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Sample records for carolinaia cyperi ainslie

  1. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30 % drop in milk yield occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n = 240 and n = 150 milking cows, respectively on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n = 5 fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28 % on dry matter base of the TMR. The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively. The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that

  2. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge) on the Highveld of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudè, T W; Botha, C J; Vorster, J H; Roux, C; Van der Linde, E J; Van der Walt, S I; Rottinghaus, G E; Van Jaarsveld, L; Lawrence, A N

    2005-03-01

    During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30% drop in milk yield) occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n=240 and n=150 milking cows, respectively) on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n=5) fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR) or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28% on dry matter base of the TMR). The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively). The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine) of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae) has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that late seasonal rain had

  3. Salisbury open drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Murmur (2012) selected for this national juried exhibition of contemporary drawing. Selectors include Professor Stephen Farthing and Meryl Ainslie (Director Rabley Drawing Centre). Artists were invited to submit works which challenge conventional definitions of drawing.

  4. 香附醋制前后香附烯酮、圆柚酮和α-香附酮的含量比较%Contents Comparison of Cyperotundone, Nootkatone and α-Cyperone in Cyperi Rhizoma Before and After Vinegar Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢君蓉; 李文兵; 王世宇; 傅超美; 周莉江; 严鑫; 季宁平

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究醋制对香附中3种特征性成分香附烯酮、圆柚酮和α-香附酮含量的影响.方法:采用HPLC测定醋制前后不同产地香附中3种成分的含量,Phenomenex C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇-水(68∶ 32),检测波长242 nm,流速1.0 mL· min-,柱温30℃.结果:建立的含量测定方法稳定可靠,香附烯酮、圆柚酮及α-香附酮线性范围依次为0.260 ~0.912,0.028 ~0.098,0.082~ 0.286 μg;平均回收率分别为98.34%,97.87%,99.12%,RSD依次为1.48%,2.03%,1.37%.11个产地香附生品中香附烯酮、圆柚酮和α-香附酮的质量分数分别为1.52 ~4.80,0.04 ~0.20,0.70 ~ 1.99 mg·g-;醋制后3种成分质量分数依次为1.55 ~4.96,0.04~ 0.19,0.61 ~1.97 mg·g-1.结论:不同产地香附中3种成分含量差异较大,醋制后香附烯酮含量升高,圆柚酮和α-香附酮含量降低,为香附的醋制机制研究提供参考.

  5. Effects of Compressibility on the Radiation and Viscous Damping Terms in the Scattering and Extinction Cross-Sections of a Single Spherical Bubble: A Puzzle Solved and a Puzzle Posed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Leighton, T.G.

    2011-01-01

    In [M. A. Ainslie & T. G. Leighton, Underwater Acoustic Measurements (Heraklion, Crete, 2007), pp 571-576], the authors described a discrepancy between the radiation damping coefficients in the models due to Weston and to Medwin describing the scattering cross-section of a single spherical bubble. T

  6. Teaching India. Footnotes. Volume 11, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    On March 11-12, 2006 the FPRI's Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education hosted 44 teachers from 16 states across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching about India. Sessions included: (1) Why It's Important to Know about India (Ainslie T. Embree); (2) Early Indian History (Richard H. Davis); (3) Modern Indian History (Marc…

  7. Estudios sobre los uredinales del archipiélago de San Andrés y providencia, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Cardona Víctor Manuel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Doce especies de Uredinales fueron colectados en las islas de San Andrés y Providencia durante una visita de colección efectuada en el mes de Octubre de 2002. Los hospederos fueron determinados y herborizados y a partir de ellos se elaboraron micropreparados que contenían los soros con las esporas de los hongos, los cuales fueron observados y estudiados al microscopio. Puccinia cyperi-tagetiformis Kem es nuevo registro para Colombia; se registró a Brachiaria distachya (L Stapf como nuevo hospedante de Uromyces clignyi Patouillard & Hariot y a Cyperus rotundus L como nuevo hospedante para P. cyperi-tagetiformis. Las demos especies colectados han sido registradas en el neotrópico sobre hospedantes previamente conocidos.

