WorldWideScience

Sample records for carolinensis jacq salvia

  1. Ensayo de la actividad antimicrobiana de Pluchea carolinensis (salvia de playa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pérez

    2007-01-01

    de MIC fueron los más pequeños, de 0,1 mg/mL . Estos aislamientos clínicos poseen resistencia múltiple a antibióticos, por lo que los resultados indican que Pluchea carolinensis pudiera brindar una solución alternativa a la terapia con antibióticos, establecida en la medicina actual.

  2. Salvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and reality (not being able to tell the difference between what's real and what's imagined) dizziness and lightheadedness lack of coordination slurred speech Long-Term Effects Little is known about the long-term effects of salvia abuse. It's possible that taking large quantities of the ...

  3. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2002-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  4. Nutlet morphology and its taxonomic utility in Salvia (Lamiaceae: Mentheae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Mustafa; AKTAŞ, Kâmuran; Özdemir, Canan; Guerin, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The nutlet (mericarp) morphology of 12 Salvia L. (Lamiaceae: sub-family Nepetoideae: tribe Mentheae: sub-tribe Salviinae) taxa from Turkey, including five endemic taxa, was examined using scanning electron microscopy: Salvia bracteata Banks et Sol., S. cadmica Boiss., S. blepharoclaena Hedge et Hub.-Mor., S. cryptantha Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, S. aethiopis L, S. ceratophylla L., S. candidissima Vahl subsp. candidissima., S. cyanescens Boiss et Bal., S. virgata Jacq, S. halophila Hedge, ...

  5. FLAVONOIDS OF SALVIA MICROSTEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN**, Z. SUKAL*, B. HALFON*

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-0-glucoside and chrysoeriol, havebeen isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia microstegia Boiss. et Bal.Key words: Salvia, flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol.

  6. What Is Salvia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Drug Facts Alcohol Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Drugs Salvia Spice Brain and Addiction Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes HIV/AIDS ...

  7. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also used in dental practice for the management of periodontal disease and to prevent halitosis. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of S. officinalis in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  8. Algunos componentes esteroidales del solanum havanense jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Basterrechea Rey

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo alcaloide esteroidal llamado acetil etiolina, ha sido aislado de las hojas, tallos y raices del Solanum havanense Jacq y su estructura corresponde con (25S-16a-acetoxi-22.26-epiminocolest-5.22(N-dien-3ß-ol.

  9. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae), three new species from Jalisco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos; José Antonio Vázquez-García; Miguel de Jesús Cházaro-Basáñez

    2013-01-01

    Three new species from Jalisco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. These species grow in tropical or in tropical and temperate transitional forests. The 3 species belong to Salvia L. subgenus Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González is morphologically similar with section Briquetia Epling. It is characterized by the contrasting vegetative morphology between mature and immature individuals, its relatively large and sessile or sub-sessile leaves (the uppermost amplexicaul...

  10. Characterization of Essential Oils of Some Salvia Species and Their Antimycobacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    activities, Characterization of essential oils of so

    2010-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oils of 5 Turkish Salvia species, namely Salvia aucheri Bentham var. aucheri (endemic for Turkey), Salvia aramiensis Rech. fil., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia tomentosa Mill., and Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn & Bornm.) Bornm., were studied. Water distilled essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia species from Turkey were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Salvia aucheri var. aucheri, Salvia aramiensis, and Salvia fruticosa oils have the s...

  11. Composition of the essential oil of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hayta, Sukru; Dogan, Gulden; Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The essential oil composition of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) analysed and yield of compositions were analysedMaterial and Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus coupled to a 2 L round-bottom flask. A total of 100 g of fresh plant material (aerial parts) and 1 L of water were used for the extraction. Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were applied to ext...

  12. Sesquiterpene Esters from Salvia roborowskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya LI; Ning LOU; Yan Qi WU; Xian Feng LIN; Yu LI

    2003-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpene esters, 3β, 6β, 8α-triacetyl-4β, 5α-epoxy -1- oxogermacr-10(14)-ene (1) and 3β, 6β, 8α-triacetyl-4β, 5α-epoxygermacr-1(10)-ene (2) were isolated from the whole plant of Salvia roborowskii Maxim. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectral data (2DNMR and HRMS).

  13. Speciation in the White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis): a multilocus perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstrom, Veryl Woody; Klicka, John; Spellman, Garth M

    2012-02-01

    Inferring the evolutionary and ecological processes that have shaped contemporary species distributions using the geographic distribution of gene lineages is the principal goal of phylogeographic research. Researchers in the field have recognized that inferences made from a single gene, often mitochondrial, can be informative regarding the pattern of diversification but lack conclusive information regarding the evolutionary mechanisms that led to the observed patterns. Here, we use a multilocus (20 loci) data set to explore the evolutionary history of the White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis). A previous single-locus study found S. carolinensis is comprised of four reciprocally monophyletic clades geographically restricted to the pine and oak forests of: (i) eastern North America, (ii) southern Rocky Mountain and Mexican Mountain ranges, (iii) Eastern Sierra Nevada and Northern Rocky Mountains and (iv) Pacific slope of North America. The diversification of the clades was attributed to the fragmentation of North American pine and oak woodlands in the Pliocene with subsequent divergences owing to the Pleistocene glacial cycles. Principal component, clustering and species tree analyses of the multilocus data resolved the same four groups or lineages found in the single-locus study. Coalescent analyses and hypothesis testing of nested isolation and migration models indicate that isolation and not gene flow has been the major evolutionary mechanism responsible for shaping genetic variation, and all the divergence events within S. carolinensis have occurred in response to the Pleistocene glacial cycles. PMID:22192449

  14. Salvia miltiorrhiza and ischemic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yan JI; Benny K-H TAN; Yi-Zhun ZHU

    2000-01-01

    The demonstration of beneficial effects of salvia miltiorrhiza (DanShen) on ischemic diseases has revolutionized the management of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke in Chinese society. Experimental studies have shown that DanShen dilated coronary arteries, increased coronary blood flow, and scavenged free radicals in ischemic diseases, so that it reduced the cellular damage from ischemia and improved heart functions. Clinical trials also indicated that DanShen was an effective medicine for angina pectoris, MI, and stroke. This review will focus on DanShen's effects in angina pectoris, MI and stroke.

  15. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae), three new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana y Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae), tres nuevas especies de Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos; José Antonio Vázquez-García; Miguel de Jesús Cházaro-Basáñez

    2013-01-01

    Three new species from Jalisco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. These species grow in tropical or in tropical and temperate transitional forests. The 3 species belong to Salvia L. subgenus Calosphace (Benth.) Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González is morphologically similar with section Briquetia Epling. It is characterized by the contrasting vegetative morphology between mature and immature individuals, its relatively large and sessile or sub-sessile leaves (the uppermost amplexicaul...

  16. Lectotypification of Salvia elegans (Lamiaceae) Lectotipificación de Salvia elegans (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina I. Lara-Cabrera; María del Rosario García-Peña

    2008-01-01

    Salvia incarnata Cavanilles (1800) is an illegitimate name, for an earlier homonym by Etlinger (1777) already exists; it has therefore been substituted by Salvia elegans Vahl (1804). Both homotypic synonyms are herein lectotypified based on original material at MA collected by L. Née, and studied and annotated by A. J. CavanillesSalvia incarnata Cavanilles (1800) es un nombre ilegítimo, al preexistir un homónimo de Etlinger (1777); por ello, ha sido substituido por Salvia elegans Vahl (1804)....

  17. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae, three new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana y Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae, tres nuevas especies de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species from Jalisco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. These species grow in tropical or in tropical and temperate transitional forests. The 3 species belong to Salvia L. subgenus Calosphace (Benth. Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González is morphologically similar with section Briquetia Epling. It is characterized by the contrasting vegetative morphology between mature and immature individuals, its relatively large and sessile or sub-sessile leaves (the uppermost amplexicaul, glandular-capitate hairs on the floral axis and calyx, and dark violet corollas. The characters of Salvia ibugana J. G. González correspond to those of the species of section Angulatae (Epling Epling, within which S. ibugana is distinguished by the digitiform papillae disperse on its stems, petioles and floral axis. Salvia ramirezii J. G. González fits well within section Sigmoideae Epling by means of the sigmoid shape of the lower branch of its style. It is morphologically similar to Salvia crucis and S. quercetorum, from which it can be distinguished by the triangular, slightly succulent, shorter, glabrous, lustrous leaves.Se describen e ilustran 3 especies nuevas de Jalisco, México. Estas especies crecen en bosques tropicales o en bosques transicionales entre tropicales y templados. Las 3 especies pertenecen a Salvia L. subgénero Calosphace (Benth. Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González es morfológicamente similar a la sección Briquetia Epling. Se caracteriza por la morfología vegetativa contrastante entre individuos maduros e inmaduros, sus hojas relativamente grandes, sésiles o subsésiles (las superiores amplexicaules, tricomas capitado-glandulares sobre el eje floral y el cáliz, y corolas violeta oscuro. Las características de Salvia ibugana J. G. González corresponden a aquellas de las especies de la sección Angulatae (Epling Epling, dentro de la que S. ibugana se distingue por las papilas digitiformes que presenta en el tallo

  18. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications.

  19. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  20. An ethnopharmacological investigation of medicinal Salvia plants (Lamiaceae) in China

    OpenAIRE

    Minhui Li; Qianquan Li; Chunhong Zhang; Na Zhang; Zhanhu Cui; Luqi Huang; Peigen Xiao

    2013-01-01

    In China, over 40 species of the genus Salvia have been used as medicinal plants for various diseases, some for thousands of years. Recently, research has focused on the biological activities of Salvia medicinal plants used in traditional chinese medicine (TCM). However, to date a scientific survey of the genus Salvia in China has not been carried out. In this paper, we report the results of 10 field surveys of Salvia medicinal plants collected in 17 provinces including detailed information o...

  1. Responses of the iguanid lizard Anolis carolinensis to four organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dose related mortality and cholinesterase effects of parathion, methyl parathion, azinphos-methyl and malathion on Anolis carolinensis were investigated. The comparative effects of the four compounds on fish, birds and mammals are well known, but the effects of organophosphates on reptiles have not been studied critically. Sensitivity and patterns of mortality from exposure to the pesticides resemble those of birds and mammals rather than those of other poikilothermic vertebrates. Possible symptoms of epinephrine accumulation were observed in exposed animals; this side effect is consistent with the known mechanisms of the pesticides. Our findings indicate that brain cholinesterase activity is related to dose, that 50% inhibition of cholinesterase is associated with death and that 40% inhibition indicates sublethal exposure. Anolis lizards are frequently exposed to pesticides in the field and they may be useful in monitoring the hazards posed to a variety of wildlife species.

  2. Studies on Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Selected Salvia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu; Maria Tofană; Sonia A. Socaci; Melinda Nagy; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Liana Salanţă; Romina Vlaic

    2015-01-01

    Salvia is one of the largest genera in the family of Labiatae, comprising about 900 species distributed widely throughout the world. Many species of Salvia are commonly used as herbal tea and for food flavoring, as well as in cosmetics, perfumery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study compares the antioxidant properties of four methanolic extracts, obtained by two extraction methods, from Salvia elegans, Salvia officinalis Purpurascens, Salvia officinalis Tricolor and Salvia la...

  3. Germacrane Sesquiterpene Esters from Salvia roborowskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya; SHI Yan-Ping; LI Yu

    2003-01-01

    @@ Salvia roborowskii Maxim, usually called "ye zhi ma" by local inhabitants of northwestern China, an annual or biennial herb distributed widely in the west of China, has long been used as a traditional folk medicine for the treat ment of hepatitis and toothache.

  4. PHARMACOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TERPENIC SECONDARY METABOLITES ISOLATED FROM SALVIA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bonito, Maria Carmela

    2009-01-01

    Recently most interest has been focused on active compounds extracted from natural sources. This is due to the fact that many of these natural products in plants of medicinal value can offer new sources of drugs. The genus Salvia from the Lamiaceae family has numerous different species - about 900 species- which are extensively distributed in various regions of the world. Many Salvia species are well-studied and widely used in traditional medicine. Plants belonging to the genus Salvia are ...

  5. Morphometric study of some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz Kharazian

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the morphological studies in some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) species in Iran. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status and morphological studies, 53 accessions of 12 Salvia species were collected from their natural habitats in Iran. A total of 17 quantitative and 13 qualitative morphological characters were selected as diagnostic characters in Salvia species through the use of numerical methods. The statistical analysis consisted of cluster analysis with Euclidean distance c...

  6. Mericarp micromorphology and anatomy of Salvia hedgeana Donmez, S. huberi Hedge and S. rosifolia Sm. (section Salvia Hedge, Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukkartal, Hatice N.; Kahraman, Ahmet; Colgecen, Hatice; Musa DOGAN; KARABACAK, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Mericarp (nutlet) micromorphology and pericarp structure of three morphologically similar endemic Salvia species; Salvia hedgeana, S. huberi and S. rosifolia were investigated using LM, SEM and TEM. Salvia hedgeana has larger mericarps and abscission scars than S. huberi and S. rosifolia. Mericarp length to width ratio ranges from 1.11 in S. hedgeana to 1.60 in S. huberi. Mericarp shape is mainly ovoid, rarely broadly ovoid in S. hedgeana, and oblong in S. huberi. The mericarp surface sculptu...

  7. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    M.B. Bahadori; M Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Salvia species are important because of their medicinal, traditional and economical uses. They are used traditionally for treatment of several diseases. The genus Salvia is represented in the Iranian flora by 61 species of which, 17 are endemic.  In the present study, the phytochemical and biological effects of two Iranian Salvia species have been evaluated. Methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (AB...

  8. Obiteljsko trovanje korijenom bijelog buna (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuculić, M.; Kalodera, Z.; Sindik, J.; Kvasić, D.; Petričić, J.

    1989-01-01

    Trovanje plodovima velebilja dobro je poznato, jer njihova lijepa sjajno-crna boja privlači djecu a i odrasle da ih okušaju. Manje je poznato trovanje korijenom velebilja, a trovanje korijenom bijelog buna nije poznato. Korijen bijelog buna (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.) sadržava istu alkaloidnu smjesu kao i korijen velebilja, ali su glavni alkaloidi u drugom količinskom odnosu. Ovaj rad obraduje trovanje jedne obitelji iz Novog Vinodolskog korijenom bijelog buna upotrijebljenog za pripremu gove...

  9. Soil flood tolerance of seven genotypes of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Schio Silva; Valdemir Antônio Laura; Liana Jank

    2009-01-01

    The soil flood tolerance of seven genotypes of Panicum maximum Jacq. (PM11, PM34, PM40 and PM45, and the commercial cultivars Massai, Mombaça and Tanzânia) was evaluated in plants subjected to two conditions: flooded and not flooded, during a period of 14 days. Flooding significantly decreased the total and above ground biomass of PM40 and PM45. For cultivar Tanzânia, flooding decreased these two variables and also root biomass. The root, total and above ground relative growth rates were sign...

  10. In vitro regeneration of salvia santolinifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro shoots of Salvia santolinifolia were produced under the influence of different types of cytokinins supplementation by nodal segments on MS media. Excised young nodal segments of Salvia santolinifolia obtained from adult field-grown plants, successfully regenerated plant lets through organogenesis. Addition of BA at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/l produced maximum number and length of shoots. The multiplication of shoots was always slow in primary cultures and increased during subculture. Regenerated shoots produced roots on transfer to medium containing 2.5 mg/l of IBA. Plant lets thus obtained were grown in sterile soil and sand mixture (1:1). (author)

  11. Effects of tannins on digestion and detoxification activity in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-MacCoubrey, A L; Hagerman, A E; Kirkpatrick, R L

    1997-01-01

    Acorn tannins may affect food preferences and foraging strategies of squirrels through effects on acorn palatability and digestibility and squirrel physiology. Captive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) were fed 100% red oak (Quercus rubra) or white oak (Quercus alba) acorn diets to determine effects on intake, digestion, and detoxification activity. Red oak acorns had higher phenol and tannin levels, which may explain the lower dry matter intakes and apparent protein digestibilities and the higher glucuronidation activities observed in squirrels. Although the white oak acorn diet had lower apparent protein digestibilities than the reference diet, it did not suppress dry matter intake for a prolonged period or stimulate glucuronidation. Negative physiological effects of a 100% red oak acorn diet suggest gray squirrels may require other foods to dilute tannin intake and provide additional nutrients. To distinguish the roles of different tannin types in the observed effects of acorn diets on squirrels, squirrels were fed rat chow containing no tannins, 4% or 8% tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin), or 3% or 6% quebracho (condensed tannin). Apparent protein digestibilities were reduced by tannic acid and quebracho diets. Only the 8% tannic acid diet tended to increase glucuronidation. Specific effects of tannins may largely depend on tannin type, composition, and source and on other nutritional and physiological factors. PMID:9231400

  12. Reproduction, embryonic development, and maternal transfer of contaminants in the amphibian Gastrophryne carolinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; DuRant, S.E.; Staub, B.P.; Rowe, C.L.; Jackson, B.P. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Fisheries & Wildlife Science

    2006-05-15

    Although many amphibian populations around the world are declining at alarming rates, the cause of most declines remains unknown. Environmental contamination is one of several factors implicated in declines and may have particularly important effects on sensitive developmental stages. We examined maternal transfer of contaminants in eastern narrow-mouth toads (Gastrophryne carolinensis) collected from a reference site and near a coal-burning power plant. Adult toads inhabiting the industrial area transferred significant quantities of selenium and strontium to their eggs, but Se concentrations were most notable (up to 100 {mu} g/g dry mass). Compared with the reference site, hatching success was reduced by 11% in clutches from the contaminated site. In surviving larvae, the frequency of developmental abnormalities and abnormal swimming was 55-58% higher in the contaminated site relative to the reference site. Craniofacial abnormalities were nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent in hatchlings from the contaminated site. When all developmental criteria were considered collectively, offspring from the contaminated site experienced 19% lower viability. Although there was no statistical relationship between the concentration of Se or Sr transferred to eggs and any measure of offspring viability, our study demonstrates that maternal transfer may be an important route of contaminant exposure in amphibians that has been overlooked.

  13. Hormonal response of male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) to GnRH challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Jerry F; Irschick, Duncan J; Henningsen, Justin P; Kirkbride, Kimberly S; Lailvaux, Simon P; Moore, Ignacio T

    2009-02-01

    Circulating plasma levels of testosterone often differ among social classes of sexually mature males within a population, but the general physiological mechanisms underlying such differences remain unclear. Within sexually mature male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis), smaller "lightweight" males have on average relatively smaller heads, lower bite-forces, and lower testosterone levels compared with larger "heavyweight" males. We conducted gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenges on lightweight and heavyweight males to determine if lightweight males were capable of producing comparable levels of circulating testosterone to heavyweight males but are socially or physiologically suppressed from doing so. We challenged lightweight and heavyweight males with chicken I and II GnRH and measured their resulting levels of testosterone and corticosterone. Neither lightweights nor heavyweights increased circulating testosterone levels after GnRH challenge, suggesting they are already at maximal production levels, consistent with the Challenge Hypothesis. Instead, testosterone levels tended to decrease and corticosterone levels increased, most likely owing to the stress response associated with handling. Our results are dramatically different from GnRH challenges conducted in bird species, suggesting that more field studies are needed in reptilian systems. PMID:19012286

  14. Development of the cloaca, hemipenes, and hemiclitores in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredler, Marissa L; Sanger, Thomas J; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    In most amniotes, the intromittent organ is a single phallus; however, squamates (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) have paired hemiphalluses. All amniotes studied to date initiate external genital development with the formation of paired genital swellings. In mammals, archosaurs, and turtles, these swellings merge to form a single genital tubercle, the precursor of the penis and clitoris; however, in squamates, the paired genital buds remain separate, giving rise to the hemiphalluses (hemipenes in males and hemiclitores in females). Although the molecular genetics and sexual differentiation of the genital tubercle have been investigated in mammals and birds, little is known about hemiphallus development. Here we describe development of the cloaca and hemiphallus in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. Each hemiphallus originates as a protuberance that emerges at the ventral base of the hindlimb bud. Development of the hemipenes resembles penis development; however, differences exist in their tissue composition, morphogenesis, and gene expression patterns. These findings reveal aspects of phallus development that appear to be evolutionarily labile, both within squamates and more broadly among reptiles, and identify features that are conserved across amniotes. Our results, together with parallel studies in other reptilian taxa, suggest potential mechanisms for the diversification of external genital form. PMID:24960313

  15. Volatilisation of terpenes from Salvia mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, B. J.; Dement, W. A.; Mooney, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    The study demonstrates significant terpene volatilisation from Salvia mellifera. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured in an intact branch of a potted plant using a gas analysis system. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were determined for various temperatures. The rates were directly proportional to leaf temperature and were the same in both light and dark reactions. Using the temperature curve for the steady-state rate of terpene volatilisation and the gas exchange characteristics, the daily carbon gain and terpene loss were calculated.

  16. Estudio fitoquímico de Salvia uruapana

    OpenAIRE

    René Manjarréz; Frontana Uribe, Bernardo A.; Jorge Cárdenas

    2003-01-01

    De las partes aéreas de Salvia uruapana se aislaron dos diterpenos, salviafaricina y tonalensina ambos previamente descritos en Salvia tonalensis, así como 7-O-luteolina diglucósido peracetilado. La mezcla de los ácidos oleanólico y ursólico se aisló de las fracciones de baja polaridad.

  17. Terpenoids and Steroids from the Roots of Salvia blepharochlaena

    OpenAIRE

    KOLAK, Ufuk; TOPÇU, Gülaçtı; BİRTEKSÖZ, Seher

    2005-01-01

    From the roots of Salvia blepharochlaena Hedge and Hub. Mor. 4 triterpenoids, 4 steroids, 6 diterpenoids, and an aromatic ester were isolated. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. Formosanolide was isolated for the first time from the genus Salvia.

  18. Influence of geography and climate on patterns of cell size and body size in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rachel M; Echternacht, Arthur C; Hall, Jim C; Deng, Lihan D; Welch, Jessica N

    2013-06-01

    Geographic patterns in body size are often associated with latitude, elevation, or environmental and climatic variables. This study investigated patterns of body size and cell size of the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, and potential associations with geography or climatic variables. Lizards were sampled from 19 populations across the native range, and body size, red blood cell size and size and number of muscle cells were measured. Climatic data from local weather stations and latitude and longitude were entered into model selection with Akaike's information criterion to explain patterns in cell and body sizes. Climatic variables did not drive any major patterns in cell size or body size; rather, latitude and longitude were the best predictors of cell and body size. In general, smaller body and cell sizes in Florida anoles drove geographic patterns in A. carolinensis. Small size in Florida may be attributable to the geological history of the peninsular state or the unique ecological factors in this area, including a recently introduced congener. In contrast to previous studies, we found that A. carolinensis does not follow Bergmann's rule when the influence of Florida is excluded. Rather, the opposite pattern of larger lizards in southern populations is evident in the absence of Florida populations, and mirrors the general pattern in squamates. Muscle cell size was negatively related to latitude and red blood cell size showed no latitudinal trend outside of Florida. Different patterns in the sizes of the 2 cell types confirm the importance of examining multiple cell types when studying geographic variation in cell size.

  19. A gDNA microarray for genotyping salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Wohlmuth, Hans; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie; Pang, Edwin

    2013-07-01

    Salvia is an important genus from the Lamiaceae with approximately 1,000 species. This genus is distributed globally and cultivated for ornamental, culinary, and medicinal uses. We report the construction of the first fingerprinting array for Salvia species enriched with polymorphic and divergent DNA sequences and demonstrate the potential of this array for fingerprinting several economically important members of this genus. In order to generate the Salvia subtracted diversity array (SDA) a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of Salvia species and a pool of angiosperms and non-angiosperms to selectively isolate Salvia-specific sequences. A total of 285-subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. DNA fingerprints were obtained for fifteen Salvia genotypes including three that were not part of the original subtraction pool. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the Salvia-specific SDA was capable of differentiating S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza from their closely related species and was also able to reveal genetic relationships consistent with geographical origins. In addition, this approach was capable of isolating highly polymorphic sequences from chloroplast and nuclear DNA without preliminary sequence information. Therefore, SDA is a powerful technique for fingerprinting non-model plants and for identifying new polymorphic loci that may be developed as potential molecular markers.

  20. Scallopleaf sage (salvia vaseyi: Lamiaceae) discovered in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J.W., III; Felger, R.S.; Jansen, B.D.; Krausman, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    During the course of field work in Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Arizona, in 2003, James Cain and Brian Jansen collected Salvia vaseyi, previously known only from the western edge of the Sonoran Desert in California and Baja California. Our findings indicate this shrub might be more widespread in southwestern Arizona mountains. Salvia vaseyi in Arizona seems to represent a relict population. There are other shrubby Salvia in Arizona, but S. vaseyi is the most xeric-mhabiting species and has the narrowest ecological and geographical range.

  1. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  2. ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA JACQ. VEGETATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STEFANESCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Scopolia carniolica Jacq. is a medicinal species of Solanaceae, harvested from the Romanian spontaneous flora for its atropine and scopolamine content. We have analyzed the anatomical structure of the vegetative organs (rhizome, root, stem and leaf and the biometrical parameters of the leaf blade (vascular islet, stomatal index and palisade ratio, in order to establish the main specific characters and differential elements useful for the correct identification and for avoiding the impurification of medicinal products. The characteristic structures for the rhizome and root are the secondary ones, mainly with parenchyma elements and lacking in mechanical fibres; the stem has a primary becoming secondary structure, bicolateral vascular bundles with cambium in the interior and between them and endoderma as starch layer. The sand cells are characteristic for rhizome, root and stem structures. On the leaf surface were identified protector multicellular trichomes and specific secretory and glandular ones.

  3. Genetic variation in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) reveals island refugia and a fragmented Florida during the quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, Marc; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    The green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) is a model organism for behavior and genomics that is native to the southeastern United States. It is currently thought that the ancestors of modern green anoles dispersed to peninsular Florida from Cuba. However, the climatic changes and geological features responsible for the early diversification of A. carolinensis in North America have remained largely unexplored. This is because previous studies (1) differ in their estimates of the divergence times of populations, (2) are based on a single genetic locus or (3) did not test specific hypotheses regarding the geologic and topographic history of Florida. Here we provide a multi-locus study of green anole genetic diversity and find that the Florida peninsula contains a larger number of genetically distinct populations that are more diverse than those on the continental mainland. As a test of the island refugia hypothesis in Pleistocene Florida, we use a coalescent approach to estimate the divergence times of modern green anole lineages. We find that all demographic events occurred during or after the Upper Pliocene and suggest that green anole diversification was driven by population divergence on interglacial island refugia in Florida during the Lower Pleistocene, while the region was often separated from continental North America. When Florida reconnected to the mainland, two separate dispersal events led to the expansion of green anole populations across the Atlantic Seaboard and Gulf Coastal Plain.

  4. Osteology of Carnufex carolinensis (Archosauria: Psuedosuchia) from the Pekin Formation of North Carolina and Its Implications for Early Crocodylomorph Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymala, Susan M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2016-01-01

    Crocodylomorphs originated in the Late Triassic and were the only crocodile-line archosaurs to survive the end-Triassic extinction. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that the closest relatives of these generally gracile, small-bodied taxa were a group of robust, large-bodied predators known as rauisuchids implying a problematic morphological gap between early crocodylomorphs and their closest relatives. Here we provide a detailed osteological description of the recently named early diverging crocodylomorph Carnufex carolinensis from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina and assess its phylogenetic position within the Paracrocodylomorpha. Carnufex displays a mosaic of crocodylomorph, rauisuchid, and dinosaurian characters, as well as highly laminar cranial elements and vertebrae, ornamented dermal skull bones, a large, subtriangular antorbital fenestra, and a reduced forelimb. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing a comprehensive dataset of early paracrocodylomorphs and including seven new characters and numerous modifications to characters culled from the literature recovers Carnufex carolinensis as one of the most basal members of Crocodylomorpha, in a polytomy with two other large bodied taxa (CM 73372 and Redondavenator). The analysis also resulted in increased resolution within Crocodylomorpha and a monophyletic clade containing the holotype and two referred specimens of Hesperosuchus as well as Dromicosuchus. Carnufex occupies a key transition at the origin of Crocodylomorpha, indicating that the morphology typifying early crocodylomorphs appeared before the shift to small body size. PMID:27304665

  5. Osteology of Carnufex carolinensis (Archosauria: Psuedosuchia from the Pekin Formation of North Carolina and Its Implications for Early Crocodylomorph Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Drymala

    Full Text Available Crocodylomorphs originated in the Late Triassic and were the only crocodile-line archosaurs to survive the end-Triassic extinction. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that the closest relatives of these generally gracile, small-bodied taxa were a group of robust, large-bodied predators known as rauisuchids implying a problematic morphological gap between early crocodylomorphs and their closest relatives. Here we provide a detailed osteological description of the recently named early diverging crocodylomorph Carnufex carolinensis from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina and assess its phylogenetic position within the Paracrocodylomorpha. Carnufex displays a mosaic of crocodylomorph, rauisuchid, and dinosaurian characters, as well as highly laminar cranial elements and vertebrae, ornamented dermal skull bones, a large, subtriangular antorbital fenestra, and a reduced forelimb. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing a comprehensive dataset of early paracrocodylomorphs and including seven new characters and numerous modifications to characters culled from the literature recovers Carnufex carolinensis as one of the most basal members of Crocodylomorpha, in a polytomy with two other large bodied taxa (CM 73372 and Redondavenator. The analysis also resulted in increased resolution within Crocodylomorpha and a monophyletic clade containing the holotype and two referred specimens of Hesperosuchus as well as Dromicosuchus. Carnufex occupies a key transition at the origin of Crocodylomorpha, indicating that the morphology typifying early crocodylomorphs appeared before the shift to small body size.

  6. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  7. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  8. Flavones and Flavone Glycosides from Salvia macrosiphon Boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Ebrahimi, Hakimeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Foruzani, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Puneh; Ajani, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Salvia genus, which is generally called Maryam-Goli in the Persian language, belongs to Lamiaceae family and comprises 58 species in Iran. Four flavonoids plus a steroid compound were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Salvia macrosiphon Boiss, using different chromatographic methods on the silica gel and sephadex LH20. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be apigenin-7, 4’-dimethyl ether (1), β-sitosterol (2), salvigenin (3) ap...

  9. Bioactivities of the Various Extracts and Essential Oils of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L.

    OpenAIRE

    ÖĞÜTÇÜ, Hatice; SÖKMEN, Atalay; Münevver SÖKMEN

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. and Salvia sclarea L., as well as the content of its essential oil. The activities of essential oils were tested against a wide range of human-, plant-, and food-borne microorganisms. A total of 55 microbial organisms belonging to 35 bacteria and 19 fungi and yeast species were tested using disk diffusion, micro dilution, and micro-...

  10. Phytochemical studies on medicinal plant salvia cabulica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five compounds were isolated for the first time from Salvia cabulica namely 3 beta- hydroxyrus-12-ene-28-oic acid I candelabrone-12-methyl ether 2 luteolin-7 -galactoside 3, a mixture of a-amyrin-4 and, beta-amyrin 5 along with Lupeol 6. Compound 3 was isolated from ethyl acetate extract (C), whereas compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, were obtained from the acetone extract (D) (Scheme-1) of the crude extract. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized by comparing the E1 MS, FAB (+ve /-ve), IH and /sub 13/C NMR (ID/2D), UV/VIS and IR spectroscopic observed data with the reported literature values as well as data obtained by the chemical methods. beta-Sitosterol 7 has also been isolated and its structure was unambiguously confirmed by the single crystal X -ray crystallography (Fig. 1). (author)

  11. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  12. Genetic diversity among Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and related species inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Li; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Fan, Xing; WANG, Meng; Ding, Chun-Bang; Yang, Rui-Wu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Salvia miltiorrhiza and related species, we analyzed the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for 7 accessions of Salvia miltiorrhiza and another 23 samples from other taxa within the genus Salvia by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses. There were 257 variation sites amounting to 40.8% of the total base pairs. All of the data revealed abundant genetic diversity in the genus Salvia. T...

  13. Performance of lambs supplemented with fodder salt Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate productive performance of lambs fed different levels of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. in the making of gliricidia forage salt. A total of 30 180-day-old male crossbred Santa Inês lambs of 25 kg body weight were confined in 1 m² stalls, fed Tifton-85 (Cynadon spp. hay, fodder salts and water ad libitum. The experimental design was randomized, composed of six repetitions of five treatments. The formulation of gliricidia forage salt was 0 (100% NaCl, 93, 95, 97 and 99% gliricidia hay with 7, 5, 3 and 1% NaCl, respectively. The experiment was conducted for 74 d, with 14 d for adaptation and 60 d for sampling. Gliricidia forage salt supplementation showed no effect (P>0.05 on dry matter, organic matter or neutral detergent fiber intake, although it affected (P<0.05 crude protein and ether extract intake. The highest performance of animals was observed in gliricidia forage salt with 99% addition of gliricidia.

  14. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  15. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia Hypoleuca Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad R Gohari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca.Results:The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6,oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10.Conclusions:In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, someof the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S.hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  16. [Salvia officinalis l. I. Botanic characteristics, composition, use and cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela, T

    1993-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. is an essential oil containing plant, which does not wildly grow in the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics but it can be successfully cultivated. It is a perennial half-shrub, from which non-flowering herbaceous sprouts or leaves are collected for pharmaceutical purposes. After drying at a temperature not exceeding 35 degrees C they are the plant drugs Herba salviae or Folium salviae. In PhBs, Herba salviae is official. The drug contains mainly ethereal oil (1-2%), diterpenes, triterpenes and tannin. The pharmacopoeial criterion of quality is the content of essential oil, which is produced in an increased amount in the plant in warm summer months. Herba salviae and the extracts prepared from it are used as an antiseptic agent, an antiphlogistic agent, in the inflammations of the oral cavity and gingivitis and also as a stomachic and an antihydrotic agent. Its utilization in cosmetics and food industry is also of importance. PMID:8402963

  17. Chemical Composition and Antigerminative Activity of the Essential Oils from Five Salvia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo De Feo; Enrica De Falco; Emilia Mancini; Graziana Roscigno; Laura De Martino

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia africana L., Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia greggii A. Gray, Salvia mellifera Green and Salvia munzii Epling, cultivated in Eboli (Salerno, Southern Italy), was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analyses. In all, 88 compounds were identified, 54 for S. africana, accounting for 95.4% of the total oil, 55 for S. elegans (92.9%), 50 for S. greggii (96.9%), 54 for S. mellifera (90.4%) and 47 for S. munzii (97.5%), respectively. In S. africana,t...

  18. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and Leaf Anatomy of Salvia bertolonii Vis. and Salvia pratensis L. (Sect. Plethiosphace, Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Boža

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomical relationship between Salvia pratensis and S. bertolonii has been unclear for a long time. Salvia bertolonii has alternatively been considered a synonym, a subspecies, a problematic subspecies and a form of Salvia pratensis. However, both these two species are sometimes used in traditional medicine instead of sage (Salvia officinalis or as an adulteration for the same drug. In order to confirm the status of S. bertolonii, together with the potential identification characteristics for differentiation from sage, both taxa were analyzed through the analysis of their essential oils, together with the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf surface and the anatomy and morphology of the leaves. The obtained results show that there are clear differences in the quantity of essential oil (0.073% for S. pratensis and 0.0016% for S. berolonii. The major compound in the essential oil of S. pratensis was E-caryophyllene (26.4% while in S. berolonii essential oil caryophyllene oxide was the major component (35.1%. The micromorphological differences are also pronounced in the leaf indumentum (density and distribution of certain types of non-glandular and glandular trichomes. Clear distinction between the investigated Salvia species is also observed in the leaf anatomy (in S. pratensis leaves are thinner, palisade tissue is made of 1-2 layers of cells, and leaves of S. bertolonii are characterized by 2-3 layers of palisade tissue cells, and consequently thicker.

  19. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction. Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general.

