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Sample records for carolinaia cyperi ainslie

  1. Comparative Analysis of Compatibility Effects on Invigorating Blood Circulation for Cyperi Rhizoma Series of Herb Pairs Using Untargeted Metabolomics

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    Pei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mutual-assistance compatibility of Cyperi Rhizoma (Xiangfu, XF and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG, Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX, Paeoniae Radix Alba (Baishao, BS, or Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo, YH, found in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM named Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD, can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Nowadays, XFSWD has been proved to be effective in activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. However, the role of the herb pairs synergistic effects in the formula were poorly understood. In order to quantitatively assess the compatibility effects of herb pairs, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed. The plasma and urine metabolic profiles of acute blood stasis rats induced by adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water and administered with Cyperi Rhizoma—Angelicae Sinensis Radix (XD, Cyperi Rhizoma—Chuanxiong Rhizoma (XC, Cyperi Rhizoma—Paeoniae Radix Alba (XB, Cyperi Rhizoma—Corydalis Rhizoma (XY were compared. Relative peak area of identified metabolites was calculated and principal component analysis (PCA score plot from the potential markers was used to visualize the overall differences. Then, the metabolites results were used with biochemistry indicators and genes expression values as parameters to quantitatively evaluate the compatibility effects of XF series of herb pairs by PCA and correlation analysis. The collective results indicated that the four XF herb pairs regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. XD was more prominent in regulating the blood stasis during the four XF herb pairs. This study demonstrated that metabolomics was a useful tool to efficacy evaluation and compatibility effects of TCM elucidation.

  2. Processing and Compatibility Laws of Rhizoma Cyperi in Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions for Dysmenorrhea%香附在痛经方剂中的炮制与配伍规律探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林妍燕; 王曼宇; 徐长玲; 文乐兮

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨香附在痛经方剂中的炮制方法与配伍规律.方法:收集整理《中医方剂大辞典》中含香附的痛经复方共71首,用Microsoft Excel建立数据库,通过数据筛选等功能,研究香附在痛经方剂中的炮制方法与配伍规律.结果:香附在经期腹痛的方剂中最多见,较少出现在经后腹痛的方剂中.痛经方剂中香附多生用,经前腹痛方剂中炒香附使用频率居第二位,经期腹痛方剂中制香附使用频率居第二位.配伍出现频率较高的是香附-当归、香附-川芎、香附-白芍.经前腹痛的方剂中亦多用香附配伍延胡索等;经期腹痛的方剂中亦多用香附配伍木香等;经后腹痛的方剂中常用香附配伍艾叶等.结论:香附治疗痛经依据疼痛发生时期的不同而有炮制、配伍之异.%Objective:To investigate the processing and compatibility laws of Rhizoma Cyperi in TCM prescription for dysmenorrhea.Methods:Collect and organize the prescriptions containing Rhizoma Cyperi in The Great Dictionary of Chinese medicine prescriptions,summed up to 71.We used Microsoft Excel to establish database,and investigated the processing and compatibility laws of Rhizoma Cyperi in dysmenorrhea prescriptions by data screening.Results:Rhizoma Cyperi is more often used to treat the menstrual pain than in the treatment of post-menstrual pain.Unprocessed Rhizoma Cyperi is more used in dysmenorrhea prescriptions,and the fried Rhizoma Cyperi frequency in premenstrual pain prescriptions ranks the second and in menstrual prescriptions ranks the second.The higher frequency of compatibility is Rhizoma Cyperi-Angelica Sinensi,Rhizoma Cyper-Ligusticum Wallichii and Rhizoma CyperiRadix Paeoniae Alba.Rhizoma Cyperi combined with Corydalis Tuber is also widely used in premenstrual pain prescriptions,Rhizoma Cyperi combined with Costustoot during menstrual pain,and Rhizoma Cyperi combined with Folium Artemisiae Argyi after the menstrual cycle

  3. Heterodera guangdongensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from bamboo in Guangdong Province, China--a new cyst nematode in the Cyperi group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Kan; Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Hongling; Liao, Jinling

