: Eat as much as you want. ...

  20. Changes in color-related compounds in tomato fruit exocarp and mesocarp during ripening using HPLC-APcI(+)-mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-López, A; Yahia, E M

    2014-10-01

    Tomato is an important agricultural crop world-wide. Their pigments are very important in many ways. They have been associated with health benefits such as lowering the risk of some chronic diseases. Quantification of chlorophylls by spectrophotometry and Identification of carotenoids using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification by HPLC-DAD was carried out in the exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit during 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red and red). Four carotenoids have been followed during ripening; β-carotene and lycopene were unequivocally identified, whereas γ-carotene and lycopene-epoxide were tentatively identified. Differences between exocarp and mesocarp were as follows: Most of the ripening period, fruit exocarp had higher quantities of both chlorophyll and carotenoids than mesocarp. In both, exocarp and mesocarp, chlorophylls drastically decreased, lycopene significantly increased, while β-carotene, γ-carotene and lycopene-epoxide only increased slightly during fruit ripening. PMID:25328217

  1. Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effects of Different Extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus Fruiting Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Ja Mi; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn; Lee, Tae Soo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies extracted with acetone, methanol, and hot water. The antioxidant activities were tested against β-carotene-linoleic acid, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, and ferrous chelating ability. Furthermore, phenolic acid and flavonoid contents were also analyzed. The methanol extract showed the strongest β-carotene-linoleic acid inhibition as co...

  2. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  3. CHANGES IN THE BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF CARROT ROOTS DUE TO BACTERIAL SOFT ROT

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Parthiban; V. Prakasam; Prabakar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is a rich source of nutrients. The carrot contains carotene and lycopene, which gives bright color to the roots. The quality of the carrots was assessed based on the carotene, lycopene and other biochemical constituents like sugars, starch and protein. To study the effect of various isolates of the Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora on the above biochemical constituents, the pathogens were inoculated and the contents were analyzed separately at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days after inoculation. The...

  4. TECHNOLOGY OF PLANT FEED ADDITIVES FOR POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koshchaeva O. V.; Kalyuzhniy S. A.; Khathakumov S. S.; Likhoman A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The work on the development of technology for production of feed additives from soybean seeds and fruits of pumpkin has shown that the use of sodium bisulfate and lactic acid bacteria provide a high content of carotene in pumpkin paste (948 mg / kg and 819 mg / kg, respectively), and grinding soy before drying protein and vitamin supplements raises safety of carotene without destroying the urease

  5. Влияние концентрации Spirulina platensis на изменение специфических показателей мороженого

    OpenAIRE

    Первушкин, С.; Маркова, И.; Куркин, В.; Желонкин, Н.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper are discussed the results of the investigations in the field of standardization of biomass of Spirulina platensis, cultivated in the Samara region. The methods of quantitative determination of the most important biologically active compounds of Spirulina platensis – β-carotene and phycocyanin was developed. There was developed the method of quantitative determination of β-carotene using chromatospectrophotometry with analytical wavelength at 450 nm. There was established ...

  6. Identification and Quantification of Major Carotenoids in Some Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2009-01-01

    An HPLC study of 6 raw vegetables (Okra, green beans, eggplant zucchini, carrot and tomato) most frequently consumed worldwide was carried out to determine their carotenoid composition. The samples were purchased from supermarket in the city of Boston, USA. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin and lutein were contained in all samples except tomato for neoxanthin, carrot and tomato for violaxanthin and carrot for lutein. β-carotene was contained in all samples while α-carotene was contained only...

  7. Carotenoid Distribution in Living Cells of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Aaron M.; Jones, Howland D.T.; Han, Danxiang; Hu, Qiang; Beechem, Thomas E.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater unicellular green microalga belonging to the class Chlorophyceae and is of commercial interest for its ability to accumulate massive amounts of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione). Using confocal Raman microscopy and multivariate analysis, we demonstrate the ability to spectrally resolve resonance–enhanced Raman signatures associated with astaxanthin and β-carotene along with chlorophyll fluorescence. By mathemati...

