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Sample records for carolinaia cyperi ainslie

  1. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge on the Highveld of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Naude

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30 % drop in milk yield occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n = 240 and n = 150 milking cows, respectively on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n = 5 fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28 % on dry matter base of the TMR. The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively. The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that

  2. Claviceps cyperi, a new cause of severe ergotism in dairy cattle consuming maize silage and teff hay contaminated with ergotised Cyperus esculentus (nut sedge) on the Highveld of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudè, T W; Botha, C J; Vorster, J H; Roux, C; Van der Linde, E J; Van der Walt, S I; Rottinghaus, G E; Van Jaarsveld, L; Lawrence, A N

    2005-03-01

    During December/January 1996/97 typical summer syndrome (hyperthermia and a 30% drop in milk yield) occurred in succession in two Holstein dairy herds (n=240 and n=150 milking cows, respectively) on the South African Highveld. These farms are situated in the midst of the prime maize and dairy farming areas of South Africa where this condition had never been diagnosed before. The individual components of the concentrate on both farms were negative for ergot alkaloids. Endophytic fungi and/or ergot infestation of teff and other grasses fed to the cows were then suspected of being involved, but neither endophytes nor ergot alkaloids could be implicated from these sources. By measuring the serum prolactin levels of groups of sheep (n=5) fed the first farm's total mixed ration (TMR) or its three individual fibre components for a period of 11 days, the source of the ergot alkaloids was identified. A statistically significant decrease in the level of this hormone occurred only in the group on maize silage (which constituted 28% on dry matter base of the TMR). The involvement of the maize silage was further chemically confirmed by the high levels of total ergot alkaloids, predominantly ergocryptine, found by LC-MS in the silage as well as in the TMR (115-975 ppb and 65-300 ppb, respectively). The ergot alkaloid content (mainly ergocryptine) of the maize silage on the second affected farm was 875 ppb. Withdrawal of contaminated silage resulted in gradual recovery of stock on both farms. Nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus of the family Cyperaceae) has a world-wide distribution and is a common weed in annual crops, and can be parasitized by Claviceps cyperi. Careful examination of the maize silage from both farms revealed that it was heavily contaminated with nut sedge and that it contained minute sclerotia, identified as those of Claviceps cyperi, originating from the latter. Nut sedge was abundant on both farms and it is believed that late seasonal rain had

  3. Salisbury open drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Murmur (2012) selected for this national juried exhibition of contemporary drawing. Selectors include Professor Stephen Farthing and Meryl Ainslie (Director Rabley Drawing Centre). Artists were invited to submit works which challenge conventional definitions of drawing.

  4. 香附醋制前后香附烯酮、圆柚酮和α-香附酮的含量比较%Contents Comparison of Cyperotundone, Nootkatone and α-Cyperone in Cyperi Rhizoma Before and After Vinegar Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢君蓉; 李文兵; 王世宇; 傅超美; 周莉江; 严鑫; 季宁平

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究醋制对香附中3种特征性成分香附烯酮、圆柚酮和α-香附酮含量的影响.方法:采用HPLC测定醋制前后不同产地香附中3种成分的含量,Phenomenex C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇-水(68∶ 32),检测波长242 nm,流速1.0 mL· min-,柱温30℃.结果:建立的含量测定方法稳定可靠,香附烯酮、圆柚酮及α-香附酮线性范围依次为0.260 ~0.912,0.028 ~0.098,0.082~ 0.286 μg;平均回收率分别为98.34%,97.87%,99.12%,RSD依次为1.48%,2.03%,1.37%.11个产地香附生品中香附烯酮、圆柚酮和α-香附酮的质量分数分别为1.52 ~4.80,0.04 ~0.20,0.70 ~ 1.99 mg·g-;醋制后3种成分质量分数依次为1.55 ~4.96,0.04~ 0.19,0.61 ~1.97 mg·g-1.结论:不同产地香附中3种成分含量差异较大,醋制后香附烯酮含量升高,圆柚酮和α-香附酮含量降低,为香附的醋制机制研究提供参考.

  5. Poverty and Self-Control

    OpenAIRE

    B. Douglas Bernheim; Debraj Ray; Sevin Yeltekin

    2013-01-01

    The absence of self-control is often viewed as an important correlate of persistent poverty. Using a standard intertemporal allocation problem with credit constraints faced by an individual with quasi-hyperbolic preferences, we argue that poverty damages the ability to exercise self-control. Our theory invokes George Ainslie’s notion of "personal rules," interpreted as subgame-perfect equilibria of an intrapersonal game played by a time-inconsistent decision maker. Our main result pertains ...