    2014-11-07

    Heterodera guangdongensis n. sp. is described from bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) based on morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. This new species can be classified in the Cyperi group. Cysts are characterized by a prominent, ambifenestrate vulval cone with weak underbridge, a vulva-anus distance of 28.9-35.9 μm and a vulval slit of 31.1-41.0 μm, but without bullae. Females are characterized by a 25.1-27.6 μm stylet with rounded knobs sloping slightly posteriorly. Males are characterized by a 21.5-23.0 μm stylet with knobs slightly projecting or flat anteriorly, lateral field with four lines, and a 22.0-26.0 μm spicule with bifurcate tip. Second-stage juveniles are characterized by a 19.3-21.3 stylet with slightly projecting or anteriorly flattened knobs, lateral field with three lines, a 41.7-61.3 μm tail with finely rounded terminus and hyaline portion forming 43.0-57.1% of the tail length. Molecular analyses show that the species has unique D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences and RFLP-ITS-rRNA profiles.

  4. Heterodera fengi n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from bamboo in Guangdong Province, China--a new cyst nematode in the Cyperi group.

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    Wang, Honghong; Zhuo, Kan; Ye, Weimin; Zhang, Hongling; Peng, Deliang; Liao, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Heteroderafengi n. sp. is described and illustrated from bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) based on morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA LSU D2D3 region and ITS. This new species belongs to the Cyperi group. Cysts are characterized by prominent vulval cone with ambifenestrate, bifurcate underbridge that is thicker in middle and a 47.0 (40.0-60.0) µm long vulval slit, but without bullae. The second-stage juveniles are characterized by a 23.2 (22.0-24.0) µm long stylet with slightly projected or anteriorly flattened knobs, three incisures in lateral field, a 70.2 (62.5-77.0) µm long tail with bluntly rounded terminus and hyaline portion ca 58.9 (50.0-62.5)% of the tail length. Males are characterized by a 25.1 (24.5-26.3) µm long stylet with rounded knobs sloping posteriorly, four incisures in lateral field, a 29.8 (27.5-31.3) µm long spicule with bifurcate tip. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences and RFLP-ITS-rRNA profiles. Heteroderafengi n. sp. is closest to H. elachista in dendrograms inferred from both DNA sequences.

  5. Impatience and Grades: Delay-Discount Rates Correlate Negatively with College Gpa

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    Kirby, K.N.; Winston, G.C.; Santiesteban, M.

    2005-01-01

    Because the rewards of academic performance in college are often delayed, the delay-discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie (1975) [Ainslie, G. Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychological Bulletin, 82 (4), 463-496] predicts that academic performance should tend to decrease as people place less…

  6. Improving an Empirical Formula for the Absorption of Sound in the Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moll, C. A. van; Ainslie, M. A; Janmaat, J

    2008-01-01

    A new empirical formula for the absorption of sound in seawater is derived. The starting point of this investigation is the formula proposed by Ainslie and McColm for attenuation due to the boron and magnesium relaxations...

  7. Improving an Empirical Formula for the Absorption of Sound in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Onderwater propagatie Advanced acoustic modelling Auteur (s) ir. C.A.M van Moll Programmanummer Projectnummer dr. M.A. Ainslie V512 032.11648 ing. J...versus calculated absorption .................................................................... 9 3 Inverse theory ...45 7.1 Statistical theory

  8. Framing and time-inconsistent preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsma, P.; Keren, G.; Caverni, J.-P.; Bar-Hillel, M.; Hutton Barron, F.; Jungermann, H.

    1995-01-01

    Recent research on intertemporal choice (e.g., Ainslie, 1991; Herrnstein, 1990; Loewenstein & Elster, 1992) exhibits several pervasive effects that are Incompatible with the basic tenets of the "rational’ or "normative" economic theory. In particular, people show time-inconsistent preferences when

  9. Estudios sobre los uredinales del archipiélago de San Andrés y providencia, Colombia.

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    Pardo Cardona Víctor Manuel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Doce especies de Uredinales fueron colectados en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia durante una visita de colección efectuada en el mes de Octubre de 2002. Los hospederos fueron determinados y herborizados y a partir de ellos se elaboraron micropreparados que contenían los soros con las esporas de los hongos, los cuales fueron observados y estudiados al microscopio. Puccinia cyperi-tagetiformis Kem es nuevo registro para Colombia; se registró a Brachiaria distachya (L Stapf como nuevo hospedante de Uromyces clignyi Patouillard & Hariot y a Cyperus rotundus L como nuevo hospedante para P. cyperi-tagetiformis. Las demos especies colectados han sido registradas en el neotrópico sobre hospedantes previamente conocidos.