  8. Cloning of the cytochrome p450 reductase (crtR) gene and its involvement in the astaxanthin biosynthesis of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Dionisia; Niklitschek Mauricio; Marcoleta Andrés; Lozano Carla; Carmona Marisela; Barahona Salvador; Alcaíno Jennifer; Baeza Marcelo; Cifuentes Víctor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin, a carotenoid with high commercial interest. The proposed biosynthetic route in this organism is isopentenyl-pyrophosphate (IPP) → geranyleranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) → phytoene → lycopene → β-carotene → astaxanthin. Recently, it has been published that the conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin requires only one enzyme, astaxanthin synthase or CrtS, encoded by crtS gene. This enzyme belongs to the cytochrom...

  9. Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Tracey Bosworth; Remaley, Alan T.; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. METHODS: Within the ATBC Study, a randomized controlled trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and cancer inc...

  10. ANTIOXIDANTS FROM NATURAL SOURCE: RAY OF HOPE FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Nidhi; Singh Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    Intensive oxidative processes occurring in human organism lead to formation of oxygen reactive forms, which can damage systemic cells and tissues. Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. These protective compounds are common in our foods such as Vitamins A, C, E and Coenzyme Q10. Also carotene such as beta-carotene, which is high in carrots, Lycopene, which gives tomatoes their colour, is a powerful antioxidant. G...

  11. Environ: E00047 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00047 Capsicum tincture (JP16) Capsicum extract Crude drug Capsaicin [CPD:C06866],...ianside A [CPD:C17516], all-trans-beta-Carotene, Ascorbic acid [CPD:C00072], beta Carotene [CPD:C02094] Capsicum... annuum [TAX:4072] Same as: D06455 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Capsicum seed and mature fruit (dried) Major component: Capsaicin [CPD:C06866] ...

  12. Chemataxonomic researches in higher plants. XV Carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in the leaves of Cannabis sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrila NEAMTU; Gh. ILLYES; Ecaterina POP

    1981-01-01

    In the leaves of Cannabis sativa L. were found the following carotenoid pigments: ?-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. The ratio between the content of ?-carotene and lutein - which are the principal foliar carotenoids - was supraunitary, a feature that might be used as a chemotaxonomic criterion. It is worth to be mentioned the relatively high content of zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin in comparison with the level of these pigments in the leaves of mos...

  13. Effects of low energy radiations on the stability of red palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red palm oil (R-PO) is a new generation of cooking oil in which the carotenes are retained in the refined oil. In this study, the oxidative effects of low energy radiations (sunlight and ultra-violet radiation) on RPO were investigated. The red palm oil was exposed to sunlight and ultra-violet (UV) radiation for various time intervals. The concentrations of carotene, peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene value (CD) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were measured. The irradiation was also performed in the presence of antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Results showed that carotene contents were significantly reduced as the irradiation doses increase. The destruction of carotenes were 23.9 % and 24.1 % respectively under sunlight and UV radiation after 5 hours exposure. Measurements of PV, CD and FFA have indicated that both UV and sunlight radiations caused deterioration of red palm oil. In the presence of antioxidant, the extent of deterioration of RPO and the destruction of carotene were suppressed. This study has shown that the natural antioxidant (carotenes and tocopherols) did not give complete protection to RPO against oxidative deterioration induced by low energy radiations. Additional antioxidant (BHT) was needed to suppress the oxidative deterioration of RPO. (Author)

  14. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Associations of serum carotenoid concentrations and fruit or vegetable consumption with serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Anja; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention may alter the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and thereby cancer risk. In a qualitative review, eleven of twenty studies showed a link between one or more carotenoids, vegetable or fruit intake and the IGF system, however, with partly contrary findings, such that no firm conclusion can be drawn. Therefore, we evaluated associations between serum carotenoid concentrations or the intake of fruits and vegetables with IGF-1, IGF binding protein (BP)-3 and their molar ratio (IGF-1:IGFBP-3) within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). In our analysis, we included 6061 NHANES III participants and used multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. IGF-1 concentrations were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin in men and women. Statistically significant positive associations were observed for serum concentrations of α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin and intake of fruits with serum IGFBP-3 concentrations in women, but not in men. The IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio was significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene and α-carotene in men and with β-carotene in women. In conclusion, dietary interventions with carotenoids, fruits and vegetables may affect the IGF system, although the direction of these effects is currently unclear. PMID:27313849

  16. Carotenos e provitamina A em bertalha e ervas aromáticas comercializadas em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, durante as quatro estações do ano - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122 Carotenes and provitamin A in basella and aromatic herbs marketed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, during the four seasons of the year - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1122

    OpenAIRE

    José Benício Paes Chaves; Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant'Ana; Marina Andrade Batista; Flávia Aparecida Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivos investigar o teor de α-caroteno, β-caroteno e calcular o valor de vitamina A em hortaliças comercializadas no mercado formal e informal de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, bem como avaliar a influência das quatro estações do ano e do local de comercialização sobre o conteúdo desses nutrientes. As hortaliças (bertalha, cebolinha, coentro, manjericão e salsa) foram analisadas utilizando-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE). Devido ao con...