  6. CONSIDERING SOME BEHAVIORAL ECONOMIC ISSUES CONCERNING THE DILEMMA OF CUSTOMERS BUYING SMARTPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    POGORELIY M.YU.

    2015-01-01

    DIFFERENT BRANDS ARE REPRESENTED ON THE SMARTPHONE MARKET. IN THIS ARTICLE, THE AUTHOR REFERS TO THE STUDY OF THE DILEMMA, WHICH IS DETERMINED BY THE CUSTOMER’S CHOICE OF ONE OR ANOTHER MANUFACTURER OF SMARTPHONES. GENERAL THEORETICAL APPROACH IS BASED ON THE SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE SCIENTISTS: MITCHELL, W. (1914). CLARK, J.M., (1918). KATONA, G. (1980). LEIBENSTEIN, H. (1985). SIMON, H. A. (1978). GILAD, B., KAISH, S. (EDS.), (1986). AINSLIE, G. (1992). CAMERER, C. F, (1985). KIM P. CORFMAN ...

  7. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  8. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  9. Models of Temporal Discounting 1937-2000: An Interdisciplinary Exchange between Economics and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2015-12-01

    Today's models of temporal discounting are the result of multiple interdisciplinary exchanges between psychology and economics. Although these exchanges did not result in an integrated discipline, they had important effects on all disciplines involved. The paper describes these exchanges from the 1930s onwards, focusing on two episodes in particular: an attempted synthesis by psychiatrist George Ainslie and others in the 1970s; and the attempted application of this new discounting model by a generation of economists and psychologists in the 1980s, which ultimately ended in the diversity of measurements disappointment. I draw four main conclusions. First, multiple notions of temporal discounting must be conceptually distinguished. Second, behavioral economics is not an integration or unification of psychology and economics. Third, the analysis identifies some central disciplinary markers that distinguish modeling strategies in economics and psychology. Finally, it offers a case of interdisciplinary success that does not fit the currently dominant account of interdisciplinarity as integration. PMID:26554646

  10. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master Yan Zhenghua from prescriptions with citri reticulatae pericarpium based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Sheng, Xiao-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. After analyzed by data mining, such as apriori algorithm, the frequency of single medicine, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules between drugs and core drug combinations can be get from the database. Through the analysis of 1 027 prescriptions with pericarpium citri reticulatae, these prescriptions were commonly used to treat stomach aches, cough and other syndromes. The most frequency drug combinations were "Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria", "Paeoniae Radix Rubra-Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium" and so on. The drug association rules that the confidence was 1 were "Glycyrrhizae Radix ex Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Paeoniae Alba Radix-Cyperi Rhizoma --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", "Poria --> Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium", and so on. The drugs in the prescriptions containing pericarpium citri reticulatae that built by Professor Yan mostly had the effects of regulating the flow of Qi and invigorate blood circulation, which reflected the clearly thought when making prescriptions. PMID:25204133

  11. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making. PMID:24744719

  12. A High Density Ground-Level Ozone Sensor Network in the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, M.; Ainslie, B.; Alavi, M.; Henshaw, G.; McKendry, I.; Reid, K.; Salmond, J. A.; Steyn, D.; Williams, D.

    2012-12-01

    quality using data from neighbouring sensors and nearby MetroVancouver reference ozone monitors is also described. 1. D.G. Steyn, J.W. Bottenheim, R.B. Thomson, Overview of tropospheric ozone in the Lower Fraser Valley, and the Pacific '93 field study, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 31, Issue 14, July 1997, Pages 2025-2035, 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00018-6. 2. I.G. McKendry, D.G. Steyn, J. Lundgren, R.M. Hoff, W. Strapp, K. Anlauf, F. Froude, J.B. Martin, R.M. Banta, L.D. Olivier, Elevated ozone layers and vertical down-mixing over the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 31, Issue 14, July 1997, Pages 2135-2146, 10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00127-6. 3. B. Ainslie, C. Reuten, D.G. Steyn, Nhu D. Le, James V. Zidek, Application of an entropy-based Bayesian optimization technique to the redesign of an existing monitoring network for single air pollutants, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 90, Issue 8, June 2009, Pages 2715-2729, 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.02.016. 4. J.A. Salmond, I.G. McKendry, Secondary ozone maxima in a very stable nocturnal boundary layer: observations from the Lower Fraser Valley, BC, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 36, Issue 38, December 2002, Pages 5771-5782, 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00698-2.