  10. Effect of Broadband Nature of Marine Mammal Echolocation Clicks on Click-Based Population Density Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    University of St Andrews St Andrews , Scotland KY16 9LZ phone: +44 (1334) 461801 fax: +44 (1334) 461800 email: len.thomas@st-andrews.ac.uk...Peter Tyack Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) and Scottish Oceans Institute (SOI) University of St Andrews St Andrews , Scotland phone: +44 (1334...University of St Andrews : Thomas (CREEM), Tyack (SMRU) Key individuals at TNO: Ainslie, von Benda-Beckmann Technical approach: This project is in

  11. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  12. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

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    Kirby, K N; Petry, N M; Bickel, W K

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.

  13. [Features of Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating ovulatory infertility].

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    Tong, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Chen, Yan-Xia; Dong, Mei-Ling; Ma, Kun

    2017-12-01

    In order to analyze Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating anovulatory infertility, her prescriptions for treating anovulatory infertility in 2012-2015 were collected. The medication features and the regularity of prescriptions were mined by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system, association rules, complex system entropy clustering and other mining methods. Finally, a total of 684 prescriptions and 300 kinds of herbs were screened out, with a total frequency of 11 156 times; And 68 core combinations and 8 new prescriptions were mined. The top three frequently used herbs by effect were respectively tonic herb, blood circulation promoting herb, and Qi-circulation promoting herb. The top three tastes were sweetness, bitterness and pungent flavor. The results showed 28 herbs with a high frequency of ≥100.The top 10 frequently used herbs were respectively Angelica Sinensis Radix, Cyperi Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizome, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Cyathulae Radix, Taxilli Herba, Cuscutae Semen, Codonopsis Radix, Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Paeoniae Albaand Paeoniae Radix Alba. The association rules analysis showed commonly used herbal pairs, including Rehmanniae Radix Preparata-Chuanxiong Rhizome, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata-Angelica Sinensis Radix, Cuscutae Semen-Dipsaci Radix. In conclusion, Professor Ma has treated anovulatory infertility by nourishing the kidney and activating blood throughout the treatment course, and attached the importance to the relationship between Qi and blood and there gulation of liver, spleen and kidney in treating anovulatory infertility. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Multiple origins of downy mildews and mito-nuclear discordance within the paraphyletic genus Phytophthora

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    Choudhury, Robin A.; Mehl, Heather K.; Blomquist, Cheryl L.; McRoberts, Neil; Rizzo, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships between thirteen species of downy mildew and 103 species of Phytophthora (plant-pathogenic oomycetes) were investigated with two nuclear and four mitochondrial loci, using several likelihood-based approaches. Three Phytophthora taxa and all downy mildew taxa were excluded from the previously recognized subgeneric clades of Phytophthora, though all were strongly supported within the paraphyletic genus. Downy mildews appear to be polyphyletic, with graminicolous downy mildews (GDM), brassicolous downy mildews (BDM) and downy mildews with colored conidia (DMCC) forming a clade with the previously unplaced Phytophthora taxon totara; downy mildews with pyriform haustoria (DMPH) were placed in their own clade with affinities to the obligate biotrophic P. cyperi. Results suggest the recognition of four additional clades within Phytophthora, but few relationships between clades could be resolved. Trees containing all twenty extant downy mildew genera were produced by adding partial coverage of seventeen additional downy mildew taxa; these trees supported the monophyly of the BDMs, DMCCs and DMPHs but suggested that the GDMs are paraphyletic in respect to the BDMs or polyphyletic. Incongruence between nuclear-only and mitochondrial-only trees suggests introgression may have occurred between several clades, particularly those containing biotrophs, questioning whether obligate biotrophic parasitism and other traits with polyphyletic distributions arose independently or were horizontally transferred. Phylogenetic approaches may be limited in their ability to resolve some of the complex relationships between the “subgeneric” clades of Phytophthora, which include twenty downy mildew genera and hundreds of species. PMID:29529094

  15. The utilization of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Rong; Wu, Mei-Yao; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Su-Tso

    2017-08-29

    Many patients with gynecological disorders seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study intended to investigate the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Taiwan. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 46,337 subjects with newly diagnosed DUB (ICD-9-CM codes 626.8) from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2010. The patients were categorized into TCM seekers and non-TCM seekers according to their use of TCM. Among the subjects, 41,558 (89.69%) were TCM seekers and 4,779 (10.31%) were non-TCM seekers. Patients who were younger tended to be TCM seekers. Most of the patients had also taken Western medicine, especially tranexamic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). More than half of TCM seekers (55.41%) received combined treatment with both Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture. The most commonly used TCM formula and single herb were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Bupleurum and Peony Formula) and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri), respectively. The core pattern of Chinese herbal medicine for DUB patients consisted of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Xiang-Fu (Rhizoma Cyperi), and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri). TCM use is popular among patients with DUB in Taiwan. Further pharmacological investigations and clinical trials are required to validate the efficacy and safety of these items.