  8. CONSIDERING SOME BEHAVIORAL ECONOMIC ISSUES CONCERNING THE DILEMMA OF CUSTOMERS BUYING SMARTPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    POGORELIY M.YU.

    2015-01-01

    DIFFERENT BRANDS ARE REPRESENTED ON THE SMARTPHONE MARKET. IN THIS ARTICLE, THE AUTHOR REFERS TO THE STUDY OF THE DILEMMA, WHICH IS DETERMINED BY THE CUSTOMER’S CHOICE OF ONE OR ANOTHER MANUFACTURER OF SMARTPHONES. GENERAL THEORETICAL APPROACH IS BASED ON THE SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE SCIENTISTS: MITCHELL, W. (1914). CLARK, J.M., (1918). KATONA, G. (1980). LEIBENSTEIN, H. (1985). SIMON, H. A. (1978). GILAD, B., KAISH, S. (EDS.), (1986). AINSLIE, G. (1992). CAMERER, C. F, (1985). KIM P. CORFMAN ...

  9. Poverty and Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Debraj Ray; Sevin Yeltekin

    2013-01-01

    The absence of self-control is often viewed as an important correlate of persistent poverty. Using a standard intertemporal allocation problem with credit constraints faced by an individual with quasi-hyperbolic preferences, we argue that poverty damages the ability to exercise self-control. Our theory invokes George Ainslie’s notion of "personal rules," interpreted as subgame-perfect equilibria of an intrapersonal game played by a time-inconsistent decision maker. Our main result pertains ...

  10. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  11. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  12. Models of Temporal Discounting 1937-2000: An Interdisciplinary Exchange between Economics and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2015-12-01

    Today's models of temporal discounting are the result of multiple interdisciplinary exchanges between psychology and economics. Although these exchanges did not result in an integrated discipline, they had important effects on all disciplines involved. The paper describes these exchanges from the 1930s onwards, focusing on two episodes in particular: an attempted synthesis by psychiatrist George Ainslie and others in the 1970s; and the attempted application of this new discounting model by a generation of economists and psychologists in the 1980s, which ultimately ended in the diversity of measurements disappointment. I draw four main conclusions. First, multiple notions of temporal discounting must be conceptually distinguished. Second, behavioral economics is not an integration or unification of psychology and economics. Third, the analysis identifies some central disciplinary markers that distinguish modeling strategies in economics and psychology. Finally, it offers a case of interdisciplinary success that does not fit the currently dominant account of interdisciplinarity as integration.

  13. Models of Temporal Discounting 1937-2000: An Interdisciplinary Exchange between Economics and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2015-12-01

    Today's models of temporal discounting are the result of multiple interdisciplinary exchanges between psychology and economics. Although these exchanges did not result in an integrated discipline, they had important effects on all disciplines involved. The paper describes these exchanges from the 1930s onwards, focusing on two episodes in particular: an attempted synthesis by psychiatrist George Ainslie and others in the 1970s; and the attempted application of this new discounting model by a generation of economists and psychologists in the 1980s, which ultimately ended in the diversity of measurements disappointment. I draw four main conclusions. First, multiple notions of temporal discounting must be conceptually distinguished. Second, behavioral economics is not an integration or unification of psychology and economics. Third, the analysis identifies some central disciplinary markers that distinguish modeling strategies in economics and psychology. Finally, it offers a case of interdisciplinary success that does not fit the currently dominant account of interdisciplinarity as integration. PMID:26554646

  14. Study on Isolation of α-Cyperone and Its Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects%α-香附酮的分离及其解热镇痛作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远辉; 刘瑜彬; 罗淑文; 黎雄; 邓金宝