  17. Bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids from fruits: application of a standardised static in vitro digestion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Santiago, R; Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Fernández-Jalao, I

    2016-03-16

    Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) contribute to the dietary intake of vitamin A and are associated with decreased risk of many chronic diseases. Besides their contents in foods, their bioaccessibility is of great interest since it represents the amount that will be absorbed in the gut. The aim of this study was to adopt, for the first time, the in vitro digestion model suitable for food, proposed in a consensus paper by Minekus et al. (2014), to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from the fruits that are the major contributors to the intake of β-cryptoxanthin in Spain (orange, tangerine, red pepper, peach, watermelon, and persimmon) and loquat. The highest β-cryptoxanthin content and the lowest bioaccessibility was found in mandarin and loquat (13331.6 and 929.2 μg per 100 g respectively), whereas the highest contents of β-carotene and α-carotene were recorded in red pepper (1135.3 and 90.4 μg per 100 g respectively). The bioaccessibility of β-cryptoxanthin was similar to that of β-carotene (0.02-9.8% and 1-9.1%, respectively) and was higher than that of β-carotene in red pepper, watermelon and peach. α-Carotene bioaccessibility ranged between 0% and 4.6%. We discuss the critical factors for comparing our data: the form of the food being analyzed (raw/cooked/previously frozen, in the presence or absence of oil/fat) and the protocol for bioaccessibility assessment. Different food processing techniques may increase carotenoid bioaccessibility compared to raw food. However, given the difficulties encountered when comparing the results of studies on bioaccessibility, it seems logical to propose the application of the previously mentioned standardized in vitro protocol. PMID:26669648

  18. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  19. IMMUNO-BIOCHEMICAL AND CLINICAL RESEARCHES ON THE EVOLUTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS’ LEVEL IN THE ETIOPATHOGENY OF PERIODONTAL PATHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Potârnichie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A comprehensive, recent analysis on the topic reached the conclusion that oxidative stress is the main cause provoking destruction of the periodontal tissue resulting from the host-microbe interaction. Scope of the study: To investigate the correlation between periodontal health condition and the seric levels of some antioxidants. Materials and method: A representative group of 58 patients, with ages between 30 and 70 years, were examined, between 2010-2011, as to their periodontal condition, after which peripheric blood was taken over and retinol, α -tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, α-caroten, β-caroten, ß-criptoxantine, zeaxantine, luteine and licopen were extracted from the serum. The values of the antioxidants were measured by high-performance chromatographic liquid technique. Results: The levels of α and β-caroten, β-criptoxantine and zeaxantine were significantly lower in the patients with minimum periodonthopaty debut (p<0.001, as well as in those with increased intensity of periodontopathy debut. β-caroten and β-criptoxantine were the only antioxidants associated with a higher risk of severe periodontic pathologies. Conclusions: The low levels registered for some carotinoides, especially β-caroten and β-criptoxantine, are directly proportional with a higher prevalence of periodonthy installation.

  20. On the substrate- and stereospecificity of the plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7

    KAUST Repository

    Bruno, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Strigolactones are phytohormones synthesized from carotenoids via a stereospecific pathway involving the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 7 (CCD7) and 8. CCD7 cleaves 9-cis-β-carotene to form a supposedly 9-cis-configured β-apo-10′-carotenal. CCD8 converts this intermediate through a combination of yet undetermined reactions into the strigolactone-like compound carlactone. Here, we investigated the substrate and stereo-specificity of the Arabidopsis and pea CCD7 and determined the stereo-configuration of the β-apo-10′-carotenal intermediate by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Our data unequivocally demonstrate the 9-cis-configuration of the intermediate. Both CCD7s cleave different 9-cis-carotenoids, yielding hydroxylated 9-cis-apo-10′-carotenals that may lead to hydroxylated carlactones, but show highest affinity for 9-cis-β-carotene. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.