  16. Isolation, Identification and Seasonal Distribution of Soilborne Fungi in Different Areas of Erbil Governorate

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    Farid M. Toma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey study was undertaken for the isolation and identification of soilborne fungi inhabiting different areas in Erbil, Iraq. A total of 15 soil samples collected seasonally during August 2008-July 2009. Fungi were isolated from soil during this study's period, by soil dilution plate method on selective medium: Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, eighty-one different genera of fungi were isolated during the four seasons; (30, 33, 70, and 53 genera isolated in (summer, autumn, winter and spring respectively, the most frequently isolated fungi during four seasons were Aspergillus sp. (539x103 colony forming units /g.soil, followed by Penicillium sp. (215x103 cfu/g.soil, Rhizopus spp. (115x103 cfu/g.soil, Emericella spp. (109x103 cfu/g.soil, Fusarium spp. (47x103 cfu/g.soil, and Ulocladium botrytis (47x103 cfu/g.soil, while the least frequently isolated fungal genera were Blakeslea tuningtam, Clasterosporium cyperi, Idriella sp., Naranus cryptomeriae and Torula alternata, (1x103 cfu/g.soil, for each one. Fungi isolated from soil by washing method counted for ninety three species belonging to fifty six genera, among them: Aspergillus sp., Circinella sp., Cunninghamella sp., Mucor spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus sp.

  17. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

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    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  19. Fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling attenuates ischemic stroke by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis

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    Zhi-gang Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling is composed of radix puerariae (Gegen, salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen, radix curcuma (Jianghuang, hawthorn (Shanzha, salvia chinensis (Shijianchuan, sinapis alba (Baijiezi, astragalus (Huangqi, panax japonicas (Zhujieshen, atractylodes macrocephala koidz (Baizhu, radix paeoniae alba (Baishao, bupleurum (Chaihu, chrysanthemum (Juhua, rhizoma cyperi (Xiangfu and gastrodin (Tianma, whose aqueous extract was fermented with lactobacillus, bacillus aceticus and saccharomycetes. Shuan-Tong-Ling is a formula used to treat brain diseases including ischemic stroke, migraine, and vascular dementia. Shuan-Tong-Ling attenuated H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat microvascular endothelial cells. However, the potential mechanism involved in these effects is poorly understood. Rats were intragastrically treated with 5.7 or 17.2 mL/kg Shuan-Tong-Ling for 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced. The results indicated Shuan-Tong-Ling had a cerebral protective effect by reducing infarct volume and increasing neurological scores. Shuan-Tong-Ling also decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β levels in the hippocampus on the ischemic side. In addition, Shuan-Tong-Ling upregulated the expression of SIRT1 and Bcl-2 and downregulated the expression of acetylated-protein 53 and Bax. Injection of 5 mg/kg silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 into the subarachnoid space once every 2 days, four times, reversed the above changes. These results demonstrate that Shuan-Tong-Ling might benefit cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing inflammation and apoptosis through activation of the SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  20. Précis of Breakdown of Will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, George