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究香附有效成分α-香附酮的解热镇痛作用.方法 通过乙醇提取、硅胶柱层析分离、核磁共振等手段进行结构解析,确定中药香附中具有解热镇痛作用的有效成分为α-香附酮.再采用内毒素致家免发热模型、小鼠醋酸扭体法、热板法实验,考察α-香附酮的药效作用.结果 与模型组比较,α-香附酮能降低内毒素致家兔发热的体温(P<0.05),对醋酸所致的小鼠扭体反应有抑制作用(P<0.05),但是对热板法所致的小鼠痛阈反应时间无明显作用(P>0.05).结论 α-香附酮是香附发挥解热镇痛作用的有效成分之一,α-香附酮可能通过外周机制发挥镇痛作用.%Objective To study the antipyretic and analgesic constituents from Rhizoma Cyperi. Methods After effective fraction extraction by petroleum ether, compound isolation by silica gel column chromatography, and structures identification mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), α-cyperone was confirmed as the active antipyretic and analgesic ingredient. The antipyretic and analgesic actions of α-cyperone were investigated by applying endotoxin-induced fever rabbit model, writhing method in mice, and thermal stimulation method in mice. Results Compared with the model group, α-cyperone had significant antipyretic effect on rabbits with endotoxin -induced fever(P 0.05). Conclusion α-Cyperone is one of the main bioactive ingredients in Rhizoma Cyperi, and may be play analgesic effects through peripheral regulation.

  15. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master Yan Zhenghua from prescriptions with citri reticulatae pericarpium based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Sheng, Xiao-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. After analyzed by data mining, such as apriori algorithm, the frequency of single medicine, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules between drugs and core drug combinations can be get from the database. Through the analysis of 1 027 prescriptions with pericarpium citri reticulatae, these prescriptions were commonly used to treat stomach aches, cough and other syndromes. The most frequency drug combinations were "Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria", "Paeoniae Radix Rubra-Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium" and so on. The drug association rules that the confidence was 1 were "Glycyrrhizae Radix ex Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Paeoniae Alba Radix-Cyperi Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Poria --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", and so on. The drugs in the prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor Yan mostly had the effects of regulating the flow of Qi and invigorate blood circulation, which reflected the clearly thought when making prescriptions.

  16. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows.

  17. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: Some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  18. Behavioral and neural evidence of incentive bias for immediate rewards relative to preference-matched delayed rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shan; Ainslie, George; Giragosian, Lisa; Monterosso, John R

    2009-11-25

    Several theories of self-control [including intertemporal bargaining (Ainslie, 1992) and self-signaling (Bodner and Prelec, 2001)] imply that intertemporal decisions can be more farsighted than would be predicted by the incentive associated with rewards outside a decision context. We examined this hypothesis using behavior and functional neuroimaging. First, subjects expressed preferences between amounts of money delayed by 4 months and smaller amounts available that day. This allowed us to establish "indifference pairs" individualized to each participant: immediate and delayed amounts that were equally preferred. Participants subsequently performed a reaction time functional magnetic resonance imaging task (Knutson et al., 2001a) that provided them with distinct opportunities to win each of the rewards that comprised the indifference pairs. Anatomical region of interest analysis as well as whole-brain analysis indicated greater response recruited by the immediate rewards (relative to the preference-matched delayed rewards) in regions previously implicated as sensitive to incentive value using the same task (including bilateral putamen, bilateral anterior insula, and midbrain). Reaction time to the target was also faster during the immediate relative to delayed reward trials (p < 0.01), and individual differences in reaction time between immediate versus delayed reward trials correlated with variance in magnetic resonance signal in those clusters that responded preferentially to immediate rewards (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). These findings indicate a discrepancy in incentive associated with the immediate versus the preference-matched delayed rewards. This discrepancy may mark the contribution of self-control processes that are recruited during decision-making but that are absent when rewards are individually anticipated. PMID:19940177

  19. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  20. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making. PMID:24744719