  20. Preliminary study on Salvia miltiorrhiza bung endophytic fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To select the strains which can produce tanshinone ⅡA like its host plant Salvia miltiorrhiza bung.Methods A total of 50 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy,living and symptomless tissues of Salvia miltiorrhiza bung,among which 29 strains were obtained from the root,14 from the stem,3 from the leaf,3 from the flower and 1 from the seed.Their antimicrobial activities against nine different bacteria,including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria,were measured by Oxford pl...

  1. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  2. Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Efektivitas Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Terhadap Penyembuhan Luka Sayat

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Cinta Suci

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf family Arecaceae widely growing in Indonesia, which is common known with its oil. One of the medical using is for wound healing, and also effective for hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and can heal acut toxicity. The objective of this research is to test phytochemicals screening and effectiveness test ethanol extract gel of oil palm leaf (elaeis guineensis jacq.) for wound healing. Palm’s leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 d...

  3. Distribuzione e consistenza della popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 nel levante genovese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Venturini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distribution and population size of the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 in Province of Genova (NW Italy In Liguria, the Grey squirrel population originated from an introduction of five pairs in an urban park (Genoa Nervi in 1966. A first study, carried out in the 1996 by interviews, located a second group 3 km far, in Bogliasco locality. In this study, conducted in 2001-04, the population size of Genoa Nervi and the presence of the species in surrounding areas were investigated. In 2002 the population size was estimated in 115/286 individuals by distance sampling method, while, by direct observation, it varied from 80 individuals (2004 to 114 individuals (2003. The sampling by hair tubes in surrounding areas confirmed the presence of a group of grey squirrels in Bogliasco and excluded a further dispersal of the species. Riassunto In Liguria, la popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis ha avuto origine dall'introduzione di 5 coppie nei parchi urbani di Genova Nervi nel 1966. Un primo studio condotto nel 1996 ha localizzato, tramite interviste, un secondo nucleo a 3 km di distanza, in località Bogliasco. Il presente studio, condotto nel 2001-2004, è stato finalizzato alla valutazione della consistenza della popolazione nei parchi di Nervi, mediante il metodo distance sampling e osservazioni dirette, e all'accertamento della presenza della specie nelle aree circostanti mediante l'utilizzo di hair tube. La stima della popolazione con il metodo distance sampling è risultata di 115/286 individui nel 2002, mentre quella ottenuta mediante osservazioni dirette è variata da 80 individui nel 2004 a 114 individui nel 2003. Gli accertamenti compiuti nelle aree circostanti i parchi di Nervi hanno consentito di confermare la presenza di un nucleo di scoiattoli a Bogliasco e di escludere un'ulteriore espansione della specie.

  4. "Quite a Profoundly Strange Experience": An Analysis of the Experiences of Salvia divinorum Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Fiona; Kivell, Bronwyn; Boyle, Otis

    2016-01-01

    Salvia divnorum (an intense hallucinogen) is currently illegal in New Zealand under the 2014 Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research surrounding Salvia divinorum and its effects in a New Zealand context. To explore the experiences of Salvia divinorum users, an anonymous questionnaire was advertised through flyers placed in locations where young adults congregate. A total of 393 people took part in the online questionnaire in 2010-2011, while salvia was legally available in New Zealand; 167 respondents had used salvia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the resulting open-ended questionnaire data and three key themes were identified: the effects of salvia; the importance of set and setting; salvia use and pleasure/not-pleasure. Recreational use of salvia was situated within a broader drug landscape, with participants being drug experienced and "drug wise" (Measham, Aldridge, and Parker 2001). Use of salvia also appeared to be intermittent, with its use referred to as a novel experience. Thus, the recent criminalization of salvia under the 2014 Act may see a significant decline in use as experienced drug users look elsewhere for novel drug experiences. PMID:27176133

  5. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  6. Volatile Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Salvia apiana Jepson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of fresh white sage (Salvia apiana) were isolated by extraction with diethyl ether followed by high vacuum distillation with a solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) apparatus. The isolated volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 84 constit...

  7. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

  8. Microdistillation and analysis of volatiles from eight ornamental salvia taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds from seven Salvia species and one interspecific hybrid growing at the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Texas, US, S. coccinea, S. farinacea, S. greggii, S. leucantha, S. longispicata × farinacea, S. madrensis, S. roemeriana and S. splendens were investigated for their chemic...

  9. Relative Stereochemistry of a Diterpene from Salvia cinnabarina

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Andrea Mattia; Giovanni Romussi; Nunziatina De Tommasi; Olga Bruno; Alessia Romussi; Bruno Pagano; Angela Bisio

    2007-01-01

    The relative stereochemistry of 3,4-secoisopimara-4(18),7,15-triene-3-oic acid, a diterpenoid with antispasmodic, hypotensive and antibacterial activities isolated from Salvia cinnabarina, was determined by an X-ray diffraction analysis of a single crystal of a suitable crystalline derivative.

  10. "Salvia Divinorum" Use among a College Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khey, David N.; Miller, Bryan Lee; Griffin, O. Hayden

    2009-01-01

    The recreational use of "Salvia divinorum" has received increased attention by media outlets and policy-makers in recent years. The vast absence of research to guide the dissemination of information has prompted this research note describing the use of this substance in a large public institution of higher education. The prevalence of "Salvia…

  11. Anti-mutagenic activity of Salvia merjamie extract against gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Khalid Mashay

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine is an anti-cancer drug with clinically uses in the treatment of various neoplasms, including breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung, pancreaticand cervical cancers, T-cell malignancies, germ cell tumours, and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, it has also been reported to have many adverse effects. Naturally occurring anti-mutagenic effects, especially those of plant origin, have recently become a subject of intensive research. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the anti-mutagenic effects of Salvia merjamie (Family: Lamiaceae) plant extracts against the mutagenic effects of gemcitabine. The anti-mutagenic properties of Salvia merjamie were tested in Inbred SWR/J male and female mice bone marrow cells. The mice were treated in four groups; a control group treated with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine and three treatment groups, each with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine together with, respectively, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight Salvia merjamie extract. Chromosomal aberration and mitotic index assays were performed with the results demonstrating that Salvia merjamie extract protects bone marrow cells in mice against gemcitabine induced mutagenicity. This information can be used for the development of a potential therapeutic anti-mutagenic agents. PMID:25743821

  12. Morphometric study of some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the morphological studies in some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status and morphological studies, 53 accessions of 12 Salvia species were collected from their natural habitats in Iran. A total of 17 quantitative and 13 qualitative morphological characters were selected as diagnostic characters in Salvia species through the use of numerical methods. The statistical analysis consisted of cluster analysis with Euclidean distance coefficient, factor analysis, descriptive analysis and variance analysis using SPSS V.20.0 software. The clustering results of quantitative and qualitative morphological characters showed five groups. Despite the high morphological similarity between S. nemorosa L. and S. virgata Jaq., these species were separated using qualitative and quantitative characters and factor analysis. Regarding cluster and factor analyses, S. spinosa L. and S. atropatana Bunge accessions displayed high morphological diversity. Based on these findings, morphological characteristics such as the features of the leaf, calyx, corolla, bract, stamen and style were considered to be the appropriate diagnostic characters in the taxonomy of the Salvia species studied.  

  13. Relative Stereochemistry of a Diterpene from Salvia cinnabarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Andrea Mattia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative stereochemistry of 3,4-secoisopimara-4(18,7,15-triene-3-oic acid, a diterpenoid with antispasmodic, hypotensive and antibacterial activities isolated from Salvia cinnabarina, was determined by an X-ray diffraction analysis of a single crystal of a suitable crystalline derivative.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hutchins

    Full Text Available Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  15. Abundance and temporal distribution of Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago (Acarina: Mesostigmata) in gray catbird (Dumatella carolinensis) nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Mary C; Scheidler, Lydia C; Cantor, Dara G; Bell, Kristen E

    2004-06-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum Canestrini and Fanzago, is a common ectoparasite of wild birds. Despite its ability to transmit eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus under laboratory conditions and potential for involvement in the natural EEE virus cycle, we know little about its abundance or temporal distribution in nature. From June to August 2000, we studied the abundance of O. sylviarum in the nests of gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), a reservoir host for EEE virus, at Killbuck Marsh Wildlife Area (KMWA), a known EEE virus focus in Wayne County, Ohio. A total of 7,883 O. sylviarum, including 1,910 adults and 5,973 protonymphs, were recovered from 23 of 26 gray catbird nests collected during various phases of the nesting cycle. We found no association between mite abundance and number of catbird nestlings in successful nests. However, mite abundance increased significantly with date of nest collection and peaked in late July when transmission of EEE virus is likely to occur at KMWA. We therefore suggest that O. sylviarum may contribute to the transmission of EEE virus among gray catbirds at KMWA. PMID:15266741

  16. The possibilities of the application of some species of sage (Salvia L.) as auxiliaries in the treatment of some diseases

    OpenAIRE

    NATASA D. MITIC; STEVAN N. ILIC; DRAGAN T. VELICKOVIC; MIHAILO S. RISTIC; ANA S. VELICKOVIC

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition of four essential oils of four species of sage (Salvia officinalis L., Salvia pratensis L., Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia aethiopis L.) are examined by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. The presence of some components in the essential oil (mono- and sesquiterpene) determines the pharmacological effects and therapeutical application of a plant species. Salvia officinalis L. gives the highest yield of oil (1.1 %), while the lowest is in Salvia pratensis L. (0.1 %). The invest...

  17. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Jafari; Sasan Andalib; Alireza Abed; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Golnaz Vaseghi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Sal...

  18. Towards a new classification of Salvia s.l.: (re)establishing the genus Pleudia Raf.

    OpenAIRE

    WILL, MARIA; SCHMALZ, NATALIE; CLASSEN-BOCKHOFF, REGINE

    2015-01-01

    Salvia L. İn its traditional circumscription is the largest genus within the mint family. To date, the magnitude of the task has rendered it difficult to provide a genus-wide revision based on morphological data. Current molecular investigations based on a dense taxon sampling representing the whole phenotypic diversity and distribution range of Salvia confirmed that the genus is polyphyletic. Salvia species fall in 4 distinct clades, although all of them, except Clade IV, also include non-Sa...

  19. Salvia Species in Flora of Turkey and Their Status in Danger

    OpenAIRE

    İpek, Arif; GÜRBÜZ, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Turkey is a country, either because of having different climate conditions and being located in the point of three gene centers, has got rich diversity of species. Medicinal and aromatic plants among this diversity have a distinct position. Among the plants, Salvia genus is collected for this purpose. This genus, worldwide, has 900 spices and 97 in natural for Turkey. In Turkey 51 of Salvia genus are endemic and endemism percent is high. Despite good conditions in this region, Salvia spices a...

  20. An investigation of anti-oxidant properties of salvia, conducting beta-carotene bleaching assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Fatemeh; ABEDPOUR, Marziyeh; ABDOSHEIKHI, Meysam; AHMADI, Elmira; ABEDI, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the large amount of oils, Salvia (officinalis species) has always been one of the most popular medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. In this theses, the aerial parts of the plant Salvia officinalis were collected from greenhouses of Shiraz city and dried in shade for 15 days. Its essential oil was extracted using Clevenger method and analyzed using Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectrometer. Twenty compound was analyzed in the essential oil of salvia as the main compounds...

  1. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African locust bean, is one of the 34 known species of the genusParkiawhose centre of origin isSouth America. It is anagroforestrytree species spread throughout the Africansudaniansavannas, fromSenegalin the West toUgandain the East. P.biglobosa is also an important socio-economic species in high demand by local communities for its multiple amenities and uses (food, traditional medicine and pharmacy, preservation and improvement of soil fertility, rites and custom...

  2. Indeks Keanekaragaman Jenis Serangga Pada Ekosistem Pembibitan Dan Bukaan Baru Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hutabarat, Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Holmes HutaBarat, Diversity Of Insect On Nursery and Land Clearing Ecosystem at Oil Palm Plantation (Elaeis guinensis Jacq) with counselor commision Ir. Mena Uly Tarigan, MS as chief and Ir. Yuswani Pangestiningsih, MS as member. The experiment was aimed to know the diversity of insect population on nursery and land clearing ecosystem at oil palm plantation and was to know the usefull insect, destructive insect, parasitoid and predator at that area. The experiment was done on two place, Land ...

  3. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Antikolesterol (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Menggunakan Mencit Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Syahfitri, Rifany

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest producer oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in the world. Palm leaves are generally only as waste, but the development of science and technology can be used for the treatment of some diseases, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, acute toxicity, wound healing drug. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the ethanol extract of palm leaves (EOPLE) as anti-cholesterol using male mice. Simplici...

  4. Pengujian Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Sebagai Obat Luka Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Leaves of palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Contain alkaloids that have the ability as an antibacterial, astringent activity of flavonoids and saponins that can stimulate the formation of collagen, which plays a role in wound healing process and. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the ethanol extract gel palm leaves for the healing of burns. Palm’ leaf powder macerated by ethanol 80% for 5 days, filtered, the residue has extraction by ethanol, then the filtrate leave for 2 day and ...

  5. Analisis Histologi Embriogenesis Somatik Dari Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var Tenera

    OpenAIRE

    Meilvana, Tengku Nilayanda

    2014-01-01

    A study of Histological Analysis of Somatic Embryogenesis from Apical Bud of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera has been conducted at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of FMIPA USU. The experimental design was completely randomized with three levels of 2,4-D concentrations: 110; 120; 130 mg/L and three position of explants: apical, median, and basal. The statistical analysis showed that 120 mg/L of 2,4-D significantly affected the primary and embryogenic calluses initiation. Explant...

  6. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-01

    Background Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptom...

  7. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  8. Revisión taxonómica de Salvia sect. Siphonantha (Labiatae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    A taxonomic review was made of Salvia sect. Siphonantha, whose distribution is restricted to northern South America from Colombia to Peru. A new species of Ecuador, Salvia sigchosica, is described and the original descriptions of another four species of the section are reproduced.Se presenta una revisión de las especies de Salvia sect. Siphonantha, cuya distribución se restringe al norte de Sudamérica, desde Colombia hasta el Perú. Se describe una nueva especie de Ecuador, Salvia sigchosica, ...

  9. Evolution of IFN-λ in tetrapod vertebrates and its functional characterization in green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan Nan; Zhang, Xiao Wen; Li, Li; Ruan, Bai Ye; Huang, Bei; Huang, Wen Shu; Zou, Peng Fei; Fu, Jian Ping; Zhao, Li Juan; Li, Nan; Nie, Pin

    2016-08-01

    IFN-λ (IFNL), i.e. type III IFN genes were found in a conserved gene locus in tetrapod vertebrates. But, a unique locus containing IFNL was found in avian. In turtle and crocodile, IFNL genes were distributed in these two separate loci. As revealed in phylogenetic trees, IFN-λs in these two different loci and other amniotes were grouped into two different clades. The conservation in gene presence and gene locus was also observed for the receptors of IFN-λ, IFN-λR1 and IL-10RB in tetrapods. It is further revealed that in North American green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis, a single IFNL gene was situated collinearly in the conserved locus as in other tetrapods, together with its receptors IFN-λR1 and IL-10RB also identified in this study. The IFN-λ and its receptors were expressed in all examined organs/tissues, and their expression was stimulated following the injection of polyI:polyC. The ISREs in promoter of IFN-λ in lizard were responsible to IRF3 as demonstrated using luciferase report system, and IFN-λ in lizard functioned through the receptors, IFN-λR1 and IL-10RB, as the up-regulation of ISGs was observed in ligand-receptor transfected, and also in recombinant IFN-λ stimulated, cell lines. Taken together, it is concluded that the mechanisms involved in type III IFN ligand-receptor system, and in its signalling pathway and its down-stream genes may be conserved in green anole lizard, and may even be so in tetrapods from xenopus to human. PMID:27062970

  10. Osteology and chondrocranial morphology of Gastrophryne carolinensis (Anura: Microhylidae, with a review of the osteological diversity of New World microhylids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Trueb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhylidae is a large, cosmopolitan anuran family. Recent molecular analyses have demonstrated the monophyly of the family—a conclusion that is supported by the larval morphology, coupled with the unique mode of tongue protrusion in adults, and a suite of osteological and myological characters seemingly associated with this innovation in feeding. Despite this functional constraint, osteological diversity probably exceeds that of any other anuran family, and this diversity is especially evident in the New Worldmicrohylids that comprise two clades, Gastrophryninae and Otophryninae. To facilitate comparisons among these clades, we describe the larval chondrocranium, skeletal development, and adult osteology of Gastrophryne carolinensis. We provide a phylogeneticcontext for these comparisons through a novel phylogenetic analysis of 45 microhylid genera based on data for one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci from previously published studies. Nearly all relationships within the monophyletic Gastrophryninae are resolvedwith robust support. Based on these results, we found that the larval chondrocrania of gastrophrynines share morphological features that distinguish them from Otophryne and other anurans. Among the adults, all gastrophrynines show evidence of an anterior shift ofthe jaws that is correlated with specializations in the otic region, and with the alignment of the planum antorbitale, the cartilage wall separating the nasal capsule from the orbits. The larval infrarostral and the adult mandibles lack a typical anuran mandibular symphysis, and the mentomeckelian bone of the adult is modified with a special process. The most variable part of the skull is the palate in which a neopalatine usually is absent and the vomer may be single or divided. The posteromedial processes of the hyoids of gastrophynines tend to be elaborated, and some taxa bear a peculiar transverse slit in the posterior part of the hyoid corpus. The anterior zonal

  11. Molecular docking and ex vivo and in vitro anticholinesterase activity studies ofSalvia sp. and highlighted rosmarinic acid

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREZER, LÜTFİYE ÖMÜR; GÜRBÜZ, PERİHAN; UĞUR, EMİNE PELİN KELİCEN; BODUR, MİNE; ÖZENVER, NADİRE; UZ, AYŞE; GÜVENALP, Zühal

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: To evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of the major molecule from Salvia sp., rosmarinic acid, as a drug candidate molecule for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). Materials and methods: The AChE inhibitory activity of different extracts from Salvia trichoclada, Salvia verticillata, and Salvia fruticosa was determined by the Ellman and isolated guinea pig ileum methods, and the antioxidant capacity was determined with DPPH. The A...

  12. Biological effects of space loading on salvia miltiorrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the SP1 biological effects of space loading on Salvia miltiorrhiza seeds. Dry seeds were carried by breeding satellite-Shijian 8, and seeds were sowed in the field after returning the ground. Some parameters were measured, such as growth stage, seed vigor, plant traits above ground, root feature and seeding characteristics. Variation of DNA was tested by SRAP. The results showed that DNA variation happened, the rate of germination and emergence in SP1 generation increased significantly, the blooming date was advanced, rachis length and flower number of SP1 generation also increased compared with CK. At the same time, the root features and seeding characteristics were improved, the CV was increased in the relative traits, but leaf growth was inhibited significantly. The biological effects of space loading on dry seed of Salvia miltiorrhiza might be an important index for germplasm improvement and breeding. (authors)

  13. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices. PMID:27277872

  14. Taxonomy and morphology of Salvia spinosa L. (Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and morphology of 42 Salvia spinosa L. accessions (Lamiaceae were studied in Iran. This species had a high morphological diversity which was related to the hair frequency and indumentum of base and surface of stem, form of leaf, leaf margin and leaf apex, leaf indumentum, form of bracts margin, dimension and color of bracteole, calyx length, style length, form and color of nutlet. Using the cluster analysis based on Euclidian Distance Coefficient and SPSS V.11.5 software the infra-specific relationships were determined. The results of cluster analysis showed diversity among the accessions of this species. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the morphological variability in this species might be due to the polymorphism, hybridization and new varieties. Consequently, the morphological characters of Iranian accessions of Salvia spinosa have been described and designed in details.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Salvia (Lamiaceae) in China:Evidence from DNA sequence datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Quan LI; Min-Hui LI; Qing-Jun YUAN; Zhan-Hu CUI; Lu-Qi HUANG; Pei-Gen XIAO

    2013-01-01

    With 84 native species,China is a center of distribution of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae).These species are mainly distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces (southwestern China),notably the Hengduan Mountain region.Traditionally,the Chinese Salvia has been classified into four subgenera,Salvia,Sclarea,Jungia,and Allagospadonopsis.We tested this classification using molecular phylogenetic analysis of 43 species of Salvia from China,six from Japan,and four introduced species.The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and three chloroplast regions (rbcL,matK,and trnH-psbA) were analyzed by maximum parsimony,maximum likelihood,and Bayesian methods.Our results showed that the Chinese (except Salvia deserta) and Japanese Salvia species formed a well-supported clade; S.deserta from Xinjiang grouped with Salvia officinalis of Europe.In addition,all introduced Salvia species in China were relatively distantly related to the native Chinese Salvia.Our results differed from the subgeneric and section classifications in Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae.We suggested that sections Eusphace and Pleiphace should be united in a new subgenus and that sect.Notiosphace should be removed from subg.Sclarea and form a new subgenus.Our data could not distinguish a boundary between subg.Altagospadonopsis and sect.Drymosphace (subg.Sclarea); the latter should be reduced into the former.Further clarification of the phylogenetic relationships within Salvia and between Salvia and related genera will require broader taxonomic sampling and more molecular markers.

  16. The anticancer properties of phytochemical extracts from Salvia plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang YY; Zhang L; Rupasinghe HPV

    2016-01-01

    Yuanyuan Jiang,1,2 Li Zhang,2 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe1,3 1Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada; 2College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Abstract: Salvia species have been used as traditional medicine in many countries for a long time for health benefits. More importantly, in recent...

  17. The anticancer properties of phytochemical extracts from Salvia plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rupasinghe, Vasantha

    2016-01-01

    Yuanyuan Jiang,1,2 Li Zhang,2 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe1,3 1Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada; 2College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Abstract: Salvia species have been used as traditional medicine in many countries for a long time for health benefits. More importantly, in re...

  18. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Norlaily Mohd Ali; Swee Keong Yeap; Wan Yong Ho; Boon Kee Beh; Sheau Wei Tan; Soon Guan Tan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining heal...

  19. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arıduru, Rana; Arabacı, Gülnur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions (ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanolextract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (43.55 mg GAE/g extract), followed by methanol-extract of freshliver plant (23...

  20. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  1. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities.

  2. Comparison of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained from Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Dragan T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as total phenols and flavonoids contents of Salvia glutinosa L. (glutinous sage and Salvia officinalis L. (sage extracts were studied. Methanol and aqueous ethanol (70% v/v were used for extraction of bioactive compounds, both in the presence and the absence of ultrasound, from herb and the spent plant material remaining after the essential oil hydrodistillation. The ratio of plant material to extracting solvent was 1:10 g/ml. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were found to depend on the type of plant material and the extraction conditions. The plant materials from which essential oil had been recovered were proven to be valuable raw materials for making various herbal preparations.

  3. Studies on Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Selected Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera in the family of Labiatae, comprising about 900 species distributed widely throughout the world. Many species of Salvia are commonly used as herbal tea and for food flavoring, as well as in cosmetics, perfumery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study compares the antioxidant properties of four methanolic extracts, obtained by two extraction methods, from Salvia elegans, Salvia officinalis Purpurascens, Salvia officinalis Tricolor and Salvia lavandulifolia. The amount of total phenolics was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the antioxidant activity of selected herbs was determined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total amount of phenolics was between 1122.50 and 3672.16 mg GAE/100g dry plant for the first methanolic extract, while for the second extract was between 767.66 and 2725.04mg GAE/100g dry plant. A positive linear correlation was observed between total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results suggested that the extracts of Salvia species, notably Salvia officinalis Tricolor with the highest antioxidant activity, can be used as natural antioxidants in the food industry.

  4. Morphological characterisation and agronomical parameters of different species of Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossi, A J; Cansian, R L; Paroul, N; Toniazzo, G; Oliveira, J V; Pierozan, M K; Pauletti, G; Rota, L; Santos, A C A; Serafini, L A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the morphological characteristics and parameters of biomass production, such as fresh and dry matter weight (FMW and DMW, g/plant), yield of dry matter (YDM) in terms of ton/ha, essential oil content (EOC, mL/100 g) and yield of essential oils (YEO) expressed as L/ha of the following plants Salvia verbenaca, Salvia argentea, Salvia lavandulifolia, Salvia pratensis, Salvia sclarea, Salvia triloba and Salvia officinalis. Except for Salvia argentea (S2) all other species have adapted to the south Brazilian climate conditions, with morphological differences among the species evaluated. In terms of DMW and YDM, S. officinalis was found to be the most productive species with 445.83 g/plant and 11.14 ton/ha. The higher essential oil content and yield was observed for S. officinalis, affording 1.99 mL/100 g and 221.74 L/ha, respectively. Chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation was performed through GC and GC/MSD analyses, which revealed for most of the species studied, α e β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole as major compounds, apart from S. sclarea, for which linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major components.

  5. Peculiarities of leaves morpho-anatomical parameters of Salvia L. species under the conditions of introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana V. Tyshchenko; Tatyana V. Multjan; Galyna O. Rudik

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of morpho-anatomical parameters of the leaves of three Salvia L. species of different biomorphes, which are grown under the introduction in O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, is considered. The morpho-anatomical features, which allow to discover structural adaptation possibilities of Salvia species ex situ , are established.

  6. Published papers about Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge as a Chinese medicinal material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xu Cuihong, Shu Zhiming, Wang Yan, Miao Fang, Zhou ke. The accumulation rule of the main medicinal components in different organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. f. alba. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research, 2010, 21(09): 2129-2132. Email: miaofangmf@ 163,com

  7. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cárdenas; José Antonio Morales-Serna; Bernardo Antonio Frontana-Uribe; Manuel Salmón; Miguel Ángel Jaime-Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  8. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  9. Multiple pro-apoptotic targets of abietane diterpenoids from Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, M; Mehri, S; Iranshahi, M

    2015-01-01

    The genus Salvia contains a large number of biologically active diterpenoids with various skeletons including abietanes, labdanes, clerodanes, pimaranes and icetexanes. Diterpenes of Salvia species showed various biological activities, particularly cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties. In recent years many studies have been focused on the molecular mechanisms of these diterpenes in cancer cells. It should be noted, however, that anticancer studies on diterpenoids from Salvia species were dominated by tanshinones (a class of abietanes) over the past decades. A large number of targets of diterpenes have been identified in cancer cells including NF-κB, STAT3, Bcl-xL, β-catenin, cytochrome C and caspases. These studies give us deeper insights into the mechanisms of actions and cell signaling pathways of anticancer diterpenoids from Salvia species. This paper reviews protein targets of diterpenoids from Salvia species and highlights the gaps in our knowledge deserving future research. PMID:25447154

  10. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  11. The possibilities of the application of some species of sage (Salvia L. as auxiliaries in the treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA D. MITIC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four essential oils of four species of sage (Salvia officinalis L., Salvia pratensis L., Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia aethiopis L. are examined by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. The presence of some components in the essential oil (mono- and sesquiterpene determines the pharmacological effects and therapeutical application of a plant species. Salvia officinalis L. gives the highest yield of oil (1.1 %, while the lowest is in Salvia pratensis L. (0.1 %. The investigations included the determination of the antimicrobic activities of the essential oils by the diffusion method and the oil of Salvia pratensis L. proved to have the highest activity.

  12. Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) provenientes de Camerún

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Estiben Pacheco Diaz; Diana Marcela Arias Moreno; Zaida Zarely Ojeda Perez; Hernán Mauricio Romero Angulo

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) provenientes de CamerúnTítulo en ingles: Diversity and genetic structure of oil palm accession (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.)  from CameroonTítulo corto: Diversidad genética de accesiones de palma de aceiteResumen: La palma de aceite Elaeis guineesis Jacq. posee gran importancia debido al aceite que se extrae de sus frutos, del cual se obtienen derivados refinados de gran valor comercial co...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WILD OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ.) POPULATIONS IN CROSSES WITH DELI TESTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Noumouha E. N. Ghislain; Allou Désiré; Adon Benjamin; Konan Jean-Noël; Sékou Diabaté; Konan K. Eugène; Simon-Pierre A Nguetta

    2014-01-01

    To widen the genetic variability and especially to enrich agronomic qualities of populations of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) of Group B used in the breeding scheme, a study was led on four populations (Abak, Ahoada, Ayangba and Uli) prospected in Nigeria. Sixteen palms chosen in these populations were evaluated in crosses with 10 Deli testers derived from the second cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection scheme. The LM 2 T × DA 10 D and LM 2 T × DA 115 D progenies derived from the firs...

  14. PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR DAN KALIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) DI PEMBIBITAN UTAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudradjat -; Nindyta Agustina Siagian

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of plantation commodities that contribute to foreign exchange. Palm oil production is influenced by the expansion of the area  and  intensification using the fertilization at main nursery and plantation. Macro elements such as N, P, and K required by the oil palm are in large quantities. The study was conducted from November, 2011 to  May, 2012 at Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor. The treatment was laid-out in a factorial rand...

  15. A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Mastelić, Josip; Marijanović, Zvonimir

    2006-12-01

    Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia honey extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2. The yield of isolated volatiles varied from 25.7 to 30.5 mg kg(-1). Salvia honey could be distinguished on the basis of the high percentage of benzoic acid (6.4-14.8%), and especially phenylacetic acid (5.7-18.4%). Minor, but floral-origin important volatiles were identified such as shikimate pathway derivatives, 'degraded-carotenoid-like' structures (3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives) and 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives. Compounds from other metabolic pathways such as aliphatic acids and higher linear hydrocarbons, as well as heterocycles (pyrans, furans, and pyrroles), were also present. Most of the identified compounds do not constitute specific Salvia honey markers, due to their presence in honeys of other botanical origins; however, their ratio in different honeys could be useful to distinguish floral origin. Salvia-honey volatile markers were: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, p-anisaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, dehydrovomifoliol, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione, and coumaran.

  16. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  17. Hepatoprotective diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia grandifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Li; Sun, Hua; Wang, Ding-Ding; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2016-05-01

    One new diterpenoid, grandifolia G (1), together with a known diterpenoid (6,7,8,8a-tetrahydro-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxonaphtho[1,8-bc]furan-3-yl)-4-methylfuran-3-carboxylic acid (2), was isolated from 70% EtOH extract of root of Salvia grandifolia. Their structures were determined by UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR spectra. Compounds 1 and 2 (10 μM) exhibited hepatoprotective activities (61 and 55%) against DL-galactosamine-induced cell damage in HL-7702 cells. PMID:27086714

  18. Antinociceptive effect of critoniella acuminata, physalis peruviana and salvia rubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Munóz, Carol; Vergel, Nadezdha E.; Aragón, Diana Marcela; Ospina, Luis Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antinociceptivo de extractos, fracciones y compuestos de Critoniella acuminata, Physalis peruviana y Salvia rubescens mediante los métodos de placa caliente, contorsiones abdominales inducidas por ácido acético y ensayo de la formalina. La fracción de Critoniella acuminata en dosis de 100 mg/kg p.o. presentó actividad antinociceptiva al aumentar el tiempo de reacción del animal ante la aplicación de un estímulo térmico (método de la placa caliente), mient...

  19. [Preparation and vitality detection of protoplast in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nan; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Juan'e

    2014-10-01

    We prepared protoplasts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge suspension culture cells. Then, the protoplasts' vitality and functions were tested by fluorescein diacetate staining method and Fluo-3/AM flourescent probe. The optimal condition of protoplast isolation was Cellulase R-10 1.5%, Pectinase Y-23 0.3%, Macerozyme R-10 0.5%, 40 r/min 12 h, 600 r/min 5 min, and the protoplasts yield was 1.1x10(6) cells/g FW, the vitality was more than 95% by using fluorescein diacetate staining method. It has been confirmed that calcium fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM can be successfully loaded into protoplasts.

  20. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Arıduru; Gülnur Arabacı

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanol-extract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents mg GAE/g extract; 43,55, methanol-extract of 23.62, ethyl acetate extract 18.29, and acetone extract 11.58. All the extracti...

  1. A NEW AROMATIC ESTER AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF Salvia aucheri var. canescens

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN*, N. TAN*, G. TOPÇU**,

    2015-01-01

    The roots of an endemic Salvia species, Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss.and HeIdr. have been investigated and a new aromatic ester together with two diterpenoids, a triterpenoid and a steroidal compound were isolated. The structures of the new and the known compounds were determined by spectral methods and by TLC comparision with authentic samples except for the new compound.Key words: Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss. and Heldr.; Labiatae; aromaticester; terpenoidal compounds.

  2. PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN FOSFOR DAN KALIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. DI PEMBIBITAN UTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudradjat -

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of plantation commodities that contribute to foreign exchange. Palm oil production is influenced by the expansion of the area  and  intensification using the fertilization at main nursery and plantation. Macro elements such as N, P, and K required by the oil palm are in large quantities. The study was conducted from November, 2011 to  May, 2012 at Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor. The treatment was laid-out in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was P: 0, 3.00, 6.00, and 12.00 g P plant-1 ;  and the second was K: 0, 9.00, 18.00 and 36.00 g K plant-1. The results of the study showed that phosphor did not influence the plant height, number of frond, number of chlorophyll, and stem diameter. Potassium fertilizer influenced the stem diameter at 24 weeks after planting (WAP. There were the interaction between P and K  on stem diameter variable at 16 and 20 WAP.Keywords :  Fertilizer, phosphor, potassium, Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.

  3. Radical Scavenging and Reducing Power of Salvia mirzayanii Subfractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the ethyl acetate fraction and subfractions of Salvia mirzayanii (SM have been investigated. The plant material was initially extracted with ethanol. The fractionation was carried out using liquid-liquid extraction, then the ethyl acetate fraction, which showed the greatest antioxidant activity, was selected. This fraction was submitted to column chromatography on a Sephadex LH 20 column eluted with pure MeOH to obtain subfractions A-G. No significant differences exist between the IC50 of Salvia mirzayanii ethyl acetate subfraction C (IC50 = 37.9 ± 0.85, F (IC50 = 40.05 ± 1.4 and quercetin (38.84 ± 0.86, (P > 0.05, indicating that the radical scavenging capacity of these two subfractions and quercetin (antioxidant standard were similar. The reducing power of the ethyl acetate fraction was less than that of all subfractions, except for subfraction A. The greatest amount of phenolic compounds was found in subfraction E (55.23 ± 4.2 and the lowest in subfraction F (5.23 ± 0.18. The greatest total flavonoid content was established in subfraction D (1.84 ± 0.01 and the lowest was in subfraction A (0.108 ± 0.007.

  4. Cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khosravi Dehaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera of  Lamiaceae family. Several species of this genus are perfumed and wealthy in essential oils. Some of them are used in industry, pharmacy and aromatherapy. They have shown different biological effects such as antibacterial and antioxidant activity. For the present study, Salvia verticillata L. was collected from Shahrestanak, Mazandaran, Iran. Hydrodistilled essential oil from the aerial parts of this plant was obtained with a Clevenger type  apparatus  and was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was investigated against HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines by MTT test. 59 components were characterized from the oil with trans-caryophyllene (24.40%, β-phellandrene (9.08%, α-humulene (8.61%, bicyclogermacrene (6.32%, spathulenol (5.89% and β-pinene (5.00% as the major constituents. These compounds represented 97.67% of the essential oil and included monoterpenes (34.83% and sesquiterpens (61.84%. The results of the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the essential oil of S. verticillata showed higher cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell line.