    2005-10-01

    Behavioral science has long been puzzled by the experience of temptation, the resulting impulsiveness, and the variably successful control of this impulsiveness. In conventional theories, a governing faculty like the ego evaluates future choices consistently over time, discounting their value for delay exponentially, that is, by a constant rate; impulses arise when this ego is confronted by a conditioned appetite. Breakdown of Will (Ainslie 2001) presents evidence that contradicts this model. Both people and nonhuman animals spontaneously discount the value of expected events in a curve where value is divided approximately by expected delay, a hyperbolic form that is more bowed than the rational, exponential curve. With hyperbolic discounting, options that pay off quickly will be temporarily preferred to richer but slower-paying alternatives, a phenomenon that, over periods from minutes to days, can account for impulsive behaviors, and over periods of fractional seconds can account for involuntary behaviors. Contradictory reward-getting processes can in effect bargain with each other, and stable preferences can be established by the perception of recurrent choices as test cases (precedents) in recurrent intertemporal prisoner's dilemmas. The resulting motivational pattern resembles traditional descriptions of the will, as well as of compulsive phenomena that can now be seen as side-effects of will: over-concern with precedent, intractable but circumscribed failures of self-control, a motivated ("dynamic") unconscious, and an inability to exploit emotional rewards. Hyperbolic curves also suggest a means of reducing classical conditioning to motivated choice, the last necessary step for modeling many involuntary processes like emotion and appetite as reward-seeking behaviors; such modeling, in turn, provides a rationale for empathic reward and the "construction" of reality.

  1. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  2. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: Some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  3. Control of stress-induced depressive disorders by So-ochim-tang-gamibang, a Korean herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Park, Dae-Myung; Chun, Eunho; Choi, Jeong June; Seo, Ji Hye; Kim, Seunghyung; Son, Jaemin; Do, Moonho; Kim, Sun Yeou; Park, Yang-Chun; Jung, In Chul; Jin, Mirim

    2017-01-20

    So-ochim-tang-gamibang (SOCG) is a Korean herbal medicine formula that has been applied to treat depressive moods and depression associated somatoform pain. This decoction consists of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperi Rhizoma), Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. (Linderae Radix), Aquilaria agallochum (Lour.) Roxb. ex Finl. (Aquilariae Resinatum Lignum), Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (Glycyrrhizae Radix) Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (Platycodi Radix), and Citrus aurantium L. (Aurantii Fructus). The aim of this study is to assess antidepressant-like effects of SOCG and to investigate its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms. Using chronic restraint stress animal model, effects of SOCG on depressive-like behaviors, corticosterone, and hippocampal expressions of a neurotrophic factor and an apoptotic marker, were investigated. Mice were exposed to restraint stress 6h per day over a period of two weeks, and orally administrated either SOCG (30, 100, or 300mg/kg/day). The depressive-like behaviors were analyzed by forced swimming test and open field test. The serum levels of corticosterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of caspase-3 and BDNF in the hippocampus were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Further, effects of SOCG were examined in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. Cellular toxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Real-time PCR was applied to investigate the cellular expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and BDNF. The levels of caspase-3 and BDNF were examined by Western blotting. Administration of SOCG not only reduced immobility time of restraint-stressed mice in a dose-dependent manner, but also significantly increased the distance mice moved and the number of crossings in the open field test. Further, SOCG significantly reduced the serum level of corticosterone and expression of caspase-3, while increased expression of BDNF in vivo. SOCG

  4. Expert Consensus Survey on Digital Health Tools for Patients With Serious Mental Illness: Optimizing for User Characteristics and User Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Ainslie; Hoffman, Julia E; Ross, Ruth; Docherty, John P

    2018-06-12

    . Enthusiasm among health care professionals for digital health tools and availability of staff and equipment to support their use were identified as variables to enable health care professionals to successfully incorporate digital health tools into their practices. The experts identified a number of potential benefits of and barriers to use of digital health tools by patients and health care professionals. Experts agreed that both health care professionals and patients would need to be trained in the use of these new technologies. These results provide guidance to the mental health field on how to optimize the development and deployment of digital health tools for patients with serious mental illness. ©Ainslie Hatch, Julia E Hoffman, Ruth Ross, John P Docherty. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 12.06.2018.