  1. Usability of a novel digital medicine system in adults with schizophrenia treated with sensor-embedded tablets of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters-Strickland T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Peters-Strickland,1 Linda Pestreich,1 Ainslie Hatch,2 Shashank Rohatagi,1 Ross A Baker,1 John P Docherty,2 Lada Markovtsova,1 Praveen Raja,3 Peter J Weiden,4 David P Walling5 1Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., 2ODH, Inc., Princeton, NJ, 3Proteus Digital Health, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 5CNS Network, LLC, Long Beach, CA, USA Objective: Digital medicine system (DMS is a novel drug–device combination that objectively measures and reports medication ingestion. The DMS consists of medication embedded with an ingestible sensor (digital medicine, a wearable sensor, and software applications. This study evaluated usability of the DMS in adults with schizophrenia rated by both patients and their health care providers (HCPs during 8-week treatment with prescribed doses of digital aripiprazole.Methods: Six US sites enrolled outpatients into this Phase IIa, open-label study (NCT02219009. The study comprised a screening phase, a training phase (three weekly site visits, and a 5-week independent phase. Patients and HCPs independently rated usability of and satisfaction with the DMS.Results: Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, and 49 (73.1% patients completed the study. The mean age (SD of the patients was 46.6 years (9.7 years; the majority of them were male (74.6%, black (76.1%, and rated mildly ill on the Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale (70.1%. By the end of week 8 or early termination, 82.1% (55/67 of patients had replaced the wearable sensor independently or with minimal assistance, based on HCP rating. The patients used the wearable sensor for a mean (SD of 70.7% (24.7% and a median of 77.8% of their time in the trial. The patients contacted a call center most frequently at week 1. At the last visit, 78% (47/60 of patients were somewhat satisfied/satisfied/extremely satisfied with the DMS.Conclusion: A high proportion of patients with

  2. Study on Quality Standard for Anru Granules%安乳颗粒质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范彬; 石晓峰; 马趣环; 王东东; 刘东彦; 宋薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the method for quality control of Anru Granules. Methods Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Rrubra, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, Rhizoma cyperi, Olibanum and Myrrha were identified by TLC. The content of paeoniflorin and ferulic acid was determined by HPLC. The Agilent Cis (4.6 mmX250 mm, 5 |im) was adopted, the mobile phase of paeoniflorin was acetonitrile-water (13 : 87) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the temperature was 30 V, and the detecting wavelength was 230 run. The Diamonsil Cis (4.6 mmX 150 mm, 5 urn) was used, the mobile phase of ferulic acid was 50% methanol-acetonitrile-0.1% glacial acetic acid (25 : 5 : 70) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the temperature was 35 "C, the detecting wavelength was 320 nm. Results The above mentioned 6 main Chinese crude drugs were detected by TLC. Paeoniflorin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 0.12-1.20 ng, r=0.999 8. The recovery was 98.07%, RSD=1.03%. Ferulic acid showed a good linear relationship at the range of 0.021 6-0.129 6 pg. The recovery was 99.52%, RSD=0.99%. Conclusion The method is accurate and reliable. It can be applied to the quality control of Anru Granules.%目的 建立安乳颗粒的质量控制方法.方法 采用薄层色谱法对方中赤芍、当归、丹参、香附、乳香、没药进行定性鉴别,采用高效液相色谱法分别对芍药苷及阿魏酸进行含量测定.芍药苷采用Agilent C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-水(13∶87),检测波长230 nm,流速1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃.阿魏酸采用Diamonsil C18(4.6 mm× 150mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为50%甲醇-乙腈-0.1%冰醋酸(25∶5∶70),检测波长320 nm,流速1.0 mL/min,柱温35℃.结果 在薄层色谱中能检测出上述6种主要药材;芍药苷在0.12~1.20 μg范围内有良好的线性关系(r= 0.999 8),平均回收率为98.07%,RSD=1.03%.阿魏酸在0.021 6-0.129 6 μg范围内有良好的线性关系(r= 0.999 6),平均回收率为99.52

  3. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula

  4. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    quality using data from neighbouring sensors and nearby MetroVancouver reference ozone monitors is also described. 1. D.G. Steyn, J.W. Bottenheim, R.B. Thomson, Overview of tropospheric ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley, and the Pacific '93 field study, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 31, Issue 14, July 1997, Pages 2025-2035, 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00018-6. 2. I.G. McKendry, D.G. Steyn, J. Lundgren, R.M. Hoff, W. Strapp, K. Anlauf, F. Froude, J.B. Martin, R.M. Banta, L.D. Olivier, Elevated ozone layers and vertical down-mixing over the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 31, Issue 14, July 1997, Pages 2135-2146, 10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00127-6. 3. B. Ainslie, C. Reuten, D.G. Steyn, Nhu D. Le, James V. Zidek, Application of an entropy-based Bayesian optimization technique to the redesign of an existing monitoring network for single air pollutants, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 90, Issue 8, June 2009, Pages 2715-2729, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.02.016. 4. J.A. Salmond, I.G. McKendry, Secondary ozone maxima in a very stable nocturnal boundary layer: observations from the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 36, Issue 38, December 2002, Pages 5771-5782, 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00698-2.