  13. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

  14. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    , without fenestration, lacking bulla, and underbridge. Vulval lips protruded, cuticular pattern of vulval cone with a tuberculate area (Fig. 2B), and vagina embedded into vulval lips. The second-stage juveniles cylindrical and slender, hemispherical cephalic framework, with three lines in lateral field, well-developed rounded stylet knobs, tail conoid tapring to fine rounded terminus, phasmids posterior to anus. The cyst measurements were (n = 21) length 502 ± 70 (420 to 640) µm; width = 408 ± 60 (320 to 520) µm; length/width = 1.23 ± 0.09 (1.07 to 1.5) µm. The morphometric characters of vulval cone were measured (n = 7): fenestral length = 62.4 ± 6.5 (51 to 71) µm; fenestral width = 50.7 ± 3.2 (45 to 54) µm; vulval slit = 51.9 ± 4.3 (46 to 59) µm; distance from vulva to anus = 51.3 ± 4.4 (43 to 56) µm. Second-stage juveniles showed the following morphometric characters (n = 14): L = 455 ± 11.3 (437 to 472) µm; a = 29.9 ± 0.9 (28.3 to 31.5); b΄ = 2.7 ± 0.4 (2.2 to 3.5); c = 7.4 ± 0.9 (6 to 8.9); ć = 6.1 ± 0.4 (5.1 to 6.7); lip region height = 3 µm; lip region width = 7.5 ± 0.5 (7 to 8) µm; stylet length = 18.1 ± 0.5 (17 to 19) µm; anterior end to median bulb = 72.2 ± 1.7 (70 to 75) µm; anterior end to secretory-excretory pore = 99.7 ± 2.5 (96 to 103) µm; maximum body width = 15.2 ± 0.4 (15 to 16) µm; body width at anus = 10.1 ± 1 (8 to 11) µm; tail length = 62.0 ± 6.9 (51 to 74) µm; hyaline part of tail = 44.0 ± 1.8 (40 to 47) µm. The egg measurements for 11 individuals were length = 102.5 ± 7.9 (93 to 119) µm; width = 39.3 ± 4.2 (33 to 46) µm; length/width = 2.6 ± 0.3 (2.0 to 3.1). The morphology, morphometric characters and molecular data of the population of H. koreana isolated from bamboo in Iran are in agreement with those previously reported for this species (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). At present, five species of Heterodera belonging to the Cyperi and Afenestrata groups were reported from bamboo, H

  15. Clinical Observation of Depression Treated with Jieyu Decoction and Psychological Intervention%解郁汤配合心理干预治疗郁病的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy on depression treated with jieyu decoction and physiological intervention. Methods 66 patients with depression in the psychiatric clinic of traditional Chinese medicine were randomized into two groups according to visiting sequence. In the control group( 33 cases ), the rational emotive therapy in the cognitive therapeutic program was adopted in four phases, named psychological diagnosis,understanding,emotive repairing - cultivating and re - educating,50 min each time, once per day. In the treatment group( 33 cases ),on the basis of the treatment as the control group,jieyu decoction was supplemented. The ingredients; radix bupleuri 10 g,angelica sinensis 15 g,radix paeoniae alba 15 g,poria cocos 15 g, rhizome atractylodis macrocephalae 15 g,menthe haplocalyx 6 g,lotus plumule 15 g,fruc-tus aurantii 10 g,rhizome cyperi 9 g,stir -fried jujube 30 g,caulis polygoni multiflori 30 g,pericarpium citri reticulatae 9 g, radix glycyrrhizae preparata 9 g. The decoction was prepared one dose a day, adding 600 mL water, boiled till 200 mL left. The decoction was taken every morning and evening at warm temperature. The cases in either group were treated for 4 weeks as 1 session. Results In the treatment group, 12 cases were cured, 17 cases improved significantly, 3 cases improved and 1 case failed. The total effective rate was 96. 97%. In the control group,5 cases were cured, 10 cases improved significantly, 10 cases improved and 8 cases failed. The total effective rate was 75.76%. The clinical efficacy was different significantly in statistics between two groups( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Jieyu decoction combined with psychological intervention a-chieves the significant efficacy on depression.%目的 观察解郁汤配合心理干预治疗郁病的临床疗效.方法 将在本院中医心理门诊就诊的郁病患者66例按照就诊顺序随机分为两组,对照组33例采用认知疗法中的合理情绪疗法,分心理诊断