  5. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Krenn, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfand is an endemic herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The plant grows in the center and south of Iran and is broadly used in folk medicine. This review focuses on phytochemical and pharmacological data of S mirzayanii. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database (Iranian database involving English and Persian articles), and Google Scholar were searched for terms "Salvia mirzayanii," "Iranian sage," "Marv-e-Talkh," and "Moor-e-Talkh" in both Persian and English up to December 10, 2013. In line with the ethnopharmacological uses, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities of different preparations of S mirzayanii have been shown in recent studies. The antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic strains has mainly been attributed to the essential oil of S mirzayanii, which in numerous analyses has been investigated either in plants of different origin or prepared by differing extraction methods. Despite the studies on antioxidant or antimicrobial activities, profound research on the toxicity or clinical properties of the herb is missing. PMID:25331096

  6. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  7. Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, a new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species from a botanically little known region of Jalisco, Mexico, is described and illustrated. The morphology of Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez is related to that of the species of sections Briquetia Epling and Tubiflorae (Epling Epling of subgenus Calosphace (Benth. Benth. The new taxon is distinguished by the combination of its essentially glabrous surface, the 2-flowered verticillasters, the pink to magenta corollas, and the particular dimensions of the floral bract, the calyx and the corolla.Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de una región botánicamente poco conocida de Jalisco, México. La morfología de Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez está relacionada con aquella de las especies de las secciones Briquetia Epling y Tubiflorae (Epling Epling del subgénero Calosphace (Benth. Benth. El nuevo taxón se distingue por la combinación de su superficie esencialmente glabra, sus verticilastros bifloros, el color rosa o magenta de sus corolas y las dimensiones particulares de la bráctea floral, el cáliz y la corola.

  8. In-vitro Antioxidant Studies of Various Extracts of Salvia hypoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim Javdan; Jasem Estakhr

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activities of various extracts of whole plant of Salvia hypoleuca in different in vitro methods. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by Total antioxidant activity (Phosphomolybdic acid method), FRAP assay with reference standard Ascorbate and total phenol content, respectively. The methanolic extract of Salvia hypoleuca was the most effective total antioxidant activity among the three extracts. The IC50 values of the methanolic ...

  9. Salvia guaneorum (Labiatae), a new species from the Chicamocha Canyon, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    [EN] A new species of Salvia subgen. Calosphace from the Chicamocha Canyon, in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is described and illustrated. The morphological affinities and putative relatives with other Colombian species of the sections Angulatae and Longipes are discussed. [ES] Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva de Salvia subgen. Calosphace, procedente del Cañón del Chicamocha, en la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia. Se discuten sus afinidades morfológicas y posible relación con otr...

  10. The Investigation of Antibacterial Effects of Salvia Sahendica Extracts on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    H Bannazadeh Baghi

    2007-01-01

    Background: The salvia plant is one of the Lamiacea family members, that is being cultiurated all over the world. In Iran almost all spices of this plant could found, that are used for medical, food industry and parfumers production. Salvia sahendica genus is the member of this family, that its antibacterial effects on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Methods: In this study are used standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC ...

  11. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mirazi; N. Abdolmaleki; Mahmoodi, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE) effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided...

  12. Compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia extract inhibits myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling by regulation of protein kinase D1 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Bingyu; Nuan, Liu; Yang, Lei; Zeng, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study is to determine the effect of astragalus and salvia extract on the alteration of myocardium in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, the control group, the Astragalus group, the Salvia group, and the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia and group. The cardiac functions were determined at 8 weeks after treatment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the morpholo...

  13. Molecular Signaling Pathways Behind the Biological Effects of Salvia Species Diterpenes in Neuropharmacology and Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, M; Iranshahi, M; Mehri, S

    2016-06-01

    The genus Salvia, from the Lamiaceae family, has diverse biological properties that are primarily attributable to their diterpene contents. There is no comprehensive review on the molecular signaling pathways of these active components. In this review, we investigated the molecular targets of bioactive Salvia diterpenes responsible for the treatment of nervous and cardiovascular diseases. The effects on different pathways, including apoptosis signaling, oxidative stress phenomena, the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques, and tau phosphorylation, have all been considered to be mechanisms of the anti-Alzheimer properties of Salvia diterpenes. Additionally, effects on the benzodiazepine and kappa opioid receptors and neuroprotective effects are noted as neuropharmacological properties of Salvia diterpenes, including tanshinone IIA, salvinorin A, cryptotanshinone, and miltirone. Tanshinone IIA, as the primary diterpene of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has beneficial activities in heart diseases because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and its effects on transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Additionally, tanshinone IIA has also been proposed to have cardioprotective properties including antiarrhythmic activities and effects on myocardial infarction. With respect to the potential therapeutic effects of Salvia diterpenes, comprehensive clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these valuable molecules as lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26988179

  14. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y CONTENIDO TOTAL DE FENOLES DE LOS EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DE Salvia aratocensis, Salvia Sochensis, Bidens reptons y Montanoa ovalifolia.

    OpenAIRE

    Tafurt García, Geovanna; Vásquez Cardeño , Ángela; Molina Cala, Monica; Miranda, Ingrid; Morales Martinez, Jairo; Stashenko, Elena

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluaron las actividades antioxidantes, a través del ensayo de descoloramiento del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo, DPPH, y el contenido total de fenoles mediante el método de Folin-Ciocalteu, de los extractos etanólicos de Salvia aratocensis, Salvia sochensis, Bidens reptans y Montanoa ovalifolia; los valores obtenidos fueron en orden respectivo: 0.0011 ± 0.0001, 0.00190 ± 0.00005, 0.0017 ± 0.0001 y 0.0073 ± 0.0001 (kg extracto/mmol iniciales de DP...

  15. Characterisation and determination of in vitro antioxidant potential of betalains from Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R

    2013-12-15

    Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries. PMID:23993629

  16. Characterization of genes related to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) drought stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jazayeri, Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) es la primera planta oleaginosa con la producción de más aceite con menos precio. El déficit hídrico reduce la producción de palma de aceite. Es necesario entender las respuestas de plantas al déficit hídrico para obtener plantas más tolerantes. Se usó RNA-Seq para diferenciar dos genotipos de palma de aceite en relación con las respuestas a estrés hídrico. Usando la tecnología de Illumina HiSeq2000 para obtener 1.27 billones de lecturas cortas de 101...

  17. FLUSHING PADA Amherstia nobilis Wall. DAN Brownea capitella Jacq. DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suraehah Tul Azhari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fenologi adalah telaah penampakan periodisitas pada tumbuhan dalam hubungannya dengan iklim, seperti waktu pembungaan dan flushing. Flushing yaitu pertumbuhan tunas/flush secara serempak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengamati pertumbuhan tunas daun dalam merespon intensitas cahaya dengan posisi tumbuh berbeda dan faktor lingkungan yang mempengaruhinya. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan pengambilan purposive sampling, flush dibedakan posisi tumbuhnya yaitu terminal dan aksilar dalam kondisi terpapar dan ternaungi. Laju tumbuh Amherstia nobilis Wall. dan Brownea capitella Jacq. di daerah terpapar cahaya lebih cepat dibandingkan daerah ternaungi. Laju pertumbuhan diiringi dengan perubahan warna. Perubahan warna pada daun  A. nobilis berlangsung selama dua bulan lebih cepat dari B. capitella. Intensitas cahaya dan posisi tumbuh (terminal dan aksilar berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan kedua spesies.

  18. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  19. Stability of Tilo® tablets formulation obtained from dry extract of Justice pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Rodríguez-Chanfrau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb known popularly in Cuba as Tilo and used traditionally as sedative. The development in a solid pharmaceutical (Tablets 100 mg using dry extract of Justicia pectolaris aqueous extract is of interest for the development of phytomedicines, which uses this active raw material. The aim of the present study was to carry out chemical and biological stability studies to the formulation. A method of coumarin determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used and validated. The stability studies during different periods of time (24 months showed a stability of the product stored at 32 ± 2 °C, and protected of the light.

  20. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  1. Plant regeneration of transgenic China Rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) from organogenic callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji-ren; Liu Rong; Chen Shou-yi; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Different types of explants of China Rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) were placed on a Schenk and Hildebrandi (SH) medium containing L-proline and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacefic acid (2,4-D). Organogenesis was observed on callus induced from both whole leaf and petiole and the high frequency of organogenesis was observed on the whole leaf. Shoot regeneration was obtained via organogenesis. The effects of pH and concentrations of antibiotics on maintenance of organogenesis capacity were investigated in subsequent subcultures. The pH value was found to play a critical role in retaining organogenesis capacity. The binary vector pBI121,carrying the gus gene coding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the npt Ⅱ gene mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was used for transformation of organogenic callus using 50 mg·L-1 geneficin for selection. Six regenerated lines showed GUS activity, of which five were verified for the presence of npt Ⅱ gene by PCR.

  2. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  3. Gamma irradiations of the seeds and pollen grains of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollen grains and seeds of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were irradiated with up to 1400 Gy of gamma rays from a 60Co source. Pollen viability tests and subsequent development of embryos from the irradiated seeds showed that a dosage of up to 50 Gy could be tolerated by both the pollen grains and the seeds. Higher doses caused a drastic drop in the germination of seeds, thus reducing the potential size of any population for further studies. Plants of high bunch production were identified in both irradiated and non-irradiated materials. The potential use of gamma irradiation to induce useful mutation in the characters contributing to yield in the oil palm is discussed. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  5. EFFICACY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CONTROLLING RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON NAGA KING CHILLI ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus Ngullie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available biocontrol agents were evaluated either alone or in various combinations for finding out their efficacy in suppressing Rhizoctonia seedling rot incidence and promoting plant growth of Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq. in green house as well field conditions. Among all tested combination, the treatment containing combination of T. viride +P. fluorescens was found most effective in reducing the incidence of seedling rot in both greenhouse and field condition. Highest per plant yield was also recorded from the same combination and it was followed by T. viride. However, the commercially available fungicide Copper oxychloride (0.1% showed 9.82 % and11.88% disease incidence in greenhouse and field condition respectively

  6. Miltiorins A-D, diterpenes from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ai; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kobayakawa, Natsuki; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    Constituents of the anti-influenza A neuraminidase (NA) active extract from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae were investigated, resulting in the isolation of four new diterpenes, miltiorins A-D (1-4), together with eight known diterpenes. The structures of 1-4 were assigned by spectroscopic analysis. Miltiorins A-C (1-3) were abietane diterpenes possessing a 2α-acetoxy group and a 12-hydroxy group in common, while miltiorin D (4) was a 11,12-seco-abietane diterpene with a γ-lactone ring. Miltiorin D (4) is the first example of a 11,12-seco-abietane diterpene from natural sources. Anti-NA activities of the isolated diterpenes were evaluated.

  7. Micromorphology and ultrastructure of trichomes of Libyan Salvia fruticosa Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sheef Beleed Najat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological and ultrastructural analyses of the leaf trichomes of Salvia fruticosa Mill. were performed by light and electron microscopy. The leaves bear numerous non-glandular unbranched trichomes, and peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes. Very elongated flagelliform non-glandular trichomes densely covered the leaf surfaces, with especially abundance on the leaf margins. Peltate trichomes consist of a basal epidermal cell, a very short stalk cell and a large round head of eight secretory cells arranged in a circle. Capitate trichomes can be divided into two main types, short-stalked and long-stalked, and further into five subtypes according to the number of stalk cells, morphology and number of glandular head cells. Digitiform trichomes consist of one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one apical secretory cell, which are of similar diameter and approximately equal length. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029 i br. 173015

  8. Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Pada Media MS Dengan Kombinasi 2,4D Dan BAP

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Siti Shofiya

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian tentang “Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS dengan Kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP” telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Tumbuhan Departemen Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Sumatera Utara dari bulan Januari 2013 sampai dengan bulan Desember 2013. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP terbaik pada induksi kalus dan pertumbuhan kultur eksplan bunga betina kelapa sawit...

  9. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Ebrahimi; Rajion, Mohamed A; Goh Y. Meng; Parisa Shokryazdan; Awis Qurni Sazili; Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm fronds (OPF), normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond pel...

  10. Peningkatan Kualitas Kayu Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Yang Di Kompregnasi Dengan Resin Getah Damar (Agathis dammara)

    OpenAIRE

    Widiarti, Leni

    2015-01-01

    The quality increasing of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by compregnated with dammar resin (Agathis dammara) has been performed. Sellulose as a natural polymer of the oil palm trunk interacted with dammar resin and the mechanical properties of the oil palm trunk was increased. OPT compregnate with dammar resin was performed in vacum compregnator with the duration time of two seconds. The temperature of compregnate was room temperature with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% concentrations o...

  11. Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit ( Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Dengan Menggunakan Media Sekam Padi dan Frekuensi Penyiraman di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    HERMANTO : The Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by the application of Rice Husk And Frequency Of Watering In The Main Nursery. Supervised by FERRY AZRA T SITEPU and JONATAN GINTING. This research aims to study aimed to determine the growth of oil palm seedlings to rice husk and watering frequency on the main nursery. This research was conducted in Greenhouses in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of North Sumatera, Medan with ± 25 m altitude above sea level in J...

  12. 富硒丹参与丹参有效成分的含量比较%Se - enriched Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Salvia Miltiorrhiza Content of Effective Components in Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 王凤秋; 刘志梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Comparing Se - enriched Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia milfiorrhiza content of effective components.Methods: A high performance liquid chromatographic method determination.Results: In Se - enriched Salvia miltiorrhiza fat - soluble components Tanshinone Ⅱ A content of about 2.7 times higher than in Salvia milfiorrhiza; In Se -enriched Salvia miltiorrhiza water - soluble components Danshensu content of about 3 times higher than in Salvia miltiorrhiza.Conclusion: Se - enriched cultivating Salvia miltiorrhiza can improve the content of active ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza.%目的:比较富硒丹参与丹参有效成分的含量.方法:用高效液相色谱法(HPLC法)对富硒丹参与丹参中的丹参素和丹参酮ⅡA的含量进行测定.结果:脂溶性成份丹参酮ⅡA含量富硒丹参比丹参高出约2.7倍,水溶性成份丹参素的含量富硒丹参比丹参高出约3倍.结论:富硒栽培丹参,可以提高丹参有效成份的含量.

  13. Qualidade nutricional da polpa de bocaiúva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Nutritional quality of the pulp of bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Lima Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de incentivar o consumo e o aproveitamento de alimentos oriundos do Cerrado Brasileiro, foram determinados os teores de umidade, lipídios totais, proteínas, carboidratos, cinzas, fibra, minerais e os principais carotenóides da polpa de bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. A porção comestível do fruto (polpa e amêndoa representou aproximadamente a metade do peso total do fruto. A polpa apresentou 52,99% de umidade, 8,14% de lipídios totais, 1,5% de proteínas, 22,08% de carboidratos, 1,51% de cinzas e 13,76% de fibra. O valor energético foi estimado em 167,67 kcal.100 g-1 de polpa úmida, o qual mostrou-se superior ao de outros frutos da região Centro-Oeste. Entre os minerais avaliados, a maior concentração foi a do potássio (766,37 ± 18,36 mg.100 g-1, seguida do cálcio (61,96 ± 2,30 mg.100 g-1 e do fósforo (36,70 mg.100 g-1. Relacionando-se os resultados de minerais às IDR de referências dos mesmos, a polpa de bocaiúva pode ser classificada como rica em cobre para crianças, como fonte de zinco e potássio para crianças e como fonte de cobre e potássio para adultos. A polpa mostrou-se rica em β-caroteno (49,0 ± 2,0 µg.g-1 de polpa integral, principal carotenóide identificado no fruto analisado, podendo contribuir com o enriquecimento da dieta regional em programas de suplementação alimentar, como uma fonte natural desse nutriente e dos minerais cobre, potássio e zinco.With the aim at stimulating the consumption of natural food from the Brazilian Cerrado (vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, the contens of moisture, lipid, protein, carbohydrate, ash, fiber, minerals, and main carotenoids were determinated in the bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. pulp. The edible portion of the fruit (pulp and kernel corresponded to 50% of the whole fruit. The pulp presented 52.99% of moisture, 8.14% of total lipids, 1.5% of protein, 22.08% of carbohydrates, 1.51% of ash, and 13.76% of fiber. The

  14. Quick Detection of Pollen Developmental Stages of Hamelia patens Jacq.%希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)花粉发育时期快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳琳; 匡延凤; 廖景平

    2014-01-01

    茜草科希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)的花粉用DAPI(4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)直接染色不能观察到花粉核,本研究探索出适宜在DAPI染色前处理希茉莉花粉壁的水浴加热-氧化方法,使得希茉莉花粉核能在荧光显微镜下清晰地显示出来,从而快速检测花粉所处的发育阶段.结果表明:(1)单核花粉和二核花粉最适宜的水浴加热温度和时间分别为65℃、20~50 min和55℃、20~40 min; (2)花粉发育阶段与花朵、花药长度的对应关系为:花朵0.90~1.00cm、花药0.50 ~0 60 cm时对应花粉的四分体时期,花朵1.10~1.60 cm、花药0.60 ~0.85cm时对应单核花粉时期,花朵1.80 ~2.70cm(花冠裂片张开前)、花药0.91~1.01 cm时对应二核花粉时期.

  15. Do Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Steven C; Freeberg, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. Responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. To balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. Two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). In the current study, flocks of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, were presented with perched hawk and owl models. Predator model head and body orientation were independently manipulated relative to a feeding station birds were using. Chickadees and titmice avoided the feeders more when the heads of the models were facing toward the feeders compared to facing away from the feeders. Calling behavior of birds was also affected by head orientation of the models. No effect of predator body orientation on chickadee and titmouse behavior was detected. The results indicate that when chickadees and titmice detect a perched avian predator, they assess risk primarily based upon its head orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. TLC Fingerprint analysis of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in some Iranian Salvia spp., a chemotaxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Fotovvat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is an important genus of Lamiaceae which phenolic compounds are the main secondary metabolites of its members. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the leaves and flowers from 41 wild populations of 27 Salvia species from Iran by TLC method and evaluation of their significance as chemical markers for taxonomic purposes. Rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acids A and B, apigenin, rutine, scutellarin and baicalin were characterized as the main compounds of the studied Salvia species. Based on the dendrogram obtained from the didtribution patterns of phenolic compounds using cluster analysis by UPGMA method, the Salvia species were studied chemotaxonomically. Results showed that the patterns of phenolic compounds in the leaf and flower organs were similar in populations of a species, while they were different among the species. It seems that substantial differences in the patterns of these compounds at inter-species level were mainly due to genetic differences. The results from classification of the species by cluster analysis of the phenolic data supported their grouping according to their classical taxonomy in the Flora Iranica. This suggests the importance of these compounds as chemical markers for the classification of Salvia species at inter-species and subgenus levels.

  17. On Regional Division of Suitable Producing Areas of Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhi-hua; WANG Xin-min; QIAO Qing-mei; CHENG Mao-gao; LIU Yong-lu; XIE Cai-xiang; CHEN Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Geographic Information System(TCMGIS-I),on the basis of planting base of Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza in Fangcheng County of Henan Province,we selected key ecological factors such as the temperature,altitude,soil type,and precipitation that affect growth of Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza,and analyzed ecological suitability of Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza in China and in Henan Province.Results show that Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza has large suitable area in China,up to 10 provinces.At the similitude degree of 90% to 100%,its suitable distribution area can reach 309 205 km 2 theoretically.Among the suitable areas,the distribution area is large in Sichuan,Shaanxi,Jiangsu,Hubei and Henan provinces,each of which up to 24 000 km 2.At the similitude degree of 80% to 90%,the suitable areas of Yu Salvia miltiorrhiza are mainly in Fangcheng,Xichuan,Dengzhou,Xinyang and Nanzhao counties,which are consistent with record of relevant data.

  18. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  19. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  20. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  1. Progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Zhi-Jun Li; Da-Ren Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen with high mortality, multiple complications and complicated causes. There is no effective therapy for AP. Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen), a traditional herbal medicine, has a low price and a wide range of clinical applications. It is effective to promote blood lfow, eliminate stagnancy, and relieve pain. It is also found to be effective in treating AP. We reviewed the progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of AP. DATA SOURCES: An english-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1988-2005) on Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) and acute pancreatitis. RESULTS:The mechanisms of Danshen in the treatment of AP include improvement of microcirculatory disturbances;elimination of oxygen free radicals; modulation of the metabolism of lipid inlfammatory mediator;and blocking of calcium inlfow and prevention of calcium overload. CONCLUSION:Danshen can effectively reduce the mortality and complications of AP.

  2. Microwave digestion polarography for determining seven trace elements in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root and compound Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root injection simultaneously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; ZHANG Tai-ming; GAO Juan; LIANG Yi-zeng

    2007-01-01

    The sensitive second derivative waves of Cu(Ⅱ), Pb( Ⅱ ), Cd( Ⅱ ), Ni( Ⅱ ), Zn( Ⅱ ), Fe( Ⅱ ) and Mn( Ⅱ ), forming in the substrate solution (pH=9.26) consisting of ammonia, ammonium chlorid, gelatin and ascorbic acid were researched. The peak potentials of the polarographic waves of the seven ions are at about -0.48, -0.63, -0.79, -1.04, -1.28, -1.44 and -1.60 V respectively. Combining with microwave, technique, a new method for the simultaneous determination of the seven trace elements in Chinese traditional medicine was developed. The method is easy to operate, rapid, simple and convenient. When the signal-to-noise rate equals 3, the detection limits of Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn are 4.2 × 10-3, 5.3 × 10-3, 2.1 × 10-3, 5.8 × 10-4, 3.0 × 10-3,7.7 × 10-4 and 1.1 × 10-3 μg/mL respectively. Well linear relationships exist between the concentrations and the peak currents when Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations are within 8.5× 10-3-10, 9.7×10-3-10, 4.5×10 3-10, 1.2× 10-3-10, 6.4× 10-3-10,1.5 × 10-3-10 and 2.8 × 10-3-10 μg/mL, respectively. The method has been used to the simultaneous determination of the seven trace elements in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root and compound Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root injection, the relative standard deviations(RSDs) of the Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn in the two medicines are 3.9% and 5.8%, 4.0% and 4.1%, 4.3% and 5.7%, 4.9% and 5.3%, 4.4% and 4,7%, 3.5% and 4.0%, 0.51% and 2.8%, respectively; the comparisons of the determination results with the values obtained by the standard method indicate that the presented method has very well veracity.

  3. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

  4. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, Jelena M; Stojanović, Danilo; Banović, Bojana; Jančić, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 μg DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals.

  5. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders.

  6. Salvia Officinalis and Cisplatin Effects on Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hadi Khayate-Nouri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that cisplatin have neuropathic effects and Salvia officinalis (SO could have therapeutic effects on nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SO hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizure in mice. Materials and methods: This is an experimental interventional study. For this purpose first group received normal saline, second group received SO extract, third group received cisplatin, in the fourth group received SO extract plus cisplatin and the subsequent seizure threshold was determined for each group. Results: The results showed that SO extract significantly (p<0.05 increased and in cisplatin group significantly (p<0.05 decreased seizure threshold. Simultaneous uses of cisplatin and SO extract caused to significantly increased seizure threshold (p<0.05 compared with cisplatin group. Conclusion: Considering different types of ingredients in SO extract which have beneficial effects on nervous system, it might be used to reduce cisplatin induced neuropathic effects. It seems that SO extract could be useful in cisplatin-induced seizure but further investigations are needed.

  7. Depressant Effects of Salvia divinorum Involve Disruption of Physiological Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Brindis, Fernando; López-Ruiz, Edith; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; Martínez, Adrián; Pellicer, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). Polysomnographic analysis in rats receiving an active medium polar extract (10 and 100 mg/kg) containing salvinorins was also assessed to study the effects of this plant on sleep architecture. All tested extracts produced significant sedative-like responses, although those of the medium polar extract were more pronounced in mice. The sedative effect of this latter extract, which contains a mixture of salvinorins, caused fragmented sleep architecture in rats by diminishing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and increased the quiet awake stage at 10 and 100 mg/kg. Our results provide evidence that S. divinorum exhibits sedative-like depressant properties that alter physiological sleep architecture. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037508

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing in Response to Salicylic Acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Dong, Juane; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Qi, Yuexin; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, whose quality and yield are often affected by diseases and environmental stresses during its growing season. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a significant role in plants responding to biotic and abiotic stresses, but the involved regulatory factors and their signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. In order to identify the genes involved in SA signaling, the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy was employed to evaluate the transcriptional profiles in S. miltiorrhiza cell cultures. A total of 50,778 unigenes were assembled, in which 5,316 unigenes were differentially expressed among 0-, 2-, and 8-h SA induction. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in stimulus response and multi-organism process. A core set of candidate novel genes coding SA signaling component proteins was identified. Many transcription factors (e.g., WRKY, bHLH and GRAS) and genes involved in hormone signal transduction were differentially expressed in response to SA induction. Detailed analysis revealed that genes associated with defense signaling, such as antioxidant system genes, cytochrome P450s and ATP-binding cassette transporters, were significantly overexpressed, which can be used as genetic tools to investigate disease resistance. Our transcriptome analysis will help understand SA signaling and its mechanism of defense systems in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:26808150

  9. Micromorphology and histochemistry of leaf trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević Dušica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a comprehensive study of trichomes considering the medicinal importance of the essential oils produced in glandular trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca L. and lack of data about leaf trichome characteristics. Micromorphological and histochemical analyses of the trichomes of S. aegyptiaca were carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. We report that the leaves contained abundant non-glandular unbranched trichomes and two types of glandular trichomes, peltate and capitate, on both leaf surfaces. The abaxial leaf side was covered with numerous peltate and capitate trichomes, while capitate trichomes were more abundant on the adaxial leaf side, where peltate trichomes were rarely observed. The non-glandular trichomes were unicellular papillae and multicellular, uniseriate, two-to-six-celled, erect or slightly leaning toward the epidermis. Peltate trichomes were composed of a basal cell, a short cylindrical stalk cell and a broad head of eight secretory cells arranged in a single circle. Capitate trichomes consisted of a one-celled glandular head, subtended by a stalk of variable length, and classified into two types: capitate trichomes type I (or short-stalked glandular trichomes and capitate trichomes type II (or long-stalked glandular trichomes. Histochemical tests showed that the secreted material in all types of S. aegyptiaca glandular trichomes was of a complex nature. Positive reactions to lipids for both types of glandular trichomes were obtained, with especially abundant secretion observed in peltate and capitate trichomes type II. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173015 i br. 173029

  10. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  11. Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J P; Provance, M C

    2002-01-01

    In Salvia hispanica L., several changes in qualitative characters, including seed coat color, stem pigmentation, and shattering, have evolved with cultivation and domestication. Three F(2) segregating generations from crosses between wild and domesticated parents were scored for three qualitative traits. A single recessive gene, designated scc, was found to govern the white seed characteristic. A single dominant gene, designated SSP, was found to control striated stem pigmentation. A complete dominance of open calyx over closed calyx was observed in F(1) generations and small numbers of plants with closed calyxes were observed in F(2) generations, not conforming to Mendelian ratios. For this non-shattering trait, a complementation test was conducted between two lines representative of geographically and morphologically divergent domesticated varieties. Complementary gene action was not observed in any F(1) plants, and all F(2) plants were homogeneous with respect to the trait, suggesting the same genetic control for non-shattering among domesticated varieties. An analysis of limited data for linkage of SSP and scc indicated that the two loci segregate independently.

  12. The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  13. Influence of light intensity on growth and physiological characteristics of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zervoudakis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of four different light intensities on the growth characteristics, physiological parameters and leaf photosynthetic pigments of Salvia officinalis L. The plant's dry mass, number of the leaves and physiological parameters indicated a strong positive correlation with the light intensity. On the other hand, the plant's height and leaf photosynthetic pigments were increased at low light treated plants. These results suggest that the aromatic herb Salvia officinalis L. is adaptable to different light environments.

  14. Dos nuevos híbridos naturales en Salvia (Labiatae) con potencial ornamental

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1991-01-01

    Se describen 2 nuevos híbridos naturales en el género Salvia (lubiofac), resultantes del cruzamiento eveniual de la especie ornamental naturalizada Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. & Schult. (Sect. Secundae Epl.) con dos subespecies de S. pauciserrata Benth. (Sed. Flexuosae Epl.) endémicas de Colombia. Se documentan descriptivamente y se discute su ecología y polinización. Se nombra finalmente la nueva sección híbrida (Flexucundae Fernández Alonso), en la que se ubican los nuevos taxa....

  15. Study on the small intestine absorptive kinetics characters of tanshinol and protocatechualdehyde of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai; Zhai, Shuiting; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Guoquan; Fu, Xiaoyang; Li, Tianxiao

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for clinical selection of drugs, to compare and analyze the effective constitutes and the intestinal absorption in vivo in rats of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills (taken as the representatives). Determine the contents of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone II A, cryptotanshinone, ginseng saponin Rg1 and Rb1 in the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The intestinal absorption condition of the tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills in rats were detected by intestinal perfusion experiment. Only the intake of protocatechuic aldehyde in the compound salvia tablets was higher than in the compound dropping pills, the intake of the other 6 effective constitutes were all lower than in the compound dropping pills. The intestinal absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was rather complete, while the intestinal absorption of tanshinol and salvianolic acid B were not significant. The duodenum was the main absorption region of these three components. The absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was different in different regions of the intestines. Each intake of the effective constitutes in the tablets and dropping pills were significantly different, and the rat intestinal absorption of part of the components were different.

  16. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  17. Genetic variation for silvicultural traits in open-pollinated progenies of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the genetic variation for silvicultural traits in an open-pollinated progeny test of Astronium graveolens Jacq., established at Luiz Antônio Experimental Station (State of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was planted in a random block experimental design, containing 23 families, six replications and five plants per plot. The traits measured were diameter at breast height (DBH, total height and stem form. The assessments were taken at the age of 19 years. Significant differences were not detected by the analysis of variance, suggesting that the genetic variation was low, as well as the probability to raising genetic gains through selection among progenies. The coefficient of genetic variation was moderate for the traits height (8.2% and DBH (21.2% and low to stem form (4.0%. However, the average coefficient of heritability among progenies was low for all studied traits (ranging from 0.02 to 0.15, confirming the low probability of genetic improvement of this population by selection among progenies.

  18. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq. Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq. Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C, and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1. The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition.

  19. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees.

  20. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  1. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. based on RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsri, C.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Leaf samples of 151 plants were collected from different areas in southern Thailand. DNA from the leaf samples was isolated using CTAB buffer and screened by decamer oligonucleotide primers. Among the total of 160 primers screened, 7 primers (OPB-08, OPR-11, OPT-06, OPT-19, OPAB-01, OPAB-09 and OPAB-14 were chosen to analyse for genetic variation in 151 individuals representing 52 dura, 60 tenera and 39 pisifera. Two hundred and nine amplified fragments were obtained from 7 primers with an average of 29.85 RAPD markers per primer. A dendrogram showing genetic similarities among oil palm was constructed based on polymorphic bands using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed using the SPSS program, which revealed four major clusters: 1 dura, tenera and pisifera from Paorong Oil Palm Company, Oil Palm Research Center, dura and tenera from private plantation in Krabi, and dura from Thepa Research Station;2 dura and tenera from Thai Boonthong Company, pisifera and tenera from Thepa Research Station, dura, tenera and pisifera from Klong Hoi Khong Research Station; 3 and 4 dura and tenera from Univanit Company, respectively. In general, a similarity index showed relatively high levels of 0.6 or greater.

  2. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  3. Características morfogênicas e perfolhamento do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia irrigado Morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of irrigated Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando França da Cunha; Antônio Alves Soares; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Daniel Moreira Lambertucci; Franklin Vitor de Souza Abreu

    2007-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes turnos de rega e níveis de irrigação sobre as características morfogênicas e o perfilhamento de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. Uma bancada experimental foi montada sob ambiente protegido, onde foram colocados recipientes cultivados com o capim. As irrigações foram realizadas com turnos de rega de 1, 4 e 7 dias, e lâminas de irrigação para restabelecer 50, 75 e 100% da disponibilidade total de água no solo. A densidade populacional de perfilhos foi obtida...

  4. Pertumbuhan Eksplan Tunas Apikal Kelapa Sawit (ElaeisguineensisJacq.) Pada Media Ms Dengan Kombinasi BAP dan 2,4-D

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Novi

    2015-01-01

    The research about oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) apical bud in the MS medium by using combination 2,4-D and BAP has been performed in Tissue Culture Laboratory, Departemen of Biology, University of Sumatera Utara.The aim of this research was to determine the effect of concentration of Benzyl Amino Purin (BAP) and 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid on the growth of the apical bud oil palm in vitro culture. Completely Randomized Design Method (RAL) with 2 factors namely 2,4-D with fourlevels...

  5. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  6. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: comportamento ingestivo de bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Brâncio Patrícia Amarante; Euclides Valéria Pacheco Batista; Nascimento Junior Domicio do; Fonseca Dilermando Miranda da; Almeida Roberto Giolo de; Macedo Manuel Cláudio Motta; Barbosa Rodrigo Amorim

    2003-01-01

    Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidas a pastejo rotativo foram avaliadas ao longo do ano quanto aos componentes do comportamento ingestivo (tamanho de bocados, tempo de pastejo e taxa de bocados). Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1) cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2) cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3) cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4) cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. Os valores do tamanho de bocados foram provavelmente superestimados, mas valores abaixo de 0,300 g MS/bocado foram observa...

  7. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn; Alisa Nakkaew; Tanate Panrat; Arunrut Vanichanon; Amornrat Phongdara

    2016-01-01

    A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. T...

  8. Evaluation of content of essential oil in selected Salvia L. Species / Hodnocení obsahu silice ve vybraných druzích rodu Salvia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugebauerová J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvia L. je aromatická rostlina, používaná v řadě průmyslových odvětví, včetně farmaceutického, kosmetického, potravinářského a je významná také v okrasném zahradnictví. Cílem této práce je zhodnocení obsahu silice v okrasných taxonech rodu Salvia L., které byly pěstovány na experimentálních plochách Zahradnické fakulty Mendelovy univerzity v Brně, v letech 2002-2004 a 2009-2012. Proměnlivost obsahu silice čtyřiceti dvou různých taxonů byly sledovány po dobu devíti let. Obsah silice byl stanoven pomocí destilace s vodní parou a vyjádřený v ml/kg. Nejnižší obsah byl, za celé období, shledán ve vzorku S. przewalskii, v roce 2010 (0,02 ml/kg a nejvyšší obsah ve vzorku S. officinalis ‚Extrakta‘, v roce 2004 (22,90 ml/kg. Výsledky hodnocení obsahu silice v rodu Salvia L. jsou v souladu s údaji uvedenými v literatuře, v případě porovnání poddruhů a odrůd Salvia officinalis L. Průměrný obsah silice se pohybuje v rozmezí 6,51-19,20 ml/kg.

  9. Estudio taxon??mico del g??nero Salvia L. en el Mediterr??neo Occidental (secciones Salvia y Aethiopis Bentham)

    OpenAIRE

    Ros??a Campos, Jos?? Luis

    1984-01-01

    Se hace una revisi??n taxon??mica de los taxones que integran las secciones salvia y aethiopis para el Mediterr??neo occidental en base a estudios comparativos de caracteres morfol??gicos palinologicos y citotaxonomicos como resultado se delimitan una serie de especies subespecies y variedades para el ??rea de estudio se fija sus ??reas de distribuci??n y se estudia el endemismo y la biogeograf??a de ambas secciones.

  10. A dominant gene for male sterility in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Shu

    Full Text Available A natural male sterile mutant of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Sh-B was found during field survey in 2002. Our objective was to analyze its genetic mechanism for producing F1 hybrid seeds and to develop a molecular marker linked to male sterile gene for selection of a hybrid parent line. The segregation ratios of male sterile plants to fertile plants in the progenies of both testcross and backcross were 1:1 in continuous experiments conducted in 2006-2009. The male sterile Sh-B was heterozygous (Msms. The male sterile plants could capture most pollen (2 granule/cm(2·24 h with row ratio (female:male 2:1 within 45-cm distance and harvest the largest amount of 6495 g hybrid seeds per hectare. We also developed DNA markers linked to the male sterile gene in a segregating population using bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP techniques. The segregating population was subjected to BSA-AFLP with 128 primer combinations. One out of fourteen AFLP markers (E11/M4208 was identified as tightly linked to the dominant male sterile gene with a recombination frequency of 6.85% and at a distance of 6.89 cM. This marker could be converted to PCR-based assay for large-scale selection of fertile plants in MAS (marker-assisted selection at the seedling stage. Blastn analysis indicated that the male sterile gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1-5, and was more likely to encode S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, in which DNA methylation regulated the development of plant gametogenesis.