  5. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    , without fenestration, lacking bulla, and underbridge. Vulval lips protruded, cuticular pattern of vulval cone with a tuberculate area (Fig. 2B), and vagina embedded into vulval lips. The second-stage juveniles cylindrical and slender, hemispherical cephalic framework, with three lines in lateral field, well-developed rounded stylet knobs, tail conoid tapring to fine rounded terminus, phasmids posterior to anus. The cyst measurements were (n = 21) length 502 ± 70 (420 to 640) µm; width = 408 ± 60 (320 to 520) µm; length/width = 1.23 ± 0.09 (1.07 to 1.5) µm. The morphometric characters of vulval cone were measured (n = 7): fenestral length = 62.4 ± 6.5 (51 to 71) µm; fenestral width = 50.7 ± 3.2 (45 to 54) µm; vulval slit = 51.9 ± 4.3 (46 to 59) µm; distance from vulva to anus = 51.3 ± 4.4 (43 to 56) µm. Second-stage juveniles showed the following morphometric characters (n = 14): L = 455 ± 11.3 (437 to 472) µm; a = 29.9 ± 0.9 (28.3 to 31.5); b΄ = 2.7 ± 0.4 (2.2 to 3.5); c = 7.4 ± 0.9 (6 to 8.9); ć = 6.1 ± 0.4 (5.1 to 6.7); lip region height = 3 µm; lip region width = 7.5 ± 0.5 (7 to 8) µm; stylet length = 18.1 ± 0.5 (17 to 19) µm; anterior end to median bulb = 72.2 ± 1.7 (70 to 75) µm; anterior end to secretory-excretory pore = 99.7 ± 2.5 (96 to 103) µm; maximum body width = 15.2 ± 0.4 (15 to 16) µm; body width at anus = 10.1 ± 1 (8 to 11) µm; tail length = 62.0 ± 6.9 (51 to 74) µm; hyaline part of tail = 44.0 ± 1.8 (40 to 47) µm. The egg measurements for 11 individuals were length = 102.5 ± 7.9 (93 to 119) µm; width = 39.3 ± 4.2 (33 to 46) µm; length/width = 2.6 ± 0.3 (2.0 to 3.1). The morphology, morphometric characters and molecular data of the population of H. koreana isolated from bamboo in Iran are in agreement with those previously reported for this species (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). At present, five species of Heterodera belonging to the Cyperi and Afenestrata groups were reported from bamboo, H

  6. 195首治疗乳腺增生中药专利复方的用药规律分析%Study on Medication Patterns of Chinese Patent Medicine among 195 Breast Hyperplasia Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 邓家刚; 蒋筱; 范丽丽; 赵晓芳; 郭超峰

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用数据挖掘技术中关联规则、聚类等方法分析乳腺增生中药专利复方配伍规律。方法:检索治疗乳腺增生中药专利复方,排除外用中药及中西药物合用的复方。对入选的中药专利复方进行术语规范化等处理,抽取信息、建立EXCEL表,应用数据分析软件包R2.15.2对数据进行关联规则分析,网络分析软件Cytoscape2.8.3聚类分析组方配伍规律。结果:195首治疗乳腺增生的中药专利复方中,发现配伍频数较高的中药为柴胡、香附、当归、夏枯草、白芍、栝蒌等;而出现频数极低且不常用的中药为八角枫叶、白鹤草等;常用的药对为柴胡-当归、莪术-三棱、乳香-没药等;强关联规则提示以柴胡、当归等核心药物组成的逍遥散为治疗乳腺增生的基本方;聚类分析结果发现连翘-土茯苓-三桠苦-功劳木-鸡血藤等“中药社团”。结论:通过对药物频数、药对、强关联规则、药物聚类的分析,可以揭示乳腺增生组方的配伍规律,为临床优化处方、提高疗效提供参考依据。%This study was aimed to reveal the medication patterns of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia based on association rules and clustering of data mining technology. Articles on Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia were retrieved from databases. External formulas or those mixed with western drugs were excluded. Terminologies in the selected formulas were standardized. Information was extracted to build excelltables. Association rules analysis and cluster analysis were used to reveal the medication patterns of Chi-nese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia with software R2.15.2 and Cytoscape 2.8.3. The results showed that Chinese medicinals with higher frequency in 195 formulas were Radix bupleuri, Rhizoma cyperi, Chinese Angelica, Selfheal, White Peony Root, Trichosanthes