  5. Usability of a novel digital medicine system in adults with schizophrenia treated with sensor-embedded tablets of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters-Strickland T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Peters-Strickland,1 Linda Pestreich,1 Ainslie Hatch,2 Shashank Rohatagi,1 Ross A Baker,1 John P Docherty,2 Lada Markovtsova,1 Praveen Raja,3 Peter J Weiden,4 David P Walling5 1Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., 2ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 3Proteus Digital Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 5CNS Network, LLC, Long Beach, CA, USA Objective: Digital medicine system (DMS is a novel drug–device combination that objectively measures and reports medication ingestion. The DMS consists of medication embedded with an ingestible sensor (digital medicine, a wearable sensor, and software applications. This study evaluated usability of the DMS in adults with schizophrenia rated by both patients and their health care providers (HCPs during 8-week treatment with prescribed doses of digital aripiprazole.Methods: Six US sites enrolled outpatients into this Phase IIa, open-label study (NCT02219009. The study comprised a screening phase, a training phase (three weekly site visits, and a 5-week independent phase. Patients and HCPs independently rated usability of and satisfaction with the DMS.Results: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, and 49 (73.1% patients completed the study. The mean age (SD of the patients was 46.6 years (9.7 years; the majority of them were male (74.6%, black (76.1%, and rated mildly ill on the Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale (70.1%. By the end of week 8 or early termination, 82.1% (55/67 of patients had replaced the wearable sensor independently or with minimal assistance, based on HCP rating. The patients used the wearable sensor for a mean (SD of 70.7% (24.7% and a median of 77.8% of their time in the trial. The patients contacted a call center most frequently at week 1. At the last visit, 78% (47/60 of patients were somewhat satisfied/satisfied/extremely satisfied with the DMS.Conclusion: A high proportion of patients with

  6. Why do psychiatric patients stop antipsychotic medication? A systematic review of reasons for nonadherence to medication in patients with serious mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velligan DI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dawn I Velligan,1 Martha Sajatovic,2 Ainslie Hatch,3 Pavel Kramata,4 John P Docherty3 1Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, 2Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, 3Medical Affairs, ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 4C4 MedSolutions LLC, Yardley, PA, USA Background: Antipsychotic medication reduces the severity of serious mental illness (SMI and improves patient outcomes only when medicines were taken as prescribed. Nonadherence to the treatment of SMI increases the risk of relapse and hospitalization and reduces the quality of life. It is necessary to understand the factors influencing nonadherence to medication in order to identify appropriate interventions. This systematic review assessed the published evidence on modifiable reasons for nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with SMI. Methods: Articles published between January 1, 2005, and September 10, 2015, were searched on MEDLINE through PubMed. Abstracts were independently screened by 2 randomly assigned authors for inclusion, and disagreement was resolved by another author. Selected full-text articles were divided among all authors for review. Results: A qualitative analysis of data from 36 articles identified 11 categories of reasons for nonadherence. Poor insight was identified as a reason for nonadherence in 55.6% (20/36 of studies, followed by substance abuse (36.1%, 13/36, a negative attitude toward medication (30.5%, 11/36, medication side effects (27.8%, 10/36, and cognitive impairments (13.4%, 7/36. A key reason directly associated with intentional nonadherence was a negative attitude toward medication, a mediator of effects of insight and therapeutic alliance. Substance abuse was the only reason consistently associated with unintentional nonadherence, regardless of type and stage of SMI. Discussion: Although adherence research is inherently biased

  7. Human factors evaluation of a novel digital medicine system in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters-Strickland T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Peters-Strickland,1 Ainslie Hatch,2 Anke Adenwala,3 Katie Atkinson,4 Benjamin Bartfeld5 1Global Clinical Development, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Clinical Sciences, Digital Medicine, Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, GfK Custom Research, LLC, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Human Factors Engineering, Proteus Digital Health, Redwood, CA, USA; 5Industrial Design Specialist, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., Princeton, NJ, USA Background: The digital medicine system (DMS, a drug–device combination developed for patients with serious mental illness, integrates adherence measurement with pharmacologic treatment by embedding an ingestible sensor in a pill, allowing for information sharing among patients, health care providers (HCPs, and caregivers via a mobile interface. Studies conducted during the DMS development process aimed to minimize cognitive burden and use-related risks and demonstrated effective use of the technology. Methods: Human factors (HF studies assessed the system’s safe and effective use by the intended users for the intended uses. The patient interface was tested in six formative HF studies followed by a validation study. The HCP/caregiver interface was tested in one study before validation. All tasks critical to safety or necessary for effective use were included. Formative studies identified use-related risks and the causes of use problems to guide design modification. Validation of the patient and HCP/caregiver interfaces assessed risks of the final product. Results: During the patient formative studies, design improvements were made to address problems and mitigate risks thought to be associated with a suboptimal system design or patient understanding of the system. In the validation study of the patient interface, 35 patients attempted 23 performance tasks, for a total of 805 attempts; 783/805 attempts were