  11. Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis, and rosmarinic acid induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human colorectal cell lines: the role in MAPK/ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Cristina P R; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that nutrition is a key factor in modulating sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) risk. Aromatic plants of the genus Salvia (sage) have been attributed many medicinal properties, which include anticancer activity. In the present study, the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of water extracts of Salvia fruticosa (SF) and Salvia officinalis (SO) and of their main phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) were evaluated in two human colon carcinoma-derived cell lines, HCT15 and CO115, which have different mutations in the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. These pathways are commonly altered in CRC, leading to increased proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Our results show that SF, SO, and RA induce apoptosis in both cell lines, whereas cell proliferation was inhibited by the two sage extracts only in HCT15. SO, SF, and RA inhibited ERK phosphorylation in HCT15 and had no effects on Akt phosphorylation in CO115 cells. The activity of sage extracts seems to be due, at least in part, to the inhibition of MAPK/ERK pathway.

  12. Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lucy; Rouse, Michelle; Wesnes, Keith A; Moss, Mark

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the potential for the aromas of the essential oils of Salvia species to affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Research has demonstrated that orally administered Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating cognition and mood. The active compounds in the herbal products might also be present in the aromas and so produce similar effects. In an independent groups design, three conditions, S. officinalis aroma, S. lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed. One hundred and thirty-five healthy volunteers acted as participants, with 45 in each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed via the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System. Bond-Lader mood scales measured the participants' mood on three dimensions before and after the cognitive tasks. Data analysis revealed that the S. officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on the quality of memory and secondary memory primary outcome factors from the test battery. The Alert mood measure displayed significant differences between both aromas and the control condition. These findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species reproduce some but not all of the effects found following oral herb administration, and that interesting dissociations occur between subjective and objective responses.

  13. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27266891

  14. Determination of Three Tanshinones from Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza by Molecularly Imprinted Solid-phase Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN, Hongyuan; TIAN, Minglei; ROW, Kyung Ho

    2009-01-01

    A selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the selective separation of tanshinone Ⅰ, tanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone from Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza samples. Tanshinone ⅡA imprinted polymers (MIP) synthesized in ethanol-dodecanol system show high affinity to tanshinone ⅡA and its structure analogs in aqueous environment and the affinity can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the eluents. By using 60% water-40% methanol (volume ratio) and 99.5% methanol-0.5% trifluoroacetic acid (volume ratio) as washing and eluting solvents, most interferences originating from the salvia matrix were eliminated. The extracts were sufficiently clean enough to be directly injected into HPLC for further chromatographic analysis. Good linearity was obtained from 0.4 to 500.0 mg·L~(-1) (r~2=0.999) with the relative standard deviations less than 4.2%. The mean recoveries of tanshinone ⅡA in Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza were more than 85.6% at three different concentrations and the limits of detection were 0.06-0.09 mg·L~(-1). This method is a viable alternative tool to the existing HPLC methods for analyzing the content of the three tanshinones in Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza samples.

  15. Effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Cardiac Aldosterone in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩少杰; 郑智; 任大宏

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Chronic treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza preventing left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH) and its possible mechanism-inhibiting the action of cardiac aldosterone in spontaneouslyhypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. Normotensive Wistar-kyoto (WKY) rats and SHRswere used. Part of SHRs was treated with Salvia Miltiorrhiza for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pres-sure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index were measured. Sections of heart tissue were stainedwith HE method and VanGieson method. Collagen volume fraction was determined in the left ven-tricle by automatically quantitative morphometry. Cardiac aldosterone concentration was measuredby radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that compared with WKY rats, SHRs exhibited high-er SBP, left ventricular collagen volume fraction, and aldosterone concentration (all P<0. 05).After the treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza, SBP, left ventricular collagen volume fraction, andaldosterone concentration in SHR were decreased as compared with control group (P<0. 05) ex-cept SBP. It was concluded that chronic treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza could prevent left ven-tricular hypertrophy in SHR, significantly inhibit collagen compositions in left ventricle. Themechanism was probably related with the inhibition of the cardiac aldosterone action.

  16. VARIATION IN FITNESS-RELATED CHARACTERS AMONG SMALL AND LARGE POPULATIONS OF SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUBORG, NJ; VANTREUREN, R

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of ge

  17. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K B; Jørgensen, M.; Kotowska, D;

    2010-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia officinalis has been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in many countries and its glucose-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animal studies. The active compounds and their possible mode of action are still unknown although it has been sugg...

  18. Antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities of diterpenoids isolated from the roots of Salvia deserta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four diterpenes with biological activity were isolated from Salvia deserta roots. Taxodione was considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 value of 0.46 µg/mL against Leishimania donovani and also exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Ferruginol displayed the greatest activity (24-h IC50 1.29...

  19. Estudios en Labiatae de Colombia II. Novedades en Salvia sect. Longipes Epl.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    Se describen e ilustran dos nuevos táxones de Salvia (sect. Longipes): S. codazziana Fernández Alonso y S. erytkrostoma Epl. subsp. isabelina Fernández Alonso. Asimismo, se presenta una nueva localidad de S. erytkrostoma Epl. subsp. erythrostoma, conocida previamente solo por el material tipo.

  20. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Pengaruh Pemberian Limbah Kalapa sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guinsensis Jacq) di Pembibitan Awal

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh pemberian Limbah Kelapa Sawit (Sludge) dan Pupuk Majemuk NPK terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) di Pre Nursery. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Gedung Johor Kecamatan Medan Johor pada ketinggian 27 meter diatas permukaan laut. Penelitian berlangsung dari bulan November-Maret 2001. 950301088

  2. The Investigation of Antibacterial Effects of Salvia Sahendica Extracts on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bannazadeh Baghi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The salvia plant is one of the Lamiacea family members, that is being cultiurated all over the world. In Iran almost all spices of this plant could found, that are used for medical, food industry and parfumers production. Salvia sahendica genus is the member of this family, that its antibacterial effects on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Methods: In this study are used standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27852 Staphylococcus aureus, (ATCC 25923 and, Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 3583. Salvia was provided from Tabriz mall and was powdered. Then this powder was suspended with ratio 1:10 with Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and water. After 24h extractions isolated and concentrated with distillated in vacuum system. Which of bacteria were cultured to over night in Mohler Hinton agar medium, then compared with 0.5 macfarland. In continue extraction were tested by used of well assay method and then the diameter of zone measured. Experiments repeated tree times and the average of data obtained. In each of tests we had a control from special solvent. Results: Regarding to the results, all of salvia sahendica extractions showed antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and. That regarding Klebsiella pneumonia, Ethanol, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Hexan, and regarding Staphylococcus aureus Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only Chloroform this plant has antibacterial effects. Chloroform extraction of salvia shows the most antibacterial activity (with the biggest diameter of antibacterial zone. Conclusion: Regarding the carried out study it could be noted that for inhibition and destroying Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, plants effects extraction could be used.

  3. TREATMENT OF 40 CASES OF CHRONIC ECZEMA WITH POINT-INJECTION OF COMPOUND RADIX SALVIAE MILTIORRHIZAE INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志伟; 陈汉章

    2000-01-01

    The authors have used point-injection of compound Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Injection to treat 40 cases of chronic eczema and achieved a satisfactory therapeutic effect. The total effective rate was 95%.

  4. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVE-INDUCED RENAL DAMAGE BY SALVIA MILTIORRHIZAE INJECTION IN RABBIT MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴发; 盛斌武; 贺大林

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the protective function of Salvia Miltiorrhizae on high-energy shockwaves (HESW) induced renal damage. Methods Thirty healthy New Zealand adult male white rabbits were randomly divided into Salvia Miltiorrhizae group and control group with 15 in each. Three days before extracorpeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) the two groups were injected Salvia Miltiorrhizae and physiological saline respectively. Plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined and renal morphology was observed. Results After ESWL, levels of ET-1 and MDA increased significantly, the activity of SOD decreased significantly compared with those before ESWL in control group (P0.05). After shocking, SOD, related to renal protection, in Salvia Miltiorrhizae group was significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.05). Renal morphological injury was slight in Salvia Miltiorrhizae group. Conclusion Salvia Miltiorrhizae injection has protective function on renal toxicity induced by high-energy shock waves.

  5. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  6. Wound Healing Potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Leaves in an Infected Albino Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance:Elaeis guineensisJacq (Arecaceae is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. Aim of the study:To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. Methods: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w. Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Results: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. Conclusions: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WILD OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. POPULATIONS IN CROSSES WITH DELI TESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noumouha E. N. Ghislain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To widen the genetic variability and especially to enrich agronomic qualities of populations of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. of Group B used in the breeding scheme, a study was led on four populations (Abak, Ahoada, Ayangba and Uli prospected in Nigeria. Sixteen palms chosen in these populations were evaluated in crosses with 10 Deli testers derived from the second cycle of reciprocal recurrent selection scheme. The LM 2 T × DA 10 D and LM 2 T × DA 115 D progenies derived from the first breeding cycle were used as controls. The bunch production components, vascular wilt susceptibility and vertical growth rate were used as criterion of evaluation. The Abak × Deli, Ahoada × Deli and Uli × Deli materials were characterized at the young age by bunch productions higher than that of the LM 2 T × DA 10 D control. The bunch productions at the adult period of various Nigerian × Deli materials were lower than those of the two controls. Abak × Deli material was tolerant to the vascular wilt. Ayangba × Deli material had a slower vertical growth rate than those of the two controls. Seven parents were identified in the four populations for their good general combining ability for the precocity and/or vascular wilt tolerance or the slow vertical growth rate. Prospects for utilization of these parents for the improvement of bunch production at the young age, the reduction of the vertical growth and the diversification of sources of vascular wilt tolerance of populations used in the reciprocal recurrent selection scheme were discussed.

  8. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  9. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  11. VERMINOSE EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGENS DE Panicum maximum Jacq. NO PERÍODO CHUVOSO DO ANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the worm disease on goats and sheep kept on Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, in the rainy season of the year. The dry matter density (DM of different layers (0-15, 15-30 and above 30 cm of Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, and the forage contamination by gastrintestinal nematode infective larvae (L3 were quantified. Forty animals were submitted monthly to coproparasitological examinations (ECG and coproculture during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out in Barreiras-Bahia-Brazil, in a split-plot design, with 10 replications on pastures and 20 replications on animals, from October of 2003 to March of 2004, and samples were taken from December to February. The number of infective larvae per kg/DM did not change with the grass layer, with average of 22.2 L3/kg DM. On the forage, Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. L3 larvae were indentified, reflecting the coproculture results. Goats showed higher ECG counting (2602 than Sheep (865, demanding more sanitary care.

  12. Quantative and qualative changes of essential oil of Salvia bracteata Bank et Sol. in different growth stages

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri H.

    2007-01-01

    Salvia bracteata is a permanent herb which belongs to Lamiaceae family and grows wildely in the west of Iran. In this study the composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of Salvia bracteata in different growth stages were analysed and compared. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils had high amounts of monoterpene compounds, with α-pinene, limonene, myrecene and β-pinene as major components in different growth stages.

  13. Research progress on the resource development of Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianan Zhang; Hongyu Guan; Wei Gao; Changli Liu; Rong Luo; Jia Li; Xiujuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.It contains two kinds of effective ingredients:fat-soluble diterpene quinones and water-soluble phenolic com-pounds.It shows significant effects including anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-thrombotic,hepato-protective,and antiox-idant properties and protection against myocardial ischemia.However,extraction ofactive components from S.miltiorrhiza di-rectly is challenging due to low purity.Furthermore,the limited material resources of S.miltiorrhiza affect its utility in clinical medicine and the sustainable exploitation of natural drugs.In order to overcome this challenge,chemistry,molecular biology and other scientific technologies are being explored to improve the yield and quality of S.miltiorrhiza,with considerable pro-gress made to date.Firstly,a variety of tanshinone and salvianolic acid compounds have been synthesized successfully from S. miltiorrhiza,while compounds such as tanshinone IIA have been structure-modified to improve solubility and bioavailability. Secondly,biological technologies such as induction of polyploidy,cell-suspension culture,and the induction of hairy-roots have been developed.Hairy root of S.miltiorrhiza,which is most widely used at present,can be manufactured on a large scale and harvested using a spherical gas-lifted bioreactor.Additionally,due to good genetic and chemical stability of the hairy root,it can be used as a research model for further development of S.miltiorrhiza.Thirdly,a variety ofbiotic and abiotic elici-tors have been exploited for the study of effective components of S.miltiorrhiza,which have different effects on the plant.Ap-propriate combinations of these elicitors could further improve the yield of active components of S.miltiorrhiza.Finally,with the development of molecular biology,secondary metabolite engineering has become a new hotspot of medicinal plant re-search.S.miltiorrhiza is

  14. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/ caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantová Soňa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the foodprocessing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50.

  15. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jantová Soňa; Hudec Roman; Sekretár Stanislav; Kučerák Juraj; Melušová Martina

    2014-01-01

    Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the food-processing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE) exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T) and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 5...

  16. Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the

  17. Comparison Study on Fingerprints of Liposoluble Components Between Salvia Yunnanensis Roots and Salvi-a Miltiorrhiza Roots%滇丹参与丹参脂溶性成分指纹图谱的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超; 陈科力

    2015-01-01

    To study the fingerprints of liposoluble components in Salvia yunnanensis roots collected from different habi-tats, and compare with the fingerprints of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methods: The fingerprints were determined by HPLC and the results were analyzed by a similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprints of TCM ( Version 2004 A) . Results:The fingerprints of different samples of Salvia yunnanensis roots showed high similarity. And the characteristic peaks in the fingerprints of the liposoluble components were basically the same as those of Salvia miltiorrhiza, while the contents of several main effective components were lower than those in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Conclusion: The liposoluble components in Salvia yunnanensis roots show relatively high similarity with those in Salvia miltiorrhiza, however, there are obvious differences in the contents of the main constituents.%目的::建立滇丹参脂溶性成分的指纹图谱,并与丹参药材的指纹图谱进行比较。方法:采用高效液相色谱法,建立指纹图谱,并用相似度评价软件对指纹图谱进行评价。结果:滇丹参各样品脂溶性成分的指纹图谱相似度高,与丹参药材脂溶性成分的指纹特征峰组成基本一致,但滇丹参中几个主要脂溶性有效成分的含量均低于丹参。结论:滇丹参与丹参药材的脂溶性成分显示较高的相似性,但其主要成分的含量比例显示明显差异。

  18. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F.L. Pivetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens, uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro quantidades de palha de arroz (0, 4, 6 e 8 t ha-1 combinadas com três doses do herbicida oxyfluorfen (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1. Observou-se que os tratamentos que levaram à veiculação do herbicida (nas duas doses testadas e nas três quantidades de palha apresentaram controle de plantas daninhas sem que efeitos fitotóxicos severos fossem observados nas plantas de sálvia. A pulverização direta do herbicida sobre o solo e as plantas de sálvia não se mostrou viável. O tratamento que proporcionou controle satisfatório de plantas daninhas sem causar danos às plantas de sálvia e que, por isso, pode ser recomendado foi o que recebeu o herbicida na dose de 2 L ha-1, veiculado a 4 t ha-1 de palha de arroz.Weed control is one of the main constrains to flower garden maintenance. This work aimed to study the possibility of translocating oxyfluorfen to rice straw and of selectivity of Salvia splendens, one of the main ornamental species produced and commercialized in Brazil, to the herbicide. A randomized block design was used in the factorial scheme 4 x 3, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of four amounts of rice straw (0, 4, 6 and 8 t ha-1 combined with three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 1 and 2 L ha-1. The results showed that the treatments that led to translocation of the herbicide to rice straw showed great weed control, without any high phytotoxicty damage to the salvia plants. The treatment receiving g 4 L ha-1 of herbicide in 2

  19. Seletividade de sálvia (Salvia splendens) ao herbicida oxyfluorfen veiculado à palha de arroz Selectivity of Salvia splendens to oxyfluorfen applied to rice straw

    OpenAIRE

    K.F.L. Pivetta; C. S. ROSA; R.A. Pitelli; R.M. Coan

    2008-01-01

    O manejo de plantas daninhas em canteiros de floríferas é um dos principais aspectos que interferem na manutenção dos jardins. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a possibilidade de veiculação do oxyfluorfen à palha de arroz e a seletividade da sálvia (Salvia splendens), uma das principais floríferas produzidas e comercializadas no Brasil, ao herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos fo...

  20. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  1. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Leslie CL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However

  2. Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

  3. Una nueva especie de Salvia (Lamiaceae del Norte de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Salvia L. (Lamiaceae, denominada Salvia vargas-llosae Sagást. & E. Rodr. sp. nov. perteneciente a la sección Cylindriflorae (Epling Epling, procedente de los andes del Norte del Perú (provincia Celendín, departamento Cajamarca, típica de la jalca Sendamal-Kumulca-Challuayaco sobre los 3000 m de altitud y aparentemente endémica a esta parte del país. Se discute con sus relacionadas y adicionalmente se presentan datos sobre su distribución geográfica, ecológica y estado de conservación.

  4. Effect-Directed Analysis for the Antioxidant Compound in Salvia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Rezaee, Javad; Nickavar, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Salvia genus is one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae family. Its species have been used for a wide variety of disorders in the local traditional medicine systems. Therefore, the genus has been the subject of several phytochemical and biological studies. The aim of the study was to identify the major antioxidant compound(s) from the methanol extract of Salvia verticillata using activity-guided fractionation. The crude extract showed strong antioxidant activities in DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. The ethyl acetate fraction also exhibited a potent free radical scavenging activity compared to the other fractions. Further fractionation and purification of the ethyl acetate fraction using chromatography methods yielded a compound with high antioxidant capacity. The isolated active compound was determined as chrysoeriol. It showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 (DPPH scavenging) value of 93.32 (80.23 - 108.57) mM. PMID:27610164

  5. Morfogênese e dinâmica do perfilhamento de Panicum maximum JACQ. cv. Tanzânia-I sob pastejo Morphogenesis and tillering dynamics of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-I under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Biasi Ferlin; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Beatriz Lempp; Manoel Carlos Gonçalves; Antonio Carlos Cubas

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de dois resíduos de forragem pós-pastejo quanto às características morfogênicas de folhas e perfilhos e estrutura do relvado de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-I até os 35 dias após a desfolha, em duas estações do ano, verão e outono. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com os resíduos de forragem na parcela principal, estação do ano nas subparcelas e dias após o pastejo nas sub-subparcelas, com três repetições. Os resíduos de forragem não influ...

  6. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) pastejado em diferentes alturas Nutritive value of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) grazed at different heights

    OpenAIRE

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano; Ulysses Cecato; Marcos Weber do Canto; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Sandra Galbeiro; Elias Nunes Martins; Rodrigo Távora Mira

    2004-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as concentrações de proteína bruta (PB), de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), de fósforo (P), de potássio (K), de cálcio (Ca) e de magnésio (Mg) e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) nas frações lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) manejada em quatro alturas de dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm). O método de pastejo foi o de lotação contínua, com taxa de lota...

  7. Perdas de forragem em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1) manejado sob diferentes alturas sob pastejo Forage losses in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1) managed in different sward height under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysses Cecato; Christian Roberto de Carvalho Castro; Marcos Weber do Canto; Maurício Peternelli; Josmar Almeida Júnior; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Clovenilson Claudio Perissato Cano

    2001-01-01

    RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar as perdas de forragem e a acumulação de liteira em uma pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 ) manejada sob diferentes alturas. Os níveis de altura (tratamentos) estudados foram: 29,8; 32,0; 47,1; 51,5; 57,9; 62,7; 72,6 e 80,0 cm, em um delineamento completamente casualizado e com duas repetições. As taxas de acúmulo e acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem foram iguais em todas as alturas. A porcent...

  8. In vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis L. as a source of antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk; Ireneusz Bilichowski; Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik; Halina Wysokińska

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in different materials from differentiated (multiple shoot cultures and regenerated plants) and undifferentiated (callus and cell suspension) in vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis were determined by HPLC. The results suggested that diterpenoid (carnosic acid and carnosol) production is closely related to shoot differentiation. The highest diterpenoid yield (11.4 mg g-1 for carnosic acid and 1.1 mg g-1 for carnosol) was achiev...

  9. Hybrid de novo genome assembly of the Chinese herbal plant danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guanghui; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Shu, Liping; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Sheng, Jun; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), also known as Chinese red sage, is a member of Lamiaceae family. It is valued in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Because of its pharmacological potential, ongoing research aims to identify novel bioactive compounds in danshen, and their biosynthetic pathways. To date, only expressed sequence tag (EST) and RNA-seq data for this herbal plant are available to the public. We t...

  10. Space flight effects analysis of sp2 salvia miltiorrhiza bge · using srap marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of space mutation of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., agronomic traits had been studied in SP2 by field investigation and SRAP. The results showed that the mutagenic effects of space flight were complicated and there were variant effect on different plants and different traits.146 alleles had been detected from 19 materials with 12 primer pairs. Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.453 ∼ 0.867, the average was 0.648. (authors)

  11. Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of Some Salvia Species from Iran - A Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Massoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Rahmani, Nosrat; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). The results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α-Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 - 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 - 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 - 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 - 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 - 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs ranged between 1.90 - 53.80% and 13.46 - 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among the species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of polyunsaturated FAs, except in linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26988735

  12. Investigation of in vitro Opioid Receptor Binding Activities of Some Turkish Salvia species

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Gündüz Çınar; Hasan Kırmızıbekmez; Galip Akaydın; Erdem Yesilada

    2011-01-01

    Kappa Opioid Peptide Receptor (KOPr) activation produces analgesic, psychotomimetic, diuretic and antipruritic effects. KOPr ligands are investigated for their potential roles in the treatment of addiction, depression, feeding behavior, psychosis and schizophrenia. In this study the methanolic extracts of a number of Salvia species which are native to Turkey (S. tomentosa, S. tchihatcheffii , S. rosifolia, S. dichroantha and S. sclarea) were tested for their potential binding to opioid recept...

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ; SONJA ĐILAS; MILKA JADRANIN; VLATKA VAJS; NADA BABOVIĆ; SLOBODAN PETROVIĆ; IRENA ŽIŽOVIĆ

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.), originating from the southern Balkan Region. The antioxidant fraction was isolated from the plant material by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) fractional extraction under a pressure of 30 MPa and at temperatures of 40 and 100 °C. In the present study, kinetic data and yields of antioxidant extracts obtained ...

  14. Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gorai, Mustapha; Gasmi, Hayet; Neffati, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Salvia aegyptiaca is a xerophytic perennial herb belongs to the Lamiaceae family commonly used for medicinal purposes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and recovery responses after transferring to distilled water. Temperatures between 10 and 40 °C seem to be favourable for the germination of this species. Germination was inhibited by either an increase or decrease in temperature from the optimum (30 °C). The highest ...

  15. FLORAL VISITORS IN SALVIA RHOMBIFOLIA RUIZ & PAVON (LAMIACEAE) IN LIMA, PERU: A BEE-POLLINATED SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lianka Cairampoma; Carlos Martel

    2012-01-01

    We study the mechanisms, rates and agents involved in pollination and subsequent reproduction of Salvia rhombifolia. It characterized its floral visitors by recorded their visit frequency, also wemeasured its reproductive success by the percentage of seed production. Four bee species, one dipterous species and two hummingbird species were seen visiting flowers. Due hummingbirds were not actively carry pollen during their visits, they were classified as opportunistic; on the other hand, three ...

  16. Reassessment of conservation status of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Turkey II

    OpenAIRE

    KAHRAMAN, Ahmet; BAGHERPOUR, Safi; KARABACAK, Ersin; DOĞAN, Musa

    2012-01-01

    The current conservation status of the Salvia L. (sage) taxa of the family Lamiaceae distributed in the East, South-East, Central, North Anatolian, and Marmara geographic regions of Turkey was reassessed at regional, national, and global levels using IUCN Red List categories and criteria. In accordance with the present taxonomic revision of the genus since 2005, the study area seems to cover 79 taxa, 36 of which are endemic and 4 of which are rare nonendemic; the remaining 39 taxa are widely ...

  17. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLÇİN, İlhami

    2004-01-01

    The present work evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clary sage (CS) Salvia sclarea L. Antimicrobial, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities, reducing power, and total contents of phenolic compounds of dried herb samples extracted with chloroform and acetone were studied. The chloroform extract had stronger total antioxidant activity than the acetone extract and exhibited ...

  18. Palladium-catalyzed Transformations of Salvinorin A, a Neoclerodane Diterpene from Salvia divinorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Andrew P.; Day, Victor W.; Navarro, Hernán A.

    2013-01-01

    Transformations that selectively modify the furan ring present in a variety of naturals products would be useful in the synthesis of biological probes but remain largely underexplored. The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, isolated from Salvia divinorum, is an example of a furan-containing natural product. Following selective bromination of salvinorin A, Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira couplings were accomplished in moderate to good yields without hydrolyzing the labile C-2 acetate or altering the stereochemistry of the epimerizable centers. PMID:24246026

  19. Two Diterpenoids and a Cyclopenta[c]pyridine Derivative from Roots of Salvia digitaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Jen Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new glucosides, salviadigitoside A (1 and salviatalin A-19-O-β-glucoside (2, belonging to the salviatalin type diterpenoids, and a new cyclopenta[c]pyridine, salviadiginine A (3, were isolated from the roots of Salvia digitaloids. Structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. In addition, compounds 1–3 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity, but the results showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of Salvia officinalis L. against selected group of bacteria isolated from chickens meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil as well as vacuum packaging in extending the shelf life of fresh chicken’s breast meat stored at 4 °C was investigated. In a preliminary experiment Salvia officinalis L. essential oil  were used at concentrations 2% v/w while vacuum packaging. Microbiological properties of fresh chicken breast meat were monitored over a 16 days period. For this experiment three groups were used. First group was control with air packaging second was with vacuum packaging condition and was treated with essential oil on the surface of fresh chicken breast meat. From the microbiological indicators in this experiment total count of bacteria and coliform bacteria were observed. The total count of bacteria on the meat after killing animals was 2.97 log cfu.g-1 and number of coliform bacteria was 0.33 log cfu.g-1. The total count of bacteria on the chicken breast meat after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days gradually increased. The same number of coliform bacteria in extending self-life gradually increased. The highest number of both groups of microorganisms was in the control group with air condition and lowest number of both bacterial groups was in the group with salvia essential oil treatment.

  2. Determination of the antibiofilm, antiadhesive, and anti-MRSA activities of seven Salvia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal G Al-Bakri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several Salvia species are indigenous to Jordan and are widely used as beverages and spices and for their medicinal properties. The objective of the study was to establish the antimicrobial activities, including the antiadhesive and antibiofilm effects of seven different Salvia species. Materials and Methods: Methods used for planktonic culture included agar diffusion, broth microdilution, and minimal biocidal concentration determination while viable count was used for the determination of the antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities. Overnight cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were used as test microorganisms. Results: An antimicrobial activity toward planktonic cultures demonstrated a significant bacteriocidal activity (≥4 log cycle reduction for the S. triloba extract against S. aureus including MRSA. Its volatile oil exhibited an antimicrobial activity covering all tested microorganisms with the exception of P. aeruginosa. S. triloba extract and volatile oil were successful in preventing and controlling the biofilm, demonstrating antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities, respectively. Conclusion: These reported activities for S. triloba extract and volatile oil allows their listing as potential antibiofilm and anti-MRSA natural agents. This might suggest their use as an antiseptic in the prophylaxis and treatment of S. aureus-associated skin infections. The antimicrobial activity of the other tested Salvia species was negligible.

  3. Hepatoprotective and toxicological studies of Salvia bucharica methanolic extract in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor

    2014-11-01

    Most of the species of genus Salvia are famous for having medicinal properties due to their chemical constituents. Salvia bucharica (Lamiacea) is found in Balochistan near Quetta in Hannaurak and Kalat. It is used in traditional system of medicine and claims to cure liver ailments. In current study crude methanolic extract (CME) of Salvia bucharica was obtained from the leaves and tested for hepatoprotective activity and possible toxicity in rabbits. Liver toxicity was induced in rabbits by administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) and evaluated by biochemical tests and histopathology of tissues. In this study rabbits were divided in to 3 groups (5 rabbit in each group). Rabbits of group I (control) were administered only vehicle (0.9% sodium chloride) orally. Rabbits of group II were given CCl4 and group III were treated with CCl4 and S. bucharica CME orally. For hepatoprotective effect serum enzyme level and total protein level were calculated. Histopathology of liver sections of rabbits was also carried out to observe protective effect. Biochemical, hematological and histoptahological parameters were studied on rabbits for toxicological studies. S. bucharica CME showed significant liver protection with reduction in total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT). And decrease in Albumin and globulin. In toxicological studies, biochemical and histoptahological parameters showed no significant toxicity in liver, heart and kidneys. It is concluded that S. bucharica CME showed hepatoprotective effects with nontoxic profile.

  4. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer. PMID:26839997

  5. Protective Effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae on Multiple Organs of Rats with Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. we aim to explore the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae injection on multiple organs of obstructive jaundice (OJ rats through observing the impact of this injection on the pathological alterations in these organs and the contents of endotoxin, PLA2, and TNF-α in the blood. Methods. A total of 90 mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, model-control group, and Salvia miltiorrhizae-treated group (n=30. According to the duration of postoperative administration, each group was further divided into two subgroups, namely, 21 d subgroup (consecutive administration for 21 d, n=15 and 28 d subgroup (consecutive administration for 28 d, n=15. After administration, the pathological alterations in multiple organs were observed and the contents of endotoxin, PLA2, and TNF-α in the blood were determined. Results. Compared to model control group, the number of dead rats in treated group decreased though there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The pathological alterations in the liver, kidney, and spleen in treated group showed varying degrees of mitigation. At all time points, the contents of plasma endotoxin declined significantly. On day 28, plasma PLA2 content in treated group was significantly lower than that in model-control group. Conclusion. Salvia miltiorrhizae injection is able to obviously reduce the contents of inflammatory mediators in the blood of OJ rats and exert some protective effects on multiple organs of these rats.

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza Injection Ameliorates Renal Damage Induced by Lead Exposure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lead (Pb can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM, and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM. SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CR, decreased malondialdehyde (MAD content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases.

  7. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection ameliorates renal damage induced by lead exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Juanjuan; Dong, Weichong; Song, Qiongtao; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s). Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM), and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM). SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR), decreased malondialdehyde (MAD) content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases. PMID:24696648

  8. Protective Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of pre-treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts (SMEE on renal function markers, immunity and antioxidant activities in renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR rats. Wistar rat kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37 °C followed by 30 min of reperfusion, and were randomly assigned into the sham, IR model and three SMEE-treated groups (n = 8 per group. Results showed that high serum creatinin (Scr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and malondialhehyde (MDA levels, and low antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in IR rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts for 20 days prior to IR operation improved renal function, reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. It is concluded that Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts could be beneficial in the treatment of renal ischemic injury.

  9. [Use of kenaf fibre in the elaboration of specific substrates for Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Perona Zamora, Ma Aquilina; Pardo Núñez, José

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the viability of the kenaf fibre use, alone or combined with cereal straw, vine shoots and olive mill dried waste, in the elaboration of specific substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer, second mushroom in importance cultivated in Spain, is described. Furthermore, three different methods of preparation of the substrate have been considered in order to obtain selectivity for the growth and later fruiting of Pleurotus sporophore. As for the production parameters, the best results have been provided by the substrates that combined kenaf with straw and with vine shoots, being unfavourable the substrates based in just kenaf or combined with olive mill dried waste. As for the treatment applied to the materials, the immersion in water alone and subsequent pasteurization and thermophilic conditioning, together with the semi-anaerobic fermentation, has been favoured in front of the immersion in water with fungicide and later pasteurization.

  10. Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolarinwa Olugbemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated. Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30 min, 40 min, and 110 min when exposed to concentration of 4 g mL−1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively.

  11. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics.

  12. Development of new microsatellite markers for Salvia officinalis L. and its potential use in conservation-genetic studies of narrow endemic Salvia brachyodon Vandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka; Greguraš, Danijela; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Liber, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR) were isolated from Salvia officinalis L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in Salvia brachyodon Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural S. brachyodon population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (H(E)) was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (H(EQ)) and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM). Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the S. brachyodon population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  13. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  14. Effects of dexamethasone and Salvia miltiorrhiza on multiple organs in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-min OU; Xi-ping ZHANG; Cheng-jun WU; Di-jiong WU; Ping YAN

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of action of dexamethasone and Salvia miltiorrhiza on multiple organs in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Methods:The rats were divided into sham-operated,model control,dexamethasone treated,and Salvia mi/tiorrhiza treated groups.At 3,6,and 12 h after operation,the mortality rate of different groups,pathological changes,Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein expression levels in multiple organs (the pancreas,liver,kidneys,and lungs),toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) protein levels (only in the liver),intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) protein levels (only in the lung),and terminal deoxynucleotidy transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL)staining expression levels,as well as the serum contents of amylase,glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT),glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT),blood urea nitrogen (BUN),and creatinine (CREA) were observed.Results:The mortality rate of the dexamethasone treated group was significantly lower than that of the model control group (P<0.05).The pathological changes in multiple organs in the two treated groups were relieved to different degrees (P<0.05 and P<0.01,respectively),the expression levels of Bax and NF-κB proteins,and apoptotic indexes of multiple organs were reduced (P<0.05 and P<0.01,respectively).The contents of amylase,GPT,GOT,BUN,and CREA in the two treated groups were significantly lower than those in model control groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01,respectively).The expression level of ICAM-1 protein in the lungs (at 3 and 12 h) in the dexamethasone treated group was significantly lower than that in the Salvia miltiorrhiza treated group (P<0.05).The serum contents of CREA (at 12 h) and BUN (at 6 h)of the Salvia miltiorrhiza treated group were significantly lower than those in the dexamethasone treated group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Both dexamethasone and Salvia

  15. 丹参及其常见伪品鉴别%The Identification of Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Its Common Adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广孝

    2015-01-01

    丹参为唇形科植物鼠尾草属的干燥根及根茎,为常见中药之一,药用价值较高,近年来,随着使用量增加,丹参混淆品种也逐渐增多,对药物的药效影响的同时还带来较多的质量安全隐患。文章从丹参主要性状、显微特征和理化性质着手,简要描述了其一般性状,并就目前常见丹参混淆品、伪品加以介绍,并提出相关的鉴别方法。%Salvia is dried roots and rhizomes of Labiatae Salvia, one of the common medicine, high medicinal value, in recent years, with the increased use of Salvia species confusion is gradually increasing, the impact on the efficacy of drugs while also bringing more quality and safety problems. Articles from Salvia main characters, microscopic characteristics and physical and chemical properties of the start, a brief description of their general character, and Salvia now common adulterant, counterfeit goods to be introduced, and make relevant identification methods.

  16. Growth and Foliar Yield Responses of Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare Jacq) to Complementary Application of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers in a Ultisol

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, N. U.; Ikeh, A. O.; K. K. Nkeme; Akpan, E. A.; Udoh, E. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Growth and foliar yield responses of waterleaf (Talinum triangulare Jacq) to complementary application of organic and inorganic fertilizers were studied in a Ultisol. Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Place and Duration of Study: The University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm, located at Use Offot - Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and was conducted between March, 06 and June, 06 in both 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons. ...

  17. Model pendugaan cadangan karbon pada kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) umur 5 tahun di perkebunan kelapa sawit PT. Putri Hijau, Kabupaten Langkat.

    OpenAIRE

    Silaban, Dedy Hamonangan

    2015-01-01

    Palm Oil Plant a CO2 absorber as well as other crops such as forest plants. Currentlythe center ofoil palm plantationslocatedin the province ofNorth Sumatra. This study aimedtoobtaincarbonestimationmodelsAllometricpalmplantationsinPT. PutriHijau, Langkatand to getpotentialcarbon contentof plantoil palm(Elaeis guineensisJacq.) Age5years. The researchcarried outin twostages, the first stage was datacollectioninthe field andthe secondstage wasbiomassandcarbonanalyzesof each ofthe laboratory. The...