  7. Clinical Observation of Depression Treated with Jieyu Decoction and Psychological Intervention%解郁汤配合心理干预治疗郁病的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy on depression treated with jieyu decoction and physiological intervention. Methods 66 patients with depression in the psychiatric clinic of traditional Chinese medicine were randomized into two groups according to visiting sequence. In the control group( 33 cases ), the rational emotive therapy in the cognitive therapeutic program was adopted in four phases, named psychological diagnosis,understanding,emotive repairing - cultivating and re - educating,50 min each time, once per day. In the treatment group( 33 cases ),on the basis of the treatment as the control group,jieyu decoction was supplemented. The ingredients; radix bupleuri 10 g,angelica sinensis 15 g,radix paeoniae alba 15 g,poria cocos 15 g, rhizome atractylodis macrocephalae 15 g,menthe haplocalyx 6 g,lotus plumule 15 g,fruc-tus aurantii 10 g,rhizome cyperi 9 g,stir -fried jujube 30 g,caulis polygoni multiflori 30 g,pericarpium citri reticulatae 9 g, radix glycyrrhizae preparata 9 g. The decoction was prepared one dose a day, adding 600 mL water, boiled till 200 mL left. The decoction was taken every morning and evening at warm temperature. The cases in either group were treated for 4 weeks as 1 session. Results In the treatment group, 12 cases were cured, 17 cases improved significantly, 3 cases improved and 1 case failed. The total effective rate was 96. 97%. In the control group,5 cases were cured, 10 cases improved significantly, 10 cases improved and 8 cases failed. The total effective rate was 75.76%. The clinical efficacy was different significantly in statistics between two groups( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Jieyu decoction combined with psychological intervention a-chieves the significant efficacy on depression.%目的 观察解郁汤配合心理干预治疗郁病的临床疗效.方法 将在本院中医心理门诊就诊的郁病患者66例按照就诊顺序随机分为两组,对照组33例采用认知疗法中的合理情绪疗法,分心理诊断

  8. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Moxibustion in Treating 128 Cases of Spleen Kidney Yang Deficiency Type Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced Infertility%中药加艾灸治疗脾肾阳虚型多囊卵巢综合征不孕128例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许玉刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with moxibustion therapy on pa-tients with spleen kidney yang deficiency type of polycystic ovary syndrome induced infertility.Methods:Two hundred and fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into observation group (n=128)and control group (n=122).The control group a-dopted Ethinylestradiol and Cyproterone Acetate Tablets treatment,and observation group gave patients warming kidney and invigorating spleen herbs (Xianmao,Ligustrum lucidum,medlar,dodder seed,polygonatum rhizome,dangshen,wine,vinegar Rhizoma Cyperi,epime-dium,angelica,licorice root,Cornu Cervi degelatinatum)combined with Moxibustion (Guan Yuan,Qihai and Zusanli)treatment.The hormone levels (T,LH,FSH,and E2 ),follicle number,basal body temperature changes and pregnancy rates were ovserved.Results:The clinical curative rates of the observation group and the control group were respectively 42.97%and 20.49%,and the total effective rate were 87.50%and 74.59%;the normal rate of recovery of basal body temperature were 67.97%and 40.98%;pregnancy rate were re-spectively 53.13% and 26.23%;all the above indicators between the two groups showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01).T,LH and FSH levels decreased after treatment in both groups,and E2 levels were elevated,and the differences were statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05 ).After treatment,left and right side ovarian antral follicle number of patients in the obser-vation group was lower than the control group,group comparison,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 ).Conclusion:Wenshen Jianpi herbs combined with moxibustion therapy on spleen kidney yang deficiency type of polycystic ovary syndrome shows bet-ter clinical curative effect than ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate tablets in patients with infertility,it can significantly improve hor-mone levels,basal body temperature,reduce the