  8. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula

  9. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

  10. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    , without fenestration, lacking bulla, and underbridge. Vulval lips protruded, cuticular pattern of vulval cone with a tuberculate area (Fig. 2B), and vagina embedded into vulval lips. The second-stage juveniles cylindrical and slender, hemispherical cephalic framework, with three lines in lateral field, well-developed rounded stylet knobs, tail conoid tapring to fine rounded terminus, phasmids posterior to anus. The cyst measurements were (n = 21) length 502 ± 70 (420 to 640) µm; width = 408 ± 60 (320 to 520) µm; length/width = 1.23 ± 0.09 (1.07 to 1.5) µm. The morphometric characters of vulval cone were measured (n = 7): fenestral length = 62.4 ± 6.5 (51 to 71) µm; fenestral width = 50.7 ± 3.2 (45 to 54) µm; vulval slit = 51.9 ± 4.3 (46 to 59) µm; distance from vulva to anus = 51.3 ± 4.4 (43 to 56) µm. Second-stage juveniles showed the following morphometric characters (n = 14): L = 455 ± 11.3 (437 to 472) µm; a = 29.9 ± 0.9 (28.3 to 31.5); b΄ = 2.7 ± 0.4 (2.2 to 3.5); c = 7.4 ± 0.9 (6 to 8.9); ć = 6.1 ± 0.4 (5.1 to 6.7); lip region height = 3 µm; lip region width = 7.5 ± 0.5 (7 to 8) µm; stylet length = 18.1 ± 0.5 (17 to 19) µm; anterior end to median bulb = 72.2 ± 1.7 (70 to 75) µm; anterior end to secretory-excretory pore = 99.7 ± 2.5 (96 to 103) µm; maximum body width = 15.2 ± 0.4 (15 to 16) µm; body width at anus = 10.1 ± 1 (8 to 11) µm; tail length = 62.0 ± 6.9 (51 to 74) µm; hyaline part of tail = 44.0 ± 1.8 (40 to 47) µm. The egg measurements for 11 individuals were length = 102.5 ± 7.9 (93 to 119) µm; width = 39.3 ± 4.2 (33 to 46) µm; length/width = 2.6 ± 0.3 (2.0 to 3.1). The morphology, morphometric characters and molecular data of the population of H. koreana isolated from bamboo in Iran are in agreement with those previously reported for this species (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). At present, five species of Heterodera belonging to the Cyperi and Afenestrata groups were reported from bamboo, H

  11. Selective Photonic Disinfection; A ray of hope in the war against pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2016-06-01

    Scattering of Light by Crystals New York Wiley citation> 18 citation publication-type="other"> See, for example, www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/understand/ionize_nonionize.html citation> 19 citation publication-type="journal"> Cadeta J Sageb E Doukia T 2005 Ultraviolet radiation-mediated damage to cellular DNA Mutat. Res. 571 3 17 3-17 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2004.09.012 citation> 20 citation publication-type="journal"> Chan H L Gaffney P R Waterfield M D Anderlec H Matthiessen H P Schwarz H P Turecek P L Timms J F 2006 Proteomic analysis of UVC irradiation-induced damage of plasma proteins: serum amyloid P component as a major target of photolysis FEBS Lett. 580 3229 3236 3229-36 10.1016/j.febslet.2006.05.002 citation> 21 citation publication-type="journal"> Michnik A Michalik K Drzazga Z 2008 Effect of UVC radiation on conformational restructuring of human serum albumin J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 90 170 178 170-8 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2007.12.007 citation> 22 citation publication-type="other"> Segelstein D J 1981 The complex refractive index of water MS thesis University of Missouri-Kansas City (for a review, see http://omlc.org/spectra/water/) citation> 23 citation publication-type="journal"> Ainslie M A McColm J G A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103 1671 1672 1671-2 10.1121/1.421258 citation> 24 citation publication-type="book"> Myers A B Mathies R A 1987 Biological Applications of Raman Spectroscopy (vol 2) Resonance Raman Spectra of Polyenes and Aromatics Spiro T G New York Wiley ch 1 citation> 1 citation publication-type="book"> Tsen K T Dykeman E C Sankey O F Tsen S W D Kiang J G 2009 Inactivation of viruses with femtosecond laser pulses Contemporary Trends in Bacteriophage Research Adams H T Hauppauge, NY Nova Science Publishers 151 77 151-77 citation> 2 citation publication-type="journal"> Dykeman E C Sankey O F 2010 Atomistic modeling of the low-frequency mechanical modes and Raman spectra of icosahedral virus capsids Phys