  18. Assessment of Salvia officinalis (L. hydroalcoholic extract for possible use in cosmetic formulation as inhibitor of pathogens in the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Silvestin Celi Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (L., or common sage, is an aromatic herb that has been used in medicine and cooking since ancient times and has been investigated for the treatment of various diseases, especially infections and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in vitro by agar-overlay and well-diffusion techniques, in which disc and well were used. Salvia officinalis (L. was not effective against Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis, but best results were observed for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the results of the inhibition tests presented here, we suggest that cosmetic formulations containing Salvia officinalis (L. could contribute to inhibitor of pathogens in the skin microbiota.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  20. Estudios en Labiatae VII. Salvia yukoyukparum. Nueva especie y primer representante de la sección Tomentellae en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2008-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Salvia yukoyukparum Fernández Alonso (Labiatae), una nueva especie endémica de la Serranía de Perijá, Colombia,asignable a Salvia sect. Tomentellae (Epling) Epling,sección no registrada previamente en territorio colombiano. Se comenta la distribución conocida y el estatus de conservación y se discuten las posibles afinidades de esta especie. Se presenta una clave para separar las especies suramericanas de la sección Tomentellae.

  1. Quantative and qualative changes of essential oil of Salvia bracteata Bank et Sol. in different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri H

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia bracteata is a permanent herb which belongs to Lamiaceae family and grows wildely in the west of Iran. In this study the composition of the essential oils of aerial parts of Salvia bracteata in different growth stages were analysed and compared. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils had high amounts of monoterpene compounds, with α-pinene, limonene, myrecene and β-pinene as major components in different growth stages.

  2. Perdas de forragem em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 manejado sob diferentes alturas sob pastejo Forage losses in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 managed in different sward height under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar as perdas de forragem e a acumulação de liteira em uma pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 manejada sob diferentes alturas. Os níveis de altura (tratamentos estudados foram: 29,8; 32,0; 47,1; 51,5; 57,9; 62,7; 72,6 e 80,0 cm, em um delineamento completamente casualizado e com duas repetições. As taxas de acúmulo e acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem foram iguais em todas as alturas. A porcentagem de forragem senescente foi influenciada de forma quadrática pelos níveis de altura. Os resultados indicam que foram altos os níveis de acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem, em média, 38,9 kg/ha/dia de MS e 2179 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. Devido à possibilidade de se reduzirem a persistência da pastagem e a modificação da estrutura das plantas, recomenda-se não utilizar pastagens de capim-Tanzânia em alturas próximas ou iguais a 20 e 80 cm, sob lotações contínuas.The experiment was conducted to evaluate, the forage losses and litter accumulation, in a pasture of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cv. Tanzania managed in different sward height levels. The studied levels of sward heights (treatments were: 29.8, 32.0, 47.1, 51.5, 57.9, 62.7, 72.6 and 80.0 cm, in a completely randomized design and two replications. The litter accumulation rate, litter accumulation and forage losses were similar in all heights. The percentage of senescent forage in the plant canopy was influenced on a quadratic way by the sward height levels. The results show that the litter accumulation and forage losses were high, with average DM of 38.9 kg/ha.day and 2179 kg/ha of DM, respectively. Due to the possibility to reduce the pasture persistence and plant structure deteriorate, it is not recommended to utilize Tanzania grass pastures, in levels sward height near or equal of 20 and 80 cm, under continuous stocking rate.

  3. Características morfogênicas e perfolhamento do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia irrigado Morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of irrigated Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando França da Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes turnos de rega e níveis de irrigação sobre as características morfogênicas e o perfilhamento de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. Uma bancada experimental foi montada sob ambiente protegido, onde foram colocados recipientes cultivados com o capim. As irrigações foram realizadas com turnos de rega de 1, 4 e 7 dias, e lâminas de irrigação para restabelecer 50, 75 e 100% da disponibilidade total de água no solo. A densidade populacional de perfilhos foi obtida por meio de contagem de perfilhos vivos após cada corte. As características morfogênicas foram estudadas por meio da taxa de aparecimento de folhas (TApF, taxa de alongamento de folhas (TAlF e colmos (TAlC, número de folhas emergentes (NFEm, expandidas (NFEx e vivas (NFV. O perfilhamento foi maior para maior nível de irrigação. O clima proporcionou maior efeito nas características morfogênicas que os tratamentos. Os fatores estudados não proporcionaram efeito expressivo na TAlC, NFEm, NFEx e NFV.The aim of this work was to study the effect of different irrigation interval and irrigation depth on morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of the Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania. The grass was cultivated in recipients in a greenhouse. The irrigations were performed with intervals of 1, 4 and 7 days, in order to reestablish soil water content to 50, 75 and 100% of the total available water in the soil. The tillering was obtained through counting of living tiller after each cut. The morphogenetic characteristics were studied through the leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf elongation rate (LER and stem elongation rate (SER, emerging leaf numbers (EmLN, expanded leaf numbers (ExLN and living leaf numbers (LLN. The tillering was larger for larger irrigation depth. The climate provided greater effect in the morphogenetic characteristics than the treatments. The studied factors were not significant for SER, EmLN, ExLN and LLN.

  4. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk; Halina Wysokińska

    2011-01-01

    The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1) was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1). In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1) and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1) were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in...

  5. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  6. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia Palaestina Bentham growing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aerial parts of Salvia Palaestina Bentham (Lamiaceae) on steam distillation afforded an essential oil, which was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Out of thirty-eight peaks (representing 99.2% of the oil), thirty-four components representing 97.1% of the total oil composition were identified. The major components were sclareol (26.8%), b-caryophyllene (16.9%), linalool (7.8%), guaiol (5.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.2%). The oil was tested against seven Gram positive and negative bacteria and two pathogenic fungi, to exhibit an interesting antimicrobial profile. (author)

  7. Effect of Composite Salvia Injection on Platelet Parameters in Children with Anaphylactoid Purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雪兰; 寇素茹; 许月红; 李朝英

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of composite salvia injection(CSI) on platelet parameters in children with anaphylactoid purpura(AP) and its clinical significance.Methods:One hundred and fifty children with AP were assigned to two groups,80 in Group A and 70 in Group B.They were treated,respectively,with conventional therapy only or conventional therapy combined with CSI.Their platelet parameters,including blood platelet count(BPC),mean platelet volume(MPV),platelet distribution width(PDW) and plateletcr...

  8. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Rubi Segura Campos; Fanny Peralta González; Luis Chel Guerrero; David Betancur Ancona

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fra...

  9. FLORAL VISITORS IN SALVIA RHOMBIFOLIA RUIZ & PAVON (LAMIACEAE IN LIMA, PERU: A BEE-POLLINATED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianka Cairampoma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the mechanisms, rates and agents involved in pollination and subsequent reproduction of Salvia rhombifolia. It characterized its floral visitors by recorded their visit frequency, also wemeasured its reproductive success by the percentage of seed production. Four bee species, one dipterous species and two hummingbird species were seen visiting flowers. Due hummingbirds were not actively carry pollen during their visits, they were classified as opportunistic; on the other hand, three bee species were principal pollinators because they carry and actively transfer pollen among S. rhombifolia flowers.

  10. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica) from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Segura-Campos; Zaidy Acosta-Chi; Gabriel Rosado-Rubio; Luis Chel-Guerrero; David Betancur-Ancona

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica) gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or cr...

  11. HPLC Fingerprint and LC/MS/MS Identification of the Active Components in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Ping; LIANG,Qiong-Lin; LUO,Guo-An; JIANG,Zhi-Hong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (丹参, RSM), an important Chinese Materia Medica, is widely used for cardiovascular diseases in China. Phenolic compounds[1] and diterpenoids[2] which are the major constituents of RSM have been reported to protect myocardium against ischemia-induced derangement, protect neural cells against injuries caused by anoxia,inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce hepatic fibrosis and depress the activities of HIV-1.[3] For the purposes of establishing quality standard of RSM and studying the relationship between the pharmacological activities and quantities of constituents, we conducted studies on HPLC fingerprint and LC-MS-MS identification of the active constituents of RSM.

  12. Eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia inhibit IL-6-induced STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Soyoung; Jung, Kyungsook; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-10-01

    Seven eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid lactones and the known plebeiolide C were isolated from an ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were determined via NMR and MS, and their absolute configurations were elucidated using ECD, and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as the modified Mosher ester method. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL6-induced STAT3 promoter activation in stably transfected Hep3B cells. Of these isolates, eudebeiolide D exhibited an inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 1.1 μM. PMID:27506573

  13. Estudos Morfoanatômicos e genéticos de Salvia lachnostachys Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Erbano, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Salvia lachnostachys Benth., pertencente à família Lamiaceae, é uma erva endêmica no Brasil, presente principalmente no Estado do Paraná. Sua composição química indica que essa espécie possui potencial para tornar-se matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fármacos anti-inflamatórios. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar e descrever as características morfológicas e anatômicas diagnósticas e realizar testes microquímicos das partes aéreas vegetativas de S. lachnostachys, elabora...

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia chrysophylla Staph

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Emin Duru; Gülsen Tel; Mehmet Öztürk; Mansur Harmandar

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the essential oil were found to be α-terpinenyl acetate (36.31%), β-caryophyllene (15.29%), linalool (8.12%) and β-elemene (4.26%). The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene/lino...

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia limbata C. A. Mey

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi; Zahra Shahpiri

    2004-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Salvia limbata C.A. Mey. (Lamiaceae) was analyzed by GC/MS. Among the forty-two constituent, forty components were characterized representing 98.6% of the total component which were detected. Bicyclogermacrene (21.1%), α-pinene (15.5%), 1,8-cineole (11.0%), sabinene (10.6%), β-pinene (9.2%), spathulenol (8.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.3%) and δ-elemene (5.1%) were found to be the major consti...

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia limbata C. A. Mey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Salvia limbata C.A. Mey. (Lamiaceae was analyzed by GC/MS. Among the forty-two constituent, forty components were characterized representing 98.6% of the total component which were detected. Bicyclogermacrene (21.1%, α-pinene (15.5%, 1,8-cineole (11.0%, sabinene (10.6%, β-pinene (9.2%, spathulenol (8.2%, β-caryophyllene (5.3% and δ-elemene (5.1% were found to be the major constituents.

  17. Salvia divinorum: enigma psicofarmacológico y resquicio mente-cuerpo

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Díaz

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se considera la investigación multidisciplinaria sobre Salvia divinorum y sus principios químicos activos con el objeto de valorar si la etnobotánica, la fitoquímica, la psicofarmacología y la neurofarmacología de esta planta psicoactiva y su principal producto químico, la salvinorina A, clarifican sus efectos mentales y sus usos adi - vinatorios. Esta labor científica ha trascurrido desde el registro inicial de ceremonias y creencias, ha continuado con la identificació...

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Salvia sclarea Plants Regenerated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Więckowska-Szakiel; Halina Wysokińska; Urszula Krajewska; Marek Różalski; Barbara Różalska; Danuta Kalemba; Łukasz Kuźma

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of dried aerial parts of Salvia sclarea L. plants, regenerated in vitro and reproduced from seeds, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils from in vitro and in vivo plants were compared in respect to their chemical composition as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The chemical profiles of both oils were very similar, although the yield of essential oil from in vitro plants was lower (0.1%, v/w) than the oil yield isolated from in v...

  19. Extracts from Salvia-Nelumbinis naturalis alleviate hepatosteatosis via improving hepatic insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Jiaoya; Song, Haiyan; Yao, Zemin; Ji, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Background Salvia-Nelumbinis naturalis (SNN), initially called Jiangzhi Granula as a formulae of Chinese medicinal decoction, has been used clinically to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and related syndromes. The mechanism of SNN action is unknown. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in lipid-rich media supplemented with chemical components of SNN. Male Wistar rats (6 weeks of age) were fed a high calorie diet (15% fat, 15% sucrose, and 2% cholesterol) for eight weeks, and then ...

  20. Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site
    Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade; Maurício Cruz Mantoani; Jose Marcelo Domingues Torezan; Alba Lúcia Cavalheiro

    2012-01-01

    Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.), its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory mor...

  1. Effect of light intensity and growth substratum on plant development and production of secondary metabolites in Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult Efeito da intensidade de luz e substrato no crescimento da planta e produção de metabólitos secundários em Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Terezinha Silveira Paulilo; Flávia Simão Lapa; Miriam de Barcellos Falkenberg

    2010-01-01

    Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae), also referred to as Cordia verbenacea DC, has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This study was driven to verify the behavior of the species in similar conditions to its natural environment, such as high light intensity and sandbank soil, and in conditions of low light intensity and fertilized substratum (dystroferric red nitosoil plus earthworm humus). The growth of the plant, the income of leaf crude extracts and, in th...

  2. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937, Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml. Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components i

  4. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum against cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermanshah H.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The microbial cause of dental caries has been proved among its multifactorial etiologies. The prevention and control of dental caries is very critical because of high prevalence and cost especially in high risk patient such as xerostomia. Based on the world attraction to traditional treatment and importance of drug extraction of natural materials and plants, in this in vitro study effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum which were very useful in traditional treatment of mouth and teeth disease has been determined against cariogenic bacteria. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, hydroalcoholic extracts have been prepared from Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum with maceration method. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Actinomyces viscosus have been evaluated with broth macrodilution method. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test. "nResults: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum for streptococcus mutans were respectively 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml, for Lactobacillus rhamnosus were 1.56 and 12.5 µg/ml and for Actinomyces viscosus were 12.5 and 50 µg/ml. "nConclusion:Both extracts had growth inhibitory effect on all three bacteria. Salvia officinalis had significantly greater effect on inhibition of growth of all three bacteria. Both extracts had bactericidal effect in the range of concentration.

  5. Trifurcula (Glaucolepis) lituanica sp. nov., an unexpected new stem-miner on Salvia pratensis occurring in eastern Europe (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivinskis, P.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Rimsaite, J.

    2012-01-01

    Trifurcula (Glaucolepis) lituanica Ivinskis & van Nieukerken, sp. nov., is described from adults reared from stemmining larvae on Salvia pratensis (Lamiaceae) from Lithuania and some specimens taken as adults in Austria, Slovenia and Greece. In addition the new species is recorded from Bulgaria, the

  6. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1 was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1. In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1 and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1 were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in the bioreactor was also studied. An 18-fold increase in hairy root biomass was recorded after 40 days of culture. In sage shoot culture, biomass increased 43 times after 21 days of bioreactor run. The current operating conditions of the bioreactor were not suitable for the propagation of Salvia officinalis mainly due to the hyperhydricity problem of leaves and stems.

  7. Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysokińska, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt). PMID:16869492

  8. Chronic food administration of Salvia sclarea oil reduces animals' anxious and dominant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Raz, Olga; Pinhasov, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that an oil extract from Salvia sclarea may provide clinical benefits in various pathological conditions. In comparison to extracts from other Salvia species, S. sclarea oil contains twice as much omega-3 fatty acids, which are involved in eicosanoid synthesis pathways, and has been found to contain significant levels of the psychoactive monoterpane linalool. In the present study, we examined the mood stabilizing and anxiolytic-like effects of chronic food administration of S. sclarea oil extract on behavioral and physiological parameters of mice with prominent dominant and submissive features in behavioral assays used to test mood stabilizing and antidepressant drugs. Experimental animals received oil supplemented food from the age of 4 weeks or from conception via their pregnant dams. Each age group received either S. sclarea oil- or sunflower oil-enriched feed. Dominant animals, whose pregnant mothers received S. sclarea oil-enriched feed from the date of conception, showed a significant reduction of dominant and anxiety-like behavior, in comparison to their sunflower oil-treated counterparts. S. sclarea oil-treated submissive animals exhibited a similar tendency, and showed a significant reduction in blood corticosterone levels. These findings enforce the hypothesis that S. sclarea oil possesses anxiolytic properties.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content in Different Salvia officinalis L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants to improve health is an ancient practice and in recent years it has been observed an increasing interest of scientific researchers for the study of plants with biological properties and active principles responsible for their therapeutic effects. Salvia officinalis L. is considered the queen of herbs and belongs to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae family. Due to the increasing interest in plants health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize various extracts of Romanian sage regarding their content in compounds with antioxidant activity. Three different techniques and five solvents were used for extraction of bioactive compounds from Salvia officinalis L. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of plant extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and respectively by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Methanolic extract exhibited the highest content in phenolic compound (1974.89 mg GAE/100g dw as well ass the strongest antioxidant capacity (85.12%.

  10. Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L.: A Review of Biochemical Contents, Medical Properties and Genetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grdiša

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L. represents one of the most significant medicinal autochthonous species in flora of eastern Adriatic coast and islands. It is evergreen outcrossing perennial subshrub with short woody stems that branch extensively and violet flowers. Apart from being native to Mediterranean karst of west Balkan and Apenine peninsula it is cultivated in numerous countries worldwide with Mediterranean and temperate continental climate. From the earliest times it has been used in traditional medicine in healing gingiva, mouth cavity and the sore throat, against bacterial and fungal infections, for wound treatment, memory enhancement, for treating common cold, against sweating, stomach inflammation, ulcer formation, etc. Its essential oil has also been used in preservation of food and as spice as it gives both specific aroma and promotes digestion of food. The essential oil is extremely complex mixture of different active ingredients; however, the thujones and camphor are the dominant compounds and are the parameter by which S. officinalis is distinguished from other Salvia species. The great variability of essential oil composition and yield has been detected depending on various factors such as genotype, environmental conditions, phonological stage, plant parts used for the extraction of essential oil and drying procedure. Molecular genetic analysis of S. officinalis is still limited and comprises the use of RAPD markers, AFLP and SSR markers in assessing mostly the genetic variability and structure of wild S. officinalis populations.

  11. Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysokińska, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt).

  12. Salvia divinorum: from Mazatec medicinal and hallucinogenic plant to emerging recreational drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Wojcieszak, Jakub

    2013-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a sage endemic to a small region of Mexico and has been traditionally used by the Mazatec Indians for divination and spiritual healing. Recently, it has gained increased popularity as a recreational drug, used by adolescents and young adults as an alternative to marijuana and LSD. Salvinorin A, the major active ingredient of the plant, is considered to be the most potent known hallucinogen of natural origin. This review surveys the current state of knowledge on the neurochemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological properties of salvinorin A, the trends and motivation behind S. divinorum use, and the health problems among users of the plant's products. S. divinorum induces intense, but short-lived, psychedelic-like changes in mood and perception, with concomitant hallucinations and disorientation. Many websites have misinterpreted the limited existing research-based information on the side effects of salvia as evidence for its safety. However, data accumulated over the last few years indicate that potential health risks are associated with the use of S. divinorum, especially by teenagers, users of other substances of abuse, and individuals with underlying psychotic disturbances. Taken together, the data presented in this review point to the need for further basic and clinical studies to create a basis for the development of well-addressed prevention and treatment strategies.

  13. [Study of the fourth generation of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge by XRF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Ying; Guo, Xi-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Zhou; Guan, Ying

    2010-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF) analytic method was used to analyze and compare the contents and varieties of mineral elements in the ground group Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, and the fourth generation Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge with space flight mutagenesis breeding in order to provide important basic data for selecting high quality breed and further research. The result indicates that the varieties of the main mineral elements in the two samples are the same basically, but Cu/Zn ratio is enhanced to 1.0, the contents of microelements Cr, Mn and Fe increase by 0.6, 0.5, and 0.3 times respectively compared with the ground group. To conclude, in the space group the contents and proportions of the mineral elements are improved and optimized. Xray fluorescence spectrum analytic method has many advantages, such as quickness, simplicity, high sensitivity, wide measure range, etc. The method can be used for quantitative element analysis and study of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20545179

  14. Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Salvia triloba extract in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Harika; Bozkurt, Emir

    2016-03-01

    Plants, due to their remarkable composition, are considered as natural resources of bioactive compounds with specific biological activities. Salvia genus (Lamiaceae) has been used around the world in complementary medicine since ancient times. We investigated the cytotoxic, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of methanolic Salvia triloba extract (STE) in prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT; apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation and caspase 3/7 activity assays. Changes in the angiogenic cytokine levels were investigated by human angiogenesis antibody array. Scratch assay was used to determine the cell motility. STE induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cancer cells; however, it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Cell motility was reduced in PC-3, DU-145 and HUVEC cells by STE treatment. ANG, ENA-78, bFGF, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF-D levels were significantly decreased by -2.9, -3.7, -1.7, -1.7, -2.0 and -1.8 fold in STE-treated DU-145 cells, however, ANG, IL-8, LEP, RANTES, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and VEGF levels were significantly decreased by -5.1, -2.0, -2.4, -3.1, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5 fold in PC-3 cells. These data suggest that STE might be a promising candidate for anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26459311

  15. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  16. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species. PMID:26805742

  17. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  18. Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2009-06-01

    Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses. PMID:19444610

  19. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Liu, Xuan; Di, Liuqing; Zu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza) include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I) and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B) constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS) was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%-80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route. PMID:27070565

  20. Improved Oral Bioavailability Using a Solid Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System Containing a Multicomponent Mixture Extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Bi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The active ingredients of salvia (dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza include both lipophilic (e.g., tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I and hydrophilic (e.g., danshensu and salvianolic acid B constituents. The low oral bioavailability of these constituents may limit their efficacy. A solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS was developed to load the various active constituents of salvia into a single drug delivery system and improve their oral bioavailability. A prototype SMEDDS was designed using solubility studies and phase diagram construction, and characterized by self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. Furthermore, the S-SMEDDS was prepared by dispersing liquid SMEDDS containing liposoluble extract into a solution containing aqueous extract and hydrophilic polymer, and then freeze-drying. In vitro release of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone and danshensu from the S-SMEDDS was examined, showing approximately 60%–80% of each active component was released from the S-SMEDDS in vitro within 20 min. In vivo bioavailability of these four constituents indicated that the S-SMEDDS showed superior in vivo oral absorption to a drug suspension after oral administration in rats. It can be concluded that the novel S-SMEDDS developed in this study increased the dissolution rate and improved the oral bioavailability of both lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents of salvia. Thus, the S-SMEDDS can be regarded as a promising new method by which to deliver salvia extract, and potentially other multicomponent drugs, by the oral route.

  1. A Study on Germination of Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd%菜用土人参种子发芽特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 吴才君; 陈鸿海; 杨丕军

    2003-01-01

    用菜用土人参Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd种子进行发芽特性的研究,结果显示:菜用土人参种子的适宜浸种时间为3 h,适宜催芽温度为35 ℃.GA3和PEG处理均可明显促进菜用土人参种子发芽,适宜浓度分别为150 mg/L和25%.

  2. Estimación de la capacidad germinativa y el vigor de las semillas de diomate (astronium graveolens jacq.) sometidas a diferentes tratamientos y condiciones de almacenamiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Restrepo, Martha Ligia

    2011-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  3. Producción de metabolitos secundarios en cultivo de raíces in vitro y suspensiones celulares de Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Idrogo, Consuelo; Kato, Massuo J.; Delgado-Paredes, Guillermo E.; Segal Floh, Eny Iochevet; Handro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq. es un arbusto dominante en el bosque estacionalmente seco del Perú y Ecuador. Los cultivos de raíces fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones de AIB, sacarosa y combinaciones de AIB-sacarosa. Diversos explantes obtenidos de plántulas in vitro y plantas silvestres se cultivaron en diferentes combinaciones de 2,4-D, AIA, ANA y BAP, para inducir callos friables, dependiendo del tipo de explante y los reguladores de creci...

  4. Pengaruh Komposisi Media Tanam Serta Pemberian Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit Kolam Aerob Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Pre-Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Firman K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of top soil as an oil palm sead plant media is very limited, so to contend it is used sub soil plant media which more available and easier to get it, but it has bad chemical characteristics. Application Oil Palm Empty Bunch (OPEB) compost or Palm Oil Liquid Waste) aerobic pond is expected to bost growth of Palm Seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).This research had been conducted At Rumah Kasa of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 until January 2014,, using factorial rando...

  5. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food)

    OpenAIRE

    Felzenszwalb, I.; da Costa Mazzei, J. L.; Feitosa, S.; Fortes Aiub, C. A.; de Almeida, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC), which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonel...

  6. Ataque e Caracterização de Danos de Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Silma Camilo; Márcia Santos; Marcus Soares; Evaldo Pires

    2014-01-01

    As pastagens cultivadas constituem a base da bovinocultura no Brasil sendo que, os gêneros Brachiaria e Panicum ocupam lugar de destaque. Brachiaria decumbens Stapf possui vantagens como grande adaptabilidade a solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, ao clima tropical, além de proporcionar alto rendimento de massa seca. Panicum maximum Jacq. é importante devido ao alto potencial de produção de massa seca por unidade de área, adaptabilidade, qualidade de forragem, facilidade de estabelecimento e ...

  7. Avaliação do potencial gastroprotetor e cicratizante da fração Diclorometano e da piplartina obtidos dos frutos Piper Tuberculatum Jacq. em ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Burci, Lígia Moura

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A Piper tuberculatum Jacq. pertence a família Piperaceae e é conhecida popularmente como pimenta d’ardo, jaborandi falso ou jamburana. Embora seja utilizada popularmente como estimulante digestivo e na redução dos gases intestinais, até o momento não havia nenhum estudo científico que comprovasse seu uso popular como gastroprotetor. Dessa forma, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a possível atividade protetora gástrica e esofágica da fração diclorometano obtida dos frutos de...

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4) gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    OpenAIRE

    Watcharasuda Hualkasin; Waleerath Thongin; Kanokon Petsean; Amornrat Phongdara; Alisa Nakkaew

    2013-01-01

    The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4) genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq), named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLE...

  9. 不同炮制方法对丹参多糖含量的影响%Effects of Different Processes on Polysaccharide Content in Salvia Miltiorrhiza bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炯; 袁胜浩; 马朝晖

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the content of polysaccharide in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge processed by different methods. Method: The sample was extracted by water and purified preliminarily by alcohol precipitation. The polysaccharide content was determined by phenol sulfuric acid method at UV wavelength of 490 nm. Result: The polysaccharide content in crude salvia miltiorrhiza, liquor salvia miltiorrhiza, vinegar salvia miltiorrhiza, rice stir-frying salvia miltiorrhiza and salvia miltiorrhiza charcoal was 3.08%, 4.63%, 4. 25% , 3. 89% and 1. 14% , respectively. Conclusion: The method is simple, convenient and accurate, and can be used in the de-termination of polysaccharide in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. The polysaccharide contents in liquor salvia miltiorrhiza, vinegar salvia miltior-rhiza and rice stir-frying salvia miltiorrhiza are higher than that in crude salvia miltiorrhiza.%目的:比较丹参不同炮制品中多糖的含量.方法:多糖采用传统的水提醇沉法提取,多糖的含量用苯酚-硫酸法进行测定,以葡萄糖为对照品,检测波长490 nm.结果:生丹参、酒丹参、醋丹参、米炒丹参和丹参炭的多糖含量分别为3.08%、4.63%、4.25%、3.89%和1.14%.结论:建立的多糖含量测定方法操作简便,精密度高,数据稳定性好,重复性好,适用于丹参及其炮制品多糖含量的测定.不同炮制方法对丹参饮片中多糖的含量有不同程度的影响,酒蒸、醋制和米炒均显著提高了丹参饮片中多糖的含量.

  10. Diversidad y distribución del género Salvia (Lamiaceae en Michoacán, México Diversity and distribution of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Cornejo-Tenorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la riqueza y distribución de las especies de Salvia en los municipios del estado de Michoacán con datos florísticos y ecológicos para cada especie. Con base en trabajo de campo y revisión de ejemplares depositados en los herbarios CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU y MO, se registraron 64 especies nativas de Salvia en Michoacán. El 67.2% de éstas son endémicas de México y 4 (6.2% del área de estudio. Salvia iodantha Fernald y S. mexicana L. fueron las especies con más ejemplares herborizados (140 y 134, respectivamente. Los bosques que albergan el mayor número de especies (40 fueron el de Pinus-Quercus y el de Quercus, en un intervalo altitudinal de 1 500 a 3 000 m. Morelia fue el municipio con más especies registradas (34. En cuanto a las formas de crecimiento, predominan las hierbas perennes o arbustos (86%. El 76.5% de las especies tiene flores azules y/o moradas. La floración se presenta todo el año, con una actividad máxima en octubre. Se sugiere que en un futuro cercano se incremente la exploración florística del género Salvia en Michoacán, especialmente en sus áreas protegidas y en la sierra Madre del Sur.This paper presents the richness and distribution by municipality of Salvia species in the state of Michoacán, floristic and ecological data are included. Based on herbarium specimens deposited in CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU, and MO, as well as collecting trips, 64 native species of Salvia were recognized in the study area. Endemic species to Mexico and Michoacán reached 67.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Salvia iodantha Fernald and S. mexicana L. were species with most herbarium specimens (140 and 134, respectively. The vegetation types with most species (40 were Pinus-Quercus and Quercus forests. The highest number of species occurred between 1 500 and 3 000 m. The municipality with the most Salvia species recorded was Morelia (34 species. Perennial herbs and shrubs were the most common growth

  11. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Objective: Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 mon...

  12. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Medicinal Property of Sage (Salvia) to Prevent and Cure Illnesses such as Obesity, Diabetes, Depression, Dementia, Lupus, Autism, Heart Disease, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Hamidpour, Rafie; Hamidpour, Soheila; Shahlari, Mina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, i...

  13. The first insight into the Salvia (Lamiaceae) genome via BAC library construction and high-throughput sequencing of target BAC clones

    OpenAIRE

    Vautrin, Sonia; Song, Chi; Zhu, Ying Jie; Berges, Hélène; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Salvia is a representative genus of Lamiaceae, a eudicot family with significant species diversity and population adaptibility. One of the key goals of Salvia genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of medicinal plants to increase their health and productivity. Large-insert genomic libraries are a fundamental tool for achieving this purpose. We report herein the cons...

  14. Comparison of protocatechuic aldchyde in Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding pharmacological sera from normal and fibrotic rats by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Lv; Xi-Xian Yao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of protocatechuic aldchyde on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Then normal and fibrotic drug sera were extracted from rats. The effects of protocatechuic aldchyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza on HSC growth were determined by CCK-8. The protocatechuic aldchyde was separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a Alltima C18 column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-4% glacial acetic acid solution (gradient elution) at the wavelength of 281 nm.RESULTS: Protocatechuic aldchyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza were found to have inhibitory effects on proliferation of rat HSCs. Raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza had a stronger inhibitory effect than the drug sera. The fibrotic drug sera showed a higher suppressive effect than the normal drug sera (P < 0.05). Protocatechuic aldchyde was found in crude materials of both Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and its corresponding drug sera. The average recovery (n = 6)was 110.5% for raw Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, 102% for normal drug sera and 105.2% for fibrotic drug sera.The relative standard devitation (RSD) was 0.37%,1.96% and 1.51%, respectively (n=6). The contents of protocatechuic aldchyde were 0.22%, 0.15% and 0.19%,respectively (n=6) (P<0.05). The RSD was 0.33%,0.75% and 1.24% (n =6) for raw material of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, normal drug sera and fibrotic drug sera,respectively. The samples were stable for 6 d.CONCLUSION: Protocatechuic aldchyde can inhibit the growth of HSCs. HPLC is suitable for the determination of virtual bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicines in vitro.

  15. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantová, Soňa; Hudec, Roman; Sekretár, Stanislav; Kučerák, Juraj; Melušová, Martina

    2014-09-01

    Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the food-processing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE) exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T) and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50). The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of the SE and its food formulations SF1 and SF2 on the toxicity and/or proliferation of L1210 leukemia cells. We found that SE and both SF1 and SF2 demonstrated different concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic/antiproliferative cellular effects already within the first 24 h of the treatment. However, SE was nearly 10 times more effective than the new salvia food formulations SF1 and SF2. We investigated partially also the molecular mechanisms lying behind the action of SE, SF1 and SF2 induced apoptosis in our cell model. We found an apparent involvement of the mitochondrial/caspase-dependent pathway in the described processes. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed before salvia extract and its new antioxidant formulations can be included among the potential food antioxidants with protective properties against cancer.

  16. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  17. A New Form of Salvia(Labiatae)from Shanxi%山西省鼠尾草属一新纪录变型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊; 廉凯敏; 张峰

    2011-01-01

    在山西省晋城市泽州县晋庙铺镇进行植被调查时发现了唇形科(Labiatae)鼠尾草属(Salvia L.)白花丹参(Salvia miltior,rhiza Bge.f.alba C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li).白花丹参是鼠尾草属植物丹参(Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.)的变型,分布于山东等地,此前在山西无记录.白花丹参的发现使山西鼠尾草属的记录变为6种1变型.%A new form of Salvia L. (Labiatae),Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba C. Y. Wu et H. W. Li,from Shanxi was reported,and which was found in the southeast of Shanxi,Jinmiaopu,Zezhou,Shanxi. Up to now, this form distributed only in Shandong etc, China was reported, however, was not reported in Shanxi. Finally,there are 6 species and 1 form of Salvia L. in Shanxi.

  18. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Avaliação química e nutricional de amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila A. Hiane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein characterization and results of proximate composition and mineral analyses of fruit kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., are reported. The kernels presented high contents of oil (51.7%, protein (17.6% and fiber (15.8%. The seeds´ soluble proteins were isolated according to their solubility. The main separated proteins were globulins (53.5% and glutelins (40.0%. Moreover, the presence of low molecular mass proteases in these two fractions was shown by the SDS-PAGE method. The assays of protease-inhibitory and hemagglutinating activities showed that bocaiuva´s protein fractions were not resistant to trypsin or chymotrypsin activities and that both had low lectin content. The globulin in vitro digestibility assay resembled a casein standard. Neither globulin nor glutelin enzymatic hydrolyses increased significantly (p Caracterização de proteínas e análises da composição centesimal e teores de minerais foram realizados nas amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. As amêndoas apresentaram alto teor de lipídio (51,7%, proteína (17,6% e fibra (15,8%. Proteínas solúveis das sementes foram fracionadas de acordo com a sua solubilidade. As principais proteínas separadas foram as globulinas (53,5% e glutelinas (40,0%, e a presença de proteases de baixo peso molecular nessas duas frações foi revelada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Ensaios da atividade inibitória de proteases e da hemaglutinação mostraram que as frações protéicas da bocaiúva não foram resistentes à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina e apresentaram baixo teor de lectina. A digestibilidade in vitro da globulina foi semelhante à da caseína padrão. Hidrólises enzimáticas da globulina e glutelina não aumentaram significativamente (p < 0,05, com o aquecimento. Treonina e lisina são os aminoácidos mais limitantes, respectivamente, das duas principais frações de proteínas da amêndoa da bocaiúva, a

  19. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  20. Inoculación con Azospirillum spp y Enterobacter aglomerans en Pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en el Departamento de Cesar (Colombia / Inoculation with Azospirillum spp and Enterobacter aglomerans in Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in the Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Cárdenas Caro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el efecto de los aislados SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 de Azospirillum spp. en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania en la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, del municipio Agustín Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. Se realizó inoculación por imbibición de las semillas, y en el momento de la siembra, en las macetas en condiciones de casa malla. Se utilizó inoculación simple de los aislados de Azospirillum sp y co-inoculación con una cepa fosfato solubilizadora de Enterobacter aglomerans (UV1, aislada de suelos cultivados con algodón en el departamento de Cesar. Lasvariables estudiadas en las plantas fueron: germinación, peso foliar fresco y seco, peso radical fresco y seco, fósforo y proteína foliar. Los resultados mostraron que la inoculación simple y combinada promovió la germinación de semillas del pasto guinea (P≤0,05 con respecto al tratamiento sin inoculación (testigo absoluto; y aunque no se presentaron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las demásvariables estudiadas, se encontraron aumentos de hasta 26,80% en proteína cruda, y 45,67% en materia seca foliar comparada con las plantas tratadas con 100% de fertilización nitrogenada. Se observó que el aislado de Azospirillum SRGM2 co-inoculado con Enterobacter aglomerans UV1 registró los mayores valores en el crecimiento vegetal del pasto guinea, por lo que se consideró como una rizobacteria promisoria para la biofertilización de esta gramínea utilizada en la alimentación bovina en la costa caribe colombiana. / Abstract. The effect of the isolates SRGM2, SRGM3 and SRGM of Azospirillum spp. on the growth and development of Guinea grass plants (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania was evaluated in the Experimental Station Motilonia of Corpoica, municipality Agustin Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. The inoculation was performed by imbibition of seeds and at planting time in pots under

  1. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Nutritive value of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as concentrações de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, de fósforo (P, de potássio (K, de cálcio (Ca e de magnésio (Mg e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS nas frações lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas de dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo foi o de lotação contínua, com taxa de lotação variável, e os animais utilizados foram novilhos da raça Nelore, com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições, sendo realizadas cinco avaliações no período (112 dias. O aumento na altura do dossel promoveu redução nas concentrações de PB, Ca, P, Mg e DIVMS e elevação nas concentrações de FDN, FDA e K para as frações lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha. As lâminas foliares apresentaram melhor composição química que colmos + bainhas em todas as alturas de dossel e em todos os períodos de avaliação. A altura de dossel de 40 a 50 cm propiciou boa composição química e DIVMS.Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD contents were assessed in the leaf blade and stem + leaf sheath fractions of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four sward heights (20, 40, 50 and 65 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking and variable stocking rate, and used Nelore steers with an average weight of 340 kg. The completely randomized experimental design was used with two replications, and five evaluations were performed during a period of 112 days. The CP, IVDMD, Ca, P and Mg contents decreased while NDF, ADF and K concentrations increased in the leaf blade and stem + leaf sheath fraction in response to grazing

  2. The Effects of Medicinal Plants of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems in women, especially in young women. Although dysmenorrhea is not life threatening , it can have ad-verse effect on quality of life and cause disability or ineffectiveness. With regard to the young society suffering from it, various treatments are offered for dysmenorrhea one of which is medicinal plants. This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on primary dysmenorrhea Materials & Methods: This study was a clinical trial study performed on 50 girls with dys-menorrheal taking Salvia officinalis as infusion for five days before menstruation and five days during the menstruation. The consumption of the plants was repeated in the next two periods in the same way. Severity of pain, blooding duration and dysmenorrhea duration were evaluated with VAS (Visual Analog Scale Questionnaire in their next two cycles. Data were analyzed by chi-square, t-test and WILCOXON statistical test. Results: The results of this study showed that after using the plants, pain severity and pain duration significantly reduced P<0.01so that pain severity decreased from 6.30 to 3.94 and 3.24, (on a scale of 1 to 10 after taking the plants in the first and second periods ,respectively. The maximum pain duration before the treatment was 1 to 6 h (28.6% and this number reduced to less than 1 h after using these medicinal plants (38.0%. Mean of blooding duration was 6.36 days before the treatment. After the first and second duration, this value reached 6.48 and 6.34 days, respectively. It was determined that taking oral seda-tives reduced from 56% to 26% and 22% after the first and second periods, respectively. Fi-nally, after the second period, 42% of the girls reported high rates of satisfaction because of using the medicinal plants. Conclusion: Generally, it was showed that Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis signifi-cantly reduced pain severity and pain

  3. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids.

  4. Evaluación fisico-química de la semilla y del aceite de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, physicochemical characteristics of the seed and seed oil of corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., a wild palm from Central and South America , were evaluated. Seeds obtained from mature fruits from “El Chaparro” town, Anzoategui state, Venezuela, harvested in March 2003, were decorticated; the endospermus was transformed to meal by means of grinding and then using a sieve (425 µm, and its oil was extracted with n-hexane. The whole seed showed an average weight of 9.67 ± 0.32 (PEl objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunas características físicas y químicas de la semilla y del aceite crudo extraído de la semilla del fruto de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., una palmera silvestre distribuida en Centroamérica y Sudamérica. A un lote se semillas obtenidas de frutos maduros procedentes de la población de “El Chaparro”, estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela, cosechados en Marzo 2003, se le separó el pericarpio y el endospermo. El endospermo fue transformado en harina, mediante molienda y tamizado (apertura 425 μm, y a ésta se le extrajo el aceite con n-hexano. A la semilla entera se le determinó la masa promedio (9,67 ± 0,32; P<0,05 y la proporción de pericarpio (75,39 % y endospermo (24,61 %. A la harina del endospermo de le determinó la composición proximal, presentando niveles importantes de grasa (53,13 %, proteína (13,75 % y fibra cruda (25,82 %. El aceite crudo de corozo presentó baja acidez libre (0,40 %, expresada como ácido oleico y alta resistencia a la oxidación (no se detectó peróxidos y el índice de estabilidad OSI fue de 100 h; sus índices de yodo y saponificación fueron 29,87 cg I/g y 205 mg KOH/g, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos, determinada mediante cromatografía de gas, mostró mayor proporción de ácidos saturados (79,6 %, siendo el ácido láurico el de mayor concentración. La semilla de corozo es un recurso oleaginoso que puede ser útil

  5. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  6. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  7. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  8. 希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)花粉发育时期快速检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳琳; 匡延凤; 廖景平

    2014-01-01

    茜草科希茉莉(Hamelia patens Jacq.)的花粉用DAPI(4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole)直接染色不能观察到花粉核,本研究探索出适宜在DAPI染色前处理希茉莉花粉壁的水浴加热-氧化方法,使得希茉莉花粉核能在荧光显微镜下清晰地显示出来,从而快速检测花粉所处的发育阶段。结果表明:(1)单核花粉和二核花粉最适宜的水浴加热温度和时间分别为65℃、20~50 min和55℃、20~40 min;(2)花粉发育阶段与花朵、花药长度的对应关系为:花朵0.90~1.00 cm、花药0.50~0.60 cm时对应花粉的四分体时期,花朵1.10~1.60 cm、花药0.60~0.85 cm时对应单核花粉时期,花朵1.80~2.70 cm(花冠裂片张开前)、花药0.91~1.01 cm时对应二核花粉时期。

  9. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported. PMID:24893588

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia chrysophylla Staph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Duru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae, endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the essential oil were found to be α-terpinenyl acetate (36.31%, β-caryophyllene (15.29%, linalool (8.12% and β-elemene (4.26%. The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. Anticholinesterase activity was screened against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s diseases. The essential oil showed weak antioxidant activity. However, at 1 mg/mL concentration, the essential oil exhibited mild acetylcholinesterase (52.5±2.0% and modarate butyrylcholinesterase (76.5±2.7% inhibitory activity.

  11. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects.

  12. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  13. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  14. The histopathological effects of salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Adekomi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate some of the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Salvia officinalis on the kidney and liver of male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats (7-11 weeks old were randomly assigned into two groups; A and B. Aqueous extract of S. officinalis leaves (300 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to the rats in group B while the rats in group A received equal volume of normal saline for 14d. At termination of treatment, the histopathology of the kidney and liver were assessed. The kidney and the liver in the extract treated rat displayed organized and preserved histological profile. Our findings suggest that S. officinalis has no deleterious effects on the kidney and liver of the rats.  

  15. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  16. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  17. In vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis L. as a source of antioxidant compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in different materials from differentiated (multiple shoot cultures and regenerated plants and undifferentiated (callus and cell suspension in vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis were determined by HPLC. The results suggested that diterpenoid (carnosic acid and carnosol production is closely related to shoot differentiation. The highest diterpenoid yield (11.4 mg g-1 for carnosic acid and 1.1 mg g-1 for carnosol was achieved in shoots of 10-week-old micropropagated plants. The levels were comparable to those found in shoots of naturally growing plants. Undifferentiated callus and cell suspension cultures produced only very low amounts of carnosol (ca. 0.05 mg g-1 of dry weight. In contrast, content of rosmarinic acid in callus and suspension cultures as well as shoots growing in vitro and in vivo was similar and ranged between 11.2 and 18.6 mg g-1 of dry weight.

  18. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (Pofficinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  19. A New Lignan Glucoside from the Whole Plants of Salvia Scapiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Salvia scapiformis Hance afforded eight compounds, including one new lignan, (+-8α-hydroxypinoresinol-8-O-[6′′-O-(4′′′-hydroxybenzoyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, four known lignans, (+-8α-hydroxy-pinoresinol-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, (+-8α-hydroxypinoresinol (3, (+-pinoresinol (4, and (+-medioresinol (5, and three known triterpenoids, ursolic acid (6, 4-epi-niga-ichigoside F1 (7, and niga-ichigoside F1 (8. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with spectroscopic data in the literature. The absolute configuration of the new compound 1 was determined by chemical transformation and GC analysis.

  20. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza That Produces Salvianolic Acid C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqing; Zhai, Xin; Shu, Zhiheng; Dong, Ruifang; Ming, Qianliang; Qin, Luping; Zheng, Chengjian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, more and more researches focus on endophytic fungi derived from important medicinal plants, which can produce the same bioactive metabolites as their host plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant with versatile pharmacological effects. But the wild plant resource has been in short supply due to the overcollection for bioactive metabolites. Our study was therefore conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza and get candidate strains that produce the same bioactive compounds as the plant. As a result, an endophyte that produces salvianolic acid C was obtained and identified as Phoma glomerata D14 based on its morphology and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Salvianolic acid C was found present in both the mycelia and fermentation broth. Our study indicates that the endophytic fungus has significant industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for salvianolic acid C in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way. PMID:26979309

  1. RAPD analysis on the four kinds of color-flowered Salvia splendens Ker-Gawl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guofu; YUAN Qiang; LI Fenglan; WEI Qi; HU Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we used RAPD to analyze four kinds of color-flowered Salvia splendens Ker-Gawl, and the optimal RAPD reaction conditions were the optimal reaction mixture (25 uL total volume) that contained 2.0 μL 10×buffer,0.45 mmol·L-1 dNTPs, 2.0 mmol·L-1 Mg2+, 2 U Taq DNA polymerase, 0.30 umol·L-1 primer and 40 ng genomic DNA. Total 84 bands were amplified from 12 primers used, and the differential bands had 28 bands, which was 33% of total bands. In cluster group analysis, the four kinds of color-flowered were divided into two styles. One style is that the red color and red-white color were grouped together, then they grouped with purple color into one cluster, and the white color was another style.

  2. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  3. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Extracellular localization of the diterpene sclareol in clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Caissard

    Full Text Available Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L. inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction. Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy. According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces.

  5. Extracellular Localization of the Diterpene Sclareol in Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissard, Jean-Claude; Olivier, Thomas; Delbecque, Claire; Palle, Sabine; Garry, Pierre-Philippe; Audran, Arthur; Valot, Nadine; Moja, Sandrine; Nicolé, Florence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Legrand, Sylvain; Baudino, Sylvie; Jullien, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction). Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy). According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces. PMID:23133579

  6. New ursane triterpenoids from Salvia urmiensis Bunge: Absolute configuration and anti-proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farimani, Mahdi Moridi; Bahadori, Mir Babak; Koulaei, Sheyda Ahmadi; Salehi, Peyman; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Khavasi, Hamid Reza; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Two new triterpenoids, urmiensolide B (1) and urmiensic acid (2), with rare carbon skeletons together with three known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia urmiensis Bunge, an endemic species of Iran. The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS, and in the case of 2 and 3, their structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration of 2 was established by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The new compounds were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against A549 and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 2.8 and 1.6 μM against MCF-7 cells, respectively. PMID:26254275

  7. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  8. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Celli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica, an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  9. Detection and identification of the first viruses in chia (Salvia hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Marcos G; Perotto, Maria C; Martino, Julia A; Flores, Ceferino R; Conci, Vilma C; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez

    2014-09-19

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  10. 月季花抗氧化活性成分研究%Studies of Chemical Constituents from Rosa chinensis Jacq.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 符玲; 敬林林; 阿有梅; 贾陆

    2012-01-01

    In order to separate and purify the chemical constituents from Rosa chinensis Jacq. , which have DPPH· scavenging capacity, dried Rosa chinensis flowers were extracted three times with 95% ethanol under reflux. This extract was then fractionated by column chromatography over silica gel, MCI gel, Sephadex LH-20, etc. A new compound[ quercetin 3-O-(2",6"-digalloyl)-β-D-glucoside, 1] and nine known compounds (2—10) were isolated from Rosa chinensis Jacq. and identified using spectroscopic methods. Their antioxidant activity was assayed using DPPH · experiments. The results indicated that compounds 1,2,4 and 9 had good antioxidant activity.%以活性追踪为指导分离和纯化了月季花中具有1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(DPPH)自由基清除活性的成分.从月季花中分离得到了10个黄酮类化合物,采用光谱法对其结构进行了表征,并对它们的自由基清除活性进行了评价.结果表明,化合物1为新化合物,化合物1,2,4和9具有较强的清除DPPH自由基的活性.

  11. Evaluation of content of phenolics in Salvia species cultivated in South Moravian Region / Hodnotenie obsahu fenolov vo vybraných druhoch rodu Salvia L. pestovaných v Juhomoravskom kraji

    OpenAIRE

    Muráriková A.; Kaffková K.; Raab S.; Neugebauerová J.

    2015-01-01

    V štúdii na celkový obsah fenolových látok a kyseliny rozmarínovej bolo hodnotených 37 vzoriek šalvie (Salvia L.) z metanolových extraktov stanovených spektrofotometricky. Množstvo celkových fenolov bolo analyzované s pomocou Folin Ciocalteuového skúmadla. Ako štandard bola použitá kyselina galová a celkové fenoly boli vyjadrené ako mg.100 g-1 kyseliny galovej v sušine. Boli zobrazené podstatné rozdiely hodnotených extraktov. Všetky skúmané druhy okrem Salvia jurisici (990,79 mg GAE.100 g-1) ...

  12. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  13. Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza on Hemorheology and vascular endothelial function in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Lian Chen; Sheng-Bing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on vascular endothelial function and hemorheology in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP).Methods: A total of 60 cases of UAP patients from October 2014 to October 2015 as the research object, randomly divided into treatment group and control group; the two groups were treated with conventional bed rest, ECG monitoring, oxygen inhalation, application of nitroglycerin, beta blockers, aspirin and antiplatelet, statin therapy, the treatment group based on the use of salvianolate 200 mg+5% glucose 250 mL (neutralization amount of 0.9% sodium chloride was used in patients with diabetes or glucose insulin) intravenous drip, 1 times/d, two groups were treated for 2 weeks; the two groups before and after treatment and take venous blood in the morning fasting peripheral blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, measured by automatic blood rheometer (low and middle shear and high shear rate), hematocrit and erythrocyte aggregation index, serum endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) level was measured by nitrate reductase Set.Results:after the treatment, the treatment group, the plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity (low shear, cut and high shear rate), red blood cell hematocrit and red blood cell aggregation index decreased than the control group, there is statistical significance; after treatment, in treatment group, the serum NO level, et reduce degree is significantly better than the contrast group, there is statistical significance.Conclusion: Salvia miltiorrhiza can effectively improve blood rheology, improve microcirculation, regulate vascular endothelial function, effectively reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in UAP patients, it is worthy of clinical application.

  14. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  15. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  16. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  17. Karyotype Analysis of Three Species of Salvia L.%3种鼠尾草属植物的核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠红; 欧鑫; 谭昕; 易自力; 蒋建雄; 陈智勇

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the genetic relationship between a new introduced germplasm (Salvia hispanica L.) and other two common members of Salvia L. Family ( Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler and Salvia farinacea), and provide the theoretic foundation for distant hybridization and genetic improvement in these three germplasms. In cytogenetics level, karyotypes of Salvia hispanica L., Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler and Salvia farinacea were discussed in this paper. The results showed that chromosome number of normal diploid of -Salvia hispanica L. Was 2n=12, karyotype formula was 2n=12=2m + 2sm+8st, the AS.K% was 74.9%, which belonged to '3A' type; chromosome number of normal diploid of Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler. Was 2n=44, karyotype formula was 2n=34m + 2sm + 8st, the AS.K% was 62.4%, which belonged to '2A' type; and chromosome number of normal diploid of Salvia farinacea. Was 2n=18, karyotype formula was 2n=12m+6sm, AS.K% was 59.0%, which belonged to '2A' type. Through the karyotype analysis, there were great differences of chromosomes between Salvia hispanica L-, Salvia splendens Ker-Gawler and Salvia farinacea, thus these three members of Salvia L. Family had a distant relationship.%为了解新种质芡欧鼠尾草与鼠尾草属常见植物一串红、一串蓝之间的亲缘关系,并为其远缘杂交和遗传改良提供基础,本实验在细胞遗传学水平,对鼠尾草属芡欧鼠尾草、一串红、一串蓝3种植物染色体核型进行分析.结果显示,芡欧鼠尾草二倍体体细胞染色体数目为12条,核型公式是2n=12=2m+2sm+8st,核型不对称系数(AS.K%)为74.9%,核型分类标准属于“3A”型;一串红二倍体体细胞染色体数目为44条,核型公式是2n=44=34m+2sm+8st,核型不对称系数(AS.K%)为62.4%,核型分类标准属于“2A”型;一串蓝二倍体体细胞染色体数目为18条,核型公式是2n=1 8=12m+6sm,核型不对称系数(AS.K%)为59.0%,属于“2A”型.通过核型分析,芡欧鼠尾草

  18. Green approach to corrosion inhibition of 304 stainless steel in hydrochloric acid solution by the extract of Salvia officinalis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Salvia officinalis extract was examined as a corrosion inhibitor for steel. ► The inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing of extract concentration. ► Adsorption of S. officinalis extract on stainless steel surface is spontaneous. ► Activation energy decreases with addition of S. officinalis extract. - Abstract: The extract of Salvia officinalis (S. officinalis) leaves has been evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor for 304 stainless steel in 1 M HCl solution by means of weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Tafel polarization study revealed that extract of S. officinalis acts as a mixed type inhibitor. Adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Quantum chemical calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) and semi-empirical method (AM1) were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract.

  19. Assessment of Salvia officinalis (L.) hydroalcoholic extract for possible use in cosmetic formulation as inhibitor of pathogens in the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Charlene Silvestin Celi Garcia; Mariana Roesch Ely; Ronaldo Adelfo Wasum; Bárbara Catarina de Antoni Zoppa; Cláudia Wollheim; Gilda Ângela Neves; Valéria Weiss Angeli; Kellen Cristhinia Borges de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (L.), or common sage, is an aromatic herb that has been used in medicine and cooking since ancient times and has been investigated for the treatment of various diseases, especially infections and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, ...

  20. Profil hlapljivih tvari hrvatskih medova lipe (Tilia sp.), medljikovca jele (Abies alba) i meda kadulje (Salvia officinalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lušić, Dražen; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Ćurić, Duška; Sabatini, Anna G.; Conte, Lanfranco S.

    2007-01-01

    Profili hlapljivih tvari meda lipe (Tilia sp.), medljikovca jele (Abies alba) i meda kadulje (Salvia officinalis), proizvedeni u Hrvatskoj, istraživani su najprije metodom mikroekstrakcije na čvrstoj fazi (head space solid phase microextraction, HS-SPME), a zatim s plinskom kromatografijom i masenom spektrometrijom (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS). Botaničko porijeklo uzoraka meda potvrđeno je melisopalinološkom i senzorskom analizom. Prvi su put opisana senzorska svojstva meda o...

  1. Effects of Danshensu and Salvianolic Acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) on Cell Proliferation and Collagen and Melanin Production

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Shyan Chen; Shu-Mei Lee; Ying-Ju Lin; Shu-Hua Chiang; Chih-Chien Lin

    2014-01-01

    Danshensu (DSU) and salvianolic acid B (SAB) are the primary water-soluble compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). In this study, we analyzed the effects of DSU, SAB and a S. miltiorrhiza extract (SME) on cell proliferation. Additionally, the effects of DSU and SAB on collagen synthesis in Detroit 551 human normal fibroblast cells and on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells were verified. The results demonstrated that SME can enhance the proliferation of Detroit 551 cells and ...

  2. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong hyun

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. ...

  3. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extracts obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAILO S. RISTIC; ANA S. VELICKOVIC; ANDRIJA A. SMELCEROVIC; DRAGAN T. VELICKOVIC; NOVICA V. RANDJELOVIC

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of the chemical composition and antimicrobial action of the ethanol extracts from the flower, leaf and stem of the herbal species Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), originating from the southeast region of Serbia was carried out. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Manool has the highest level of all the components (9.011.1 %). Antimicrobial activity was determined by the diffusion and dilution method, whereby the la...

  4. Polyphenolic compounds from Salvia species protect cellular DNA from oxidation and stimulate DNA repair in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alice A; Azqueta, Amaya; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina; Collins, Andrew R

    2010-06-23

    DNA damage can lead to carcinogenesis if replication proceeds without proper repair. This study evaluated the effects of the water extracts of three Salvia sp., Salvia officinalis (SO), Salvia fruticosa (SF), and Salvia lavandulifolia (SL), and of the major phenolic constituents, rosmarinic acid (RA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L-7-G), on DNA protection in Caco-2 and HeLa cells exposed to oxidative agents and on DNA repair in Caco-2 cells. The comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and repair capacity. The final concentration of each sage extract was 50 microg/mL, and concentrations of RA and L-7-G were 50 and 20 microM, respectively. After a short incubation (2 h), L-7-G protected DNA in Caco-2 cells from damage induced by H(2)O(2) (75 microM); also, after a long incubation (24 h), SF, RA, and L-7-G had protective effects in Caco-2 cells. In HeLa cells, SO, SF, and RA protected against damage induced by H(2)O(2) after 24 h of incubation. Assays of DNA repair show that SO, SF, and L-7-G increased the rate of DNA repair (rejoining of strand breaks) in Caco-2 cells treated with H(2)O(2). The incision activity of a Caco-2 cell extract on a DNA substrate containing specific damage (8-oxoGua) was also measured to evaluate effects on base excision repair (BER) activity. Preincubation for 24 h with SO and L-7-G had a BER inductive effect, increasing incision activity in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, SO, SF, and the isolated compounds (RA and L-7-G) demonstrated chemopreventive activity by protecting cells against oxidative DNA damage and stimulating DNA repair (SO, SF, and L-7-G). PMID:20486687

  5. Analysis for the antidepressant effect of radix salvia miltiorrhiza%丹参抗抑郁作用新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘菊华; 王彦云; 张永超; 霍蕊莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore possible mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of Radix salvia miltiorrhiza. Radix salvia miltiorrhiza, a commonly Chinese material medica for heart and cerebral vessel diseases, was frequently applied as antidepressant frequently in clinical. . The fat soluble effective components (tanshinone compounds) and the water soluble effective components (salvianolic acid) have effect of antioxidative, microcirculation improving, neuroprotective and endocrine regulation effects, which could improve the possible mechanisms of depression including oxidative stress, injury of nerve and endo-crine disorders. The role of radix salvia miltiorrhiza in depression deserves the further study.%本文旨在探讨丹参抗抑郁作用及其可能机制。丹参作为心脑血管疾病常用中药,在临床抗抑郁治疗中应用频次很高,其脂溶性有效成分丹参酮类化合物及水溶性有效成分丹酚酸等具有良好的抗氧化、改善微循环、神经保护、内分泌调控等作用,针对抑郁症发生的氧化应激、神经损伤和内分泌紊乱等可能机制具有改善作用。丹参在抑郁症中的作用值得进一步研究。

  6. Study on Effect of IH764-3, an Active Principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, in Inducing Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东强; 姜慧卿; 修贺明; 张晓岚

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-fibrotic mechanism of Salviae miltiorrhizae from the view of proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSC).Methods: IH764-3, an active principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, was used to intervene in the cultured HSC in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the cell apoptosis was examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling method (TUNEL).Results: MTT showed that IH764-3 has obvious inhibition on the proliferation of HSC. Specific cell apoptosis figures of HSC, such as chromatin agglutination, were seen under electron microscopy in the IH764-3 treated group. By flow cytometer, it was shown that the HSC apoptosis rate in the IH764-3 treated group was higher than that in the control group, and the apoptosis inducing effect of IH764-3 was dose- and time-dependent. TUNEL analysis showed that the HSC apoptotsis rate was 28.3±1.5% after being incubated for 48 hrs with IH764-3, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.7±0.6%, P<0.05).Conclusion: IH764-3 could inhibit the proliferation of HSC and induce its apoptosis. These effects may be one of the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of Salviae miltiorrhizae.

  7. Efectos citotoxicos in vitro de extractos y fracciones de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a lineas celulares tumorales humanos Efeitos citotóxicos in vitro de extratos e frações de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a linhagens celulares tumorais humanos In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, against human tumor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Robles Camargo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A los extractos, fracciones y subfracciones obtenidos de hojas, flores y corteza de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, se les evalúo su actividad citotóxica preliminar frente a las líneas celulares CSC-1595 y Colo 205, siguiendo el método de fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayo de citotoxicidad MTT. Los resultados obtenidos de esta prueba muestran a la subfracción en diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5 obtenida de la fracción acetato de etilo del extracto en éter de petróleo de hojas, como la que presentó las sustancias bioactivas con una marcada actividad citotóxica, con porcentajes de viabilidad del 3% y 15.3% a la concentración 30 µg/mL en las líneas tumorales humanas Colo 205 y CSC-1595 respectivamente.A atividade citotóxica de extratos frações e subfrações obtidas das folhas e cascas de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, foram preliminarmente avaliados pelo método MTT frente a linhagens celulares tumorais CSC-1595 e Colo 205. Os resultados mostraram que a subfração diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5, obtidos a partir da fração acetato de etila do extrato em éter de petróleo das folhas, como sendo a que apresenta substâncias bioativas com forte atividade citotóxica, taxa de viabilidade de 3% e de 15,3% na concentração de 30 µg/mL em linhagens de células tumorais humanas Colo 205 e CSC-1595, respectivamente.To the extracts, fractions and subfractions obtained from leaves, flowers and bark of Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, its preliminary cytotoxic activity against to the cellular lines CSC-1595 and Colo 205 were evaluated, following the MTT method. The results showed that dichloromethane-methanol (9.5:0.5 subfraction obtained of ethyl acetate part from petroleum extract of leaves, like to display the bioactives substances with a strong cytotoxic activity, showing viability percentage of 3% and 15,3% to the concentration 30 µg/mL in human tumor cellular

  8. 河南省鼠尾草属(唇形科)植物一新记录种——犬形鼠尾草%Newly Recorded Labiatae Plant in Henan Province from China——Salvia cynica Dunn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文业; 曹红霞; 赵海沛; 李林; 闫双喜

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports 1 species of Salvia cynka Dunn, as a new record plant of Labiatae in Henan Province.%报道了河南省种子植物区系唇形科1新记录种——犬形鼠尾草(Salvia cynica Dunn).

  9. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq.) SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq). El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germi...

  10. NÍVEIS DE CALAGEM E FONTES DE FÓSFORO NA PRODUÇÃO DO CAPIM TANZÂNIA (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia) EFFECTS OF LIMING LEVELS AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCES ON TANZANIA GRASS YIELDS (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Augusto Fonseca Magalhães; Rossana Serrato Mendonça Silva; Rogério de Araújo Almeida; Jorge Luiz do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    A deficiência de fósforo nos solos brasileiros, aliada à acidez natural dos solos de cerrado, contribuem para os baixos índices produtivos da pecuária nacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da calagem e de diferentes fontes e dosagens de fósforo na produção de matéria seca do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia). O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos, G1 e G2. No grupo G1 avaliar...

  11. Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1) to grazing intensity under rotational stocking

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello; Carlos Guilherme Silveira Pedreira

    2004-01-01

    Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha). Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebro...

  12. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1) manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1), at different heights in grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Marcos Weber do Canto; Ulysses Cecato; Fabíola Cristiane de Almeida Rêgo; Sandra Galbeiro; Josmar Almeida Junior

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm) do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1) (Poaceae). Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT) aumentou com o avan...

  13. Forage accumulation and tillering in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) pasture after deferment Acúmulo de forragem e perfilhamento em capim Tanzânia, Panicum maximum Jacq., diferido após pastejo em diferentes alturas

    OpenAIRE

    André Ricardo Hoeschl; Christian Roberto de Carvalho Castro; Ulysses Cecato; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Marcos Weber do Canto; Sandra Galbeiro; Sabrina Marcantonio Coneglian; Rodrigo Soria Martos Peres; Heden Luís Marques Moreira

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of deferment on dry matter accumulation and tillering, in a Tanzania grass pasture, (Panicum maximum Jacq. c.v. Tanzania-1) (Poaceae), maintained at different sward height, under grazing, in the northwest region of Paraná state - Brazil, during the period of December 19th, 1998 to May 13th, 1999. The treatments (sward height) were: 20, 40, 60 and 80,0cm. After deferment, the parameters were evaluated for the period from May 14th to July 2...

  14. Radiation-induced acute brain injury and the protective effect of traditional Chinese medicine-salvia miltiorrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To understand the expression of acute brain injury induced by radiation and the protective effect of traditional Chinese Medicine in BALB/C mouse. Methods: The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated to a dose of 25 Gy using a 6 MV X linear accelerator. Ten hours later, the brain tissue and blood sample were taken. Thiobarbituric acid reaction was used to detect the malonaldehyde substitute for the lipid peroxide. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of ICAM-1 on D1, 2, 3, and 10 after having received radiation. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in the values of LPO in the brain tissue and plasma between the groups. The difference of expression of ICAM-1 between the groups was compared by χ2 method. Results: Two hundred and twelve female BALB/C mice were divided into five groups: Control group, Radiation alone group (R), R + dexamethasone group, R + 654-2 group and R + Salvia Miltiorrhiza group. The contents of LPO in the mouse brain tissue 10 hours after 25 Gy of whole brain irradiation were as follows (mean ± standard error): Control group (1975.5±94.2) nmol/g, Radiation alone group (R) (3417.3±109.7) nmol/g, R + dexamethasone group (3113.6±178.1) nmol/g, R + 654-2 group (3406.4±159.1) nmol/g, R + Salvia Miltiorrhiza group (2981.5±140.1) nmol/g. Salvia Miltiorrhiza significantly reduced the LPO increase induced by irradiation (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the other groups in the change of LPO in the plasma 10 hours after whole brain irradiation. The expression of ICAM-1 after whole brain irradiation was time-dependent . There was an increase of expression of ICAM-1 24 hours after irradiation, reaching the peak at 48 hours. Salvia Miltiorrhiza and dexamethasone strongly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 when compared with radiation only, with the difference significant (P<0.01). Conclusions: The change of LPO content in the BALB/C mouse brain tissue and the increase in

  15. GCMS Analysis and Anti-microbial Activity of Essential Oil of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. from Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert Region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. has been done for the first time from Trilokinath (3020m of Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert region of North Indian higher altitude Himalayas in the month of July, 2007. Essential oil was isolated by hydro distillation from the aerial parts of the plants collected from the wild sources. The extraction yield for the essential oil of A. minor Jacq. ex Bess. was 0.40%. The oil was analyzed by GCMS; the components of the essential oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The essential oil analysis led to the identification of 18 out of 22 constituents representing 65.37% of the composition of oil. The major constituents of the oil were: 1, 8- cineole (22.30%, camphor (12.64%, davanone (12.33%, ascaridole (11.11% and á-phellandrene (5.23%. The presence of artedouglasia oxide-C in A. minor has not been reported earlier in the same species and therefore acts as a new chemotype from this study area. The present study describes the phytochemical profile and anti-microbial activity of essential oil of A. minor. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains. These results permitted the conclusion to be made that, it is the first report of the GCMS analysis and anti-microbial activity on a new chemotype of A. minor Jacq

  16. Analysis on Phenolic Acids and Ketones Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Seeds%丹参种子中酚酸类成分及酮类成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲; 任小凡; 邢向伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge seeds,Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge oil and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge seed cake contain salvianolic acid B,tanshinone ⅡA,cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone and their contents.Methods The HPLC method was used to perform the quatitative and quantitative analysis on salvianolic acid B,tanshinone ⅡA,cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge seeds,Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge oil and Salvia miltiorrhiza seed cake.Results Salvianolic acid B was detected in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge seeds and Salvia miltiorrhiza seed cake and not detected in Salvia oil.Tanshinone ⅡA,cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone were not detected in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge seeds,Salvia mihiorrhiza Bunge seed cake and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge oil.Conclusion Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge seeds and their processed products containin salvianolic acid B component in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge roots and stems,which provides the basis for the rational use of new resources.%目的 测定丹参种子、丹参油、丹参种子饼中是否含有丹酚酸B、丹参酮ⅡA、隐丹参酮、二氢丹参酮以及含量.方法 采用高效液相色谱法,对豫西丹参种子、丹参油、丹参种子饼中丹酚酸B、丹参酮ⅡA、隐丹参酮、二氢丹参酮进行了定性、定量分析.结果 丹参种子、丹参种子饼中检出丹酚酸B,丹参油中未检出丹酚酸B,丹参种子、丹参种子饼及丹参油中均未检出丹参酮ⅡA、隐丹参酮、二氢丹参酮.结论 丹参种子及其加工品中含有丹参根及根茎中的丹酚酸B成分,为合理利用新资源提供了依据.

  17. Role of Leaves of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract in the Restitution of Lipid Composition and Minimizing the Free Radicals Concentration in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study sought to determine the antioxidant activity and the protective ability of water-extractable phytochemicals from Salvia officinalis leaves (strongly aromatic leaves) on lipid fractions and peroxidation degree induced by irradiated rats serum, liver and brain homogenates. Total free radicals generated in blood were examined by electron spin resonance (ESR). Four equal groups were chosen for the study: control, Salvia officinalis treated (1ml/kg body wt), Irradiated (fractionated dose of gamma-irradiation (6Gy) delivered as 1.5 Gy two times a week for 2 weeks) and Salvia officinalis plus irradiation group (rats received Salvia officinalis for 14 days before irradiation and daily within the period of irradiation (2 weeks), and seven days post the last radiation dose. Irradiation of rats caused biochemical alterations represented by markedly elevated levels of lipid fractions in serum, lipid peroxidation level in liver and brain tissues. Also, radiation of rats showed a significant decline in most unsaturated fatty acids concentration. The study pointed out to the promising positive role of Salvia officinalis as a nontoxic natural product to reduce oxidative stress and protect vital physiological processes post radiation exposure.

  18. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  19. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO, TOXICOLÓGICO E MICROBIOLÓGICO DAS FOLHAS DE Costus spicatus Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulo Ribeiro Bitencourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Costus spicatus Jacq. (cana-do-brejo, espécie pertencente à família Zingiberaceae, é utilizada na medicina popular, principalmente na região amazônica como depurativa e diurética, aliviando infecções urinárias e auxiliando na eliminação de pedras renais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar o estudo fitoquímico em busca das principais classes de metabólitos secundários, atividade microbiológica e citotóxica frente a Artemia salina do extrato bruto etanóico das folhas de Costus spicatus. O teste fitoquímico foi realizado por métodos químicos, visando determinar os seguintes metabólitos: alcalóides, fenóis e taninos, flavonóides, antraquinonas, saponinas, triterpenos, açucares redutores, polissacarídeos, ácidos orgânicos e esteróides. Quanto ao bioensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado o teste com Artemia salina, onde se considerou a morte ou vida dos metanáuplios. O teste microbiológico foi utilizado a prática de difusão em disco com linhagens bacterianas padronizadas em concentrações de 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL e 100μg/mL do extrato bruto etanólico. Nessa perspectiva, foi possível observar a presença de alcaloides, e também, fenóis e taninos. O extrato bruto apresentou alto grau de toxicidade nas concentrações A. salina. Para avaliar a presença da atividade antimicrobiana foram medidos os halos de inibição do extrato, verificando que após 24h de incubação não houve formação significativa dos halos, onde foi possível determinar que não há efeito inibidor do extrato frente às linhagens bacterianas e nas concentrações utilizadas. Palavras-chave: Costus spicatus, screening fitoquímico, bioensaio de toxicidade, Artemia salina, ensaio microbiológico. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p75-79

  20. Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L.: A Review of Biochemical Contents, Medical Properties and Genetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grdiša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L. represents one of the most significant medicinal autochthonous species in flora of eastern Adriatic coast and islands. It is evergreen outcrossing perennial subshrub with short woody stems that branch extensively and violet flowers. Apart from being native to Mediterranean karst of west Balkan and Apenine peninsula it is cultivated in numerous countries worldwide with Mediterranean and temperate continental climate. From the earliest times it has been used in traditional medicine in healing gingiva, mouth cavity and the sore throat, against bacterial and fungal infections, for wound treatment, memory enhancement, for treating common cold, against sweating, stomach inflammation, ulcer formation, etc. Its essential oil has also been used in preservation of food and as spice as it gives both specific aroma and promotes digestion of food. The essential oil is extremely complex mixture of different active ingredients; however, the thujones and camphor are the dominant compounds and are the parameter by which S. officinalis is distinguished from other Salvia species. The great variability of essential oil composition and yield has been detected depending on various factors such as genotype, environmental conditions, phonological stage, plant parts used for the extraction of essential oil and drying procedure. Molecular genetic analysis of S. officinalis is still limited and comprises the use of RAPD markers, AFLP and SSR markers in assessing mostly the genetic variability and structure of wild S. officinalis populations. Flora. 10.1016/j.flora.2012.06.018 Ivan Sostaric 14.00   Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso

  1. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.: a transcriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar R V

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L., a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae, is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA. At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb, with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%, of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34% and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%. A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research

  2. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  3. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  4. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  5. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study.

  6. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Dalmatian Sage (Salvia offi cinalis L. as Assessed by RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian or common sage (Salvia officinalis L. is an outcrossing plant species native to East Adriatic coast. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD were used to analyze genetic diversity and structure of ten natural populations from the East-Adriatic coastal region. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations from the central and south Dalmatia, while the highest frequency down-weighted marker values were found in the northernmost populations and the southern most inland population. Although analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, highly significant φST values suggested the existence of genetic differentiation among populations. By assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within populations, the calculated FST value among population was moderate. Bayesian model-based clustering method revealed that at K = 2 all individuals belonging to two northern populations were assigned to a separate cluster from the individuals belonging to the rest of the population. At K = 3, the newly formed cluster grouped the majority of individuals belonging to populations from central Dalmatia. The high correlation between matrices of genetic and geographical distances showed that isolation by distance may play a considerable role in overall structuring of the genetic diversity.

  8. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  9. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2009-11-01

    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes.

  10. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  11. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

    2009-11-11

    The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L. as Assessed by RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalmatian or common sage (Salvia officinalis L. is an outcrossing plant species native to East Adriatic coast. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD were used to analyze genetic diversity and structure of ten natural populations from the East-Adriatic coastal region. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations from the central and south Dalmatia, while the highest frequency down-weighted marker values were found in the northernmost populations and the southern most inland population. Although analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that most of the genetic diversity was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, highly significant φST values suggested the existence of genetic differentiation among populations. By assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within populations, the calculated FST value among population was moderate. Bayesian model-based clustering method revealed that at K = 2 all individuals belonging to two northern populations were assigned to a separate cluster from the individuals belonging to the rest of the population. At K = 3, the newly formed cluster grouped the majority of individuals belonging to populations from central Dalmatia. The high correlation between matrices of genetic and geographical distances showed that isolation by distance may play a considerable role in overall structuring of the genetic diversity.

  13. Manool, a Salvia officinalis diterpene, induces selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-10-01

    Manool, a diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis, was evaluated by the XTT colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity and selectivity against different cancer cell lines: B16F10 (murine melanoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), and MO59J, U343 and U251 (human glioblastoma). A normal cell line (V79, Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts) was used to compare the selectivity of the test substance. Manool exhibited higher cytotoxic activity against HeLa (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.1 µg/mL) and U343 (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.2 µg/mL) cells. In addition, in the used experimental protocols, the treatment with manool was significantly more cytotoxic for different tumor cell lines than for the normal cell line V79 (IC50 = 49.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL), and showed high selectivity. These results suggest that manool may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells.

  14. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  15. Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalić, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalinić, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  16. An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, P; Matulová, M

    2013-08-01

    From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1→4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the β configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone.

  17. Effects of cerous nitrate on growth and tanshinone production in salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩名宇; 郭万里; 梁宗锁; 杨东风; 闫希军; 朱永宏; 刘岩

    2015-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for treatments in cardiotonic disease. Tanshi-nones are a group of bioactive ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. In this study, Ce3+was used as an elicitor to enhance tanshinones produc-tion in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. The results showed that contents of dihydrotanshinone I (DTI) and cryptotanshinone (CT) were sig-nificantly enhanced by 50μmol/L Ce3+, and reached to 0.875 mg/g and 0.271 mg/g, respectively. However, tanshinone II A (TIIA) and tanshinone I (TI) contents were significantly decreased to 59%and 62%of the control. Simultaneously, expressions of genes (HMGR, DXR, DXS1, DXS2 and GGPPS) involved in tanshinone biosynthesis were upregulated by Ce3+. Responses of DXS1, DXS2 and GGPPS to Ce3+treatments were later than HMGR and DXR. We speculated that branch pathways of DTI and CT biosynthesis were probably different from TIIA and TI. This work will help us understand biosynthetic mechanism of tanshinones in plants.

  18. Overexpression of SmLEA enhances salt and drought tolerance in Escherichia coli and Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucui; Liu, Congling; Kuang, Jing; Ge, Qian; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Zhezhi

    2014-09-01

    Salinity and drought are important abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and development. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a group of proteins associated with tolerance to water-related stress. We previously cloned an LEA gene, SmLEA, from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SmLEA belongs to Group LEA14, which is involved in the dehydration response. To determine its function in detail, we have now overexpressed SmLEA in Escherichia coli and S. miltiorrhiza. The logarithmic increase in accumulations of SmLEA proteins in E. coli occurred earlier under salinity than under standard conditions. SmLEA-transformed S. miltiorrhiza plants also showed faster root elongation and a lower malondialdehyde concentration than the empty vector control plants did when cultured on MS media supplemented with 60 mM NaCl or 150 mM mannitol. Moreover, SmLEA-overexpressing transgenics experienced a less rapid rate of water loss. Under either salinity or drought, overexpressing plants had greater superoxide dismutase activity and a higher glutathione concentration. These results suggest that SmLEA may be useful in efforts to improve drought and salinity tolerance in S. miltiorrhiza. Our data also provide a good foundation for further studies into the stress resistance mechanism and molecular breeding of this valuable medicinal plant. PMID:24595620

  19. Salvia officinalis l. (sage) Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Oxidative Brain Damage In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant system in the management of gamma irradiation induced whole brain damage in rats . Also, to elucidate the potential role of Salvia officinalis (sage) in alleviating such negative effects. Rats were subjected to gamma radiation (6 Gy). Sage extract was daily given to rats during 14 days before starting irradiation and continued after radiation exposure for another 14 days. The results revealed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and nitric oxide (NO) content were significantly increased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the reduced glutathione (GSH) content were significantly decreased in the brain homogenate of irradiated rats. Additionally, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased. On the other hand, the results showed that, administration of sage extract to rats was able to ameliorate the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that sage extract, by its antioxidant constituents, could modulate radiation induced oxidative stress and enzyme activities in the brain.

  20. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C18 column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 ± 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  1. Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Salvia multicaulis Vahl Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahed, Layal; Stien, Didier; Ouaini, Naïm; Eparvier, Véronique; El Beyrouthy, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl, collected during the same week from two different Lebanese regions, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these EOs were determined against one Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria, one yeast, and five dermatophytes using the broth microdilution technique. One EO was notably active against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and all of the Trichophyton species tested. Nerolidol was found to be the major compound in the active oil; nerolidol was also absent from the inactive oil. This study demonstrated that nerolidol shows antimicrobial activity and therefore significantly contributes to the antimicrobial potential of the oil. The chemical diversity of worldwide S. multicaulis EOs was analyzed, revealing that the EOs of this study belong to two different chemotypes found in the literature. The nerolidol chemotype appears to be restricted to Lebanon, and it can be used as antimicrobial agent against external bacterial and fungal infections. PMID:27038067

  2. Vegetation patches improve the establishment of Salvia mexicana seedlings by modifying microclimatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernández, Pedro E.; Rosete-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Sánchez-Coronado, María E.; Orozco, Susana; Pedrero-López, Luis; Méndez, Ignacio; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2014-07-01

    Human disturbance has disrupted the dynamics of plant communities. To restore these dynamics, we could take advantage of the microclimatic conditions generated by remaining patches of vegetation and plastic mulch. These microclimatic conditions might have great importance in restoring disturbed lava fields located south of Mexico City, where the rock is exposed and the soil is shallow. We evaluated the effects of both the shade projected by vegetation patches and plastic mulch on the mean monthly soil surface temperature ( T ss) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and on the survival and growth of Salvia mexicana throughout the year. This species was used as a phytometer of microsite quality. Shade reduced the T ss to a greater extent than mulch did. Both survival and growth were enhanced by shade and mulch, and the PPFD was related with seedling growth. During the dry season, plant biomass was lost, and there was a negative effect of PPFD on plant growth. At micro-meteorological scales, the use of shade projected by patches of vegetation and mulch significantly reduced the mortality of S. mexicana and enhanced its growth. Survival and growth of this plant depended on the environmental quality of microsites on a small scale, which was determined by the environmental heterogeneity of the patches and the landscape. For plant restoration, microsite quality must be evaluated on small scales, but on a large scale it may be enough to take advantage of landscape shade dynamics and the use of mulch to increase plant survival and growth.

  3. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism

  4. Arabidopsis DREB1B in transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza increased tolerance to drought stress without stunting growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Song, Wenqin; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple stress response genes are controlled by transcription factors in a coordinated manner; therefore, these factors can be used for molecular plant breeding. CBF1/DREB1B, a known stress-inducible gene, was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza under the control of the CaMV35S or RD29A promoter. Under drought stress, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate were observed to be higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, O2(-) and H2O2 accumulation was observed to be lower in the transgenic lines. Additional analyses revealed that the AtDREB1B transgenic plants generally displayed lesser malondialdehyde (MDA) but higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities than the WT under drought stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of a subset of genes involved in photosynthesis, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell protection further verified that AtDREB1B could enhance tolerance to drought by activating different downstream DREB/CBF genes in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, no growth inhibition was detected in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants that expressed AtDREB1B driven by either the constitutive CaMV35S promoter or the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Together, these results suggest that AtDREB1B is a good candidate gene for increasing drought tolerance in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27002402

  5. Oxidative Stress and Salvia miltiorrhiza in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aging-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some risk factors that are closely related to oxidative stress. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) has been used commonly to treat CVDs for hundreds of years in the Chinese community. We aimed to explore the effects of SM on oxidative stress in aging-associated CVDs. Through literature searches using Medicine, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases, we found that SM not only possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects but also exerts angiogenic and cardioprotective activities. SM may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, and ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress. SM also increases the activities of catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and coupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, SM reduces the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury, prevents cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction, preserves cardiac function in coronary disease, maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in stroke. However, future clinical well-designed and randomized control trials will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of SM in aging-associated CVDs. PMID:27807472

  6. Depside salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza improve myocardial microperfusion in rats using laser Doppler flowmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fen LI; Yi-ping WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of depside salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza on myo-cardial microperfusion and systemic hemodynamics in open-chest anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods: Myocardial micropeffusion was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry with a needle probe; cardiac output (CO) was determined using ultrasonic Doppler flowmetry. Other hemodynamic parameters, including femoral artery blood pressure, cardiac inotropy, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were simultaneously recorded by the PowerLab system.Results: Intrave-nous administration of S miltiorrhiza depside salts resulted in a significant imme-diate increase in CO and cardiac inotropy, but a fall in SVR. S miltiorrhiza depside salts (30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg) promoted cardiac index (CI) by 12.2%±6.3% (P<0.01vs baseline) and 20.1%±3.5% (P<0.01), respectively. Myocardial microperfusion maximally increased by 6.3%±2.9% (P<0.01) and 9.6%±4.0% (P<0.01) for 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg S miltiorrhiza depside salts, respectively.Conclusion: These results indicated that S miltiorrhiza depside salts improved myocardial micro-perfusion, as well as CO.

  7. In vivo sedative and gastroprotective activities of Salvia plebeia extract and its composition of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Kim, Myung-Hoe; Choi, Jongwon; Baek, Nam-In; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2012-08-01

    Animal experiments were performed to develop Salvia plebeia (Labiatae) as a medicinal herb with sedative and gastroprotective activities; the former activity was measured using a pentobarbital-induced assay and the latter activity was measured in two gastric lesion-induced assays (HCl/EtOH-induced and indomethacin/bethanechol-induced assays) in mice. The MeOH extract and its EtOAc fraction were effective, although the former was less active than the latter. Rosmarinic acid (RA) isolated from S. plebeia was active in the same method at 10 and 20 mg/kg (p.o.). HPLC quantification demonstrated that RA comprised the largest proportion (28.5% of the MeOH extract, 33.0% of EtOAc extract; 4.46% of dry weight) of S. plebeia. The contents of five other compounds were much less than that of RA, although the contents of the three glycosides, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-glucoside (0.28% of dry weight), cynaroside (0.35%) and nepitrin (0.43%) were higher than those of the two aglycones, quercetin (0.024%) and eupatilin (0.058%). The HPLC method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility. These results suggest that the main polyphenol, RA, plays a major role in the sedative and gastroprotective effects of S. plebeia. PMID:22941483

  8. The influence of cultivation method on the flowering of Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pogroszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue' was grown from transplants or it was direct seeded. Four sowing dates were applied: 15 March or 30 March - in a greenhouse, in order to obtain transplants, 13 April, 27 April and 11 May - sown directly into the ground. Three plant densities were applied: 25 plants×m2, 16 plants×m2, 12 plants×m2. It was found that Horminum sage can be grown from transplants or direct seeded. The cultivation from transplants is more advantageous due to the earlier flowering of plants, by about two weeks, and a better quality of inflorescences evaluated in terms of their length and size of bracteoles. Direct sowing of Horminum sage at two-week intervals from the 2nd decade of April till the 2nd decade of May ensures that by the end of August mature inflorescence stems are obtained, ready for cutting. A delay in the date of sowing results in the development of significantly shorter inflorescence stems, irrespective of the plant density. Plant density does not affect significantly the length of the period of inflorescence formation and the date of flowering, but a larger spacing is favourable to plants growing big, what results in a larger fresh weight of the above-ground portion. Sage grown from transplants responses to favourable climatic conditions by the development of bigger inflorescences.

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L., originating from the southern Balkan Region. The antioxidant fraction was isolated from the plant material by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 fractional extraction under a pressure of 30 MPa and at temperatures of 40 and 100 °C. In the present study, kinetic data and yields of antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary and sage under different conditions were determined. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy assay on the ability of the extracts to scavenge stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals during the Fenton reaction trapped by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO showed that the investigated extracts had antioxidant activity comparable to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and commercial rosemary extract. The antioxidant fractions isolated at the higher temperature had higher antioxidant activities. A tentative analysis of the chemical composition of the antioxidant fractions obtained at the higher temperature was accomplished by LC-DAD and LC-MS analytical methods. Abietane-type diterpenoids, flavonoids and fatty acids were identified in the SC-CO2 extract of rosemary and sage.

  10. Antidiarrheal Activity of 19-Deoxyicetexone Isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA- and prostaglandin (PGE2-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS, as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis, infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats’ ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Salvia tomentosa Mill. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREY MARCHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oil from Salvia tomentosa Mill. natively grown in Bulgaria were investigated. GC-MS analysis identified 60 compounds which represented 98% of the oil constituents. The prevalent constituents were monoterpenes with eight dominant compounds being identified: borneol (10.3%, β-pinene (9%, camphor (7.9%, α-pinene (6%, camphene (4%, 1.8-cineole (3.8%, α-limonene (3.5% and β-caryophyllene (3%. The essential oil showed considerable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.28±0.06 µg/mL, comparable with that of galanthamine. Study of antioxidant activity strongly suggested that the hydrogen atom transfer reaction was preferable over the electron transfer (ORAC=175.0±0.40 µM Trolox equivalents/g oil and FRAP=1.45±0.21 mM Trolox equivalents/g oil. The essential oil showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Candida albicans and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas it was almost inactive against the investigated Gram-negative strains. The results suggested that the essential oil of Bulgarian S. tomentosa could be considered as a prospective active ingredient for prevention of oxidative stress-related and neurodegenerative disorders in aromatherapy. Because of the high antioxidant capacity, the oil could be considered as natural supplement or antioxidant in cosmetics and food products.

  12. Metabolic engineering tanshinone biosynthetic pathway in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Guoyin; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Congcong; Liao, Pan; Xiao, Jianbo; Luo, Xiuqin; You, Lijia; Zhang, Lin

    2011-05-01

    Tanshinone is a group of active diterpenes widely used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the introduction of genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) involved in tanshinone biosynthesis into Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer technology. Overexpression of SmGGPPS and/or SmHMGR as well as SmDXS in transgenic hairy root lines can significantly enhance the production of tanshinone to levels higher than that of the control (Ppushing effect than SmHMGR in tanshinone production, while SmGGPPS plays a more important role in stimulating tanshinone accumulation than the upstream enzyme SmHMGR or SmDXS in S. miltiorrhiza. Co-expression of SmHMGR and SmGGPPS resulted in highest production of tanshinone (about 2.727 mg/g dw) in line HG9, which was about 4.74-fold higher than that of the control (0.475 mg/g dw). All the tested transgenic hairy root lines showed higher antioxidant activity than the control. To our knowledge, this is the first report on enhancement of tanshinone content and antioxidant activity achieved through metabolic engineering of hairy roots by push-pull strategy in S. miltiorrhiza.

  13. Effects of salvia miltiorrhiza bge on myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhong-zhi; DING Shi-fang; TANG Ying

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study the effects of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge (SMB) on myocardial fibrosis in hypertension in rats. Methods: Normal Wistar kyoto rats served as negative control (group A). The rats with hypertension were divided into 2 groups: the hypertension group (group B) which served as the positive control and the SMB-treated hypertension group (group C). The effects of SMB on the systolic pressure, the myocardial content of aldosterone (ALD) and nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the myocardium were detected. Results: The systolic pressure of the rats of group C showed no marked change after the administration of SMB and showed no difference from that of the rats of group B. The content of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ of the left ventricle, the collagen Ⅰ/collagen Ⅲ ratio and the content.of ALD were lower in group C than in group B and higher in group C than in group A. The content of NO and the activity of SOD in the myocardium were higher in group C than in group B and lower in group C than in group A. Conclusion: It was concluded that SMB was able to prevent or reverse the progress of myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension. The mechanism of this effect of SMB might be due to the fact that SMB can decrease the collagen synthesis and ALD content and increase collagen decomposition, NO content and SOD activity in the myocardium.

  14. Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Anticancer Therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chiang Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. We aim to provide a systematic review about the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS in anticancer therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen. Danshen, including its lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents, is potentially beneficial for treating various cancers. The mechanisms of ROS-related anticancer effects of Danshen vary depending on the specific type of cancer cells involved. Danshen may enhance TNF-α-induced apoptosis, upregulate caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, endoplasmic reticulum stress, P21, P53, Bax/Bcl-2, DR5, and AMP-activated protein kinase, or activate the p38/JNK, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and FasL signaling pathways. Conversely, Danshen may downregulate human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, telomerase, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CD31, NF-κB, Erk1/2, matrix metalloproteinases, microtubule assembly, and receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptors, HER2, and P-glycoprotein and inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR or estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, Danshen may inhibit cancer cells proliferation through antioxidation on tumor initiation and induce apoptosis or autophagy through ROS generation on tumor progression, tumor promotion, and tumor metastasis. Based on the available evidence regarding its anticancer properties, this review provides new insights for further anticancer research or clinical trials with Danshen.

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Salvia sclarea (Lamiaceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Ana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clary sage (Salvia sclarea L. is native to Southern Europe and is cultivated worldwide. The essential oil of clary sage was analyzed as a potential antifungal agent. The main compounds in the oil were linalyl acetate (52.83% and linalool (18.18%. Food poisoning agents, spoilage fungi, and plant and animal pathogens were among the tested fungal species. The microdilution method was used to establish minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC. The commercial antimycotic bifonazole was used as a control. A concentration of 25 μl/ml showed fungicidal activity against Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species and Trichoderma viride. For the species Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus viride, the MFC was 15μl/ml; for Candida albicans, it was 10 μl/ml, as in the case of bifonazole. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities of the oil against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Trichophyton menthagrophytes were recorded at concentrations of 2.5 μl/ml and 5 μl/ml. The most sensitive micromycetes were Cladosporium fulvum, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis helianthi, and Phoma macdonaldii, where a concentration of 2.5 μl/ml was lethal.

  16. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  17. Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Salvia aegyptiaca L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Mustapha; Gasmi, Hayet; Neffati, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Salvia aegyptiaca is a xerophytic perennial herb belongs to the Lamiaceae family commonly used for medicinal purposes. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and recovery responses after transferring to distilled water. Temperatures between 10 and 40 °C seem to be favourable for the germination of this species. Germination was inhibited by either an increase or decrease in temperature from the optimum (30 °C). The highest germination percentages were obtained at 0 mM NaCl; however, the increase of solution osmolalities progressively inhibited seed germination. The germination rate decreased with an increase in salinity for most of tested temperatures, but comparatively higher rates were obtained at 30 °C. Salt stress decreased both the percentage and the rate of germination. An interaction between salinity and temperature yielded no germination at 300 mM NaCl. By experimental transfer to distilled water, S. aegyptiaca seeds that were exposed to moderately saline conditions recovered and keep their ability to germinate mostly at low temperatures. At 300 mM NaCl, germination recovery decreased with increasing temperature and it was completely inhibited at 40 °C. PMID:23961132

  18. Functional proteomics reveal the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract against vascular atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Pei-Wen; Pan, Tai-Long

    2010-06-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a Chinese herb widely used for cardiovascular disorder regimens, yet little is known about the cellular mechanisms that contribute to attenuated growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) under oxidative stress such as homocysteine (Hcy) treatment. As anticipated, a low dose (0.015 mg/mL) of S.miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMAE) significantly inhibited (>60%) the growth of a rat smooth muscle cell line (A10) under Hcy stimulation and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration obviously decreased after SMAE treatment in terms of reducing p47(phox) translocation and increasing catalase activity. Signaling profile suggests that SMAE inhibited Hcy-induced A10 cell growth via the PKC/MAPK-dependent pathway. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry revealed statistically significant changes in the intensity of 14 proteins in response to Hcy and Hcy/SMAE. Meanwhile, SMAE attenuated carbonyl-modification of specific cytoskeleton and chaperone proteins leading to cell type transformation. Moreover, a network analysis using MetaCore shed more light on the molecular basis associated with SMAE efficacy. SMAE exerts its protective effect through the scavenging of ROS and subsequent modulation of protein carbonylation to inhibit cell proliferation. These signature networks and functional proteomics highlighted herein may facilitate the evaluation of potential therapeutic targets and elucidate novel mechanisms through which protein functions can be regulated by the redox status.

  19. Experimental Study on the Preventive Mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Against Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树生; 万磊

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The preventive mechanism of salviae miltiorrhizae (SM) against experimental atherosclerosis (AS) in rabbits models was investigated. The experimental AS rabbit models were reproduced by feeding the high cholesterol diet. The changes of atherosclerotic plaques in normal group, model group and SM treated group were observed. The levels of serum TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were determined. The immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2,Bax and IL-6 proteins in atherosclerotic plaques. The results showed that the level of serum TG in SM treated group was significantly lower than in model group (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of Bcl-2, Bax ano IL-6 in model group was significantly higher than in normal group.In the SM group, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was up-regulated and that of Bax was down-regulated. It was suggested that SM could inhibit formation of AS in experimental rabbits. To decrease the expression of Bax and increase the expression of Bcl-2 protein may be one of the mechanisms of SM against atherosclerosis.

  20. Inhibition of bone resorption by Tanshinone VI isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nicolin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, a more detailed knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in osteoclastogenesis has driven research efforts in the development and screening of compound libraries of several small molecules that specifically inhibit the pathway involved in the commitment of the osteoclast precursor cells. Natural compounds that suppress osteoclast differentiation may have therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or metastasis associated with bone loss. In ongoing investigation into anti-osteoporotic compounds from natural products we have analyzed the effect of Tanshinone VI on osteoclasts differentiation, using a physiologic three-dimensional osteoblast/bone marrow model of cell co-culture. Tanshinone VI is an abietane diterpene extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae, a Chinese traditional crude drug, ‘’Tan-Shen’’. Tashinone has been widely used in clinical practice for the prevention of cardiac diseases, arthritis and other inflammation-related disorders based on its pharmacological actions in multiple tissues. Although Tanshinone VI A has been used as a medicinal agent in the treatment of many diseases, its role in osteoclast-related bone diseases remains unknown. We showed previously that Tanshinone VI greatly inhibits osteoclast differentiation and suppresses bone resorption through disruption of the actin ring; subsequently, we intended to examine the precise inhibitory mechanism of Tanshinone VI on osteoclast differentiating factor. This study shows, for the first time, that Tanshinone VI prevents osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL expression and NFkB induction.

  1. Hypoglycemic effects of a standardized extract of salvia miltiorrhiza roots in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro A. M. Carai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae is a Chinese medicinal plant, the dried roots of which (known as Dan-Shen have been used for hundreds of years in the treatment of a series of ailments, including hyperglycemia. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of a new, standardized extract of S. miltiorrhiza. Materials and Methods: S. miltiorrhiza extract (containing 21% total tanshinones and 3.7% tanshinone IIA was administered acutely and intragastrically at the doses of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg to male, healthy, fasted Wistar rats 60 min before the intragastric infusion of a bolus of starch (3 g/kg; a semi-naturalistic experimental condition (Experiment 1 or glucose (2 g/kg (Experiment 2. Results: In both experiments, treatment with S. miltiorrhiza extract produced a dose-related decrease in glycemia, evidenced in terms of reduction of peak value and/or area under the curve of the time-course of glycemia. The effect of S. miltiorrhiza extract occurred at doses devoid of any behavioral toxicity in rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of S. miltiorrhiza extract was likely secondary to an action on carbohydrate metabolism. These results are consistent with several preclinical and clinical data and add further support to the hypothesis that S. miltiorrhiza extracts may act as effective anti-hyperglycemic remedies.

  2. Proteomic analysis of protective effects of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza against immunological liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Gang; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Cai, Hong-Bing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Song, Yu-Hong; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed mice. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis showed that three proteins are down-regulated and six proteins are up-regulated by SMPS. SMPS reduces the degree of liver injury by up-regulating the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, namely malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. LPS significantly increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and MDA level in BCG primed mice liver, whereas SMPS treatment protects against the immunological liver injury through inhibition of the NF-κB activation by up-regulation of PRDX6 and the subsequent attenuation of lipid peroxidation, iNOS expression and inflammation.

  3. Biosorption of methylene blue from wastewater by an extraction residue of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sunxiang; Zhou, Tongshui

    2016-11-01

    Efforts were made in this study to using an extraction residue of Salvia mitiorrziza Bge (SM), a widely utilized traditional Chinese medicine, as an effective biosorbent of methylene blue from polluted water. Batch experiments were carried out with original and chemical modification, particle size, dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial concentration of the dye. Experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic best compared to other models applied in the study. Characterization of adsorption was determined by FT-IR, SEM and particle surface area measurement. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of raw SM is 100.0mg·g(-1). The citric acid and Na2CO3 modification can significantly enhance this value up to 161.29 and 178.57mg·g(-1), respectively. This investigation provides a novel approach for reutilizing the enormous quantity of Chinese herbal medicine wastes, which is significant since these dregs have brought out big environmental and heathy problems in the present China. PMID:27501030

  4. An abietane diterpene from Salvia cuspidata and some new derivatives are active against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, E S; Spina, R M; Tonn, C E; Sosa, M A; Cifuente, D A

    2015-12-01

    The Plant Kingdom is an excellent source for obtaining natural compounds with antiprotozoal activity. In the present work, we studied the effect of the diterpene 12-hydroxy-11,14-diketo-6,8,12-abietatrien-19,20-olide (HABTO) obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia cuspidata on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. This compound was found to inhibit parasite growth even at low concentrations (IC50 5 μg/mL) and with low toxicity on mammalian cells. In addition, this diterpene induced an intense vacuolization within the parasites. In order to obtain analogs with greater lipophilicity, chemical modifications on the enol moiety were carried out to obtain the acetyl (AABTO), the sylil (SABTO) and the allyl (ALLABTO) derivatives. We observed that the SABTO was the most effective one on the parasites, and the effect could be attributed to a greater lipophilicity of this compound. Taking into account these data we conclude that the increase of lipophilicity by chemical modifications is an adequate strategy for improving the trypanocidal activity of this kind abietane diterpenes.

  5. Enhanced Diterpene Tanshinone Accumulation and Bioactivity of Transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots by Pathway Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Luo, Xiuqin; Ju, Guanhua; Li, Leilei; Huang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Huizhong; Kai, Guoyin

    2016-03-30

    Tanshinones are health-promoting diterpenoids found in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have wide applications. Here, SmGGPPS (geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase) and SmDXSII (1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase) were introduced into hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Overexpression of SmGGPPS and SmDXSII in hairy roots produces higher levels of tanshinone than control and single-gene transformed lines; tanshinone production in the double-gene transformed line GDII10 reached 12.93 mg/g dry weight, which is the highest tanshinone content that has been achieved through genetic engineering. Furthermore, transgenic hairy root lines showed higher antioxidant and antitumor activities than control lines. In addition, contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, indoleacetic acid, and gibberellins were significantly elevated in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These results demonstrate a promising method to improve the production of diterpenoids including tanshinone as well as other natural plastid-derived isoprenoids in plants by genetic manipulation of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway.

  6. Functional Divergence of Diterpene Syntheses in the Medicinal Plant Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanghong; Duan, Lixin; Jin, Baolong; Qian, Jun; Xue, Zheyong; Shen, Guoan; Snyder, John Hugh; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin; Huang, Luqi; Peters, Reuben J; Qi, Xiaoquan

    2015-11-01

    The medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza produces various tanshinone diterpenoids that have pharmacological activities such as vasorelaxation against ischemia reperfusion injury and antiarrhythmic effects. Their biosynthesis is initiated from the general diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate by sequential reactions catalyzed by copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and kaurene synthase-like cyclases. Here, we report characterization of these enzymatic families from S. miltiorrhiza, which has led to the identification of unique pathways, including roles for separate CPSs in tanshinone production in roots versus aerial tissues (SmCPS1 and SmCPS2, respectively) as well as the unique production of ent-13-epi-manoyl oxide by SmCPS4 and S. miltiorrhiza kaurene synthase-like2 in floral sepals. The conserved SmCPS5 is involved in gibberellin plant hormone biosynthesis. Down-regulation of SmCPS1 by RNA interference resulted in substantial reduction of tanshinones, and metabolomics analysis revealed 21 potential intermediates, indicating a complex network for tanshinone metabolism defined by certain key biosynthetic steps. Notably, the correlation between conservation pattern and stereochemical product outcome of the CPSs observed here suggests a degree of correlation that, especially when combined with the identity of certain key residues, may be predictive. Accordingly, this study provides molecular insights into the evolutionary diversification of functional diterpenoids in plants.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Salvia fruticosa: An HPLC Determination of Phenolic Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. New biological potential of abietane diterpenoids isolated from Salvia austriaca against microbial virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Beata; Kuźma, Łukasz; Micota, Bartłomiej; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Wysokińska, Halina; Kłys, Arkadiusz; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Różalska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The increasing importance of multi-resistant strains and microbial biofilms in the development of chronic infections has driven the search for more effective alternative therapy including plant-origin preparations. The present study evaluates the broadly-defined antimicrobial activity of two abietane diterpenoids isolated from Salvia austriaca transformed roots: taxodone and 15-deoxy-fuerstione. The direct biostatic/biocidal effect of these phytocompounds and their influence on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans virulence factors/mechanisms (adhesion, biofilm formation, agglutination in human plasma, survival in the blood, germ tube and mycelium formation) were tested using in vitro assays. Both phytocompounds significantly inhibited microbial adhesion and biofilm formation when used at ½ and ¼ MIC. Additionally, taxodone was able to limit staphylococcal survival in human blood, as well as C. albicans germ tube formation and hyphal growth. The tested diterpenoids express significant anti-biofilm activity against both staphylococci and yeast, and adversely affect their virulence factors/mechanisms, which are relevant in the course of the infection in vivo. Therefore, they demonstrate considerable biomedical potential as complements for classic therapy with antibiotics. PMID:27417191

  9. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  10. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition. PMID:24422962

  11. Antidiarrheal activity of 19-deoxyicetexone isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Hernández-Munive, Abigail; Mendoza-Martínez, Angel; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA)- and prostaglandin (PGE₂)-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS), as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis), infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE₂-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats' ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this. PMID:23896615

  12. Oxidative Stress and Salvia miltiorrhiza in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chieh Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have some risk factors that are closely related to oxidative stress. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM has been used commonly to treat CVDs for hundreds of years in the Chinese community. We aimed to explore the effects of SM on oxidative stress in aging-associated CVDs. Through literature searches using Medicine, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases, we found that SM not only possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects but also exerts angiogenic and cardioprotective activities. SM may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, and ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress. SM also increases the activities of catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and coupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, SM reduces the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury, prevents cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction, preserves cardiac function in coronary disease, maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in stroke. However, future clinical well-designed and randomized control trials will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of SM in aging-associated CVDs.

  13. Effects of purified herbal extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuchang Li; Ling Zhu; Bin Huang

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective Hyperlipidemia is one of the most potent and best substantiated risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) had been shown to have hypolipidemic effect in animal experiments. This study aimed to evaluate its iipids modulating effects in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods In this single-blind, placebo controlled study, lipid profiles of 80 hyperlipidemic patients were checked at same conditions. They were divided into two equal groups randomly (each composing of 40 patients). They were given PSME tablet (800 mg) three times per day, or placebo tablet. All patients were put on NCEP type Ⅱ diet and six weeks later, lipid profiles were checked. Results In PSME group, total cholesterol decreased by 27.32 mg/dl (12.3% reduction), LDL-cholesterol decreased by 23.13 mg/dl (16.8% reduction) and HDL-cholesterol increased by 9.06 mg/dl (11.1%), all were statistically significant. Although triglyceride dropped by 12.12 mg/dl (5.1%) but this was not significant statistically (P=-0.34). There were no significant changes oflipids levels in the placebo group. Conclusions PSME has significant favorable effect on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol and may be a potential agent for the treatment ofatherogenic dyslipidemia.

  14. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  15. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L. Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG and gum partly defatted (PDCG. Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P<0.05. The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber. The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber. In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  16. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  17. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, María R; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins. Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%). Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.

  18. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  19. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a copalyl diphosphate synthase gene promoter from Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szymczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The promoter, 5' UTR, and 34-nt 5' fragments of protein encoding region of the Salvia miltiorrhiza copalyl diphosphate synthase gene were cloned and characterized. No tandem repeats, miRNA binding sites, or CpNpG islands were observed in the promoter, 5' UTR, or protein encoding fragments. The entire isolated promoter and 5' UTR is 2235 bp long and contains repetitions of many cis-active elements, recognized by homologous transcription factors, found in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. A pyrimidine-rich fragment with only 6 non-pyrimidine bases was localized in the 33-nt stretch from nt 2185 to 2217 in the 5' UTR. The observed cis-active sequences are potential binding sites for trans-factors that could regulate spatio-temporal CPS gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Obtained results are initially verified by in silico and co-expression studies based on A. thaliana microarray data. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the entire 2269-bp copalyl diphosphate synthase gene fragment has the promoter activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to study changes in CPS promoter activity occurring in response to the application of four selected biotic and abiotic regulatory factors; auxin, gibberellin, salicylic acid, and high-salt concentration.

  1. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism.

  2. La utilización de la borra del café como substrato de base para el cultivo de Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kummer

    OpenAIRE

    Job, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Use of coffee spent industry residues forproduction of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kummerin solid state fermentation Studies were carried out to screen the industrial strain HK35 of Pleurotus ostreatus for its ability to develop fruiting bodies in solid state cultivation using several substrates containing 17.8 to 55% of coffee spent ground. Our results showed that only 55% of coffee spent ground was used in the substrate without detecting changes in fruiting body or on its biological eff...

  3. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora) e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora") and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, R J; P. Ardenghi

    2010-01-01

    A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI), da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA) - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidênc...

  4. Effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplementation on rabbit meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Cornale; Pier Giorgio Peiretti; Giorgia Meineri; Sonia Tassone

    2010-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) dietary supplementation is effective in improving the nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers and could contribute to the novel concept of “functional food” in human nutrition. A trial has been conducted in order to verify the effects of three levels (0, 10, or 15%) of SHS inclusion in a rabbit diet on the meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory traits. The dietary treatment did not induce any differences in the ultimate pH, che...

  5. Improving the antioxidant activity and enriching salvianolic acids by the fermentation of Salvia miltiorrhizae with Geomyces luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yun; Cai, Le; Yin, Tian-Peng; Chen, Yang; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ya-Rong; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-05-01

    The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of fermented Salvia miltiorrhiza with fungus Geomyces luteus were investigated. The results revealed that G. luteus fermentation could significantly improve the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of S. miltiorrhiza. The main antioxidant constituents were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as salvianolic acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification also showed the enhanced content of salvianolic acid B after fermentation. The present study suggests that G. luteus fermentations are effective in the S. miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids' enrichment process. PMID:27143267

  6. Contribución al conocimiento de Salvia sordida Benth. Historia natural y conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso José Luis; Bernal González Carlos Andrés

    2004-01-01

    Salvia sordida es una especie de labiada endémica de Colombia, que está constituida por arbustos que pueden llegar hasta los 4 m de altura, con indumentos densos en el envés de las hojas, en los ejes de la inflorescencia y en los cálices, con corolas moradas de 15 mm en promedio; presenta una variabilidad morfológica que se manifiesta en su hábito, en la forma, coloración e indumento de sus hojas y en la densidad de su inflorescencia, producida posiblemente como adaptación a di...

  7. Application of the Nanofiltration Process for Concentration of Polyphenolic Compounds from Geranium robertianum and Salvia officinalis Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Paun, G.; Neagu, E; Tache, A.; Radu, G. L.; Parvulescu, V.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prove the efficiency of the nanofiltration process for the concentration of polyphenolic compounds from Geranium robertianum and Salvia officinalis extracts and to evaluate the extract’s antioxidant activity. A lab-scale cross-flow set-up using flat-sheet configuration membrane was employed for all experiments. Two nanofiltration membranes have been used: SelRO MPF-36 (Koch membrane) and an organic-inorganic membrane (polysulfone with SBA-15-NH2). When the orga...

  8. Extracellular ATP-induced NO production and its dependence on membrane Ca2+ flux in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Wu, Jian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) is a novel signalling agent, and nitric oxide (NO) is a well-established signal molecule with diverse functions in plant growth and development. This study characterizes NO production induced by exogenous ATP and examines its relationship with other important signalling agents, Ca2+ and H2O2 in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root culture. Exogenous ATP was applied at 10–500 μM to the hairy root cultures and stimulated NO production was detectable within 30 min. The NO leve...

  9. Labdane-Type Diterpene and Two Flavones from Salvia Sharifii Rech. f. and Esfan. and their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjam, Mohammad Hossein; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Ezzatzadeh, Elham; Jassbi, Amir Reza

    2013-01-01

    Two flavones, ladanein and 6-hydroxy-5,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone and one labdane-type diterpene, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-methanol extract of the aerial parts of Salvia sharifii. The compounds were purified using several chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation of the compounds was performed using their 1H and 13C-NMR data, EI mass and UV spectral data. The compounds have been subjected to antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The diterpene showed higher cytotoxic activity than the flavones while the later compounds were better antioxidants compared with the isolated diterpene. PMID:24250614

  10. Pharmacological study on chemical composition and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf%丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分药理研究及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分药理研究及临床应用,为新药的研制奠定基础。方法:通过参阅大量相关文献,对丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分、药理研究及临床应用进行分析总结。结果:丹参和白花丹参叶所具有的抗氧化作用均能较好的预防脑梗塞,与根相比叶对脑缺血的保护作用更强,在对心脑血管疾病的防预治疗中被广泛应用;白花丹参叶中的水提物对糖尿病代谢紊乱症状的改善能够起到长期稳定的效果;另外丹参叶在治疗扁平疣、冠心病心绞痛等方面也具有较好的效果。结论:丹参和白花丹参叶均具有稳定的药理作用,但目前在抗氧化和保护脑梗塞的药理研究中仍以白花丹参叶为主,对于丹参叶的药理研究和临床应用则很少。因此对丹参叶主要化学成分进行深入的药理研究是很有必要的。%Objective:To study the pharmacological effects of chemical composition and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf, lay the foundation for the development of new drugs. Method: by referring to a large number of relevant literature, chemical constituents,pharmacological study and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf were analyzed. Results:the antioxidant effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf has can prevent cerebral infarction better, compared with a protective effect on cerebral ischemia of the leaf is stronger, is widely used in the treatment ofcardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease prevention; Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf water extract on diabetic metabolic disorder symptoms can playthe long-term stability of the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge;in addition alsohas a good effect on the treatment of flat wart, such as coronary heart disease and angina. Conclusion: Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia

  11. Crescimento de plantas de Salvia officinalis sob ação de reguladores de crescimento vegetal Growth of Salvia officinalis plants under action of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Povh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os parâmetros da análise de crescimento em função de diferentes reguladores vegetais aplicados na parte aérea de plantas de Salvia officinalis L. Para tanto,o experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP. Os tratamentos consistiram na pulverização da solução de 100mg L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3; 100mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP; 100mg L-1 de ácido 2-cloroetil-fosfônico (ethephon; Stimulate® a 2% (90mg L-1 de cinetina, 50mg L-1 de ácido giberélico e 50mg L-1 de ácido indolilbutírico e água (testemunha. As aplicações foram realizadas em três épocas, aos 15, 25 e 35 dias após o transplante (d.a.t. e o crescimento foi avaliado em cinco épocas de coletas a intervalos de 21 dias, sendo a primeira realizada aos 47 (d.a.t.. Foram determinados os parâmetros fisiológicos da análise de crescimento: razão de área foliar (RAF, área foliar específica (AFE, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR. Os resultados mostram que os reguladores de crescimento vegetal influenciaram os parâmetros fisiológicos da análise de crescimento. As plantas tratadas com BAP apresentaram maiores valores de RAF aos 47 d.a.t., já as plantas tratadas com GA3, a TAL apresentou aumento até o 131 d.a.t. A TCR é decrescente para todos os tratamentos com reguladores de crescimento vegetal testados e a testemunha.The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different plant regulators on the index growth analysis application of sage plants. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with controlled temperature and relative humidity, at the Departmento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments containing three replicates. Treatments

  12. Recent national trends in Salvia divinorum use and substance-use disorders among recent and former Salvia divinorum users compared with nonusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer DG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Jih-Heng Li4, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanContext: Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users.Objective: To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year and former users of S. divinorum.Design: Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006–2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453.Setting: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence.Main measures: Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method.Results: Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase. S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18–25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%, ecstasy (30.1%, heroin (24.2%, phencyclidine (22.4%, and cocaine (17

  13. Development of New Microsatellite Markers for Salvia officinalis L. and Its Potential Use in Conservation-Genetic Studies of Narrow Endemic Salvia brachyodon Vandas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR were isolated from Salvia officinalis L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in Salvia brachyodon Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural S. brachyodon population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (HE was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (HEQ and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM. Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the S. brachyodon population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  14. Functional Analysis of the Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase of Salvia miltiorrhiza via Color Complementation and RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianan Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI catalyzes the isomerization between the common terpene precursor substances isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP during the terpenoid biosynthesis process. In this study, tissue expression analysis revealed that the expression level of the Salvia miltiorrhiza IPI1 gene (SmIPI1 was higher in the leaves than in the roots and stems. Furthermore, color complementation and RNA interference methods were used to verify the function of the SmIPI1 gene from two aspects. A recombinant SmIPI1 plasmid was successfully constructed and transferred into engineered E. coli for validating the function of SmIPI1 through the color difference in comparison to the control group; the observed color difference indicated that SmIPI1 served in promoting the accumulation of lycopene. Transformant hairy root lines with RNA interference of SmIPI1 were successfully constructed mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ACCC 10060. RNA interference hairy roots had a severe phenotype characterized by withering, deformity or even death. The mRNA expression level of SmIPI1 in the RSi3 root line was only 8.4% of that of the wild type. Furthermore the tanshinone content was too low to be detected in the RNA interference lines. These results suggest that SmIPI1 plays a critical role in terpenoid metabolic pathways. Addition of an exogenous SmIPI1 gene promoted metabolic flow toward the biosynthesis of carotenoids in E. coli, and SmIPI1 interference in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots may cause interruption of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate metabolic pathway.

  15. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems.

  16. Antiradical activities of Salvia officinalis and Viscum album L. extracts concentrated by ultrafiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lucian Radu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. In the present study the antioxidant properties were investigated of the medicinal plants Salvia officinalis L. (Labiaceae family and Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae, both of them known for a long time as a remedy in the traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to prove the efficiency of ultrafiltration process for the concentration of herbs extracts and to evaluate the concentrate’s antioxidant activity. Material and methods. The extracts were prepared by maceration, using different solvents. After filtering the extract through Isolab quantitative filter paper “medium”, each of the filtrates was processed by microfiltration (MF; Millipore filters with 45 μm, followed by ultrafiltration (UF. The regenerated cellulose (Millipore, polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile ultrafiltration membranes were used in the experiment. The initial extracts and samples of permeate and retentate after ultrafiltration of extracts have been characterized by determination of the protein total and total phenolic content. Standard methods like ABTS and DPPH assay are used to measure the antioxidant activity. Results. For the three types of tested membranes: Millipore, PSF and PAN, PAN membrane proves to have the greatest efficiency since it shows the highest permeate flux and the greatest retention degree for bioactive compounds. The concentrated extracts obtained after ultrafiltration with polyacrylonitrile membrane had the strongest scavenging activity for all extracts. Conclusions. The results of this study has revealed that the concentrated extracts have a very high radical scavenging activity (TEAC values for sage hydro-alcoholic concentrated extracts in range 351.87-479.04 μmol Trolox/mL extract and for mistletoe concentrated extract E2 in range 345.14-426.18 μmol Trolox/mL extract; the DPPH inhibition values was over 85% for S. officinalis concentrated extracts and ranges between 66.2% and 88.2% DPPH inhibition for V. album

  17. Evaluation of antiviral activity of fractionated extracts of sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmidling Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity and extracellular and intracellular antiviral activity of frac­tionated extracts of wild and cultivated sage Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in vitro using the WISH-VSV model system. Extracts were obtained by fractionating depigmented ethanol extracts of sage plants with supercritical CO2 at different pressures. Cytotoxicity was determined by examining cellular morphology in situ with the aid of a colorimetric micromethod and by cell staining with trypan blue. The fraction of distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 300 bars and temperature of 60°C (149/3 was the most cytotoxic, with CTD10 44 μg/ml. That of non-distilled cultivated sage obtained at CO2 pressure of 500 bars and temperature of 100°C (144/5 was the least toxic (CTD10 199 μg/ml. Moreover, 144/5 had an antiviral effect at the intracellular level: when added 5 hours before VSV infection, it caused 100% reduction of CPE at concentrations of 99.5 and 199.0 μg/ml; when added after virus penetration had occurred, the same concentrations caused 35 and 60% reduction, respectively. The obtained results indicate that antiviral activity of 144/5 involves inhibition of the early steps of the virus infective cycle without a direct virucidal effect. Abbreviations: WISH - human amnion epithelial cells, VSV - vesicular stomatitis virus, HSV - herpes simplex virus, CPE - cytopathic effect, IS - selectivity index, TCID50 - tissue culture infective dose, CTD10 - 10% cytotoxic concentrations.

  18. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio.

  19. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  20. Essential oils and chemical diversity of southeast European populations of Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones.

  1. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  2. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  3. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the β-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-[G-3H]camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess β-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2[U-14C]campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C14 to C20) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots

  4. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w. The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4. Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4 with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.

  5. Effect of Salvia officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Vincristine-induced Neuropathy in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Namvaran Abbas Abad; Mir Hadi Khayate Nouri; Farzaneh Tavakkoli

    2011-01-01

    AIM:Vincristine is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs to treat a variety of malignant diseases,including leukemia and lymphoma.Studies have shown that vincristine cause painful effects,whereas Salvia ofcinalis(SO)showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the SO hydro-alcoholic extract on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice in comparison with morphine.METHODS:Experiments were performed on 60 NMRI male mice weighing 25-30g divided into six groups.The individual groups received normal saline,SO hydro-alcoholic extract,vincristine,SO hydro-alcoholic extract and vincristine(12 days before formalin test),morphine,and vincristine and morphine,respectively.The injected hind paw biting and licking was measured in a 5-minute interval for one hour.RESULTS:The results showed that formalin induce significant(P<0.05)pain responses(the fast phase:0-5 min and the second phase:15-40 min after injection).Administration of SO extract before formalin testshowed significant(P<0.05)decrease of pain response in the second phase.Administration of vincristine caused significant(P<0.05)increase in the second phase of pain response.Injections of SO extract and vincristine showed that SO significantly(P<0.05)decrease the second phase of vincristine-induced pain.Morphine decreased vincristine-induced pain in the first and second phase of formalin test significantly(P<0.05).In comparison,morphine showed analgesig effects in the first phase and SO extract showed significant(P<0.05)anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of formalin test.CONCLUSION:Both SO and vincristine showed analgesic and painful neuropathic effects,suggesting that SO extract could be useful in the treatment of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qixian; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yijun; Shen, Ye; Yuan, Qingjun; Lin, Huixin; Zha, Liangping; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605) cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with FPP and NADPH. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag+ treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qixian; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yijun; Shen, Ye; Yuan, Qingjun; Lin, Huixin; Zha, Liangping; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605) cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with FPP and NADPH. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag+ treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:27605932

  8. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qixian; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yijun; Shen, Ye; Yuan, Qingjun; Lin, Huixin; Zha, Liangping; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605) cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with FPP and NADPH. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag(+) treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:27605932

  9. Composition of the Essential Oil of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae and Its Insecticidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cecilia Cárdenas-Ortega

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils can be used as an alternative to using synthetic insecticides for pest management. Therefore, the insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia ballotiflora (Lamiaceae were tested against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The results demonstrated insecticidal and insectistatical activities against this insect pest with concentrations at 80 µg·mL−1 resulting in 20% larval viability and 10% pupal viability. The larval viability fifty (LV50 corresponded to a concentration of 128.8 µg·mL−1. This oil also increased the duration of the larval phase by 5.5 days and reduced the pupal weight by 29.2% withrespect to the control. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. ballotiflora showed its main components to be caryophyllene oxide (15.97%, and β-caryophyllene (12.74%, which showed insecticidal and insectistatical activities against S. frugiperda. The insecticidal activity of β-caryophyllene began at 80 µg·mL−1, giving a larval viability of 25% and viability pupal of 20%. The insectistatic activity also started at 80 µg·mL−1 reducing the pupal weight by 22.1% with respect to control. Caryophyllene oxide showed insecticidal activity at 80 µg·mL−1 giving a larval viability of 35% and viability pupal of 20%.The insectistatic activity started at 400 µg·mL−1 and increased the larval phase by 8.8% days with respect to control. The LV50 values for these compounds were 153.1 and 146.5 µg·mL−1, respectively.

  10. Quantitatively metabolic profiles of salvianolic acids in rats after gastric-administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanli; Zheng, Xunyang; Guo, Yanlei; Qin, Weihan; Hua, Lei; Yang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Salvianolic acids, the well-known active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, have been shown to possess markedly pharmacological activities. However, due to the complex in vivo course after administration, the pharmacologically active forms are still poorly understood. In present study, we evaluated the stability of eight major salvianolic acids from Danshen extract under different chemical and physiological conditions. We also quantitatively explained the absorption, metabolism and excretion of these salvianolic acids in rats after gastric-administration, which was carried out by simultaneously determining the amounts of salvianolic acids and their metabolites in the rat gastrointestinal contents, gastrointestinal mucosa, plasma, bile and urine. We found that: 1) protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL) was much stable whether in acidic environment (pH4.0) or in alkaline environment (pH8.0), while other salvianolic acids were stable in acidic environment and instable in alkaline environment; 2) PAL, salvianoli acid A (SAA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB) were instable whether in rat stomach or in small intestine, while other salvianolic acids were stable in rat stomach and instable in small intestine; 3) after gastric-administration, except PAL and Danshensu (DSS), other phenolic acids would be metabolized into DSS and caffeic acid (CA) in the rat gastrointestinal tract before absorption, and only free and glucuronidated PAL, CA and DSS were detected in rat plasma, bile and urine. In conclusion, it was the free and glucuronidated PAL, CA and DSS rather than the prototypes of other salvianolic acids that were present in plasma with considerable concentrations after gastric-administration. PMID:27370098

  11. Transcriptome analysis of medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza and identification of genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a perennial plant of Lamiaceae, accumulates abietane-type diterpenoids of tanshinones in root, which have been used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat neuroasthenic insomnia and cardiovascular diseases. However, to date the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinones is only partially elucidated and the mechanism for their root-specific accumulation remains unknown. To identify enzymes and transcriptional regulators involved in the biosynthesis of tanshinones, we conducted transcriptome profiling of S. miltiorrhiza root and leaf tissues using the 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing platform, which generated 550,546 and 525,292 reads, respectively. RNA sequencing reads were assembled and clustered into 64,139 unigenes (29,883 isotigs and 34,256 singletons. NCBI non-redundant protein databases (NR and Swiss-Prot database searches anchored 32,096 unigenes (50% with functional annotations based on sequence similarities. Further assignments with Gene Ontology (GO terms and KEGG biochemical pathways identified 168 unigenes referring to the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis (including 144 MEP and MVA pathway genes and 24 terpene synthases. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes identified 2,863 unigenes that were highly expressed in roots, including those encoding enzymes of early steps of tanshinone biosynthetic pathway, such as copalyl diphosphate synthase (SmCPS, kaurene synthase-like (SmKSL and CYP76AH1. Other differentially expressed unigenes predicted to be related to tanshinone biosynthesis fall into cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, dehydrogenases and reductases, as well as regulatory factors. In addition, 21 P450 genes were selectively confirmed by real-time PCR. Thus we have generated a large unigene dataset which provides a valuable resource for further investigation of the radix development and biosynthesis of tanshinones.

  12. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SPENCER; David; F

    2010-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.is a well-known traditional Chinese herb.Its roots have been formulated and used clinically for the treatment of various diseases.However,little genetic information has so far been available and this fact has become a major obstacle for molecular studies.To address this lack of genetic information,an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library from whole plantlets of S.miltiorrhiza was generated.From the 12959 cDNA clones that were randomly selected and subjected to single-pass sequencing from their 5′ ends,10288 ESTs (with sizes≥100 bp) were selected and assembled into 1288 contigs,leaving 2937 singletons,for a total of 4225 unigenes.These were analyzed using BLASTX (against protein databases),RPS-BLAST (against a conserved domain database) as well as the web-based KEGG Automatic Annotation Server for metabolic enzyme assignment.Based on the metabolic enzyme assignment,expression patterns of 14 secondary metabolic enzyme genes in different organs and under different treatments were verified using real-time PCR analysis.Additionally,a total of 122 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs,with 89 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design.This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the S.miltiorrhiza transcriptome,and gives preliminary insights into the gene complement of S.miltiorrhiza.They will prove useful for uncovering secondary metabolic pathways,analyzing cDNA-array based gene expression,genetic manipulation to improve yield of desirable secondary products,and molecular marker identification.

  13. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Campos, Maira Rubi; Peralta González, Fanny; Chel Guerrero, Luis; Betancur Ancona, David

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64%) and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%). This fraction's amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5-2.5 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427-455 mL elution volume). The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system.

  14. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa. ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64% and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%. This fraction’s amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5–2.5 kDa exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427–455 mL elution volume. The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system.

  15. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  16. 丹参注射剂的配伍稳定性研究%Research Progress of Compatibility Stability of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小明

    2016-01-01

    目的:为临床合理使用丹参注射剂提供参考。方法:查阅分析近年来国内医药期刊公开发表的有关丹参注射剂与其他药物间的配伍稳定性研究文献。结果:丹参注射剂与某些药物配伍后可能发生理化反应。结论:丹参注射剂应尽可能单独应用。%Objective:To provide the evidence for rational clinical use of salvia miltiorrhiza injection.Methods:The reports on Com-patible stability of salvia miltiorrhiza injection with other drugs in recent years were reviewed.Results:Some physical and chemical reac-tions occurred when salvia miltiorrhiza injection was administered with other drugs simultaneously.Conclusion:Salvia miltiorrhiza injec-tion should be used as a separate application.

  17. RP-HPLC analysis of manool-rich Salvia officinalis extract and its antimicrobial activity against bacteria associated with dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique R. Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we screened the dichloromethane extract from the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, against a representative panel of microorganisms that cause caries, conducted a bioassay-guided fractionation to establish themselves the most active metabolite (manool and determined the Salvia officinalis fraction with the manool highest concentration to be used to activate an ingredient in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes. Both manool and S. officinalis extract showed very promising minimal inhibitory concentration values (between 6.24 and 31.36 µg.ml-1 and time kill curves against the primary causative agents of dental caries (Streptococcus mutans revealed that, at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (12.48 µg.ml-1, manool required 6 h to completely kill the bacteria. Salvia officinalis extract at twice its minimal bactericidal concentration (31.36 µg.ml-1 needed 12 h. The results achieved with Salvia officinalis extract motivated us to develop and validate an analytical RP-HPLC method to detect and determine manool in this extract. The validation parameters were satisfactorily met and evaluated allows us to consider the developed method suitable for use in different labs. In conclusion, our results evidenced that the manool-rich S. officinalis extract can be considered an analytically validated alternative to develop novel and effective antimicrobial agents against the main bacteria responsible for dental caries.

  18. The pathological study and clinical application survey of Danshen (salvia root)%丹参药理研究及临床应用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙东; 周军

    2000-01-01

    @@ 丹参Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.为常用中药、有活血祛瘀、安神宁心、止痛等功效,其药理研究及临床应用范围较广.现将近年来有关丹参研究应用概况作一综述.

  19. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles Obtained by Four Different Techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm. and Evaluation for Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, were obtained by four different isolation techniques and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Also in scope of the present work, the...

  20. Development of the trophic part of consortia’s relations of the gossamer-winged butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae with Salvia nutans (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of dummy individual consortia of Salvia nutans L. an important component of fertilization mechanism – the dynamics of trophic relations of antophylus agents with an entomophilous angiosperm autotroph was investigated. The dominant position in species structure of fertilizers in conditionally native steppe ecosystems is occupied by relict TomaresnogelidobrogensisCar.

  1. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Beheshti-Rouy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective:  The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM causing dental plaque in school-aged children.Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35 using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35 using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001. Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn’t significant.Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.Keywords: anti-bacterial agents; dental plaque; Salvia officinalis; Streptococcus mutans

  2. Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Quattropani, Maria C; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2014-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia L. have a longstanding use as traditional herbal remedies that can enhance memory and improve cognitive functions. Pharmacological actions of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia on healthy subjects and on patients suffering of cognitive decline have been investigated. Aim of this review was to summarize published clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia in the enhancement of cognitive performance in healthy subjects and neurodegenerative illnesses. Furthermore, to purchase a more complete view on safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia, we collected and discussed articles regarding toxicity and adverse reactions. Eight clinical studies investigating on acute effects of S. officinalis on healthy subjects were included in the review. Six studies investigated on the effects of S. officinalis and S. lavandaeluaefolia on cognitive performance in healthy subjects. The two remaining were carried out to study the effects of sage on Azheimer's disease. Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication. Unfortunately, promising beneficial effects are debased by methodological issues, use of different herbal preparations (extracts, essential oil, use of raw material), lack of details on herbal products used. We believe that sage promising effects need further higher methodological standard clinical trials.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION INJURY OF RAT LIVER AND EFFECTS OF LIGUSTRAZINE AND SALVIA COMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武卫国; 裘法祖

    1994-01-01

    The present study was to investigate changes of free radicals in the whole rat liver,changes of ATP levels of hepatic cells,ultrastructural changes in hepatic tissue during ischemia and reperfusion in rats and the effects of ligustrazine and salvia compound.The results indicated that:1)the free radical levels increased by 8.3fold and 9.0-fold in the groups with 30 and 60 min ischemia after 40min reperfusion ,as compared with the group with ischemia only(P<0.01,P<0.01,respectively).2)The levels of ATP returned to normal in the group with 30min ischemia after reperfusion for 40min and 3d ,remained low in the group with 90min ischemia and fell again after a mild increase in the group with 60min ischemia.3)The hepatic and endothelial cell damage after ischemia became more severe after reperfusion,as revealed by electron microscopy.The presenet study also showed that ligustrazine and salvia compound have protective effects against reperfusion injury.They can be used to scavenge free radicals,improve hepatic microcirculation and alleviate hepatic and endothelial cell damage.

  4. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  5. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio; Domicio do Nascimento Junior; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Roberto Giolo de Almeida; Manuel Cláudio Motta Macedo; Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1) cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2) cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3) cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4) cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de di...

  6. Avaliação de Três Cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob Pastejo: Composição Química e Digestibilidade da Forragem Evaluation of Three Cultivars of Panicum Maximum Jacq. under Grazing: Chemical Composition and in Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio; Domicio do Nascimento Junior; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Adair José Regazzi; Roberto Giolo de Almeida; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    O estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de estimar o valor nutritivo da MS de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidas ao pastejo rotativo, através dos teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, lignina, celulose, sílica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica em amostras de folhas e colmos. Estudou-se, também, no cultivar Tanzânia, a adubação nitrogenada no final do período chuvoso, adicional à de manutenção comum às demais cultivares. As...

  7. Características morfológicas e índice de área foliar do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Morphological characteristics and leaf area index of tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1), managed in different sward heights, under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabíola Cristine de Almeida Rêgo; Ulysses Cecato; Marcos Weber do Canto; Elias Nunes Martins; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Clovenilson Perissato Cano; Maurício Peternelli

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24, 26, 43, 45, 52, 62, 73 e 78 cm) do pasto e diferentes períodos de coleta (28, 56, 84 dias), sobre a densidade de perfilhos aéreos e basais, peso e diâmetro de perfilhos basais, índice de área foliar (IAF), altura do meristema apical, número de nós e comprimento de entrenós em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1). Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore em regime de pastejo com carga animal v...

  8. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  9. Pharmacogenomic Characterization of Cytotoxic Compounds from Salvia officinalis in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Onat; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    Salvia officinalis is used as a dietary supplement with diverse medicinal activity (e.g. antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects). The plant also exerts profound cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Here, we investigated possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Log10IC50 values of two constituents of S. officinalis (ursolic acid, pomolic acid) were correlated to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mutations in RAS oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene TP53 of the NCI panel of cell lines. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to these compounds were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Furthermore, the binding of both plant acids to key molecules of the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB, I-κB, NEMO) was analyzed by molecular docking. Neither expression nor mutation of ABC transporters, oncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes correlated with log10IC50 values for ursolic acid or pomolic acid. In microarray analyses, many genes involved in signal transduction processes correlated with cellular responsiveness to these compounds. Molecular docking indicated that the two plant acids strongly bound to target proteins of the NF-κB pathway with even lower free binding energies than the known NF-κB inhibitor MG-132. They interacted more strongly with DNA-bound NF-κB than free NF-κB, pointing to inhibition of DNA binding by these compounds. In conclusion, the lack of cross-resistance to classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressors) may indicate a promising role of the both plant acids for cancer chemotherapy. Genes involved in signal transduction may contribute to the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to ursolic and pomolic acids. Ursolic and pomolic acid may target different

  10. Estudio del efecto antihipertensivo de la Salvia scutellarioides en un modelo de ratas hipertensas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernán Ramírez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La infusión de los tallos y hojas de la planta Salvia scutellarioides (nombre vulgar: mastranto es ampliamente utilizada en la medicina tradicional colombiana por sus efectos antihipertensivos y diuréticos. Hasta el momento no se han realizado estudios experimentales que validen el efecto antihipertensivo de la S. scutellarioides. Objetivo: Estudiar el efecto de la S. scutellarioides en la presión arterial con un modelo de ratas hipertensas. Metodología: Se tomaron treinta ratas machos repartidas en 5 grupos homogéneos y al azar así: grupo 1 solución salina (5 ml/kg p.o. y solución salina (1 ml/kg i.p., grupo 2. S. scutellarioides (1g/kg p.o. y L-NAME (40 mg/kg i.p., grupo 3. S. scutellarioides (2 g/kg p.o. y L-NAME (40 mg/kg i.p., grupo 4. enalapril (25 mg/kg p.o. y L-NAME (40 mg/kg i.p., grupo 5. solución salina (5 ml/kg p.o. y L-NAME (40 mg/kg i.p.. Los tratamientos se administraron diariamente durante 4 semanas. La medición de la tensión arterial (sistólica, media y diastólica se realizó de forma no invasiva con un tensiómetro de cola y un sensor piezoeléctrico. Resultados: La administración de S. scutellarioides 2 g/kg produjo una reducción estadísticamente significativa en la tensión arterial media (TAM y tensión arterial diastólica (TAD en comparación con el grupo que recibió L-NAME y solución salina. La reducción producida por S. scutellarioides en la TAM y TAD es comparable con el grupo que recibió enalapril 25 mg/kg. La disminución en la TAM y TAD se obtuvo durante la semana 1 (p Conclusiones: El estudio corrobora la aparente actividad antihipertensiva informada por practicantes de la medicina tradicional de S. scutellarioides. Se requieren más estudios para determinar el perfil farmacológico y la toxicidad de la planta.

  11. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  12. Gadolinium chloride and salvia miltiorrhiza compound ameliorate reperfusion injury in hepatocellular mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hai Zhang; Jin-Sheng Wang; Yong Zhou; Jian-Yi Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of gadolinium chloride (GaCl3)and salvia miltiorrhiza compound (SMCo) on ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in hepatocellular mitochondria.METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly to divided into control group, GaCl3 group, SMCo group and GaCl3 + SMCo group (n=15 each). GaCl3 (7 rmg@kg-1) was injected into tail vein on d 1 and d 2 in contrast group. SMCo ( 2 ml@kg-1) was injected into muscle on d 1 and d 2 in SMCo group. GaCl3+SMCo group received both GaCl3 (iv) and SMCo (im) injection. Control group received saline injection only. On d 3, all the rats were subjected to 2 h ischemia in the middle and left lobes of the liver, followed by reperfusion for 2 h, 6 h and 18 h respectively. The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatocellular mitochondria was measured. Pathological changes in hepatic tissue and in hepatocellular mitochondria were determined with optical microscope and electronic microscope, respectively.RESULTS: Remarkablly pathohistological and biochemical changes were detected after 6 h of I/R. Compared with control, the level of ALT was decreased in GaCl3, SMCo and GaCl3+SMCo treated groups (1 314.0±278.7 vs809.4±196.1,716.6±242.8 and 837.2±190.6 IU@L-1, respectively. P<0.05).Similarly, the level of MDA was decreased in GaCl3, SMCo and GaCl3+SMCo treated groups (293.1±±51.1 vs 190.8±55.5,214.3±32.9 and 221.0±47.3 nmol@g-1, respectively, P<0.05).Accordingly, in control group, swelling, degeneration, focal necrosis, infilt-ation of leucocyte were found in reperfused tissue under an optical microscope, and mitochondda swelling, rupture and even breakdown were seen under an electronic microscope.These pathohistological and ultrastructural damages caused by I/R were greatly attenuated in GaCl3, SMCo and GaCl3+SMCo treated groups. However, there was no additive effect observed when GaCl3 and SMCo were used together.CONCLUSION: Both GaCl3 and SMCo can alleviate the I/Rinjury in

  13. Diversidad y estructura genética de accesiones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. provenientes de Camerún

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Estiben Pacheco Diaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm Elaeis guineesis Jacq. is of great importance because of the oil extracted from its fruits, whose refined derivatives are commercially valuable as biodiesel, among others uses. This study sought to determine the structure and genetic diversity of 311 oil palm samples from the Republic of Cameroon with 10 microsatellite markers. The results showed values for the average number of alleles per locus of Na= 8.433 and effective number of alleles per locus of Ne= 4.756; from the differences between these values, it can be inferred that the 106 alleles found for these populations could be considered rare alleles. Additionally the value of genetic diversity was high (mean value of He= 0.781 compared to reports of several authors. The obtained molecular variance showed that the highest percentage (80 % was found within the individuals. The analysis did not show any defined population structure, which allowed us to infer a high gene flow among the geographic zones, corroborated it by the high genetic diversity values obtained. The 311 genotypes were defined as a heterogeneous heterozygous natural population suitable to increase the genetic base of oil palm cultivated populations.

  14. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7 weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P<0.05 with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m. The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P<0.05 from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio, and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P<0.05, indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  15. Molecular characterizations of microbial antagonists and development of bioformulations for management of bacterial wilt of Naga Chilli (Capsicum chinens Jacq. in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohit Kataki, Kuldeep Talukdar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive strains of five different saprophytic antagonists Trichoderma parareesei TPJ-S-1, Trichoderma viride TVJ-S-1, Paecilomyces variotii Isolate-1, Bacillus thuringiensis BTJ-S-1 and Citrobacter farmeri CTJ-S-1 and their consortial formulations were evaluated during 2012-14, for their effectiveness in management of bacterial wilt disease (c. o. Ralstonia solanacearum of Naga chilli (Capsicum chinens Jacq.. The molecular characterization of selected antagonists was undertaken to determine their distinctiveness from their close relatives through sequencing of the 18S & 28S region of ribosomal DNA in case of fungal antagonists and 16S region in case of bacterial antagonists along with its phylogenetic analysis. The antagonistic potential of the five microbes were tested in vitro singly and in consortia against R. solanacearum adopting dual culture method. Altogether 31 treatment combinations were compared; the inhibition zones (mm and percent inhibitions were recorded and analyzed. The highest inhibition (91.47% against R. solanacearum was recorded in consortia of T. parareesei, T. viride and B. thuringiensis followed by the consortia of T. parareesei, T. viride, P. variotii, B. thuringiensis and C. farmeri (82.22%. Quantitative aspect of population dynamics of selected antagonists in three different substrate carrier viz. vermicompost, talcum powder (TP and mustard oil cake (MOC were compared to evaluate their shelf – life at different days of storage

  16. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency. PMID:27302128

  17. Proteomic responses to lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare Jacq. (Willd.) roots: identification of key biomarkers related to glutathione metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Talinum triangulare Jacq. (Willd.) treated with different lead (Pb) concentrations for 7 days has been investigated to understand the mechanisms of ascorbate-glutathione metabolisms in response to Pb-induced oxidative stress. Proteomic study was performed for control and 1.25 mM Pb-treated plants to examine the root protein dynamics in the presence of Pb. Results of our analysis showed that Pb treatment caused a decrease in non-protein thiols, reduced glutathione (GSH), total ascorbate, total glutathione, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, and activities of glutathione reductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Conversely, cysteine and GSSG contents and glutathione-S-transferase activity was increased after Pb treatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed our metabolic and proteomic studies and showed that amino, phenolic, and carboxylic acids as well as alcoholic, amide, and ester-containing biomolecules had key roles in detoxification of Pb/Pb-induced toxic metabolites. Proteomic analysis revealed an increase in relative abundance of 20 major proteins and 3 new proteins (appeared only in 1.25 mM Pb). Abundant proteins during 1.25 mM Pb stress conditions have given a very clear indication about their involvement in root architecture, energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, cell signaling, primary and secondary metabolisms, and molecular transport systems. Relative accumulation patterns of both common and newly identified proteins are highly correlated with our other morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters. PMID:24705950

  18. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  19. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency.

  20. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes.