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Sample records for carolina bottomland hardwood

  1. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  2. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

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    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  3. Survey of understory plant diversity in mature bottomland hardwood tracts in the Mississippi Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This research was designed to collect data on the understory plant composition of remnant bottomland hardwood forest tracts on accessible public lands in the LMAV...

  4. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  5. Breeding biology of Acadian flycatchers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    From 1993-1995, we located and monitored 601 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in a large contiguous tract of bottomland hardwood forest on the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas. Annual reproductive success was significantly different among years; ranging from 10-25% (Mayfield estimate) over the three years of the study. There was no significant difference in nest success among study plots, with nesting success showing a trend of increasing late in the breeding season. Clutch size for non-parasitized nests averaged 2.9 ? 0.02 (SE) eggs with a mode of 3. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were low (21%), accounting for 7% of all nest failures. However, parasitism by cowbirds resulted in a reduction of clutch size for nests initiated early (i.e., first nests and replacements) in the breeding season. Predation was the leading cause of nest failures, accounting for 75% of all failures. Snakes and avian predators were thought to be the leading cause of nest failures. Although additional factors must be investigated, preliminary results indicate that nest predation is a major influence on this population, despite the size of the forest tract.

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  7. Influences of Herbivory and Canopy Opening Size on Forest Regeneration in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination of the effects on white-tail deer browsing and canopy opening size on relative abundance and diversity of woody and herbaceous regeneration in various sized forest openings in a Southern bottomland hardwood forest over three growing seasons (1995-1997). Herbaceous richness, diversity or evenness did not differ among exclosure types in any year of the study. Overall browsing rates on both woody and herbaceous vegetation were low throughout all the three years of the study. Low browsing rates reflect seasonal changes in habitat use by deer. Other factors may have influenced the initial vegetative response more than herbivory or gap size

  8. Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

  9. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  10. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  11. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of forest disturbance on C cycling has become an issue, given concerns about escalating atmospheric C content. The authors examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and laboratory mineral soil respiration in an East Texas bottomland hardwood forest between 6 and 22 mo after harvesting. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut wherein approximately 58% of the basal area was removed, and an unharvested control. The soda-lime absorption technique was used for in situ respiration (CO2 efflux) and the wet alkali method (NaOH) was used for laboratory mineral soil respiration. Soil temperature and moisture content were also measured. Harvesting significantly increased in situ respiration during most sampling periods. This effect was attributed to an increase in live root and microflora activity associated with postharvesting revegetation. In situ respiration increased exponentially (Q10 relationship) as treatment soil temperatures increased, but followed a parabolic-type pattern through the range of soil moisture measured (mean range 10.4--31.5%). Mean rates of laboratory mineral soil respiration measured during the study were unaffected by cutting treatment for most sampling sessions. Overall, the mean rate of CO2 efflux in the clearcuts was significantly higher than that in the partial cuts, which in turn was significantly higher than that in the controls. Mass balance estimates indicate that these treatment differences will have little or no long-term effect on C sequestration of these managed forests

  12. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  13. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are

  14. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  15. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  16. Point counts of birds in bottomland hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Duration, minimal sample size, and points versus visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.; Cooper, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of point count surveys in bottomland hardwood forests. The specific objectives were to determine: (1) whether the recommended distance measures for point count circular plots are useful in bottomland hardwood forests, (2) the optimum duration for each point count, (3) the optimum number of points to sample at each locality, (4) the optimum number of counts at each point during a season, and (5) the minimum sample size to accomodate the variation in bird species distribution and relative abundance throughout the lower MAV.

  17. Quantifying the Role of Bottomland Hardwood Forest Flood Attenuation in the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Bulliner, E. A.; Freeman, G. W.; Scollan, D. P.; Romine, J.; Chinnasamy, P.; Huang, D.; Schulz, J.

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary floodplain management is a growing concern, particularly in regions where climate change predictions include increased precipitation such as the central U.S. and Missouri. Historically, bottomland hardwood forests (BHF) played a significant role in runoff and flood attenuation. However, most of the floodplain BHF in Missouri was removed in the 19th and 20th centuries to cultivate the rich underlying soils. In many instances, BHF conversion required the installation of drainage and flood control structures, such as drainage tiles, ditches, levees, and dams. Many stream and river channels were straightened and enlarged to further reduce flooding. Structural changes, coupled with changes in vegetation and soils, drastically altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and the remnant BHF. Today, century-old management practices are coming under scrutiny in the Midwest in terms of management efficacy in contemporary urbanizing watersheds. Therefore, work is being conducted in central Missouri to quantify current floodplain flow attenuation of a 303(d) listed impaired urban stream. Instrumentation was installed in lower reaches of the Hinkson Creek Watershed (230km2) in the spring of 2010 in a case study comparing a remnant BHF and an abandoned agricultural floodplain site using replicated study designs. Instrumentation includes two 80 m2 grids of nine equally spaced four meter deep piezometers to monitor groundwater flow and volumetric water content (VWC) sensor profiles that monitor VWC at 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth. Grids were enlarged to 120 m2 to measure leaf area index (LAI), surface infiltration capacity with double ring infiltrometers, and soil characteristics. Soil characteristics were quantified by extracting soil cores at soil depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302). LAI in the BHF was on average 3.06 (SD = 0.65, min = 1.31, max = 4.38, n = 42). Preliminary analysis indicates that average infiltration capacity is 44 cm/hr (SD = 38

  18. Sample size and allocation of effort in point count sampling of birds in bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Cooper, R.J.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Hamel, P.B.; Ford, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    To examine sample size requirements and optimum allocation of effort in point count sampling of bottomland hardwood forests, we computed minimum sample sizes from variation recorded during 82 point counts (May 7-May 16, 1992) from three localities containing three habitat types across three regions of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Also, we estimated the effect of increasing the number of points or visits by comparing results of 150 four-minute point counts obtained from each of four stands on Delta Experimental Forest (DEF) during May 8-May 21, 1991 and May 30-June 12, 1992. For each stand, we obtained bootstrap estimates of mean cumulative number of species each year from all possible combinations of six points and six visits. ANOVA was used to model cumulative species as a function of number of points visited, number of visits to each point, and interaction of points and visits. There was significant variation in numbers of birds and species between regions and localities (nested within region); neither habitat, nor the interaction between region and habitat, was significant. For a = 0.05 and a = 0.10, minimum sample size estimates (per factor level) varied by orders of magnitude depending upon the observed or specified range of desired detectable difference. For observed regional variation, 20 and 40 point counts were required to accommodate variability in total individuals (MSE = 9.28) and species (MSE = 3.79), respectively, whereas ? 25 percent of the mean could be achieved with five counts per factor level. Sample size sufficient to detect actual differences of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) was >200, whereas the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) required <10 counts. Differences in mean cumulative species were detected among number of points visited and among number of visits to a point. In the lower MAV, mean cumulative species increased with each added point through five points and with each additional visit through four visits

  19. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  20. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  1. Effect of hydrological conditions on nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide dynamics in a bottomland hardwood forest and its implication for soil carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Baldwin, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at three locations in a bottomland hardwood forest with a distinct elevation and hydrological gradient: ridge (high, dry), transition, and swamp (low, wet). At each location, concentrations of soil greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 , and CO2), their fluxes to the atmosphere, and soil redox potential (Eh) were measured bimonthly, while the water table was monitored every day. Results show that soil Eh was significantly (P transition > ridge location. The ratio CO2/CH4 production in soil is a critical factor for evaluating the overall benefit of soil C sequestration, which can be greatly offset by CH4 production and emission. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  2. Home range behavior among box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) of a bottomland forest in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) in a Maryland bottomland forest were studied over a period of years (1944-1981). Home ranges of 51 males averaged 146 + SD 48 m long and 105 + SD 38 m wide; ranges of 52 females averaged 144 + SD 52 m long and 100 + SD 38 m wide. An approximation of average home range size, based on an ellipse, is 1.20 ha for males and 1.13 ha for females. Sizes of home ranges of individuals did not differ significantly between 1945 and the full term of their captures (0 =14 yr) (AOV; P > 0.05). Mean distance between capture sites, which provides an index to range size, was not significantly different among the years of 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1975 (AOV; P > 0.05). Geographic centers of ranges of 77 males in the bottomlands showed no significant (AOV; P > 0.05) change for 46, and change over relatively short distances (0 =57 + SD 23 m) for the others. Among 70 females, there was no significant change for 46 and change over short distances (0=61 + SD 24 m) for the others. Changes in location were more frequent between 1965 and 1975, a period of pronounced population decline, than between previous decades (significant only for females, x2 P < 0.025). Hibernation sites ordinarily (21 of 23 Individuals) were within the normal bottom]and range; hibernation sites of different years were near each other (all of 4 individuals). In contrast, nesting sites were far distant, extending the home range by 400-700 m, but those of different years were near each other (6 individuals). Mating partners occupied broadly overlapping or contiguous ranges (35 records). Interactions between males (18 records) were identical to courtship behavior, and are believed not to represent territorial aggression.

  3. Sampling bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Number of points visited versus number of visits to a point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Smith, W.P.; Cooper, R.J.; Ford, R.P.; Hamel, P.B.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Within each of 4 forest stands on Delta Experimental Forest (DEF), 25 points were visited 5 to 7 times from 8 May to 21 May 1991, and 6 times from 30 May to 12 June 1992. During each visit to a point, all birds detected, visuallyor aurally, at any distance were recorded during a 4-minute interval. Using these data, our objectives were to recommend the number of point counts and the number of visits to a point which provide the greatest efficiency for estimating the cumulative number of species in bottomland hardwood forest stands within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and to ascertain if increasing the number of visits to points is equivalent to adding more points. Because the total number of species detected in DEF were different between years, 39 species in 1991 and 55 species in 1992, we considered each year independently. Within each stand, we obtained bootstrap estimates of the mean cumulative number of species obtained from all possible combinations of six points and six visits (i.e., 36 means/stand). These bootstrap estimates were subjected to ANOVA; we modelled cumulative number of species as a function of the number of points visited, the number of visits to each point, and their interaction. As part of the same ANOVA we made an a priori, simultaneous comparison of the 15 possible reciprocal treatments (i.e., 1 point-2 visits vs. 2 points-1 visit, etc.). Results of analyses for each year were similar. Although no interaction was detected between the number of points and the number of visits, when reciprocals were compared, more points visited yielded significantly greater cumulative number of species than more visits to each point. Significant differences were detected among both the number of points visited and among the number of visits to a point. Scheffe's test of differences among means indicated that the cumulative number of species increased significantly with each added point, through five points, but six points did not differ from five points in

  4. Bottomland Hardwood Forest Influence on Floodplain Hydrology and Stream Bank Stability in an Urbanizing Watershed of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Zell, C.; Huang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) to agricultural and urban land uses in the 19th and 20th centuries altered the hydrology of streams, floodplains, and remnant BHF. Broadened and steepened stream channels lead to increased channel instability, accelerated erosion, and reduced floodplain hydrologic connectivity. A case study was implemented to investigate floodplain and stream hydrogeomorphological processes comparing a remnant BHF and Ag site (sites = 0.90 km apart). 120 m2 grids were established to estimate canopy cover (LAI = 3.1), soil characteristics by the soil core method at depths of 0, 15, 30, 50, 75 and 100 cm (n = 302), and surface soil infiltration capacity (n = 42). 80 m2 grids (each site) were implemented with nine equally spaced piezometers to estimate shallow groundwater depth and flow. Stream bank erosion study sites were located adjacent to BHF and agricultural floodplain study sites using the erosion pin method (10 pin plots, n = 342 pins). Results indicate average porosity (n = 150) of 0.56 (SD = 0.04) and 0.59 (SD = 0.04) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Average infiltration capacity was 44 cm/hr (SD = 38 cm/hr) and 59 cm/hr (SD = 54 cm/hr) in agricultural and BHF sites, respectively. Depth integrated calculations of equivalent depth of soil water (EDSW) were significantly different (CI = 99%) 33.3 cm/m (SD = 2.24 cm/m) and 36.9 cm/m (SD = 2.68 cm/m) between Ag and BHF sites, respectively. Shallow groundwater analyses (Water Year 2011) indicated that average head at the BHF and Ag sites increased by approximately 0.25 m, and 0.50 m, respectively 90 m inland from the streambank. Stream bank erosion results showed that during a drier (762 mm) than average (10yr avg = 1077 mm) rainfall year (Water Year 2011), 15.7 and 177.8 tonnes of soil erosion occurred on the right side (facing downstream) stream banks of the BHF and Ag sites, respectively. Average bank erosion depth measured at the BHF and Ag sites was 18 and 112 mm

  5. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Evans; Richard Odom; Lynn Resler; W. Mark Ford; Steve Prisley

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species co...

  6. 2013 Field Report For: Bat Occurrence Relative to Silvicultural Treatments Intended to Yield Desired Forest Conditions for Priority Wildlife Species in Bottomland Hardwood Forests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Draft report describes acoustically sampling for bats and estimation of flying insect biomass within various hardwood forests stand condictions of the MAV. Efforts...

  7. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  8. Developing a topographic model to predict the northern hardwood forest type within Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) recovery areas of the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Odom, Richard H.; Resler, Lynn M.; Ford, W. Mark; Prisley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  9. Seasonal bird use of canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Liessa, T,; Moorman, Christopher, E.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT.—Bird use of small canopy gaps within mature forests has not been well studied, particularly across multiple seasons. We investigated seasonal differences in bird use of gap and forest habitat within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Gaps were 0.13- to 0.5-ha, 7- to 8-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings. Our study occurred during four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration) in 2001 and 2002. We used plot counts and mist netting to estimate bird abundance in canopy gaps and surrounding mature forest habitats. Using both survey methods, we observed more birds, including forest-interior species, forest-edge species, field-edge species, and several individual species in canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all periods. Interactions between period and habitat type often were significant in models, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Bird activity generally shifted between the interior of canopy gaps and the immediate gap edge, but many species increased their use of forested habitat during the breeding period. This suggests that many species of birds selectively choose gap and gap-edge habitat over surrounding mature forest during the non-breeding period. Creation of small canopy gaps within a mature forest may increase local bird species richness. The reasons for increased bird activity in gaps remain unclear.

  10. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

  11. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  12. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  13. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  14. Tree-Roost Characteristics of Subadult and Female Adult Bats (Nyctieius humeralis) in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.

    2000-02-07

    Tree-roost of evening bats were identified by radio tracking of 14 individuals at the SRS. Bats roosted in longleaf pine cavities under exfoliating bark in snags near beaver ponds. The roosting occurred in open park like stands. No evening bats roosted in the more dense bottomland hardwood stands or mixed pine hardwood stands. None were observed in loblolly stands.

  15. Invertebrate resources in Mississippi hardwood bottomlands, moist-soil habitat, and flooded cropland: Completion report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of invertebrate resources in green tree reservoirs and seasonally-flooded crop fields at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge. Mean winter invertebrate...

  16. The effects of flooding and sedimentation on seed germination of two bottomland hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence tree species composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain tree species: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by species. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining tree species composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by species. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  18. White-Tailed Deer Browse Preferences in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined spring and summer use of browse by white-tailed deer in forest gaps created by group selection timber harvest at the SRS. Total percentage browse was low in both years, averaging 2.5% of the available browse. Six species were rated high use, 4 species as proportional use and 10 species as low use. Ratings were in agreement to others in the Southeast. Preferred species were maple, winged elm, greenbriar and black willow. Deer browse had very little impact on regeneration of most species

  19. Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project for the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Boatwright, N.I. III [Canal Environmental Services (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project was conducted as an initial step towards regenerating creek habitat on the Savannah River Site (SRS) that was damaged by past plant operating activities. Seed from various hardwood species was collected from the coastal plain of South Carolina (See Table 1). The contract required that seed collected from each tree be kept separate through processing and delivery. Height and dbh measurements and a photograph of each tree were also required. The contract procurement area was expanded eastward in an effort to alleviate problems associated with locating adequate seed sources in and around SRP.

  20. FRUIT ABUNDANCE AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING HERMIT THRUSHES (CATHARUS GUTTATUS) AND YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KWIT, CHARLES; LEVEY, DOUGLAS, J.; GREENBERG, CATHRYN, H.; PEARSON, SCOTT, F.; MCCARTY, JOHN, P.; SARGENT, SARAH; MUMME, RONALD, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Auk 121(1):46-57, 2004 We conducted winter censuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determine whether their local abundances could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland hardwood, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), longleaf pine (P. palustris), and young «10 years) longleaf pine. Hermit Thrush abundance, which was highest in bottomland hardwood habitats, was positively related to total dry mass of fruit pulp. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that resource availability affects the local distribution of migrant passerines on their wintering grounds. Our results also indicate that bottomland hardwood habitats in the southeastern United States may be especially important to wintering Hermit Thrushes. Yellow-rumped Warbler abundance was correlated with ripe-fruit pulp dry mass of Myrica cerifera, a major source of winter food for that species. However, because M. cerifera pulp dry mass was confounded with habitat type, we could not distinguish the relative importance of fruit resources and habitat for Yellow- rumped Warblers. Our results underscore the importance of fruit to wintering birds. However, the overall percentage of variation in winter bird abundance explained by differences in ripe-fruit biomass was modest, indicating that other factors are also important.

  1. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  2. Home Range and Habitat Use of Male Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined home range size and habitat use of four reproductively active male Rafinesque Big-eared bats in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September of 1999. Most foraging activity occurred during the first 4 hours after sunset and the first two hours before sunrise. Mean home range size was 93.1 hectares. Most foraging activity occurred in young pines even though large tracks of bottomland hardwood were available. Only 9% of foraging occurred in bottomland hardwoods

  3. Home Range and Habitat Use of Male Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Menzel, J.M.; Ford, W.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Carter, T.C.; Churchill, J.B.; Kilgo, J.C.

    2000-03-13

    We examined home range size and habitat use of four reproductively active male Rafinesque Big-eared bats in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September of 1999. Most foraging activity occurred during the first 4 hours after sunset and the first two hours before sunrise. Mean home range size was 93.1 hectares. Most foraging activity occurred in young pines even though large tracks of bottomland hardwood were available. Only 9% of foraging occurred in bottomland hardwoods.

  4. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  5. Modeling the Local Ecological Response to Regional Landscape and Global Change Forcings: A Case Study of Bioenergy in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Costanza, J. K.; Tarr, N. M.; Apt, R.; Rubino, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable energy policies in Europe have led to a growing market for bioenergy, and especially wood pellets, as a means to reduce fossil fuel emissions and the attendant socio-environmental consequences from climate change. However the introduction of this market has the potential to create significant negative ecological impacts whose costs are borne far from Europe. Because of its existing forest products infrastructure and resources, the Southeast US is viewed as an attractive supplier of wood pellets to Europe. Consequently, a new global telecoupling has developed between these two regions linking the natural capital of one region to the energy needs and greenhouse gas abatement policy of the other. Additionally, habitat for many important wildlife species in the Southeast lie within a rapidly urbanizing region characterized by low-density auto-dependent growth. Combined, these two forcings have the potential to rapidly degrade species-rich ecosystems. Here the ecological effects of increased European demand for wood pellets are examined in North Carolina. Future land use and vegetation change were projected using the results from linked urbanization, vegetation dynamics, life cycle analysis, and forest timber economics models. Ecological impacts as measured for 16 amphibian and avian species were evaluated under five bioenergy production scenarios and one urbanization-only scenario. Results indicate that highly vagile or upland species are able to take advantage of the increase in vegetated land cover, even if the majority of new habitat is in intensively managed forests. Conversely, more sessile and range-limited species, particularly those found in coastal plain systems such as bottomland hardwood forest, show steeper declines under the wood pellet scenarios than under the urbanization-only scenario. These results highlight the challenge of evaluating the sustainability of developing markets that seek to mitigate certain aspects of global environmental

  6. Improving Site Quality Estimates in the Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians with Environmental and Spatial Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Claudia Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the upland hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians, management tools are needed based on the characteristics of the site to quantify the site quality where no accurate maps of site quality exist. Three studies were conducted to achieve this objective. The first study tested if independent measures of forest productivity, based on vegetation and environment, in a six-county study area in the Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina would correlate with measures of forest productivity ob...

  7. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  8. Effect of Land Use on Soil Properties in Debris Flow Bottomland: A Case Study at Xiaojiang Basin, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiuying; LI Fadong; LIU Mengyu; SONG Xianfang; OU Guoqiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of different land use on soil physics and nutrients properties of the debris flow bottomland, a case study at Daqing gully (in Xiaojiang Basin, Yunnan) was conducted in 2004. Soil samples were taken at depth of 0-10,10-20,20-40,40-60,60-80 cm under three land use patterns crop bottomland(CL), forest bottomland(FL), and barren bottomland(BL). The results showed that the developing bottomland to CL promoted soil toaccumulate total phosphorus (TP) and available phosphorus (AP), pH value transferred from neutral to alkalescency, and organic matter decreased significantly. Furthermore, the contents of total nitrogen (TN) and available nitrogen (AN) in CL were lower than that of FL and BL because the growth of crops consumed more nutrients in soil. The results also showed that the contents of TP, AP and available potassium (AK) in soil were positively correlated with soil particle.

  9. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... notice in the Federal Register of October 3, 2012 (77 FR 60460). The conference was held in Washington... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair...

  10. Colour Homogenisation of Hardwood Species by Steaming

    OpenAIRE

    TOLVAJ, László; MOLNÁR, Sándor

    2006-01-01

    For colour homogenisation three hardwood species, black locust (Robinia pseudoacaciaL.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) were investigated. Steaming wasapplied to change the colour. Steaming parameters (steaming time and temperature) were varied tofind the optimum of treatment. The results are given in the CIE L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinate system.Black locust wood was most sensitive to the steaming temperature. With rising temperature, the colourchange was faster...

  11. Predicting Pallet Part Yields From Hardwood Cants

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Hal Lee

    1999-01-01

    Pallet cant quality directly impacts pallet part processing and material costs. By knowing the quality of the cants being processed, pallet manufacturers can predict costs to attain better value from their raw materials and more accurately price their pallets. The study objectives were 1) to develop a procedure for accurately predicting hardwood pallet part yield as a function of raw material geometry and grade, processing equipment, and pallet part geometry, 2) to develop a model for accur...

  12. Properties of recycled polypropylene based composites incorporating treated hardwood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Galia; Jaunslavietis, Jevgenijs; Ozolins, Jurijs; Neiberte, Brigita; Verovkins, Anrijs; Vitolina, Sanita; Shakels, Vadims

    2016-05-01

    The effect of different treatment of hardwood sawdust under mild conditions on contact angles, adhesion energy and water sorption was studied. A comparison of these indices for the hardwood treated sawdust and the composites filled with them was performed. The treatment promoted the compatibility between the recycled polypropylene and the hardwood filler. The inclusion of the lignin-based compatibiliser in the composite, containing the ammoxidised wood filler, essentially improved its mechanical properties.

  13. 78 FR 76857 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... notice in the Federal Register on June 19, 2013 (78 FR 36791). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... of imports of hardwood plywood from China provided for in subheading(s) 4412.10; 4412.31;...

  14. Soil Nitrogen Transformations and Availability in Upland Pine and Bottomland Alder Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Kyung Yoon; Nam Jin Noh; Haegeun Chung; A-Ram Yang; Yowhan Son

    2015-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) processes and inorganic N availability are closely coupled with ecosystem productivity and various ecological processes. Spatio-temporal variations and environmental effects on net N transformation rates and inorganic N concentrations in bulk soil and ion exchange resin were examined in an upland pine forest (UPF) and a bottomland alder forest (BAF), which were expected to have distinguishing N properties. The annual net N mineralization rate and nitrification rate (kg N·ha−...

  15. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate

  16. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate.

  17. Point Counts of Birds in Bottomland Hardwood Fotests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Duration, Minimum Sample Size, and Points Versus Visits

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provides guidelines concerning sampling effort to achieve appropriate level of precision regarding avian point count sampling in the MAV. To compare efficacy of...

  18. Bottomalnd hardwood reforestatoin plan Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plan describes anticipated hardwood reforestation activites on agricultural fields of Dahomey NWR form 1992 - 1995. Site selection, tree compositon and spacing are...

  19. Bottomalnd hardwood reforestatoin plan Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plan describes anticipated hardwood reforestation activites on agricultural fields of Dahomey NWR form 1992 1995. Site selection, tree compositon and spacing are...

  20. Agroforestry is promising for previously cleared hardwood rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    McCreary, Doug

    2001-01-01

    Livestock grazing is the primary economic use of most hardwood rangelands in the coastal foothills of California. But owners of these lands may be able to increase revenues by simultaneously producing two crops, trees and sheep. In 1993, we initiated an agroforestry project at the UC Hopland Research and Extension Center to study the ability of three pine species and one hybrid to grow on cleared hardwood rangelands that are grazed by sheep. This study also evaluated the response of planted s...

  1. The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisius Rio Mardikanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acoustical properties of four Indonesian tropical hardwood species were evaluated in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine acoustical parameters e.g. logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, sound velocity as well as density and wood stiffness; and to evaluate the potential of those species for acoustical purposes. Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia, Mahoni (Swietenia mahagony, Acacia (Acacia mangium and Manii wood (Maesopsis eminii were selected in this research. Three different cutting plane patterns of sawn timber (quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn were converted into small specimens. The methods for determining acoustical properties were longitudinal vibration testing and time of flight of ultrasonic wave method. The result showed no significant difference (α=0.05 of acoustical properties in logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, and ultrasonic velocity means on quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn for all wood species tested. We found that Mahoni and Sonokeling had good acoustical properties of logarithmic decrement, ultrasonic wave velocity, and ratio of wood stiffness to wood density; and is preferred for crafting musical instruments. Acacia and Manii woods are recommended for developing acoustic panels in building construction because those species possess higher sound absorption values.

  2. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  3. Evaluation of Methods to Control Mold on Hardwood Pallets

    OpenAIRE

    Blount, Thomas Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this project were:1.����To compare the drying cost and drying time for oak and poplar pallets for the following mold mitigation strategies for hardwood pallets: air drying, forced air drying (fan shed), kiln drying to 25% moisture content and chemical treatment, and2.����Develop and evaluate a procedure for preventing and controlling mold growth on heat treated hardwood palletsTwenty red oak pallets and twenty yellow-poplar pallets were tested for each drying...

  4. 78 FR 36791 - Hardwood Plywood From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of hardwood plywood... and decorative plywood. ``Hardwood and decorative plywood is a flat panel composed of an assembly...

  5. Utilization of EREP data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S190A, S190B, and S192 photographs and imagery were studied, using standard air-photo interpretation techniques supplemented by color additive viewing and density slicing. The EREP data were found to have potential usefulness for natural resource inventory work, water quality monitoring, and land use mapping for specific problems at scales up to 1:30,000. Distinctions between forest types in North Carolina are limited to conifers, mixed conifer-hardwoods, and hardwoods. Geologic interpretation was limited to detection of lineaments; lithologic differentiation and soil group mapping have proved infeasible in North Carolina except for differentiation of wetland soils in the coastal plain. Imagery from the S192 multispectral scanner has proved to be capable of useful discriminations for vegetation and crop analysis.

  6. Hardwood biochar influences calcareous soil physicochemical and microbiological status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of biochar application to calcareous soils are not well documented. In a laboratory incubation study, a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar was applied (0, 1, 2, and 10% by weight) to a calcareous soil. Changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, and microbial com...

  7. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level

  8. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  9. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  10. Interference interactions in experimental pine-hardwood stands

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericksen, Todd Simon

    1991-01-01

    Competition for resources and other interference from non-crop vegetation often limits the productivity of pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in the southern United States. However, forest researchers have yet to fully quantify the effect of this interference on forest tree yield and there is an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms of interference. To better quantify the effects of interference interactions and elucidate their mechanisms, a field replacement series experime...

  11. Herbicide Hardwood Crop Trees Release in Central West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kochenderfer, Jeffrey Davis

    1999-01-01

    Repeated partial cutting in the Appalachian hardwood region has often favored the development of tolerant species like American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and stands with a high proportion of cull trees. Crop tree release is a widely recommended practice to improve species composition and growth rates in these unevenaged structured stands. Chemical control offers some distinct advantages from the standpoint of safety and residual stand damage, over mechani...

  12. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  13. Soil Nitrogen Transformations and Availability in Upland Pine and Bottomland Alder Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrogen (N processes and inorganic N availability are closely coupled with ecosystem productivity and various ecological processes. Spatio-temporal variations and environmental effects on net N transformation rates and inorganic N concentrations in bulk soil and ion exchange resin were examined in an upland pine forest (UPF and a bottomland alder forest (BAF, which were expected to have distinguishing N properties. The annual net N mineralization rate and nitrification rate (kg N·ha−1·year−1 were within the ranges of 66.05–84.01 and 56.26–77.61 in the UPF and −17.22–72.24 and 23.98–98.74 in the BAF, respectively. In the BAF, which were assumed as N-rich conditions, the net N mineralization rate was suppressed under NH4+ accumulated soils and was independent from soil temperature. On the other hand, in the UPF, which represent moderately fertile N conditions, net N transformation rates and N availability were dependent to the generally known regulation by soil temperature and soil water content. Stand density might indirectly affect the N transformations, N availability, and ecosystem productivity through different soil moisture conditions. The differing patterns of different inorganic N indices provide useful insight into the N availability in each forest and potential applicability of ion exchange resin assay.

  14. Census Snapshot: North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in North Carolina. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in North Carolina. In many ways, the nearly 20,000 same-sex couples living in North Carolina are similar to marr...

  15. Census Snapshot: South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in South Carolina. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in South Carolina. In many ways, the more than 10,500 same-sex couples living in South Carolina are similar to married c...

  16. European Union Timber Regulation Impacts Global Hardwood Markets

    OpenAIRE

    PEPKE Ed; GIURCA Alexander; JONSSON KLAS HENRIK RAGNAR; Lovric, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Implemented in March 2013, the EU Timber Regulation is affecting hardwood exporters and importers. The EUTR requires proof of timber’s origin and legality to ensure that no illegal timber is imported into the EU. The EUTR is part of the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan, with its specific goal to end illegal logging, thereby improving sustainability of forest resources. To this end the EU intends to block imports of any wood or wood product which comes from...

  17. 78 FR 16250 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Amended... are being provided to producers and exporters of hardwood and decorative plywood from the...

  18. 77 FR 60460 - Hardwood Plywood From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of hardwood...

  19. 77 FR 66436 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR 65172 (October... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China... duty investigation of hardwood and decorative plywood from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\...

  20. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  1. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  2. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans

  3. Hardwood tree growth on amended mine soils in west virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Kokes, Lindsay; Delong, Curtis; Thomas, Calene; Emerson, Paul; O'Dell, Keith; Skousen, Jeff

    2013-09-01

    Each year surface mining in Appalachia disrupts large areas of forested land. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act requires coal mine operators to establish a permanent vegetative cover after mining, and current practice emphasizes soil compaction and planting of competitive forage grasses to stabilize the site and control erosion. These practices hinder recolonization of native hardwood trees on these reclaimed sites. Recently reclamation scientists and regulators have encouraged re-establishment of hardwood forests on surface mined land through careful selection and placement of rooting media and proper selection and planting of herbaceous and tree species. To evaluate the effect of rooting media and soil amendments, a 2.8-ha experimental plot was established, with half of the plot being constructed of weathered brown sandstone and half constructed of unweathered gray sandstone. Bark mulch was applied to an area covering both sandstone types, and the ends of the plot were hydroseeded with a tree-compatible herbaceous seed mix, resulting in eight soil treatments. Twelve hardwood tree species were planted, and soil chemical properties and tree growth were measured annually from 2007 to 2012. After six growing seasons, average tree volume index was higher for trees grown on brown sandstone (5333 cm) compared with gray sandstone (3031 cm). Trees planted in mulch outperformed trees on nonmulched treatments (volume index of 6187 cm vs. 4194 cm). Hydroseeding with a tree-compatible mix produced greater ground cover (35 vs. 15%) and resulted in greater tree volume index than nonhydroseed areas (5809 vs. 3403 cm). Soil chemical properties were improved by mulch and improved tree growth, especially on gray sandstone. The average pH of brown sandstone was 5.0 to 5.4, and gray sandstone averaged pH 6.9 to 7.7. The mulch treatment on gray sandstone resulted in tree growth similar to brown sandstone alone and with mulch. After 6 yr, tree growth on brown sandstone was

  4. Pyrolysis of hardwoods residues: on kinetics and chars characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Rocca, P.A.; Cerrella, E.G.; Bonelli, P.R.; Cukierman, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias

    1999-11-01

    Evolution of chemical and textural-morphological features characterizing two native Argentinian hardwood species (Aspidosperma Quebracho Blanco Schlecht and Aspidosperma Australe), subjected to pyrolysis at different operating conditions, is analysed by several techniques. Surface areas of raw materials and pyrolysed samples are evaluated from physical adsorption measurements employing N{sub 2} at 77 K and CO{sub 2} at 298 K. The samples are also examined by optical and scanning electronic microscopy. Results point to significant feature changes, which are, in general, strongly affected by pyrolysis conditions, particularly temperature. Furthermore, kinetic measurements of wood pyrolysis are performed by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, from ambient temperature up to 1123 K. A deactivation model reported in the literature, which predicts an increase of activation energy with reaction extent, successfully describes kinetic data for both species over the whole range of degradation temperatures. (author)

  5. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  6. 78 FR 33059 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation; Correction and Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  7. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Never-Smoking Male Workers Exposed To Hardwood Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Bislimovska

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may lead to adverse respiratory effects indicating the need of adequate preventive measures in order to protect the respiratory health of exposed workers.

  8. Hardwood seedling establishment below Aleppo pine depends on thinning intensity in two Mediterranean sites

    OpenAIRE

    Gavinet, J.; Vilagrosa, A.; Chirino, E.; Granados, M.E.; Vallejo, V.R.; Prévosto, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Developing silvicultural methods to help Mediterranean forests adapt to climate change is of high importance. Introducing resprouting hardwood species below pine stands is expected to promote diversity and resilience of these stands, particularly to forest fires. Aims: To examine how the intensity of pine thinning influences understory micro environment and the establishment of various hardwood seedlings in two Mediterranean sites. Methods: Aleppo pine stands were thinned dow...

  9. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, Robert J. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Reutebuch, Stephen E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station

    2012-09-01

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  10. Identifying Impact Factors on Successful Exporting of the United States Hardwood Industries to Mexico, Asia, and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Parhizkar, Omid

    2008-01-01

    Transportation and competitiveness practices of hardwood lumber exporters and other firms were studied and compared to determine the most important factors associated with exporting hardwood products. It was found that exporters differed significantly in their transportation methods, marketing activities, and production profiles from those other hardwood lumber firms. They also were significantly larger than expected in their total production and employment. As the forest products business ...

  11. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  12. Albedo following fire in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in albedo were tracked following fire on 18 August 1980 in a successional hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan (43033'N, 84042'W). Shortwave albedo (300--3000 nm) changed little with zenith angle up to 550, but then increased rapidly. The rate of change in albedo with zenith angle was highest in July and lowest in early spring and late autumn. Midday albedo increased from 7.7% five days after the fire to 10.8% after six weeks. During the 1981 and 1982 growing seasons, albedo increased from 10.4 and 13.6% to mid-May to peaks of 17.8 and 18.1% in early July, respectively, with values then declining through autumn. Albedo increased with percent coverage of ground surface with live vegetation up to 35% cover, with little further change in albedo with cover, up to the maximum observed value of 70%. The ratio at midday of albedo in visible wavelengths (400--700 nm) to total shortwave albedo decreased from 0.49 in mid-May 1982 to a minimum of 0.22 in mid-July and then increased to 0.45 in mid-October, after leaf-fall. Midday shortwave albedo during winter varied from 91% over fresh snow to 76% over old, compacted snow

  13. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  14. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.

  15. Management Effects on Soil Respiration in North Carolina Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, M.; McNulty, S.; Noormets, A.; Treasure, E.

    2012-12-01

    Loblolly pine is the most widely planted tree for plantation management in the southern US. In the southern coastal plain, where much of the original longleaf pine and bottomland hardwood forests have been converted to loblolly pine plantations, inland areas are commonly characterized by deep organic soils that can store up to 80 kg C m-2. Intensive management activities on these sites disturb the forest floor and soil and their impact on soil respiration rates and long term soil storage capabilities is unclear. We measured soil respiration rates in three loblolly pine plantations being managed with a combination of ditching, bedding, clearcutting, thinning and fertilization. Sites and management regimes represented a wide range of real world conditions found in managed southern US forestry plantations. Soil efflux rates along with soil temperature and moisture were measured throughout the year at four to six plots on each site and best fit relationships were developed. Annual soil respiration rates where modeled using 30-minute soil temperature and moisture measurements recorded at a centralized meteorological station on each site. Soil efflux rates were highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but interaction between the two effects was uncommon. Soil temperature was the primary driver of soil respiration rates, but rates were suppressed under high soil moisture content. Modeled annual soil efflux rates were higher the first two years following clearcut harvest and thinning operations, but lower two years following fertilization. Rates were lower in the gaps, where entire tree rows were removed, compared to thinned areas, especially on the unfertilized site. Results indicate that soil respiration rates can be strongly impacted by forest management practices; however, the period of increased soil CO2 efflux due to site disturbance may last only a few years.

  16. [Professional exposure to hardwood dusts in a group of Sicilian joiners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacca, G; Provenzani, A; Mangiapane, N; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

    2007-01-01

    Wood is a system of vegetable tissues chemically formed by biopolymers (90-99%) and phenolic substances, alkaloids, glucosides and saponins (1-10%). There are two botanical groups of wood: hardwood and softwood. Aim of present study was the research of possible work related diseases with professional exposure to hardwood about 25 joiners of Palermo in 2006; in fact wood dust inhalation is very dangerous for workers health because it is cancerogenous for nasal and paranasal sinus (1 IARC). We studied beech and fraxinus dusts (hardwood) and mahogany and teak dusts (exotic hardwood) in the environmental air of joiners during wood cutting and finishing touch. We also analysed exposed workers registry to know joiners duties, exposure values to wood dust, inhalatory exposure, wood type, chemical components, individual protection safety devices, environmental protection means. Then we examined workers medical case and risk histories. At the end we noticed that particle material in environmental air was regular according law reference values (D.Lgs. 66/2000: TLV-TWA 5 mg/m3); but although environmental dust values were normal, we found nasal haemorrhages in 3 workers and vasomotory headache in other 3; we also diagnosed one paranasal sinus polypus and then irritative contact dermatitis in 3 workers. So there is an answer: "can current TLV-TWA be protective and sure? And can it guarantee health of hardwood exposed workers?". PMID:18409853

  17. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  18. Tree Fall Gap Characteristics within an Appalachian Hardwood Forest in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Himes, Jamie M.; Heitzman, Eric; James S Rentch

    2009-01-01

    We examined the attributes of canopy gaps on the 3,100 ha West Virginia University Research Forest (WVURF) near Morgantown, WV. The WVURF is a 70-80 year-old, second-growth, Appalachian hardwood forest. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe specific gap characteristics (size, age, and fraction) of the forest as a whole, and 2) to assess whether gap characteristics varied by slope position (cove, mid, ridge), aspect (NE, NW, SE, SW), and forest cover type (cove hardwood, mesic oa...

  19. Logging in hardwood stands established on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance and costs for different harvesting systems in broad leaf stands established on former tillage is presented. The calculations, combined with a forecast of the market development, shows that it is risky to aim production exclusively at bulk products as fibre or fibre/energy. The harvest of fibre or energy wood can, however, be used as a means to increase profitability of a silvicultural programme aimed at production of high quality hardwood lumber. Management and logging in these stands will be carried out with small scale technology, often by the private forest owner. Todays large scale systems are not competitive in these stands. The cost calculations show that we lack economically sound systems for harvesting stands in the interval up to 5 cm DBH. The lowest logging cost for these stands was calculated for motor manual felling and chipping with a chipper/dumper mounted on a farm tractor. This alternative is competitive also in the interval 5-10 cm DBH but there is a number of other feasible systems, e.g. off-road chippers processing motor manually felled and piled trees. Tree section systems with extraction by forwarder or a farm tractor with grapple loader and a bogic trailer operates at low costs to roadside but costs for processing and, maybe, a more expensive secondary transportation must then be added. For thinnings in the interval 10-25 cm DBH tree chipping is the most cost efficient if only energy assortments is to be harvested. However, at the current price relations between energy wood and pulpwood tree section systems are preferable also in stands over 10 cm since it allows a combined harvest of fibre and energy. For the same reason, the seemingly most interesting system in later thinnings is a system with differentiated processing. The term denotes a system where pulpwood is cut motor manually down to 12.5 cm and extracted by forwarder or farm tractor. The remaining tops and branches are processed by an off-road chipper. (36 refs., 11 figs.)

  20. 78 FR 58283 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Determination With Final Antidumping Determination, 78 FR 16250 (March 14, 2013) (Preliminary Determination...: Antidumping Duty Investigation, 78 FR 25946, 25952 (May 3, 2013). \\3\\ See Letter to Acting Secretary Rebecca... International Trade Administration Hardwood and Decorative Plywood from the People's Republic of China:...

  1. Modeling Factors that Influence Firm Performance in the Eastern Hardwood Lumber Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between several firm-controlled, marketing and management factors and firm performance. Hypotheses describing the relationship between the strategic, geographic, tactical, technological and organizational factors and firm performance of hardwood lumber manufacturers were tested. These factors were operationalized, measured in a mail survey and used in statistical analysis to identify relationships among the variables. An adjusted response rate of...

  2. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal forming Bacillus spp. were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylog...

  3. DETERMINANTS OF NON-TIMBER VALUE IN NORTHERN HARDWOODS: A FRAMEWORK FOR FOREST RESOURCE ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Buongiorno, Joseph; Hseu, Jiin-Shyang; Lee, Karen

    1998-01-01

    We propose a revealed-preference based definition of non-timber values and apply it to uneven-aged northern hardwoods in Wisconsin. Non-timber values so defined are found to be sizeable. Hedonic regressions reveal theoretically consistent signs and plausible magnitudes of determinants. Regional forest policy and natural resource accounting can both apply this concept.

  4. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  5. THE CAROLINA LUPUS STUDY (CLU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Lupus (CLU) Study, an epidemiologic study of risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a severe, chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women and African-Americans. The CLU Study focuses on measures of endogenous hormone ex...

  6. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  7. EFFECT OF LIGNIN ON ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION OF HARDWOOD AFTER GREEN LIQUOR AND SULFURIC ACID PRETREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douyong Min,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red maple, sweet gum, trembling aspen, red alder, and Eucalyptus globulus samples were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and green liquor before enzymatic saccharification. Substrates showed different levels of delignification and sugar recovery, depending on the applied pretreatments and the syringaldehyde/vanillin ratio (S/V. Three major conclusions were drawn in this research. First, lignin is the greatest contributor to recalcitrance of hardwood to enzymatic saccharification. Second, a high S/V ratio is a useful indicator of high delignification during a pretreatment process. Third, green liquor pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method because of a high delignification degree and sugar recovery. In addition, xylan also contributes to the recalcitrance of hardwoods toward enzymatic saccharification.

  8. Mycorrhizal Response to Experimental pH and P Manipulation in Acidic Hardwood Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kluber, Laurel A.; Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Coyle, Kaitlin P.; DeForest, Jared L.; Charlotte R Hewins; Shaw, Alanna N.; Kurt A Smemo; David J. Burke

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N) deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P) limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,

  9. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L.) with different propagation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmar Antônio Nava; Américo Wagner Júnior; Eder Junior Mezalira; Darcieli Aparecida Cassol; Alexandre Luis Alegretti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time), with four replicatio...

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of the Forest Vegetation Simulator Southern Variant (FVS-Sn)for Southern Appalachian Hardwoods

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Nathan Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The FVS-Sn model was developed by the USDA Forest Service to project and report forest growth and yield predictions for the Southern United States. It is able to project forest growth and yield for different forest types and management prescriptions, but it is a relatively new, complex, and untested model. These limitations notwithstanding, FVS-Sn once tested and validated could meet the critical need of a comprehensive growth and yield model for the mixed hardwood forests of the southern A...

  11. Outdoor weathering performance parameters of exterior wood coating systems on tropical hardwood substrates

    OpenAIRE

    De Windt, Imke; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Wuijtens, Inge; Coppens, Hugo; Acker, Joris Van

    2014-01-01

    Wood coating research almost exclusively focuses on softwood as substrate despite the fact that coatings applied on tropical hardwoods show a different weathering behaviour. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of wood substrate and coating type on the weathering behaviour of finished wooden joinery in outdoor exposure using a set of statistical methods. Therefore, a broad range of white opaque paints and mid-oak semi-transparent stains were used. The coatings were industria...

  12. Social Insects Dominate Eastern US Temperate Hardwood Forest Macroinvertebrate Communities in Warmer Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R King; Warren, Robert J.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms, termites, and ants are common macroinvertebrates in terrestrial environments, although for most ecosystems data on their abundance and biomass is sparse. Quantifying their areal abundance is a critical first step in understanding their functional importance. We intensively sampled dead wood, litter, and soil in eastern US temperate hardwood forests at four sites, which span much of the latitudinal range of this ecosystem, to estimate the abundance and biomass m−2 of individuals in...

  13. Rare Plants of Southeastern Hardwood Forests and the Role of Predictive Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habitat prediction models for rare plants can be useful when large areas must be surveyed or populations must be established. Investigators developed a habitat prediction model for four species of Southeastern hardwood forests. These four examples suggest that models based on resource and vegetation characteristics can accurately predict habitat, but only when plants are strongly associated with these variables and the scale of modeling coincides with habitat size

  14. Computer Vision System For Locating And Identifying Defects In Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Richard W.; Ng, Chong T.; Cho, Tai-Hoon; McMillin, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing an automatic cutup system for use in the rough mills of the hardwood furniture and fixture industry. In particular, this paper describes attempts to create the vision system that will power this automatic cutup system. There are a number of factors that make the development of such a vision system a challenge. First there is the innate variability of the wood material itself. No two species look exactly the same, in fact, they can have a significant visual difference in appearance among species. Yet a truly robust vision system must be able to handle a variety of such species, preferably with no operator intervention required when changing from one species to another. Secondly, there is a good deal of variability in the definition of what constitutes a removable defect. The hardwood furniture and fixture industry is diverse in the nature of the products that it makes. The products range from hardwood flooring to fancy hardwood furniture, from simple mill work to kitchen cabinets. Thus depending on the manufacturer, the product, and the quality of the product the nature of what constitutes a removable defect can and does vary. The vision system must be such that it can be tailored to meet each of these unique needs, preferably without any additional program modifications. This paper will describe the vision system that has been developed. It will assess the current system capabilities, and it will discuss the directions for future research. It will be argued that artificial intelligence methods provide a natural mechanism for attacking this computer vision application.

  15. Fine root dynamics and forest production across a calcium gradient in northern hardwood and conifer ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B.B.; Yanai, R.D.; Fahey, T.J.; Bailey, S.W.; Siccama, T.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Cleavitt, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Losses of soil base cations due to acid rain have been implicated in declines of red spruce and sugar maple in the northeastern USA. We studied fine root and aboveground biomass and production in five northern hardwood and three conifer stands differing in soil Ca status at Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; and Cone Pond, NH. Neither aboveground biomass and production nor belowground biomass were related to soil Ca or Ca:Al ratios across this gradient. Hardwood stands had 37% higher aboveground biomass (P = 0.03) and 44% higher leaf litter production (P root biomass (roots smaller than 1 mm ranged from 0.62 to 1.86 y-1 and increased significantly with soil exchangeable Ca (P = 0.03). As a result, calculated fine root production was clearly higher in sites with higher soil Ca (P = 0.02). Fine root production (biomass times turnover) ranged from 1.2 to 3.7 Mg ha-1 y-1 for hardwood stands and from 0.9 to 2.3 Mg ha-1 y -1 for conifer stands. The relationship we observed between soil Ca availability and root production suggests that cation depletion might lead to reduced carbon allocation to roots in these ecosystems. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  17. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  18. PRESENCE OF HARDWOOD CHIPS AND ITS IMPACT ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BLEACHED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hardwood admixture (15-25% birch or aspen in kraft cooking on the strength properties of the fully bleached pulp was investigated. Results obtained from both lab- and mill-processed ECF bleached pulps showed that adding 15-25% birch or aspen to the production of fully bleached softwood kraft pulp had a minor effect on the strength properties. No significant effect was observed for the hardwood admixture on the apparent density over a wide range of breaking length. Under the conditions studied, the results showed that pulping of mixed softwood/hardwood chips (chip blending resulted in overall better strength properties than the pulp blending at a given freeness. It was hypothesized that the softwood fibers would be cooked to a higher kappa number in the cooking of mixed softwood/hardwood chips for the same target kappa number, thus having higher fiber strength due to higher pulp viscosity and preservation of the hemicellulose. This was supported by the results from zero-span tensile strength of the long fiber fraction of the samples from chip blending and pulp blending. The implication is that some softwood kraft pulp mills can add up to 25% of hardwood chips to the kraft cooking of softwood chips without significantly affecting the overall pulp strength properties.

  19. North Carolina School Nurse Leadership Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttu, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Recognizing that school nurse leaders are essential to the development of school nurses, the North Carolina School Nurse Leadership Institute was developed to enable school nurse leaders to update and advance their leadership skills. The Institute was a collaborative endeavor between the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services,…

  20. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  1. A Study of the Propagation of the Hardwood Cuttings of Some Rose Hips

    OpenAIRE

    ERCİŞLİ, Sezai; Güleryüz, Muharrem

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the rooting abilities of hardwood cuttings from ten rose-hip types collected in Gümüşhane in 1994-1995 were evaluated. The cuttings, taken in November, December and January, were planted in a perlit medium under a mist unit. In order to stimulate rooting, IBA doses of 1000, 2000, and 4000 ppm were used. The results showed that type 29-To-16 of Rosa canina had the highest rooting rate (86.25%), while type 29-Ke-27 of Rosa foetida had the lowest (3.33%). According to the avera...

  2. Surfactant Formulations to Enhance Triclopyr Amine Efficacy: Effects on Adhesion, Retention and Contact Phytotoxicity On three Hardwood Species

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, W. Alison

    1998-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L) is the leading Southern (USA) pine, in terms of acres planted (Fortson et al.,1996). Since commercial forest acreage is predicted to remain fairly constant over the next 50 years, productivity must be increased if the South is going to meet a larger share of the nationà ­s timber supply needs (Gjerstad and Barber, 1987). Hardwoods have been shown to have a consistent negative growth impact on pines, and uncontrolled hardwoods continue to compete aggressivel...

  3. Extracts from hardwood trees used in commercial paper mills contain biologically active neurochemical disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2012-01-01

    Following on our discovery that pulp and paper mill effluents can interact with, and disrupt, various neurotransmitter receptors and enzymes important to fish reproduction, we tested wood and bark extracts of 14 Eastern North American hardwood trees used in pulp and paper production. Radioligand binding to neurotransmitter receptors, including the dopamine-2 receptor (D2), the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA(A)), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mACh-R), were significantly changed following in vitro incubations with many but not all extracts. Activities of neurotransmitter-related enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were also significantly altered. Butternut wood extracts and the isolated compound juglone significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of MAO and GAD which we suggest may be part of a mechanism that may negatively affect fish reproduction. Besides giving credence to the hypothesis that neuroactive compounds in pulp and paper effluent may originate in the trees used by mills, the results reported here also indicate important neuropharmacological activities in hardwoods which may help identify new sources of biologically active natural products. PMID:22137476

  4. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  5. Surface characteristics of coated soft- and hardwoods due to UV-B ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, E.; Meincken, M.

    2010-10-01

    Wood is a valuable building material, but it is susceptible to degradation if left unprotected especially when using less durable species. Protection is commonly achieved by applying a suitable finish that should exhibit sufficient penetration, good adhesion and resistance to photo-degradation and weathering. The performance of wood coatings is largely influenced by the adhesion between the coating and substrate and any degradation of the substrate will also affect the coating. The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which the substrate degrades despite the coating and adds to the ageing of the coating from the interface. This effect can be expected to differ for soft- and hardwoods. Coated wood samples from pine and meranti wood - a soft- and hardwood - were irradiated with UV-B light to detect surface changes at various length scales and to assess the impact of the underlying wood substrate on the ageing performance of a commercially available acrylic coating. Surface modifications were determined with atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, colour spectroscopy, static contact angle and a surface roughness profiler.

  6. Arboriculture for quality timber production with hardwood: results after 20 years from planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, production forestry plantations has been developed using typical forest tree species, or species of agricultural interest, such as walnut and cherry. The use of these species in a context different than the traditional one put a number of problems not easy to solve. The present study has considered some timber-quality plantations of hardwoods species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Prunus avium L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Juglans regia L. established on the Serre Catanzaresi (VV, with the aim of assessing the achievements obtained both in quantitative (growth and qualitative (shape of the stems, degree of branching terms. The results of the analyses carried out revealed that the studied plantations are an interesting example of possibilities and limits of cultivation of commonly used hardwoods in relation to the practices adopted. The observed differences are mainly related to the different species used. Some of them (sycamore and wild cherry guaranteed satisfactory results, others (ash and walnut showed severe limitations, due to the poor quality of planting material, the incompatibility between the species needs and site characteristics, or because these species usually constitute mixed populations.

  7. Organic matter budget in a mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic-matter flows through a mixed-hardwood forest were analyzed as part of a study of the unusual behavior of 137Cs in Florida ecosystems. The data suggest that rates of organic-matter flow in the mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida more closely approach those of similar systems in tropical areas than in temperate areas. Annual litterfall was 1069 g/m2; litter turnover, 1.3/year; net daytime productivity of leaves and twigs, 12.4 g m-2 day-1; nighttime respiration, 5.1 g m-2 day-1; and stem respiration, 1.4 g m-2 day-1. Constancy of litter storage (820 g/m2) and leaf fall and lack of net wood deposition indicate that the forest is in steady state. It was concluded that 137Cs accumulation in this forest is probably caused by intrinsic ecosystem processes, as previously suggested, rather than by buildup that might be expected in a successional ecosystem

  8. Hardwood tree growth after eight years on brown and gray mine soils in west virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Kokes, L; Emerson, P; Delong, C; Thomas, C; Skousen, J

    2013-09-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year with the removal of valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. After the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, coal mine operators began planting a variety of grasses and legumes as a fast and economical way to reestablish a permanent vegetative cover to meet erosion and site stabilization requirements. However, soil compaction and competitive forage species have arrested the recolonization of native hardwood tree species on these reclaimed sites. Three 2.8-ha demonstration plots were established at Catenary Coal's Samples Mine in Kanawha County, West Virginia, of weathered brown sandstone and unweathered gray sandstone. Half of each plot was compacted. Each plot was hydroseeded with a low-competition herbaceous cover and planted with 11 hardwood tree species. After eight growing seasons, average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in the brown sandstone treatments, 3853 cm, compared with 407 cm in gray sandstone. Trees growing on compacted treatments had a lower mean volume index, 2281 cm, than trees growing on uncompacted treatments, 3899 cm. Average pH of brown sandstone was 5.2 to 5.7, while gray sandstone was 7.9. The gray sandstone had much lower fine soil fraction (tree growth and survival and at this stage is a more suitable topsoil substitute than gray sandstone on this site. PMID:24216413

  9. Surface characteristics of coated soft- and hardwoods due to UV-B ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is a valuable building material, but it is susceptible to degradation if left unprotected especially when using less durable species. Protection is commonly achieved by applying a suitable finish that should exhibit sufficient penetration, good adhesion and resistance to photo-degradation and weathering. The performance of wood coatings is largely influenced by the adhesion between the coating and substrate and any degradation of the substrate will also affect the coating. The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which the substrate degrades despite the coating and adds to the ageing of the coating from the interface. This effect can be expected to differ for soft- and hardwoods. Coated wood samples from pine and meranti wood - a soft- and hardwood - were irradiated with UV-B light to detect surface changes at various length scales and to assess the impact of the underlying wood substrate on the ageing performance of a commercially available acrylic coating. Surface modifications were determined with atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, colour spectroscopy, static contact angle and a surface roughness profiler.

  10. Teale Hardwoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  11. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  12. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  13. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  14. Chloritoid-sillimanite assemblage from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of sillimanite and Fe-rich chloritoid in apparent equilibrium in a quartzite near Charlotte, North Carolina, is reported. The implications for the kyanite-andalusite-sillimanite triple point are discussed.-J.A.Z.

  15. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Oconee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  8. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  9. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  10. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  11. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  12. Nesting and pollen preference of Osmia lignaria lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Virginia and North Carolina orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, M E; Favi, F D; Niedziela, C E

    2014-08-01

    Cavity-nesting megachilid bees in the genus Osmia, found throughout the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, are good candidates for domestication. In North America, Osmia lignaria Say has been reported to be an excellent pollinator of tree fruit and is currently being developed for commercial use in orchards. This is largely because of research over several decades with the western subspecies of this bee, Osmia lignaria propinqua Cresson, in western orchards. The behavior of the eastern subspecies, O. lignaria lignaria Say, in eastern orchards has not previously been reported. This study evaluated the nesting activity and pollen preference of a population of the eastern subspecies in five orchards in the foothills and piedmont regions of North Carolina and Virginia over a 2-yr period. Apple was present in all orchards and all were bordered by hardwood forest. Shelters were placed both within orchards and the forest border. Emergence dates, nest construction, and orchard bloom were monitored weekly. Bee populations increased by 2-3 times annually at most orchards. Pollen species comprising nest provisions from 720 individual nest cells were identified and quantified using scanning electron microscopy. The greatest amount of pollen (46-82%) was that of a small understory tree, Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), at all orchard sites where these trees were present nearby. The quantity of orchard pollen was relatively low, <20% at full apple bloom, except for one orchard (53%) without nearby redbud. O. lignaria lignaria appears to prefer Eastern redbud pollen over orchard pollen. PMID:24865141

  13. Fuelwood characteristics of certain hardwood and softwood tree species of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.K. (National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (IN))

    1992-01-01

    The acute shortage of fuelwood in rural India and greater emphasis on the development of the fuelwood needs of the people has necessitated the identification of tree species which can be utilized as fuelwood. Twenty-six perennial species growing in their natural habitat in Central India and 16 indigenous and exotic Pinus species from the Himalayan region at Kalika were collected for screening fuelwood properties; calorific value, density, ash, silica, moisture, nitrogen, volatile matter and Fuel Value Index. The results suggest that Woodfordia fruticosa, Gardenia turgida, Gardenia resinifera, Litsea sebifera, Acacia donaldi, Wrightia tinctoria, Alanagium savifolium, Sterblus asper, Mitragyna parvifolia and Lagerstroemia parviflora have good fuelwood properties among perennial hardwoods and Pinus oocarpa, Pinus patula, Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus ponderosa are desirable softwood species. (author).

  14. Quantitative analysis of sugars in wood hydrolyzates with 1H NMR during the autohydrolysis of hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ashutosh; Scott, Gary M; Amidon, Thomas E; Kiemle, David J; Stipanovic, Arthur J

    2009-12-01

    The focus of this work was to determine the utility of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in the quantification of sugars resulting from the solubilization of hemicelluloses during the autohydrolysis of hardwoods and the use of this technique to evaluate the kinetics of this process over a range of temperatures and times. Yields of residual xylan, xylooligomers, xylose, glucose, and the degraded products of sugars, i.e., furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural), were determined. The monosaccharide and oligomer contents were quantified with a recently developed high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis. This method provided precise measurement of the residual xylan and cellulose remaining in the extracted wood samples and xylose and glucose in the hydrolyzates. NMR was found to exhibit good repeatability and provided carbohydrate compositional results comparable to published methods for sugar maple and aspen woods. PMID:19674893

  15. Principal forest dieback episodes in northern hardwoods: development of numeric indices of areal extent and severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of forest dieback in the Northern Hardwoods biome of Canada and the United States was determined for period from 1910 to 1990. Information from annual forest service pathology inventories in the two countries and other published literature was coded to estimate yearly the severity and areal extent of dieback on white/yellow birch and sugar maple from 1910 to 1990. Principal dieback episodes occurred as distinct waves coincident with maturation of the forest population in each of six regions. These episodes endured an average of 11 years. It is hypothesized that, once forest populations are mature, they are susceptible to extreme stresses such as freezing and drought which serve to synchronize the onset and subsidence of major dieback episodes. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Ecophysiological behaviour of hardwood species in renaturalization processes of coniferous plantations [Campania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniferous plantations may play a nurse effect for natural regeneration of native hardwood species, which would otherwise be conditioned by intraspecific competition due to trees of the upper layers or be prevented by high radiation load of open environments. Regulation of canopy cover by means of thinning generates temporary or permanent variations of levels of irradiance in lower forest layers. These affect the capability of recruitment and establishment and the ecophysiological behaviour of natural regeneration. Here we present a review of the notions on effects of relative irradiance variations on ecophysiological behaviour of native tree species in lower layers of mesophile and meso-xerophile forests, giving some specific examples produced during the national project PRIN 2003 FOR BIO

  17. UNDERSTANDING THE LIMITATIONS OF REMOVAL OF HEMICELLULOSES DURING AUTOHYDROLYSIS OF A MIXTURE OF SOUTHERN HARDWOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sefik Tunc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of hemicelluloses from wood prior to pulping is being pursued to generate more value-added products, while still producing high quality pulp from the pre-extracted wood. For a better understanding of the factors limiting selective extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with size exclusion chromatography (SEC was applied to milled wood and hydrothermally treated wood. Complete dissolution was achieved in a lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide solvent system after mild ball-milling of a Southern Hardwood Mixture (SHM, of SHM extracted using auto-hydrolysis, and of enzyme-treated SHM. SEC tests showed that severe degradation of wood polymers occurred after a milling time of 3 hours. The SEC data also confirmed the presence of lignin-carbohydrate complexes. Based on the results, it is suggested that linkages between lignin and polysaccharides may play an important role in limiting extraction of hemicelluloses.

  18. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  19. Nitrogen biogeochemistry in the Adirondack Mountains of New York: hardwood ecosystems and associated surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors that regulate the fate of atmospherically deposited nitrogen to hardwood forests and subsequent transport to surface waters in the Adirondack region of New York are described. - Studies on the nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Adirondack northern hardwood ecosystems were summarized. Specific focus was placed on results at the Huntington Forest (HFS), Pancake-Hall Creek (PHC), Woods Lake (WL), Ampersand (AMO), Catlin Lake (CLO) and Hennessy Mountain (HM). Nitrogen deposition generally decreased from west to east in the Adirondacks, and there have been no marked temporal changes in N deposition from 1978 through 1998. Second-growth western sites (WL, PHC) had higher soil solution NO3- concentrations and fluxes than the HFS site in the central Adirondacks. Of the two old-growth sites (AMO and CLO), AMO had substantially higher NO3- concentrations due to the relative dominance of sugar maple that produced litter with high N mineralization and nitrification rates. The importance of vegetation in affecting N losses was also shown for N-fixing alders in wetlands. The Adirondack Manipulation and Modeling Project (AMMP) included separate experimental N additions of (NH4)2SO4 at WL, PHC and HFS and HNO3 at WL and HFS. Patterns of N loss varied with site and form of N addition and most of the N input was retained. For 16 lake/watersheds no consistent changes in NO3- concentrations were found from 1982 to 1997. Simulations suggested that marked NO3- loss will only be manifested over extended periods. Studies at the Arbutus Watershed provided information on the role of biogeochemical and hydrological factors in affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of NO3- concentrations. The heterogeneous topography in the Adirondacks has generated diverse landscape features and patterns of connectivity that are especially important in regulating the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3- concentrations in surface waters

  20. Ecotone resilience in a coastal system of mangroves and hardwood hammocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtora, M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Teh, S. Y.; Jiang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Initial sea-level rise effects on low-lying coastline vegetation will likely result from an increase in the frequency and magnitude of storm surges. Feedbacks between vegetation and vadose zone pore-water salinity likely result in complex interactions between halophytic and glycophytic vegetation due to differential adaptive responses. In coastal Everglades National Park, relatively impermeable marl soils distributed in a ridge and swale topography overlie highly permeable karst limestone saturated with high salinity water. Soil salinity dynamics reflect pronounced rainfall seasonality. A model of MANgrove and hardwood HAMmock competition (MANHAM) has been integrated with a variable density Saturated/Unsaturated groundwater TRAnsport model (SUTRA). The combined model (MANTRA) is being used to estimate likely vegetative responses to various scenarios of changing sea-level and precipitation patterns. The mangrove/hammock regime is characterized by the occurrence of sharp ecotones over relatively shallow elevation gradients that may be maintained by a vegetation switch. A disturbance such as an input of salinity from a storm surge could upset this meta-stable boundary, leading to a regime shift of halophytic vegetation inland. MANTRA allows simulation of the interaction of vegetation with subsurface salinity dynamics while examining the sensitivity of the vegetation switch to relevant variables. The response of the halophyte/glycophyte system to storm surge overwash is predicted to depend on factors such as amount and duration of the salinity increase in the soil, the water-table elevation and salinity of the groundwater, the amount and timing of precipitation, runoff and infiltration, the extent of wind induced storm damage, and the amount of mangrove propagules that are washed into the hardwood hammock. In addition, direct mortality of hammock vegetation and increasing floating dispersal of mangrove propagules due to storm surge increase the likelihood of a regime

  1. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  2. Demographics and density estimates of two three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis) populations within forest and restored prairie sites in central Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kelly M; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G

    2015-01-01

    Box turtles (Terrapene carolina) are widely distributed but vulnerable to population decline across their range. Using distance sampling, morphometric data, and an index of carapace damage, we surveyed three-toed box turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis) at 2 sites in central Missouri, and compared differences in detection probabilities when transects were walked by one or two observers. Our estimated turtle densities within forested cover was less at the Thomas S. Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Center, a site dominated by eastern hardwood forest (d = 1.85 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.13, 3.03]) than at the Prairie Fork Conservation Area, a site containing a mix of open field and hardwood forest (d = 4.14 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.99, 8.62]). Turtles at Baskett were significantly older and larger than turtles at Prairie Fork. Damage to the carapace did not differ significantly between the 2 populations despite the more prevalent habitat management including mowing and prescribed fire at Prairie Fork. We achieved improved estimates of density using two rather than one observer at Prairie Fork, but negligible differences in density estimates between the two methods at Baskett. Error associated with probability of detection decreased at both sites with the addition of a second observer. We provide demographic data on three-toed box turtles that suggest the use of a range of habitat conditions by three-toed box turtles. This case study suggests that habitat management practices and their impacts on habitat composition may be a cause of the differences observed in our focal populations of turtles. PMID:26417539

  3. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Brissey, Courtney L. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K. [D. B. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources; University of Georgia; 180 E. Green Street Athens GA 30602 U.S.A.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  5. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  7. Habitat Management Plan for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Carolina Sandhills NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a longterm vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Carolina...

  8. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  9. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  10. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. Impacts of harvesting forest residues for bioenergy on nutrient cycling and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, D.M.; Zalesny, R.S. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station, Inst. for Applied Ecosystem Studies; St Pierre, M.; Eklund, D. [Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Coyle, D.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Ribic, C.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). United States Geological Survey, WI Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the nutrient cycles and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests. The woody biomass left on the forest floor after logging is important for nutrient cycling in addition to providing seed beds and creating habitats for wildlife. The impact of fine woody debris (FWD) removal on nutrient availability and above and below ground community assemblages on rich soils in regenerating northern hardwood stands in Wisconsin was investigated at 9 sites within a national forest. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability was assessed. Insect pitfalls, amphibian time-constraint searches, herbaceous plant quadrants, and soil cores along transects were sampled during the summer months of 2009. Results of the study will be used to evaluate the trade-offs of harvesting woody biomass on public lands for energy use as well as to develop management guidelines for maintaining biodiversity and forest health.

  15. Selectivity Studies of Oxygen and Chlorine Dioxide in the Pre-Delignification Stages of a Hardwood Pulp Bleaching Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Barroca, Maria J. M. C.; Marques, Pedro J. T. S.; Seco, Isabel M.; Castro, José Almiro A. M.

    2001-01-01

    This work is concerned with the role of oxygen on the selectivity of chlorine dioxide in the pre-delignification stage of a E. globulus pulp bleaching plant. Its main purpose is to study the selectivity of chlorine dioxide when applied to an oxygen pre-delignified hardwood kraft pulp and to compare it to that of a conventional pre-delignification with chlorine dioxide (D). The intrinsic viscosity and kappa number were used to follow the polysaccharides degradation and the delignification rate...

  16. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mekala Sundaram; Willoughby, Janna R; Nathanael I Lichti; Michael A Steele; Swihart, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or c...

  17. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekala Sundaram

    Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  18. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  19. Windows of opportunity: white-tailed deer and the dynamics of northern hardwood forests of the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, R.W.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herbivory, lighting regimes, and site conditions are among the most important determinants of forest regeneration success, but these are affected by a host of other factors such as weather, predation, human exploitation, pathogens, wind and fire. We draw together > 50 years of research on the Huntington Wildlife Forest in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York to explore regeneration of northern hardwoods. A series of studies each of which focused on a single factor failed to identify the cause of regeneration failure. However, integration of these studies led to broader understanding of the process of forest stand development and identified at least three interacting factors: lighting regime, competing vegetation and selective browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The diverse 100-200 year-old hardwood stands present today probably reflect regeneration during periods of low deer density (< 2.0 deer/km super(2)) and significant forest disturbance. If this hypothesis is correct, forest managers can mimic these 'natural windows of opportunity' through manipulation of a few sensitive variables in the system. Further, these manipulations can be conducted on a relatively small geographic scale. Control of deer densities on a scale of 500 ha and understory American beech (Fagus grandifolia) on a scale of < 100 ha in conjunction with an even-aged regeneration system consistently resulted in successful establishment of desirable hardwood regeneration.

  20. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  9. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  10. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  11. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  12. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  13. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  14. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  15. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. Comparative study of lipophilic extractives of hardwoods and corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoal Neto, C.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic extractives of Eucalyptus globulus , Eucalyptus grandis , Eucalyptus urograndis , Betula verrucosa and Acacia mangium woods and of the corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps, were characterised by GC-MS. The five hardwoods showed significant differences in the content and composition of the main families of extractives, namely fatty acids, long chain aliphatic alcohols and sterols. Significant differences in the composition persist after wood pulping and ECF bleaching of pulps. The fate of the various types of extractives during the wood and pulp processing is discussed. Long chain aliphatic acids and alcohols are quite stable during the pulp production and are retained to a great extent in the final bleached pulp; delta 5 sterols are mostly oxidised and partially retained in the pulps, while delta 7 sterols are completely degraded and/or dissolved. B. verrucosa and A. mangium bleached pulps show contents of fatty acids about 4 and 20 times higher than that of Eucalyptus pulps, respectively, while the content of long chain aliphatic alcohols in A. mangium pulp is of the order of 100 times higher than Eucalyptus and B. verrucosa pulps.

  17. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  18. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH4 and CO2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4mLCH4g(-1) dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39gcarbonstoredg(-1) dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. PMID:27016683

  19. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Katie P; Stanley, Jane W; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Chen, Weile; Adams, Thomas S; Lin, Henry; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated depth of water uptake of trees on shale-derived soils in order to assess the importance of roots over a meter deep as a driver of water use in a central Pennsylvania catchment. This information is not only needed to improve basic understanding of water use in these forests but also to improve descriptions of root function at depth in hydrologic process models. The study took place at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory in central Pennsylvania. We asked two main questions: (i) Do trees in a mixed-hardwood, humid temperate forest in a central Pennsylvania catchment rely on deep roots for water during dry portions of the growing season? (ii) What is the role of tree genus, size, soil depth and hillslope position on the depth of water extraction by trees? Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment. While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected. Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season. PMID:26546366

  20. ON THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CELLULOSE AND XYLAN, A BIOMIMETIC SIMULATION OF THE HARDWOOD CELL WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Dammström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant cell wall exhibits a hierarchical structure, in which the organization of the constituents on different levels strongly affects the mechanical properties and the performance of the material. In this work, the interactions between cellulose and xylan in a model system consisting of a bacterial cellulose/glucuronoxylan (extracted from aspen, Populus tremula have been studied and compared to that of a delignified aspen fiber material. The properties of the materials were analyzed using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA with moisture scans together with dynamic Infra Red -spectroscopy at dry and humid conditions. The results showed that strong interactions existed between the cellulose and the xylan in the aspen holocellulose. The same kinds of interactions were seen in a water-extracted bacterial cellulose/xylan composite, while unextracted material showed the presence of xylan not interacting with the cellulose. Based on these findings for the model system, it was suggested that there is in hardwood one fraction of xylan that is strongly associated with the cellulose, taking a similar role as glucomannan in softwood.

  1. AN OBJECTIVE CLIMATOLOGY OF CAROLINA COASTAL FRONTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a simple objective method to identify cases of coastal frontogenesis offshore of the Carolinas and to characterize the sensible weather associated with frontal passage at measurement sites near the coast. The identification method, based on surface hourly d...

  2. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Water dynamics for North Carolina v. Vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    As North Carolina wine grape (V. vinifera) production intensifies, the importance of water management must be addressed. Grape yield and composition, and consequently wine quality, are profoundly influenced by the water regime under which the grapes were produced. Despite the importance of water man...

  4. Crossing the pedogenetic threshold: Apparent phosphorus limitation by soil microorganisms in unglaciated acidic eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Smemo, K. A.; Burke, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P) can significantly influence microbial community composition and the ecosystem-level processes they mediate. However, the threshold at which soil microorganisms become functionally P-limited is unclear because of soil acidity effect on P availability. We reason that acidic temperate hardwood forest ecosystems are, in fact, functionally P-limited, but compensation occur via soil microbial production of phosphatase enzymes. We tested this hypothesis in glaciated and unglaciated mature mixed-mesophytic forests in eastern Ohio where both soil pH and P availability had been experientially manipulated. We measured the activity of two P acquiring soil enzymes, phosphomonoesterase (PMono) and phosphodiesterase (PDi), to understand how soil acidity and available P influence microbial function. Our experimental treatments elevated ambient soil pH from below 4.5 to around 5.5 and increased readily available phosphate from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg on unglaciated soils. The P treatment decreased the activity of PDi by 82% relative to the control on unglaciated soils, but we observed no P treatment effect on glaciated soils. A similar result was observed for PMono. Soil pH, alone, did not significantly influence enzyme activities. Results suggest that soil microorganisms are more likely to be P-limited in older unglaciated soils. However, dramatically higher phosphatase activity in response to very low P availability suggests that an underlying ecosystem P limitation can be ameliorated by soil microbial community dynamics. This mechanism may be more important for older, unglaciated soils that have already crossed a pedogenic threshold where P availability influences ecosystem and microbial function.

  5. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel A Kluber

    Full Text Available Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e.,

  6. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated. PMID:26009473

  7. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Hughes, M. Joseph [University of Tennessee (UT); Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  8. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous. PMID:19880302

  9. Canopy gap dynamics of second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentch, J.S.; Schuler, T.M.; Nowacki, G.J.; Beane, N.R.; Ford, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration requires an understanding of the natural disturbance regime of the target community and estimates of the historic range of variability of ecosystem components (composition, structure, and disturbance processes). Management prescriptions that support specific restoration activities should be consistent with these parameters. In this study, we describe gap-phase dynamics of even-aged, second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia that have been significantly degraded following early Twentieth Century harvesting and wildfire. In the current stage of stand development, gaps tended to be small, with mean canopy gap and extended canopy gap sizes of 53.4m2 and 199.3m2, respectively, and a canopy turnover rate of 1.4%year-1. The majority of gaps resulted from the death of one or two trees. American beech snags were the most frequent gap maker, partially due to the elevated presence of beech-bark disease in the study area. Gaps ranged in age from 1 to 28 years, had a mean of 13 years, and were unimodal in distribution. We projected red spruce to be the eventual gap filler in approximately 40% of the gaps. However, we estimated that most average-sized gaps will close within 15-20 years before red spruce canopy ascension is projected (30-60 years). Accordingly, many understory red spruce will require more than one overhead release - an observation verified by the tree-ring record and consistent with red spruce life history characteristics. Based on our observations, silvicultural prescriptions that include overhead release treatments such as thinning from above or small gap creation through selection harvesting could be an appropriate activity to foster red spruce restoration in the central Appalachians. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  11. Rooting of hardwood cuttings of Roxo de Valinhos fig (Ficus carica L. with different propagation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the substrate, cuttings collection time, the position and the cutting depth, and the propagation environment on rooting of 'Purple Valinhos' fig tree cuttings in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. Two experiments were carried out at UTFPR, Câmpus Dois Vizinhos, with hardwoods cuttings from Roxo de Valinhos fig tree. The first experiment used a randomized block design, in 3 x 3 x 2 factorial (substrate x environment x collection time, with four replications of 10 cuttings per plot. The cuttings were collected in the first fifteen days of July and August. The substrates were sand, soil and the mixture of these [1:1 (v / v]. The environments used were open sky, tunnel with plastic cover and tunnel with half-shade black net cover. The second experiment used a randomized block design, 2 x 2 x 3 factorial (shoot cutting position x soil cover x shoot cutting depth, with four replications of 12 cuttings per plot. In the factor position, the vertically (0 º inclination and inclined (45 º inclination shoot cuttings were evaluated. Soil cover was tested with mulching plastic cover or not. The tested depths were 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3 in relation to the total length of the shoot cutting. In both experiments, the following were analyzed: rooting and mortality indices, number of leaves and primary shoots, length of the three largest roots per cutting. It was conclude that, the protected environment with plastic cover on sand as substrate must recommended for the rooting of fig estaca, collecting them in the first half of July. The inclination position and cutting depth of the estaca and the substrate coverage with plastic mulching did not influence the results.

  12. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  13. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Yadav; R S Anand; M L Dewal; Sangeeta Gupta

    2015-12-01

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decomposition filter. Further, first-order statistics (FOS) and four variants of local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors are used to acquire distinct features of these images at various levels. The linear support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function (RBF) kernel SVM and random forest classifiers have been employed for classification. The classification accuracy obtained with state-of-the-art and DWT based hybrid texture features using various classifiers are compared. The DWT based FOS-uniform local binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposition have produced best classification accuracy of 97.67 ± 0.79% and 98.40 ± 064% for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. Reduction in feature dataset by minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) feature selection method is achieved and the best classification accuracy of 99.00 ± 0.79% and 99.20 ± 0.42% have been obtained for DWT based FOS-LBP histogram Fourier features (DWTFOSLBP-HF) technique at the 5th and 6th levels of image decomposition for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. The DWTFOSLBP-HF features selected with mRMR method has also established superiority amongst the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques for randomly divided database into different proportions of training and test datasets.

  14. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  15. DESORPTION OF METAL IONS FROM KRAFT PULPS. PART 1. CHELATION OF HARDWOOD AND SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH EDTA

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Granholm; Leo Harju; Ari Ivaska

    2010-01-01

    Chelation of unbleached and oxygen bleached hardwood and softwood kraft pulps with EDTA was studied. The main focus was on the desorption of magnesium, manganese, and iron due to their impact in TCF-bleaching. Desorption of other metal ions present were also studied in order to get an over-all estimation of the metal ion concentrations and their desorption during chelation. By using the concept of side reaction coefficients, an estimation of the chelating strength of EDTA at different pH can ...

  16. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry D. Woods

    2014-01-01

    Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD) in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009), combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equ...

  17. Differential response by hardwood and deciduous stands in New England forests to climate change and insect-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Orwig, David A.; Williams, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Forests in the northeastern United States include large areas dominated by mosaics of oak/maple and hemlock stands. Often the hardwood dominated stands include a significant cohort of hemlock saplings. However, long-term survival of hemlock in this region is threatened by Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA), an invasive insect that is fatal to eastern hemlock. The northern limit of HWA is affected in part by winter minimum temperature and warmer winters are enabling northward expansion of HWA infestation. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, two long-term eddy flux towers are measuring carbon exchange in a >100 year old hardwood stand since 1992 (EMS- Ha1) and in a 100-200 year old hemlock stand (Ha2) since 2004. The flux measurements are complemented by vegetation dynamics plots. Carbon exchange at the two sites has distinctly different seasonality. The hardwood site has a shorter carbon uptake period, but higher peak fluxes, while the hemlock stand has a long carbon uptake period extending from spring thaw until early winter freeze. Some contribution from the evergreen hemlock in the understory is evident before canopy greenup at the EMS tower and spring and fall carbon uptake rates have been increasing and contribute in part to a trend towards larger annual carbon uptake at this site. Carbon uptake by hemlock increases with warmer temperatures in the spring and fall transition. Adelgids have reached the hemlock stand near Ha2 and have been widely distributed in the canopy since spring of 2012. The hemlock canopy in that stand is thinning and net carbon uptake and evapotranspiration have been decreasing since 2012. Adelgids have also been observed in scattered stands near the Ha1 tower, but as of 2015 the trees are still healthy. Because hemlocks stands have different seasonality and provide a distinct soil and sub-canopy light environment, their mortality and replacement by hardwood species will have significant impacts on forest dynamics, carbon balance, and

  18. North Carolina macular dystrophy: clinicopathologic correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Small, K. W.; Voo, I; Flannery, J; Udar, N.; Glasgow, B J

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and histopathologic findings in a 72-year-old woman with North Carolina macular dystrophy. METHODS: Clinical examination was performed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, color fundus photography, and focal electroretinography. Histopathologic examination of the enucleated left eye consisted of light microscopy. RESULTS: Light microscopy demonstrated a discrete macular lesion characterized by focal absence of photoreceptor cells and retinal p...

  19. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  20. Bottomland Reforestation Plan : Division II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is intended to set guidelines for the selection, conversion techniques, assignment of priorities and post treatment evaluation of nonforested areas that...

  1. Bottomland Reforestation Plan : Division II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is intended to set guidelines for the selection, conversion techniques, assignment of priorities and post treatment evaluation of non-forested areas that...

  2. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood

  3. Soil Carbon Turnover and the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance of a Northern Hardwood Forest, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, C. M.; Biswas, S.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P. S.

    2004-12-01

    Soils are a major reservoir of stored carbon (C) in forested ecosystems, containing up to 70% of total ecosystem C. Heterotrophic activity largely dictates the rate of soil C turnover and directly impacts ecosystem C balance. Reliable estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from ecophysiological and biometric data as well as the refinement of process-based models predicting belowground changes in C storage depend on accurate quantification and partitioning of autotrophic and heterotrophic soil C fluxes. We used field and laboratory measurements of root, microbial and soil respiration in a northern hardwood forest to (1) quantify the annual soil C efflux attributed to heterotrophs and autotrophs from 1999 to 2003; (2) identify the extent to which microclimatic drivers impact interannual variability in microbial activity of the mineral soil and O-horizon; and (3) evaluate the sensitivity of estimated annual NEP to heterotrophic respiration. The study was conducted in an 85-year-old aspen-dominated mixed deciduous forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station Ameriflux site (UMBS ˜Flux) in N. lower Michigan, USA. Soil respiration was monitored from 1999 to 2003. Laboratory incubations of roots, mineral soil and the O-horizon at different temperatures were used to examine the relationship between microclimate and autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Empirical models relating root and microbial respiration to temperature were used in combination with soil respiration models and site soil temperature, moisture and root biomass data to estimate the contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to total soil C efflux. Heterotrophic soil respiration estimates were combined with other C flux data to calculate annual NEP from 1999 to 2003. Microbially-mediated C turnover was responsible for ˜half of the total annual soil C efflux. Heterotrophic respiration varied by more than 1 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 among years primarily due to interannual

  4. Consequences of landscape patterns on the genetic composition of remnant hardwood stands in the Southeast: A pilot study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godt, Mary Jo, W.; Hamrick, J., L.

    2003-01-01

    Report of a pilot study intended to generate genetic data for a tree species in fragmented hardwood stands. It was anticipated that this data would permit assessment of the feasibility of long-term genetic research for which external funding support could be generated. A second objective was to initiate studies that addressed fundamental questions of how landscape structure, in conjunction with the population dynamics and reproductive characteristics of the tree species, influences genetic structure and long-term viability of hardwood forest stands on the Savannah River Site and in similar southeastern landscapes. Fragmentation of plant habitats can result in small, genetically isolated populations. Spatial isolation and small population size may have several consequences, including reduced reproduction, increased inbreeding and the stochastic loss of genetic variability. Such losses of genetic and genotypic diversity can reduce plant fitness and may diminish population viability. Deleterious genetic effects resulting from small population sizes can be ameliorated by gene flow via pollen and seed into fragmented populations.

  5. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ADSORBED BIRCH XYLAN AND ITS EFFECT ON PAPER PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejung Youn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of xylan on pulp fibers improves the strength properties of paper. However, the optical properties are decreased significantly. The objective of our research was to bleach hardwood kraft pulp with adsorbed birch xylan by hydrogen peroxide and study the effect of bleaching parameters on paper properties. The bleaching parameters studied included bleaching temperature, time, initial pH as well as MgSO4 dosage. The optical properties (whiteness, brightness, opacity and physical properties (tensile index, tearing index, bulk of handsheets made from the pulp bleached with different process variables were measured. The results showed that better optical properties were obtained with higher bleaching temperature, longer bleaching time, and more MgSO4 dosage. Bleaching from an initial pH of 11 provided the highest brightness value. On the other hand, strength properties were improved with decreasing of the bleaching temperature, and increasing the initial pH and MgSO4 dosage. The relationship between strength properties and bleaching time varied depending on bleaching temperature. According to the results, both good mechanical properties and optical properties could be achieved when the operating parameters were controlled properly. Therefore hydrogen peroxide bleaching was proved to be a suitable method for bleaching hardwood kraft pulp with adsorption of birch xylan.

  6. 75 FR 16097 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the Saluda Hydroelectric Project (FERC Project No. 516), located on Saluda River in Richland, Lexington, Saluda, and...

  7. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  8. Contaminant survey of Cache River National Wildlife Refuge including Radcliffe Farms, Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has identified the bottomland hardwoods of the Lower Mississippi River Delta as one of the highest Service priorities for...

  9. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge (DBWRNWR) contains one of the largest contiguous tracts of bottomland hardwood forested (BLH) wetlands in the...

  10. 75 FR 65389 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated 10/14/ 2010. Incident: Severe storms, flooding, and straight-line...

  11. Anguilliform larvae collected off North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.W.; Casazza, T.L.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distinctive larval stage of eels (leptocephalus) facilitates dispersal through prolonged life in the open ocean. Leptocephali are abundant and diverse off North Carolina, yet data on distributions and biology are lacking. The water column (from surface to 1,293 m) was sampled in or near the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear, North Carolina during summer through fall of 1999-2005, and leptocephali were collected by neuston net, plankton net, Tucker trawl, and dip net. Additional samples were collected nearly monthly from a transect across southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina (from surface to 91 m) from April 2000 to December 2001 by bongo and neuston nets, Methot frame trawl, and Tucker trawl. Overall, 584 tows were completed, and 224 of these yielded larval eels. The 1,295 eel leptocephali collected (combining all methods and areas) represented at least 63 species (nine families). Thirteen species were not known previously from the area. Dominant families for all areas were Congridae (44% of individuals, 11 species), Ophichthidae (30% of individuals, 27 species), and Muraenidae (22% of individuals, ten species). Nine taxa accounted for 70% of the overall leptocephalus catches (in order of decreasing abundance): Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz complex, Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche), Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau), Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann, Letharchus aliculatus McCosker, Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode and Bean), Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean), Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg). The top three species represented 52% of the total eel larvae collected. Most leptocephali were collected at night (79%) and at depths > 45 m. Eighty percent of the eels collected in discrete depth Tucker trawls at night ranged from mean depths of 59-353 m. A substantial number (38% of discrete depth sample total) of larval eels were also collected at the surface (neuston net) at night. Daytime leptocephalus

  12. Potential for renovation of municipal wastewater using biomass energy hardwood plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of municipal wastewater to plantations offers a viable opportunity to dispose of nutrients and pollutants, while protecting water quality. Production of woody biomass for energy or pulp mill furnish, at levels greater than that obtained in non-irrigated plantations, is feasible and markets exist in the eastern United States for this biomass. Plantations of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are being established on the coastal plain of eastern North Carolina at the city of Edenton for application of municipal wastewater. Research investigating the production of biomass, production costs, and wastewater renovation are presented. Dry weight biomass following the fourth year of growth for sycamore and sweetgum was 18.7 and 7.4 Mg/ha, respectively. Plantation establishment and system costs were $26,460.12/ha. Comparison costs with a smaller but similar system at Woodland, NC, are presented. Nutrient assimilation and wastewater renovation data are being collected and are not yet available for publication

  13. Evaluation of regeneration potential of Pinus koraiensis in mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bin; MOU Pu; WANG Tian-ming; GE Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Large scale harvest of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seeds as a food product in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest of northeastern China poses a serious threat to the sustainability and restoration of this endangered regional ecosystem.Seed collection over past decades greatly reduced the seed bank and subsequent seedling and sapling recruitment,and impacting a wide array of granivorous animals that rely on the pine seeds.We surveyed Korean pine seeds,including solid seeds (SS),insect consumed seeds (ICS) and other (animal) consumed (OCS)kernels,of the seed bank (forest floor and the top 10 cm of mineral soil),the seedlings and saplings from 1 m2 sample plots in five forest types in Liangshui Nature Reserve (LNR) of the southern Xiao Xing'an Mountains in northeastern China to provide accurate information for assessing the Korean pine regeneration potential.The average number of pine seeds in the seed bank were 11.2 seeds/m2,9.1 seeds/m2,4.6 seeds/m2,1.1 seeds/m2,and 0.2 seeds/m2 in Korean pine-basswood forest,mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,mixed conifer-hardwood forest,white birch forests,and oak forests,respectively.In the first three forest types,percentages of SS (potentially viable seeds) were 11.2%,3.5% and 27.8%,respectively.The percentages of ICS (not viable seeds) were consistent at around 35%.The higher but variable percentages of OCS (not viable seeds) indicated high seed predation in these forests.Compared with other studies,we recorded higher percentages of seed damage,probably due to our survey approach and the increased depth of seed bank sampled in our study.Depletion of pine seeds in the seed bank greatly reduced seedling and sapling recruitment.Densities of pine seedlings varied from about 180 trees/ha in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest to about 5,400 trees/ha in the mixed conifer-hardwood forests and showed a high degree of spatial variation.Saplings were rare in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,but ranged in the

  14. Mineral Soil Carbon in Managed Hardwood Forests of the Northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.; Hornig, C.

    2013-12-01

    New England is characterized by extensive forest cover and large reservoirs of soil carbon (C). In northern hardwood forests, mineral soil C can account for up to 50% of total ecosystem C. There has been an increasing demand for forests to serve both as a C sink and a renewable energy source, and effective management of the ecosystem C balance relies on accurate modeling of each compartment of the ecosystem. However, the dynamics of soil C storage with respect to forest use are variable and poorly understood, particularly in mineral soils. For example, current regional models assume C pools after forest harvesting do not change, while some studies suggest that belowground mineral soil C pools can be affected by disturbances at the soil surface. We quantified mineral soil C pools in previously clear-cut stands in seven research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. The ages of the sites sampled ranged from recently cleared to those with no disturbance history, with 21 forest stands represented in the study. Within each research forest studied, physical parameters such as soil type, forest type, slope and land-use history (aside from forest harvest) did not vary between the stands of different ages. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the mineral-organic boundary using a gas-powered augur and 9.5-cm diameter drill bit. Samples were collected in 10-cm increments in shallow mineral soil and 15-cm increments from 30-60 cm depth. Carbon, nitrogen (N), pH, texture and soil mineralogy were measured across the regional sites. At Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire, mineral soil biogeochemistry in cut and uncut sites was studied at a finer scale. Measurements included soil temperature to 55 cm depth, carbon compound analyses using Py-GCMS and soil microbial messenger RNA extractions from mineral soil. Finally, we simulated C dynamics after harvesting by building a model in Stella, with a particular

  15. Use of cotton gin trash to enhance denitrification next term in restored forested wetlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Sami ULLAH; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to...

  16. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:25575878

  17. Intracytoplasmic inclusions in circulating leukocytes from an eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) with iridoviral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Fry, Michael M; Irizarry, Armando R; Craig, Linden; Johnson, April J; Jones, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A free-ranging adult female eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) was presented to the University of Tennessee in October 2003 because of suspected trauma and blindness. Physical examination revealed lethargy, clear ocular and nasal discharges, and white oral and laryngeal plaques. Intracytoplasmic inclusions within heterophils and large mononuclear leukocytes were observed on routine blood smear examination. Postmortem findings included necrosis of epithelial and parenchymal cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions. Ultrastructurally, the leukocyte inclusions consisted of variably electron-dense granular material and viral particles consistent with the Iridoviridae family of viruses. The virus shared 100% sequence identity to a 420-base pair sequence of frog virus 3 (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) as determined by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing targeting a portion of the Ranavirus major capsid protein gene. PMID:17092902

  18. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana. PMID:21294936

  19. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2002 (ilgpr2002_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2005 (ilgpr2005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2001 (ilgpr2001_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. JPEG Images of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data collected by East Carolina University along North Carolina Outer Banks 2002-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2005 (ilgpr2005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2001 (ilgpr2001_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2002 (ilgpr2002_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami...

  7. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami...

  8. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  9. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  10. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  11. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  12. Herpetological studies on the carolina sandhills national wildlife refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes information gathered concerning the biology of the amphibians and reptiles of the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge from summer 1995...

  13. HATTERAS_INDEX - Hatteras Island, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  14. 78 FR 49317 - North Carolina Disaster # NC-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice.... Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  15. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  16. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Carolina Sandhills NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  17. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  18. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Tricounty (Anderson, Oconee, Pickens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  19. Factors Influencing Successful Small-Farm Operations in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Anthony K.; Owens, John Paul; Bynum, Jarvetta S.

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to identify and refine factors influencing successful small farm operations in North Carolina. Small farms account for 91 percent of all farms. Given the importance of small farm viability, this research project focuses on identifying ways to further enhance successful small farming in North Carolina. In an effort to further explain the factors that affect successful small-scale farming, researchers have identified factors that have underpinnings i...

  20. Case Studies of Successful Small Scale Farming in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Anthony K.; Owens, John Paul; Bynum, Jarvetta S.; Boisson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study focuses on determining factors that contribute to a successful small farm in North Carolina and on identifying ways to further enhance successful small farming. North Carolina farms vary extensively in size and other characteristics, ranging from very small retirement and residential farms to establishments with millions of dollars in sales. Farming continues to be a distinctive industry in part because most production, even among very large farms, is carried out on fam...

  1. Food habits of diving ducks in the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Uhler, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits analyses were conducted on 264 diving ducks (7 species) from North and South Carolina during the 1970'S. The Baltic clam (Macoma balthica) was the predominant food among canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from the Pamlico River area, whereas sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) predominated in birds from impoundments in North and South Carolina. Shoalgrass (Halodule beaudettei) formed 100% of the gullet food and 99% of the gizzard food in redheads (Aythya americana) from Pamlico Sound. Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) in North Carolina had fed predominantly on mollusks (Mulinia lateralis and Rangia cuneata), whereas widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) was the predominant food in birds from South Carolina. In North Carolina, ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) fed mainly on vegetation, and greater scaup (Aythya marila), bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) fed mainly on Mulinia lateralis. Food habits data from this study when compared with historical food habits of these species indicate that most diving duck species were feeding more on invertebrates and less on submerged aquatic vegetation than in the past. North and South Carolina have a diverse food supply and appear to offer waterfowl adequate wintering habitat based on these food habits studies. Present trends in wintering habitat, however, could adversely affect diving duck populations in the future.

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  3. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  4. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  5. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    L P RAMOS DE; S. T. Carpes; F. T. Silva; J. L. M. Ganter

    2000-01-01

    Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v) as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga). This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses) recovered as water-solu...

  6. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, H. Tyler; David G. Krementz

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management st...

  7. Nuclear cluster strategy Carolinas - Ontario - Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organization of Candu Industries (OCI) is an industry association representing the interests of 170 private sector suppliers of products and services to the Canadian and offshore nuclear industries. OCI member companies, mainly in Ontario, employ over 30,000 highly specialized workers with over 12,000 working in nuclear area. OCI's objectives are to sustain the domestic nuclear program by building support among political leaders, the public and local communities, assist OCI member companies in becoming the preferred suppliers for domestic nuclear projects (competitive), assist OCI member companies in international nuclear markets - trade missions and vendor workshops. OCI is at the heart of an 'Ontario nuclear cluster'. The Carolinas have shown what can be achieved when industry, academia, S&T centers and governments collaborate with a shared vision to achieve a common goals. Ontario has the assets to become a stronger center for nuclear excellence. OCI is working to bring the pieces together. Saskatchewan has the assets to become a center of excellence in Small Modular Reactors (SMR) by licensing and constructing the first SMR in Canada.

  8. Effect of biodegradation on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhong; Fan, Qi; He, Zesen; Wang, Zhinan; Wang, Xiaobo; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The thermogravimetric and chemical characterization of hardwood Eucalyptus urophylla (Ep) and softwood Pinus massoniana (Mp) pretreated by brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated. The results indicated that the brown-rot fungus pretreatment can optimize the thermal decomposition and decrease the initiation temperatures (8-11°C lower) of both the Ep and Mp pyrolysis. The mean activation energy values of the bio-treated samples were 29.7kJ/mol (for Ep) and 42.3kJ/mol (for Mp) lower than that of the un-treated samples at the conversion rate from 0.1 to 0.7 based on Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method. After the bio-pretreatment, the required temperatures were lower (4-7°C) for the pyrolysis rates of hemicellulose and cellulose in Mp reaching maximum and termination. However, the situation was just the opposite for Ep. The variations in chemical properties of hydrogen bonding, as well as the relative changes in lignin/carbohydrate composition of both wood species were also examined. PMID:27035476

  9. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests. PMID:26073624

  10. Pathology of aural abscesses in free-living Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Richards, Jean M; Robertson, John; Holladay, Steven; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2004-10-01

    Aural abscess or abscess of the middle ear is common in free-living Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) of Virginia (USA) and elsewhere. Although its etiology remains unknown, hypovitaminosis A has been suggested on the basis of similar lesions occurring in captive chelonians fed diets that are deficient in vitamin A. This hypothesis was supported by significantly greater body burdens of organochlorine compounds (reported disruptors of vitamin A metabolism) and a nonsignificant trend toward lower serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in free-living box turtles with this lesion. The tympanic epithelium was evaluated in 27 box turtles (10 with aural abscesses and 17 without). Lesions of the tympanic epithelium of box turtles with aural abscesses included hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, hyperemia, cellular sloughing, granulomatous inflammation, and bacterial infection. These changes were more severe in turtles with aural abscesses than in those without and were more severe in tympanic cavities that had an abscess compared to those without when the lesion was unilateral. Organs from 21 box turtles (10 with aural abscesses and 11 without) from the study population were examined for microscopic lesions, and minimal histopathologic changes were found, none of which were similar to those found in the tympanic epithelium. Histopathologic changes in box turtles with aural abscesses were consistent with a syndrome that may involve hypovitaminosis A. PMID:15650088

  11. Microclimates and energetics of free-living box turtles, Terrapene carolina, in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penick, David N; Congdon, Justin; Spotila, James R; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    We measured microclimate, field metabolic rates (FMRs), water flux, and activity patterns of telemetered box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in South Carolina from September 1987 to October 1988. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and were active only sporadically during the rest of the year. Using the doubly labeled water method, we found that water flux averaged 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 mL kg(-1) d(-1) in winter, spring, and summer/fall, respectively. FMR for the same periods averaged 0.028, 0.065, and 0.124 mL CO(2) g(-1) h(-1). Differences in FMR among seasons were significant but not between sexes. Using operative temperatures, we predicted standard and maximum metabolic rates of turtles. In winter, FMR was elevated above standard metabolic rates and close to maximum metabolic rates, whereas in spring and summer/fall, FMR fell midway between standard and maximum metabolic rates. We used a model to predict metabolic rates, geographical distribution, and potential reproductive output of box turtles across latitudes in eastern North America. Low FMR and low annual reproductive output may allow box turtles to survive and flourish in unpredictable resource environments by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive success. PMID:11880978

  12. Phaeohyphomycosis in a free-living eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Shreve, Allison A; Spahr, John; Fountain, Andrea L; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2006-10-01

    A free-ranging eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) was referred to the Wildlife Center of Virginia with a three-month history of marked swelling of the right hind limb initially diagnosed as chromomycosis by histopathology. Hematology revealed severe anemia (9%), leukocytosis (12.8 cells x 10(3)/microl), heterophilia (6.14 cells x 10(3)/microl), and monocytosis (0.51 cells x 10(3)/microl). Gross necropsy revealed a firm, encapsulated 3 x 1 cm subcutaneous mass filled with dark brown-black, friable necrotic material of the distal right hind limb. Microscopically, the mass was characterized by a granulomatous inflammatory process with numerous multinucleated histiocytic giant cells. Fungal elements were present within necrotic centers and associated with multinucleated cells. Special stains revealed numerous phaeoid hyphae and yeast; Exophiala jeanselmei was isolated by routine mycologic culture. Phaeohyphomycosis was diagnosed based on the histologic appearance of the fungal elements within the mass and culture results. There was no histopathological evidence of systemic infection. This is the first report of phaeohyphomycosis caused by fungi of the genus Exophiala in free-living reptiles. PMID:17255461

  13. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before...

  14. Assessing the Impact of Saltwater Intrusion in the Carolinas under Future Climatic and Sea Level Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this research is to support coastal decision-makers in North Carolina and South Carolina by providing information about potential future precipitation...

  15. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Pine Barrens Treefrog Survey Data Report for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii Baird) is listed as a threatened species in need of management in South Carolina. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife...

  16. Air quality effects of South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed Cope power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of preliminary determination prepared by the South Carolina bureau of air quality control for the South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed cope...

  17. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  18. Growth and morphometrics of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Growth of box turtles in a bottomland forest in Maryland was studied over a period of years (1944-1981). A bivariate analysis of age related growth showed that between 8 and 13 yr, male turtles grew at an average rate of 6.7% per year in carapace length, whereas females grew at 5.3% per year. Both males and females grew considerably more slowly between 14 and 19 years, males at 2.3% per year and females at 3.4% per year. Growth slowed still more in the twenties. Growth in the six other dimensions that were measured provided additional comparisons. Allometric analysis of the different carapace and plastron dimensions showed that among males length increased proportionally more than either width or height and that width increased more than height. Among females, only the greater increase of length than of width was statistically significant. Fully grown males were larger than females in all dimensions except height. Differences from the normal scutal pattern occurred in 16.8% of fully grown males and 18.4% of the females

  19. Novel fen ecosystems in western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.

  20. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  1. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3942, dated January 25, 2010)....

  2. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  3. Seasonal Belowground Ecosystem and Eco-enzymatic Responses to Soil pH and Phosphorus Availability in Temperate Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Petersen, S. L.; Burke, D.; Hewins, C.; Kluber, L. A.; Kyker, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation in temperate hardwood forests by increasing N availability, and therefore P demand, and/or by decreasing pH and occluding inorganic P. However, only recently have studies demonstrated that P limitation can occur in temperate forests and very little is known about the temporal aspects of P dynamics in acidic forest soils and how seasonal shifts in nutrient availability and demand influence microbial investment in extracellular enzymes. The objectives of this study were to investigate how P availability and soil pH influence seasonal patterns of nutrient cycling and soil microbial activity in hardwood forests that experience chronic acid deposition. We experimentally manipulated soil pH, P, or both for three years and examined soil treatment responses in fall, winter, spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that site (glaciated versus unglaciated) and treatment had the most significant influence on nutrient pools and cycling. In general, nutrient pools were higher in glaciated soils than unglaciated for measured nutrients, including total C and N (2-3 times higher), extractable inorganic nitrogen, and readily available P. Treatment had no impact on total C and N pools in either region, but did affect other measured nutrients such as ammonium, which was greatest in the elevated pH treatment for both sites. As expected, readily available P pools were highest in the elevated P treatments (3 fold increase in both sites), but raising pH decreased available P pools in the glaciated site. Raising soil pH increased both net N mineralization rates and net P mineralization rates, regardless of site. Nitrification responses were complex, but we observed an overall significant nitrification increase under elevated pH, particularly in the growing season. Extracellular enzyme activity showed more seasonal patterns than site and treatment effects, exhibiting significant growing season activity reductions for

  4. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  5. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63 degree to 41 degree. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm2g-1 in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm2g-1 in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm2g-1 for all species and 192 cm2g-1 for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production

  6. Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides at a hardwood forest site in northern Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Seok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Snowpack-atmosphere gas exchanges of CO2, O3, and NOx (NO + NO2 were investigated at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS, a mid-latitude, low elevation hardwood forest site, during the 2007–2008 winter season. An automated trace gas sampling system was used to determine trace gas concentrations in the snowpack at multiple depths continuously throughout the snow-covered period from two adjacent plots. One natural plot and one with the soil covered by a Tedlar sheet were setup for investigating whether the primary source of measured trace gases was biogenic (i.e., from the soil or non-biogenic (i.e., from the snowpack. The results were compared with the “White on Green” study conducted at the Niwot Ridge (NWT Long Term Ecological Research site in Colorado. The average winter CO2 flux ± s.e. from the soil at UMBS was 0.54 ± 0.037 µmol m-2 s-1 using the gradient diffusion method and 0.71 ± 0.012 µmol m-2 s-1 using the eddy covariance method, and in a similar range as found for NWT. Observed snowpack-O3 exchange was also similar to NWT. However, nitrogen oxides (NOx fluxes from snow at UMBS were 10 times smaller than those at NWT, and fluxes were bi-directional with the direction of the flux dependent on NOx concentrations in ambient air. The compensation point for the change in the direction of NOx flux was estimated to be 0.92 nmol mol-1. NOx in snow also showed diurnal dependency on incident radiation. These NOx dynamics in the snow at UMBS were notably different compared to NWT, and primarily determined by snow-atmosphere interactions rather than by soil NOx emissions.

  7. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  8. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penick, D.N. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT[sup 18]O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T[sub e]), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO[sub 2]/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO[sub 2]/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  9. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penick, D.N. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT{sup 18}O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T{sub e}), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO{sub 2}/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO{sub 2}/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  10. Ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in a group of captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan; Geissler, Kyleigh; Elmore, Susan; Rotstein, David; Lewbart, Greg; Guy, James

    2004-12-01

    Seven captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from a large collection of North American chelonians in North Carolina became acutely ill in the fall of 2002. Five of the turtles died. Clinical signs included cutaneous abscessation, oral ulceration or abscessation (or both), respiratory distress, anorexia, and lethargy. The predominant postmortem lesion was fibrinoid vasculitis of various organs, including skin, mucous membranes, lungs, and liver. No inclusion bodies were detected by histopathology or electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissue. An iridovirus was isolated from tissues obtained postmortem from two of the box turtles that died. The virus was characterized by electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequence analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein as a member of the genus Ranavirus. PMID:15732597

  11. Organochlorine pesticides associated with ocular, nasal, or otic infection in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangredi, B P; Evans, R H

    1997-03-01

    From May 1987 to September 1994, 19 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) originating from scattered locations on Long Island, New York (USA) were presented with one or more of the following signs: listlessness, ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and otitis media. Numerous species of bacteria and yeast were isolated by aerobic culture. Histopathologic findings confirmed chronic active bacterial infections. Toxicologic analyses of livers revealed elevated concentrations of chlordane metabolites in two diseased turtles. A third turtle liver contained residues of endosulfan sulfate. Immunosuppressive effects of low-level exposure to organochlorines, including chlordane and endosulfan, could be involved in the pathogenesis of the observed infections. PMID:9226623

  12. Geology of the Raleigh 10 x 20 Quadrangle, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a facsimile edition (with accompanying maps) of a report ''Geology of the Raleigh Two-Degree Sheet, North Carolina, with Locations of Selected Mineral Occurrences'' prepared for the Savannah River Laboratory by the Geology and Mineral Resources Section of the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, Raleigh, North Carolina, under contract to SRL. This report is primarily a compilation of work completed and published since the publication of the 1958 geologic map of the State of North Carolina. The purpose of the report is to provide background geologic information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. There are 122 pages of text including detailed descriptions of economic mineral localities as well as a mineral locality map and a geologic map. This report is being issued separately in order to disseminate its content to potential users on a timely basis. An abbreviated version of this report and a slightly modified geologic map will be issued as part of SRL's report on results of NURE reconnaissance sampling in the Raleigh 10 x 20 quadrangle. The latter release is tentatively scheduled for late 1979

  13. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  14. South Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details South Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core…

  15. Flu Resistance to Antiviral Drug in North Carolina

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-19

    Dr. Katrina Sleeman, Associate Service Fellow at CDC, discusses resistance to an antiviral flu drug in North Carolina.  Created: 12/19/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/19/2011.

  16. State Secret: North Carolina and the Cherokee Trail of Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an analytic essay that examines the treatment of the Cherokee Trail of Tears in a North Carolina fourth grade textbook. I begin by offering a satiric look at an imaginary textbook's treatment of the Holocaust that is based closely on the actual narrative of the Trail of Tears written in the fourth grade text. Following this, close…

  17. Cracking the Egg: The South Carolina Digital Library's New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Christopher G.; Boyd, Kate Foster

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the historical foundations of the South Carolina Digital Library, a collaborative statewide program that ties together academic special collections and archives, public libraries, state government archives, and other cultural resource institutions in an effort to provide the state with a comprehensive database of online…

  18. 78 FR 12806 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  19. 78 FR 62001 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 07/07/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  20. Implementing Quantitative Literacy at Southwestern Community College, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Todd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a time when articulation agreements between universities and community colleges come to an end. When this happened in North Carolina, there was great hope that not only would the mathematics classes that were offered in the North Carolina Community College System be revamped with respect to overlapping content, but also that mathematics classes would be developed that have a clear connection between what is seen in the world and what is taught in the classroom especially for non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related studies students. This paper describes how Southwestern Community College (SCC implemented a quantitative literacy class as it is now described in the newly adopted articulation agreement between the University of North Carolina (UNC System and the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS, why such a class was chosen to be in that articulation agreement from the standpoint of SCC, and the success that was seen from such an endeavor. Results of preliminary statistical analysis suggest that students enrolled in the new Quantitative Literacy (MAT 143 course performed better on a quantitative reasoning assessment, on average, than their peers enrolled in similar traditional courses at SCC.

  1. Homophobic Language and Verbal Harassment in North Carolina High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Terri; Hall, Will; Weiss, Melissa; Kemp, Jana; Wells, Robert; Chan, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of homophobic language and verbal harassment in North Carolina high schools, the intervention rates of school personnel, and the effectiveness of school non-harassment policies. Data was collected from six high schools in central NC that had active Gay Straight Alliances. Gay Straight…

  2. 77 FR 56250 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  3. Perceptions of Leadership Behaviors by Female Principals in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Cheryl; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Beck-Frazier, Susan; Bruckner, Kermit

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether significant differences exist among the perceptions of leadership behaviors of female principals in North Carolina using Bolman and Deal's (1984) four frames (structural, human resource, political, and symbolic) for analysis. Participants consisted of 1,245 female principals from elementary,middle,…

  4. South Carolina Field Recordings in the Archive of Folk Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephanie A., Comp.

    This document describes recordings of the Library of Congress's unique collections of folklife and ethnomusicology from South Carolina. Information given includes length of recording, name of recorder, dates of recording, and content of recording. Recordings include songs, spirituals, hymns, sermons, prayers, dialect tales, and street songs.…

  5. A Study of the Leadership Practices of South Carolina Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Carlotta D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a report of a mixed method study that examines the leadership practices of black and white public school superintendents in the state of South Carolina. The researcher explored any self-perceived leadership practice differences, if existent, between black and white superintendents and, if so, were the race of the…

  6. Health burden from peat wildfire in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2008, a wildfire smoldering through rich peat deposits in the Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge produced massive amounts of smoke and exposed a largely rural North Carolina area to air pollution in access of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In this talk, w...

  7. Water and stress dynamics for North Carolina v. vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    As North Carolina wine grape (V. vinifera) production intensifies, the importance of water management must be addressed. Grape yield and composition, and consequently wine quality, are greatly influenced by the water regime under which the grapes were produced. Despite the importance of water manage...

  8. An Analysis of South Carolina Per Pupil State Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    In many states, including South Carolina, school choice is being discussed as perhaps the best way to both improve student achievement and spend education dollars more efficiently. The evidence from the 12 school choice programs currently running around the country is that the increased competition among public and private schools leads to more…

  9. Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L.; Reiniger Belinda M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine their level of support for school-based sexuality education, including homosexuality education. Overall, support for sexuality education (and many sexuality education topics) was strong, but homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. There was strong support for…

  10. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Policy and Practice Strategies for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jenni, Ed.; Rosch, Joel, Ed.; Smith, Shannon, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina Family Impact Seminars (NCFIS) include annual seminars, briefing reports and follow-up activities designed specifically for state policymakers, including legislators and legislative staff, the governor and executive branch staff, and state agency representatives. The Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University convenes the…

  11. Scientists Engage South Carolina Community in Earthquake Education and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Beutel, E.; Jaume', S.; Levine, N.; Doyle, B.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists at the College of Charleston are working with the state of South Carolina's Emergency Management Division to increase awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards throughout South Carolina. As part of this mission, the SCEEP (South Carolina Earthquake Education and Preparedness) program was formed at the College of Charleston to promote earthquake research, outreach, and education in the state of South Carolina. Working with local, regional, state and federal offices, SCEEP has developed education programs for everyone from professional hazard management teams to formal and informal educators. SCEEP also works with the media to ensure accurate reporting of earthquake and other hazard information and to increase the public's understanding of earthquake science and earthquake seismology. As part of this program, we have developed a series of activities that can be checked out by educators for use in their classrooms and in informal education venues. These activities are designed to provide educators with the information and tools they lack to adequately, informatively, and enjoyably teach about earthquake and earth science. The toolkits contain seven activities meeting a variety of National Education Standards, not only in Science, but also in Geography, Math, Social Studies, Arts Education, History and Language Arts - providing a truly multidisciplinary toolkit for educators. The activities provide information on earthquake myths, seismic waves, elastic rebound, vectors, liquefaction, location of an epicenter, and then finally South Carolina earthquakes. The activities are engaging and inquiry based, implementing proven effective strategies for peaking learners' interest in scientific phenomena. All materials are provided within the toolkit and so it is truly check and go. While the SCEEP team has provided instructions and grade level suggestions for implementing the activity in an educational setting, the educator has full reign on what to showcase

  12. Nutrient Budgets in Successional Northern Hardwood Forests: Uncertainty in soil, root, and tree concentrations and pools (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, R. D.; Bae, K.; Levine, C. R.; Lilly, P.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Fatemi, F. R.; Blum, J. D.; Arthur, M.; Hamburg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem nutrient budgets are difficult to construct and even more difficult to replicate. As a result, uncertainty in the estimates of pools and fluxes are rarely reported, and opportunities to assess confidence through replicated measurements are rare. In this study, we report nutrient concentrations and contents of soil and biomass pools in northern hardwood stands in replicate plots within replicate stands in 3 age classes (14-19 yr, 26-29 yr, and > 100 yr) at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, USA. Soils were described by quantitative soil pits in three plots per stand, excavated by depth increment to the C horizon and analyzed by a sequential extraction procedure. Variation in soil mass among pits within stands averaged 28% (coefficient of variation); variation among stands within an age class ranged from 9-25%. Variation in nutrient concentrations were higher still (averaging 38%, within element, depth increment, and extraction type), perhaps because the depth increments contained varying proportions of genetic horizons. To estimate nutrient contents of aboveground biomass, we propagated model uncertainty through allometric equations, and found errors ranging from 3-7%, depending on the stand. The variation in biomass among plots within stands (6-19%) was always larger than the allometric uncertainties. Variability in measured nutrient concentrations of tree tissues were more variable than the uncertainty in biomass. Foliage had the lowest variability (averaging 16% for Ca, Mg, K, N and P within age class and species), and wood had the highest (averaging 30%), when reported in proportion to the mean, because concentrations in wood are low. For Ca content of aboveground biomass, sampling variation was the greatest source of uncertainty. Coefficients of variation among plots within a stand averaged 16%; stands within an age class ranged from 5-25% CV, including uncertainties in tree allometry and tissue chemistry. Uncertainty analysis can help direct research

  13. Growth responses of Kentucky-31, Kenhy, and Kenwell tall fescues established under differing rates of wood fiber and hardwood bark mulches on eastern Kentucky surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, D.L.; Graves, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    In August, 1977 Kentucky-31, Kenwell, and the newly released Kenhy variety of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.) were planted on Falcon Coal Company land in eastern Kentucky to evaluate their establishment and vegetative responses to wood fiber mulch (WFM) and hardwood tree bark. Each of the one-half acre plots were fertilized at a constant rate of four hundred (400) pounds of 16-32-8 fertilizer and seeded at the rate of twenty (20) pounds and four (4) pounds per acre with a tall fescue variety and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) respectively. Plot mulch treatments included a control, 35 and 70 cubic yards per acre of hardwood bark, and 300 and 750 pounds per acre of WFM. Percent total ground cover and percent cover occupied by grasses and by legumes were collected for two growing seasons. Reduced seeding rates were utilized to increase the length of time for establishment so that each variety could be easily compared over several growing seasons, indicating adaptability for establishment on eastern Kentucky mine spoil.

  14. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration. PMID:24667204

  15. Carolinas HealthCare attends to patients, amenities; builds business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2000-01-01

    Carolinas HealthCare System has grown into a nearly two billion dollar entity by focusing on patient needs and amenities in its health care facilities. Growth of the system, the largest in North and South Carolina, is due in large part to Harry A. Nurkin, president and CEO, who started out with a run-down hospital for indigents. With the approval of the hospital board, Nurkin launched a marketing effort that included taking a lesson from the founders of the Holiday Inn hotel chain. He remodeled and developed facilities that are pleasing to patients and visitors, moved patient parking closer to the hospitals' front doors, taught key hospital personnel the basics about marketing, aligned the system with ABA and NFL teams and conducted an aggressive advertising program. PMID:11143133

  16. Effects of the exotic Crustacean, .i.Armadillidium vulgare./i. (Isopoda), and other macrofauna on organic matter dynamics in soil microcosms in a hardwood forest in central Florida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Lobinske, R.J.; Kalčík, Jiří; Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2008), s. 328-331. ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Armadillidium vulgare * organic matter dynamics * hardwood forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2008

  17. Public School Choice and Integration: Evidence from Durham, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Bifulco; Ladd, Helen F.; Stephen Ross

    2007-01-01

    Using evidence from Durham, North Carolina, we examine the impact of school choice programs on racial and class-based segregation across schools. Theoretical considerations suggest that how choice programs affect segregation will depend not only on the family preferences emphasized in the sociology literature but also on the linkages between student composition, school quality and student achievement emphasized in the economics literature. Reasonable assumptions about the distribution of pref...

  18. Establishing Worksite Wellness Programs for North Carolina Government Employees, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanna Young, MPH; Jacquie Halladay, MD, MPH; Marcus Plescia, MD, MPH; Casey Herget, MSW, MPH; Carolyn Dunn, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Background State employee health plans sometimes provide worksite wellness programs to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among their members, but few offer the comprehensive range of interventions recommended by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Community Context North Carolina's State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees provides health coverage for approximately 665,000 state employees, teachers, retirees, and dependents. Health claims indicate that the preval...

  19. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Jay S. Kaufman; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain ...

  20. History of whaling in and near North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Randall R.; Mitchell, Edward

    1988-01-01

    This study aims to reconstruct the history of shore whaling in the southeastern United States, emphasizing statistics on the catch of right whales, Eubalaena glacialis, the preferred targets. The earliest record of whaling in North Carolina is of a proposed voyage from New York in 1667. Early settlers on the Outer Banks utilized whale strandings by trying out the blubber of carcasses that came ashore, and some whale oil was exported from the 1660s onward. New England whalemen whaled along the...

  1. Artificial Intelligence Research in Engineering at North Carolina State University

    OpenAIRE

    Rasdorf, William J.; Fisher, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a summary of ongoing, funded artificial intelligence research at North Carolina State University. The primary focus of the research is engineering aspects of artificial intelligence. These research efforts can be categorized into four main areas: engineering expert systems, generative database management systems, human-machine communication, and robotics and vision. Involved in the research are investigators from both the School of Engineering and the Department of Compu...

  2. REVENUE INSURANCE FOR GEORGIA AND SOUTH CAROLINA PEACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stephen E.; Kahl, Kandice H.; Rathwell, P. James

    2000-01-01

    We estimate actuarially fair premium rates for yield and revenue insurance for Georgia and South Carolina peaches. The premium rates for both products decrease at a decreasing rate as the mean farm-level yield increases. In general, the premium rate for revenue insurance exceeds the premium rate for yield insurance for a given coverage level and expected yield. Although the revenue and yield insurance rates differ in a statistical sense, they do not appear to differ in an economic sense excep...

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; French, T.

    2010-02-03

    The South Carolina Bio-Energy Research Collaborative is working together on the development and demonstration of technology options for the production of bio-fuels using renewable non-food crops and biomass resources that are available or could be made available in abundance in the southeastern United States. This collaboration consists of Arborgen LLC, Clemson University, Savannah River National Laboratory, and South Carolina State University, with support from Dyadic, Fagen Engineering, Renewed World Energies, and Spinx. Thus far, most work has centered on development of a fermentation-based process to convert switchgrass into ethanol, with the concomitant generation of a purified lignin stream. The process is not feed-specific, and the work scope has recently expanded to include sweet sorghum and wood. In parallel, the Collaborative is also working on developing an economical path to produce oils and fuels from algae. The Collaborative envisions an integrated bio-fuels process that can accept multiple feedstocks, shares common equipment, and that produces multiple product streams. The Collaborative is not the only group working on bio-energy in South Carolina, and other companies are involved in producing biomass derived energy products at an industrial scale.

  4. Temporal variance in hematologic and plasma biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Steven J A; Williams, Rod N

    2012-07-01

    Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) populations are in decline, likely due to anthropogenic forces and disease, necessitating hematologic and biochemical data from healthy individuals for evaluation of wild populations. We repeatedly sampled 21 free-ranging eastern box turtles from May to September 2009 in the spring, summer, and fall to establish temporal hematologic and biochemical reference intervals. Packed cell volume, aspartate aminotransferase, and potassium levels declined significantly as the active season progressed. High levels of albumin, globulin, and calcium coincided with the presence of eggs in females. These reference intervals should provide baseline data for the clinical evaluation of wild box turtles presented for veterinary care or for studies of wild populations. PMID:22740550

  5. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  6. Armazenamento de sementes de carolina em diferentes temperaturas e embalagens Storage of carolina seeds in different temperature and packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a embalagem e a temperatura adequadas para o armazenamento de sementes de carolina. As sementes foram armazenadas em sacos de papel e de plástico, mantidas em 0±2; 10±2; 20±2°C e 60 5% de umidade relativa do ar (UR e em temperatura ambiente (23,4±3,3°C e 68,7±9%UR. O teor de água, a germinação e o vigor foram determinados trimestralmente. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de água das sementes foi de aproximadamente 8,9%. A embalagem saco de plástico e a temperatura de 0°C são adequadas para o armazenamento das sementes de carolina.The objective of the present research was to determine the more adequated packing and temperature for storage of "carolina" seeds. The seeds were stored in paper and plastic packings and kept in 0±2; 10±2; 20±2°C and 60 5% air relative humidity (ARH and in ambient temperature (23,4±3,3°C and 68,7±9% ARH. Quarterly, the water seed content, germinative test and seed vigour were avaluated. During storage, the seed water content was approximately 8.9%. The plastic packing (plastic bag and tempertature of 0oC are adequated for storage of "carolina" seeds.

  7. Seasonal variations in plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids in male and female Eastern Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F; Tift, Michael S; Meyer, Jennifer L; Crocker, Daniel E; Williams, Rod N

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a widespread species that has recently experienced precipitous declines throughout its range. Although many studies have documented aspects of reproduction in box turtles, reproductive physiology of free-ranging animals is unknown and can be crucial in this species' recovery. Over a two-year period, we measured reproductive parameters, (vitellogenin [Vtg], estradiol-17β [E2], and total testosterone [TT]), in plasma of 116 free-ranging Eastern Box Turtles across their active season. We found similar seasonal variations of Vtg and E2 within females. Mid-season, females showed a sharp peak in E2 that correlates with the putative beginning of the ovarian cycle. Individual females lacking these expected peaks of both Vtg and E2 suggest that some female T. c. carolina may not reproduce annually. Females typically expressed undetectable levels of TT, yet there was a small peak in TT early in the active season. Male Eastern Box Turtles exhibited a dual peak in TT. Elevated TT in males was significantly associated with observed sexual behaviors and smaller home ranges. Body condition had no effect on the concentration of TT or E2 in either sex. This is the first study to (1) document Vtg and sex steroid hormones in free-ranging animals of this genus, and (2) relate those metrics to individuals, the population, the purported annual cycle, and to other chelonian species. PMID:23174697

  8. Improving disease resistance of butternut (Juglans cinerea), a threatened fine hardwood: a case for single-tree selection through genetic improvement and deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michler, Charles H; Pijut, Paula M; Jacobs, Douglass F; Meilan, Richard; Woeste, Keith E; Ostry, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Approaches for the development of disease-resistant butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) are reviewed. Butternut is a threatened fine hardwood throughout its natural range in eastern North America because of the invasion of the exotic fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka and Kuntz, which causes butternut canker. Early efforts were made to identify and collect putatively resistant germ plasm, identify vectors and to characterize the disease. More recently, molecular techniques have been employed to genetically characterize both the pathogen and the resistant germ plasm. Much of the host resistance may originate from hybridization with a close Asian relative, Japanese walnut (Juglans ailanthifolia Carr.), and from a few natural phenotypic variants. Further genetic characterization is needed before classical breeding or genetic modification can be used to produce canker-resistant trees. PMID:16203722

  9. 宁波骨木镶嵌髹饰工艺调查%A Study on Inlay and Lacquer Decoration Technique of Bone and Hardwood in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    长北

    2014-01-01

    According to the ifeld investigation in the workshop in Ningbo, the author systematical y introduces the history and technique of bone-hardwood inlay, which is national non-material cultural heritage. Also, the essay analyzes its value by comparison with similar exquisite technique in Southeast, even East Asia and South Asia.%作者通过对宁波骨木镶嵌髹饰工艺作坊的实地调查,系统介绍了作为国家级非物质文化遗产的宁波骨木镶嵌历史与工艺,并与东南亚乃至东亚、南亚同类工艺比照分析其价值。

  10. Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, and a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic and Edaphic Conditions-Isotopic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanton, J. P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2004-11-04

    During the past year we have submitted two manuscripts. 1. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions (in Press). Oecologia 2. Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Use of Keeling plots for determining sources of dissolved organic carbon in nearshore and open ocean systems (Published in Limnology and Oceanography (2004) Vol 49 pages 102-108). 3. Mortazavi, B., J. L. Prater, and J. P. Chanton (2004). A field-based method for simultaneous measurements of the 18O and 13C of soil CO2 efflux. Biogeosciences Vol 1:1-16 Most recent products delivered: Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Abiotic and biotic controls on the 13C of respired CO2 in the southeastern US forest mosaics and a new technique for measuring the of soil CO2 efflux. Joint Biosphere Stable Isotope Network (US) and Stable Isotopes in Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange (EU) 2004 Meeting, Interlaken, Switzerland, March 31-April 4, 2004. Mortazavi, B., J. Chanton, J.L. Prater, A.C. Oishi, R. Oren and G. Katul. Temporal variability in 13C of respired CO2 in a pine and a hardwood forest subject to similar climatic conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003. Prater, J., Mortazavi, B. and J. P. Chanton. Measurement of discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis and quantification of the short-term variability of 13C over a diurnal cycle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, USA, December 8-12, 2003.

  11. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a...

  12. Location of vibracores from offshore of Dare County, North Carolina (ncd_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Chirp trackline navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2004005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2002015_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  16. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2002015_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2001013_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003042_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2003042_shot.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. Boomer seismic tracklines from USGS cruise 2004-006-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004006_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  3. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2002015_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  4. Chirp navigation tracklines from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina (bbc2001013_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  5. Chirp shotpoint navigation (from USGS cruise 2003-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbc2003005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  6. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  7. Location of vibracores collected from nearshore off of Duck, North Carolina in 2005 (vims_cores.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2003-042-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2003042_shot200.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-006-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2004006_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. bbc2004005_shots.shp: Chirp shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2004-005-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Boomer seismic navigation from USGS cruise 2002-015-FA from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (bbb2002015_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. Boomer shotpoint navigation from USGS cruise 2001-013-FA from Albemarle Sound, North Carolina (bbb2001013_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a...

  14. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a...

  15. Opinions of North Carolina hunters regarding hunting on Sunday and satisfactions with, motivations for, and constraints to hunting participation

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Melissa Kay

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the North Carolina General Assembly and North Carolina Governor Mike Easley requested that the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) coordinate a study to investigate issues related to hunting on Sunday in North Carolina. In particular, NCWRC was most interested in identifying stakeholders and their views on hunting on Sunday, and estimating the potential impacts of hunting on Sunday on hunter recruitment and retention. I developed a 12-page questionnaire that w...

  16. Longitudinal Trend Analysis of Performance Indicators for South Carolina's Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Nurul

    2010-01-01

    This study included an analysis of the trend of performance indicators for the technical college sector of higher education in South Carolina. In response to demands for accountability and transparency in higher education, the state of South Carolina developed sector specific performance indicators to measure various educational outcomes for each…

  17. Progress and challenges in low-level waste disposal in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight states in the Southeastern US responded to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 by forming the Southeast Compact. Included are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The Compact commissioners in 1986 selected North Carolina as the second host state for a disposal facility using a procedure based on state features and capabilities. South Carolina is the first host state. The North Carolina General Assembly in 1987 created the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste management Authority (the Authority), a 15-member citizen board. The Authority was given responsibilities, powers, and a target schedule to site, operate, close, and maintain the disposal facility. The North Carolina radiation Protection Commission issued rules based on NRC's 10CFR61 and unique North Carolina law. Shallow land burial is banned, and engineered barriers are required. The project has been delayed by several factors and events: lengthy site operator contract negotiations, the insertion of the precharacterization step, the extended review of the site characterization plans, and litigation by Richmond and Chatham counties. Complaints include allegations that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is needed before site characterization can begin and that the Authority has failed to comply fully with the law during the site-screening process. As a result of delays, the facility is not likely to be open for waste disposal until 1995. With Barnwell scheduled to close December 31, 1992, generators must store wastes for ∼2 years or make other arrangements

  18. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  19. Denitrification and N20 emissions from Carolina Bays receiving poultry runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the southeastern Coastal Plain, there are depressional wetlands known as Carolina Bays that may receive runoff from agricultural land. Little is known about denitrification and gas emission within these isolated wetlands. Three forested Carolina Bays were selected to observe denitrification enzym...

  20. Adverse Impact of Racial Isolation on Student Performance: A Study in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andy; Joyner, Ann Moss; Osment, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of racial isolation on high school student performance in North Carolina, a state in the southeast United States. Our research goal is to investigate if increased isolation negatively impacts Black students' academic performance. Employing the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI)…

  1. University of North Carolina Lets Professors Ease Their Way into Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the University of North Carolina's "phased-retirement" plan, which lets professors formally ease their way into retirement. The challenges of personnel planning in the North Carolina system, made tougher when higher education was stripped of a mandatory retirement age 14 years ago, have lessened because the program has…

  2. Treatment of Ischemic Equine Jejunum with Topical and Intraluminal Carolina Rinse

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Byron Leslie

    2001-01-01

    TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC EQUINE JEJUNUM WITH TOPICAL AND INTRALUMINAL CAROLINA RINSE Byron L. Young, DVM Abstract Carolina Rinse (CRS) has been shown to be effective in decreasing vascular permeability and neutrophil infiltration in reperfused equine small intestine. The objective of this study was to show that CRS applied topically and intraluminally could prevent immediate reperfusion injury after low flow ischemia or d...

  3. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... impact (Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926 through 13967, dated March 27, 2009... Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. (PEC... promulgating its revisions to 10 CFR Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register (FR) notice dated March...

  4. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... License No. NPF-63, issued to Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as... part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There will be no... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1;...

  5. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina. [forested wetlands, water management, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been used to study forested wetlands, dynamic processes off Coastal North Carolina, and land use patterns in the Wilmington, North Carolina area. The thrust of the investigation is still involvement of state and regional agencies in the use of ERTS-1 imagery in solving some of their day-to-day problems.

  6. 75 FR 71680 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Carolina Community Sailing & Rowing (NCCSR) Center located at Blythe Landing County Park in Cornelius, North Carolina. NCCSR will offer public sailing and rowing programs, and the proposed docking facility is designed to accommodate the specialized needs of the sailing and rowing programs. l. Locations...

  7. 75 FR 9619 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station; Environmental Assessment..., issued to South Carolina Electric & Gas Company (SCE&G, the licensee), for operation of the Virgil C... radiological hazard beyond those previously analyzed in the Final Environmental Statement for the Virgil...

  8. The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates in North Carolina. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    North Carolina has a dropout crisis--only two thirds of North Carolina high school students graduate. One reason this crisis has not received the attention it deserves is because the state was reporting badly inflated graduation rates (supposedly as high as 97 percent) until it finally adopted a more realistic reporting method earlier this year.…

  9. Carex opaca (Hermann) P.E. Pothrock & Reznicek (CYPERACEAE) new to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carex opaca (F. J. Hermann) P.E. Rothrock & Reznicek (CYPERACEAE) is reported from two sites in North Carolina. These are the first records of C. opaca from North Carolina and represent easternmost stations for this species in the United States. Previously C. opaca was known from Arkansas, Illino...

  10. 76 FR 28016 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... 29, 2011. d. Applicant: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. e. Name of Project: Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The Pee Dee River in Stanly County, North Carolina. g. Filed Pursuant to... include your name and contact information at the end of your comments. Please include the project...

  11. 76 FR 53672 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., 2011. d. Applicant: South Carolina Electric & Gas Company. e. Name of Project: Saluda Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project is located on the Saluda River in Lexington, Newberry, Richland, and Saluda counties, South Carolina. The proposed action would occur on Lake Murray in Lexington...

  12. Hydrography of Onslow Bay, North Carolina: September 1975 (OBIS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, L.P.; Singer, J.J.; Dunstan, W.M.; Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1975-09-01

    Data collected during studies of Onslow Bay, off the North Carolina coast during cruises during September, 1975, are reported. Current meters and thermography were placed at depths of 10 and 22 m along the 28 m isobath in the northeastern and southwestern sectors of the Bay. Data are included on wind turbulence and velocity; seawater salinity and temperature at various depths; the content of nitrates, phosphates, silicate, oxygen, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton biomass at various depths. Hydrographic and meteorologic conditions during the cruises are included. (CH)

  13. Power for all? Electricity and uneven development in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Conor M.

    Many towns in eastern North Carolina face a number of challenges common to the rural South, including high rates of poverty and diminishing employment opportunities. However, some residents of this region also confront a unique hardship---electricity prices that are vastly higher than those of surrounding areas. This dissertation examines the origins of pricing inequalities in the electricity market of eastern North Carolina---namely how such inequalities developed and their role in the production of racial and economic disparities in the South. This dissertation examines the evolving relations between federal and state agencies, corporations, and electric utilities, and asks why these interactions produced varying social outcomes across different places and spatial settings. The research focuses on the origins and subsequent development of electric utilities in eastern North Carolina, and examines how electricity as a material technology interacted with geographies of race and class, as well as the dictates of capital accumulation. This approach enables a rethinking of several concepts that are rarely examined by scholars of electric utilities, most notably the monopoly service territory, which I argue served as a spatial fix to accumulation problems in the industry. Further, examining the way that electric utilities developed in North Carolina during the 20th century brings to the forefront the at times contradictory relationships among systems of electricity provision, Jim Crow segregation, the Progressive Era, and the New Deal. Such a focus highlights the important role that the control of electricity provision played in shaping racial inequalities that continue to persist in the region. With most urban areas were electrified in the 1930s, the research also traces the electricity distribution lines as they moved out of cities through rural electrification programs, a shift that highlights the state as a multi-scalar and variegated actor that both aided and

  14. Pegmatite geology of the Shelby district, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1957-01-01

    The Shelby district is divided into a northwestern and a southeastern province. The rocks in the southeastern province include various units in the Battleground schist formation and the Yorkville granodiorite. Those in the northwestern province include the Carolina gneiss, with its Shelby gneiss member, and the Toluca quartz monzonite. The Cherryville quartz monzonite forms a batholith that is just west of the boundary between the two provinces. Pegmatites related to both the Toluca and the Cherryville quartz monzonites lie in the Carolina gneiss and many dikes of pegmatite that are related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite are in the tin-spodumene belt that lies along the boundary between provinces. The rocks of the southeastern province have been bent into steep isoclinal folds; those of the northwestern province were bent into open folds and gently-dipping isoclinal folds. The rocks to the southeast have been metamorphosed in the epidote-amphibolite facies whereas the rocks to the northwest represent the amphibolite or granulite facies. The pegmatites related to the Toluca quartz monzonite form sills, dikes, and concordant lenses in the Carolina gneiss, as well as dikes in the Toluca quartz monzonite. The bodies are unzoned and consist mainly of gneissic microcline-plagioclase-quartz pegmatite. The pegmatites related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite form dikes and disconformable lenses in the Carolina gneiss and the Toluca quartz monzonite. These pegmatites range widely in composition and many are zoned. The dikes west of the Cherryville batholith are rich in muscovite and plagioclase and may contain no microcline or only a moderate amount of microcline. Quartz cores and microcline-rich intermediate zones are common. Similar pegmatite forms dikes along the west edge of the tin-spodumene belt. The tin-spodumene belt containes albite-microcline-spodumene-quartz pegmatite. These dikes of albitic pegmatite are largest and most nearly parallel to one another

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  16. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, S; Szwejbka, L; Mann, H; Durkin, M; Callaghan, W

    2001-05-01

    This study presents evidence that over 20 percent of pregnant women with a UTI in South Carolina did not have an antibiotic pharmacy claim within 14 days of diagnosis. Untreated maternal UTI in pregnancy was associated with a 22 percent increased risk for MR/DD in the infant compared to the risk for women who had a UTI and a pharmacy claim for an antibiotic and 31 percent increased risk compared to women who did not have a UTI. The importance of medications compliance should be emphasized in the care of pregnant women. PMID:11381775

  17. Correlates of Mental Health Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Latino farmworkers are a vulnerable population who confront multiple threats to their mental health. Informed by the stress-process model of psychiatric disorder, the goal of this paper is to determine primary and context-specific stressors of poor mental health among Latino farmworkers....... Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...

  18. Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nathan; Braham, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the “Bladen Lakes Group” which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic – oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively. New information Over the 2013−2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens. PMID:27350764

  19. Quest for clean streams in North Carolina: An historical account of stream pollution control in North Carolina. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second historical report dealing with North Carolina's water resources traces the evolution of the state's stream pollution control regulations and programs. From the colonial development of streams and rivers to power mills to the effects of land conversion for agriculture and later for commercial and industrial facilities, the report catalogs the various of stream pollution over time. Developments of waste water treatment under both state and federal laws and regulations are described. The report concluded with a look at contemporary stream pollution issues

  20. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Wootten; S Raman; A Sims

    2010-10-01

    The Carolina Sandhills are known to have an area of maximum precipitation on its western boundary during the summer mainly due to differences in soil types.Statistical analysis was performed on summer precipitation data from automated weather stations in the Carolinas,along the Sandhills for the years 2001 to 2006.Statistically significant difference was observed between the day and night precipitation amounts.A case study also revealed the diurnal pattern of convective precipitation. North American Mesoscale (NAM)model forecasts for the summers of 2004 to 2006 were evaluated using observations.The model underpredicted precipitation significantly during nights. A numerical simulation using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF)model was performed for August 9 –11,2001 and the forecasts were compared with observed precipitation data.The model precipitation forecasts were better for daytime as compared to the night.This feature is attributed to model physics not capturing cloud –radiation interaction processes dominant during nights. Although this study is for a specific region in the US,results are applicable for other regions for similar conditions.

  1. Atmospheric transport and wet deposition of ammonium in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John T.; Aneja, Viney P.; Dickey, David A.

    Wet deposition and transport analysis has been performed for ammonium (NH 4+) in North Carolina, USA. Multiple regression analysis is employed to model the temporal trend and seasonality in monthly volume-weighted mean NH 4+ concentrations in precipitation from 1983 to 1996 at six National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) sites. A significant ( ppopulated network of swine and poultry operations. This trend is positively correlated with increasing ammonia (NH 3) emissions related to the vigorous growth of North Carolina's swine population since 1990, particularly in the state's Coastal Plain region. A source-receptor regression model, which utilizes weekly NH 4+ concentrations in precipitation in conjunction with boundary layer air mass back trajectories, is developed to statistically test for the influence of a particular NH 3 source region on NH 4+ concentrations at surrounding NADP/NTN sites for the years 1995-1996. NH 3 emissions from this source region, primarily evolving from swine and poultry operations, are found to increase NH 4+ concentration in precipitation at sites up to ≈80 km away. At the Scotland County (NC36) and Wake County (NC41) sites, mean NH 4+ concentrations show increases of at least 44% for weeks during which 25% or more back trajectories are influenced by this source region.

  2. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  3. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Krementz, David G

    2016-01-01

    Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha). This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS) Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated) and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated). Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%). We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH) but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter) but did not select for small shrubs or

  4. The relation of harvesting intensity to changes in soil, soil water, and stream chemistry in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Germain, Rene H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that clearcutting of northern hardwood forests mobilizes base cations, inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), and nitrate (NO3--N) from soils to surface waters, but the effects of partial harvests on NO3--N have been less frequently studied. In this study we describe the effects of a series of partial harvests of varying proportions of basal area removal (22%, 28% and 68%) on Alim, calcium (Ca2+), and NO3--N concentrations in soil extracts, soil water, and surface water in the Catskill Mountains of New York, USA. Increases in NO3--N concentrations relative to pre-harvest values were observed within a few months after harvest in soils, soil water, and stream water for all three harvests. Increases in Alim and Ca2+ concentrations were also evident in soil water and stream water over the same time period for all three harvests. The increases in Alim, Ca2+, and NO3--N concentrations in the 68% harvest were statistically significant as measured by comparing the 18-month pre-harvest period with the 18-month post-harvest period, with fewer significant responses in the two harvests of lowest intensity. All three solutes returned to pre-harvest concentrations in soil water and stream water in the two lowest intensity harvests in 2–3 years compared to a full 3 years in the 68% harvest. When the results of this study were combined with those of a previous nearby clearcut and 40% harvest, the post-harvest increases in NO3--N concentrations in stream water and soil water suggest a harvesting level above which the relation between concentration and harvest intensity changes; there was a greater change in concentration per unit change in harvest intensity when basal area removal was greater than 40%. These results indicate that the deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems previously demonstrated for intensive harvests in northern hardwood forests of northeastern North America that receive high levels of atmospheric N deposition can be greatly

  5. Select metal and metalloid surveillance of free-ranging Eastern box turtles from Illinois and Tennessee (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Dreslik, Michael J; Patel, Bishap; Luber, Elizabeth L; Byrd, John; Phillips, Christopher A; Scott, John W

    2015-08-01

    The Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a primarily terrestrial chelonian distributed across the eastern US. It has been proposed as a biomonitor due to its longevity, small home range, and reliance on the environment to meet its metabolic needs. Plasma samples from 273 free-ranging box turtles from populations in Tennessee and Illinois in 2011 and 2012 were evaluated for presence of heavy metals and to characterize hematologic variables. Lead (Pb), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), and copper (Cu) were detected, while cadmium (Cd) and silver (Ag) were not. There were no differences in any metal detected among age class or sex. However, Cr and Pb were higher in turtles from Tennessee, while As, Zn, Se, and Cu were higher in turtles from Illinois. Seasonal differences in metal concentrations were observed for Cr, Zn, and As. Health of turtles was assessed using hematologic variables. Packed cell volume was positively correlated with Cu, Se, and Pb in Tennessee. Total solids, a measure of plasma proteins, in Tennessee turtles were positively correlated with Cu and Zn. White blood cell count, a measure of inflammation, in Tennessee turtles was negatively correlated with Cu and As, and positively correlated with Pb. Metals are a threat to human health and the health of an ecosystem, and the Eastern Box Turtle can serve as a monitor of these contaminants. Differences established in this study can serve as baseline for future studies of these or related populations. PMID:26024619

  6. Effects of IAA and ABT 6 on Hardwood Cuttage of Lycium barbarum Mengqi 1%IAA・ ABT 6号对蒙杞1号枸杞新品种硬枝插穗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To screen the optimal soaking concentration for hardwood cuttage of Lycium barbarum Mengqi 1.[ Method] We re-searched the effects of IAA and ABT 6 on the survival rate of hardwood cuttage, and the root, stem and leaves of Mengqi 1.[Result] IAA and ABT 6 soaking treatment could both enhance the survival rate of hardwood cottage.Interaction of IAA and ABT 6significantly promoted the growth of new branch and stem, as well as the stem, leaf and root dry weight of hardwood cottage of Mengqi 1.[Conclusion] When the soaking liquid concentrations of the two reagents or the interactive soaking concentration are 100 mg /L, the promotion effects were the optimal on the sur -vival rate,the morphological index and the biomass of hardwood cuttage of Mengqi 1.%[目的]筛选对蒙杞1号硬枝插穗促进效果最佳的浸泡溶液浓度。[方法]研究 IAA、ABT 6号对蒙杞1号硬枝插穗成活率及根、茎和叶的影响。[结果]IAA 和 ABT 6号浸泡处理均能提高枸杞硬枝插穗成活率;IAA 和 ABT 6号互作,对枸杞硬枝扦插苗新枝生长、茎生长具有明显的促进作用;IAA 和 ABT 6号互作,对枸杞硬枝扦插苗茎、叶和根干重具有明显的促进作用。[结论]当2种药剂分别浸泡或互作浸泡的浸泡液浓度在100 mg /L 时,对枸杞硬枝插穗成活率、形态指标和生物量的促进效果最佳。

  7. Short-Term Response of Native Flora to the Removal of Non-Native Shrubs in Mixed-Hardwood Forests of Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While negative impacts of invasive species on native communities are well documented, less is known about how these communities respond to the removal of established populations of invasive species. With regard to invasive shrubs, studies examining native community response to removal at scales greater than experimental plots are lacking. We examined short-term effects of removing Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle and other non-native shrubs on native plant taxa in six mixed-hardwood forests. Each study site contained two 0.64 ha sample areas—an area where all non-native shrubs were removed and a reference area where no treatment was implemented. We sampled vegetation in the spring and summer before and after non-native shrubs were removed. Cover and diversity of native species, and densities of native woody seedlings, increased after shrub removal. However, we also observed significant increases in L. maackii seedling densities and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard cover in removal areas. Changes in reference areas were less pronounced and mostly non-significant. Our results suggest that removing non-native shrubs allows short-term recovery of native communities across a range of invasion intensities. However, successful restoration will likely depend on renewed competition with invasive species that re-colonize treatment areas, the influence of herbivores, and subsequent control efforts.

  8. SUBSTITUTION OF HIGH-YIELD-PULP FOR HARDWOOD BLEACHED KRAFT PULP IN PAPER PRODUCTION AND ITS EFFECT ON ALKENYL SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE SIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijie Chen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using high-yield pulp (HYP as a partial replacement for hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP in the production of high-quality fine papers as a cost-effective way of improving the product performance. This study investigated the substitution of HYP for HWBKP and its effect on the Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA sizing performance. The results showed that the substitution of an aspen HYP for HWBKP can increase the ASA sizing performance at a HYP substitution as high as 15 to 20%. The ASA addition sequence has an influence on the ASA sizing performance and first adding ASA to the HYP followed by mixing with kraft pulps was the preferred method. Using precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC as a paper filler at a dosage of less than 20% can increase the ASA sizing performance due to the contribution of the calcium soap of the hydrolysed ASA. A PCC dosage greater than 20% resulted in a negative impact on the sizing performance. It was also found that different PCC loading sequences can also affect the ASA sizing performance.

  9. IMPACT OF ACID WASHING AND CHELATION ON Mg(OH2-BASED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF MIXED HARDWOODS CMP AT A HIGH CONSISTENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Ghasemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The removal of transition metal ions is crucial for improving the efficiency of subsequent peroxide bleaching. Acid-washing and chelation have been proposed for such a purpose. However, their influences on the Mg(OH2-based peroxide bleaching of hardwood pulps at a high consistency have not been well documented in the literature. In this work, we studied the influence of acid-washing using sulfuric acid or chelation using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (DTPA on the Mg(OH2- or NaOH-based hydrogen peroxide bleaching efficiency, effluent properties of bleaching filtrates, and paper properties. The results showed that for Mg(OH2-based peroxide bleaching, the pulp yield and water retention value of acid-washed pulp were higher than those of the chelated pulp; the chemical oxygen demand (COD and turbidity of the bleaching filtrates for the acid-washed pulp were lower than those of the chelated pulp. The bleached acid-washed pulp had lower strength properties than bleached chelated pulp did. Additionally, at a high pulp consistency (25%, the Mg(OH2-based process had a higher bleaching efficiency and superior bleaching effluent properties, but a lower strength properties, in comparison with the NaOH-based process.

  10. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of North Carolina.

  11. North Carolina court affirms conviction of HIV-positive rapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The North Carolina Court of Appeals upheld the conviction of [name removed] [name removed], convicted of raping a 12-year-old girl. The defense had claimed that in admitting testimony about [name removed]'s AIDS diagnosis, the court prejudiced the jury against [name removed] was sentenced to 35 to 42.75 years in prison on the rape charge, and 22 to 32 months for an indecent liberties charge. Because of [name removed]'s HIV infection, indictments were made against him for attempted murder and assault with a deadly weapon. Those charges were dropped during the trial. The Court of Appeals refused to look into the case because the argument made in the appeal differed from the argument made at the original trial. The girl involved in the case received AZT prophylaxis following the rape and has not tested positive. PMID:11366398

  12. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  13. Fuel Cell Research at the University of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zee, John W.

    2006-09-25

    Five projects were conducted in an effort to supplement the efforts of fuel cell research at the University of South Carolina and to contribute to the Technical Plan for Fuel Cells of the Department of Energy. These efforts include significant interaction with the industrial community through DOE funded projects and through the National Science Foundation�s Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (NSF-I/UCRC) for Fuel Cells at USC. The allocation of projects described below leveraged all of these sources of funding without overlap and redundancy. 1. "Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalyst For PEMFCs" (Dr. Branko Popov) 2. "Non Carbon Supported Catalysts" (Dr. John Weidner) 3. "Hydrogen Quality" (Dr. Jean St-Pierre) 4. "Gasket Materials: Mechanical and Chemical Stability in PEMFC" (Dr. Y.J. (Bill) Chao) 5. "Mathematical Modeling of PEM Fuel Cells," (Dr. Sirivatch (Vatch) Shimpalee)

  14. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, and recreation. For the State of North Carolina, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, natural resources conservation, agriculture and precision farming, infrastructure and construction management, forest resources management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  15. HEALTH COVER, THE CASE OF MARTIN AND CAROLINA IN AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E KORSTANJE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines, from a qualitative perspective, some public opinion related to issues associated with the management of a tensed situation. In that process, it identifies some of the subtle differences in the Anglo-Latino cultural expectations. Martin, an Argentine tourist, contracted the Gullien-Barre syndrome in Australia, while enjoying his honeymoon vacation on a Tasmanian island with his partner Carolina. With the passing of days, Martin lost his mobility and was finally hospitalized in emergency. Doctors induced Martin into a coma temporarily because his muscles were paralyzed by the action of the virus. Health costs were more expensive than the family could absorb in Australia. The family had to request the intervention of the Argentine embassy and chancellery for help. In other words, this incident contrasts two world views: hospitality as the institution that historically developed to care and protect travelers versus hospitality as the commercial practice of exploitation.

  16. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

  17. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da; Chassin, Forrest S.; Zhang, Yu; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Warwick, William M.; Fuller, Jason C.; Diao, Ruisheng; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3. Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.

  18. Forested wetland mitigation resulting from discharges of cooling water into streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020-ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Historically, the swamp consisted of ∼50% bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10% shrub, marsh, and open water. The hydrology was controlled by flooding the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950s. Water, often in excess of 40 to 50 degrees C was discharged into one of the small streams from 1954 to 1988, at various levels, ranging from 20 to 40 times the prior flow rate of the stream. This had a major impact on the adjacent swamp land, with erosion, silting, and vegetation destruction. The Final Environmental Impact Statement, Continued Operation of K, L, and P Reactors, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, and the subsequent record of decision directed that these areas be restored to functional forested wetland status to the extent possible. This paper describes work begun to reach that objective

  19. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1966. The report begins with a...

  20. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1961.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1961. The report...

  1. 2009 Progress Report on Surveys of Bees and Some Wasps of Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes an updated list of bee and wasp species collected as part of study at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Report includes map of...

  2. Inventory of Atlantic White-Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report addresses Atlantic white cedar swamp restoration in North Carolina refuges. The ecology, use, and historical distribution of Atlantic white-cedar (AWC)...

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for South Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of South Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. White Paper: Estimating Salinity Effects Due to Climate Change on the Georgia and South Carolina Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record is an unpublished white paper describing estimated effects of climate change of salinity on the coastal waterways of Georgia and South Carolina

  5. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina

  6. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and rare plants in North Carolina. Vector polygons in the data set...

  8. The Trail Inventory of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stations in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to summarize the baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on National Wildlife Refuges in North Carolina. Trails in this...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and rare reptiles in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set...

  10. Coyote Diet Research at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Annual Reports 2010-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We wanted to determine primary food items of coyotes in the state. Our long term goal is to assess whether coyotes could impact key species of concern at Carolina...

  11. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected in 2005 in the Neuse River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  12. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected in 2004 in the Neuse River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  13. Extended Tracklines of Continues Resistivity Profile Data collected in 2005 in the Neuse River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  14. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: September to December, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summaries refuge activities from September through December 1942. The report begins with a...

  15. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Carolina Sandhills NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version...

  16. Site-specific fish tissue mercury at four eastern North Carolina National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mercury concentrations above levels of concerns in fish tissue have prompted the North Carolina Division of Public Heath to issue a consumption advisory for several...

  17. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1976. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Sediment pollutant evaluation at priority dam removal sites in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — North Carolina dam removal mitigation guidelines call for site-specific evaluation of sediment issues, including sediment contamination. From 2004 to 2008, the U.S....

  19. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1992. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  20. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1984. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  1. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1996. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  2. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1986. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  3. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1985. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  4. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1987. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  5. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1988. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  6. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1989. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  7. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1993. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  8. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Fiscal year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for fiscal year 1975. The report begins with a summary of weather...

  9. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1998. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  10. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1999. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  11. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1977. The report begins with a summary of...

  12. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1997. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  13. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1983. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  14. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1979. The report begins with a summary of...

  15. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1982. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  16. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1995. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  17. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1990. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  18. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for fiscal year 1974. The report begins with a summary of weather...

  19. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1991. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  20. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1994. The report begins with a summary of climatic...

  1. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1980. The report begins with a summary of...

  2. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for North Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of North Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackish/freshwater fish species in North Carolina. Vector polygons...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set...

  5. Crab Haul Creek Tide Gauge Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2001 • Feb2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) collects, analyzes and...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography--Northern Outer Banks, North Carolina, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the northern North Carolina coastline beachface, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely...

  7. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  8. Hurricane Isabel Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Outer Banks After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey Remote Sensing Division in collaboration with the North Carolina Department of Transportation, Emergency Management Agency, Department...

  9. State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

  10. The State of Sex Education in North Carolina: Is Abstinence-Only Education Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Bach

    2006-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.

  11. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1964.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1964. The report begins with a...

  12. Color Shaded-relief TIFF Image of High-resolution Bathymetry, North Carolina, Pamlico Sound Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  13. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1950.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1950. The report...

  14. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1970. The report begins with a...

  15. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1968. The report begins with a...

  16. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – August 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through August 1943. The report begins with a...

  17. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1954.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1954. The report...

  18. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1969. The report begins with a...

  19. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1951. The report...

  20. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1971. The report begins with a...

  1. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1955.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1955. The report...

  2. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January - December 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1945. The report...

  3. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1958.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1958. The report...

  4. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1972. The report begins with a...

  5. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1956.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1956. The report...

  6. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1957. The report...

  7. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1949. The report...

  8. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January – December 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1967. The report begins with a...

  9. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1953.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1953. The report...

  10. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1952. The report...

  11. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1962.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1962. The report...

  12. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1963.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1963. The report...

  13. Annual Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January - December 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1965. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1944. The report...

  15. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1948. The report...

  16. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1959.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1959. The report...

  17. Refuge Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1960.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1960. The report...

  18. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1946. The report...

  19. Refuge narrative report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: January to December, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of narrative reports for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from January through December 1947. The report...

  20. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  1. SEAFLOORENV - Distribution of Seafloor Environments within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (Polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  2. RIDGE_CRESTS - Ridge Crests within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (Polyline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  3. Wind Powering America: A New Wind Economy for South Carolina and Georgia Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SC Energy Office: Southern Alliance for Clean Energy

    2013-02-12

    This report describes all activities undertaken by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (SACE) in cooperation with the states of Georgia and South Carolina to develop a public outreach program, including shared analytical and reference tools and other technical assistance.

  4. The State of Sex Education in North Carolina: Is Abstinence-Only Education Working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.

  5. Annual Narrative Report. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1978. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. RANAVIRUS EPIZOOTIC IN CAPTIVE EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) WITH CONCURRENT HERPESVIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA INFECTION: MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Allender, Matthew C; Crawford, LaTasha K; Wack, Allison N; Murphy, Kevin J; Mankowski, Joseph L; Bronson, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) and are becoming recognized as significant pathogens of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in North America. In July 2011, 5 turtles from a group of 27 in Maryland, USA, presented dead or lethargic with what was later diagnosed as fibrinonecrotic stomatitis and cloacitis. The presence of FV3-like virus and herpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the tested index cases. The remaining 22 animals were isolated, segregated by severity of clinical signs, and treated with nutritional support, fluid therapy, ambient temperature management, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy. Oral swabs were tested serially for FV3-like virus by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and tested at day 0 for herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by conventional PCR. With oral swabs, 77% of the 22 turtles were FV3-like virus positive; however, qPCR on tissues taken during necropsy revealed the true prevalence was 86%. FV3-like virus prevalence and the median number of viral copies being shed significantly declined during the outbreak. The prevalence of herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by PCR of oral swabs at day 0 was 55% and 68%, respectively. The 58% survival rate was higher than previously reported in captive eastern box turtles for a ranavirus epizootic. All surviving turtles brumated normally and emerged the following year with no clinical signs during subsequent monitoring. The immediate initiation of treatment and intensive supportive care were considered the most important contributing factors to the successful outcome in this outbreak. PMID:27010285

  7. Evaluation of cyclooxygenase protein expression in traumatized versus normal tissues from eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Lillian W; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lewbart, Gregory A; Correa, Maria T; Jones, Samuel L

    2012-06-01

    This pilot study was designed to determine whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, or both are expressed in normal turtle tissues and whether level of expression changes when tissue becomes inflamed. Five eastern box turtles, Terrapene carolina carolina, that either died or were euthanatized due to disease or injuries were used for this work. Tissues were obtained from the five turtles. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate tissues for COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. Densiometric analysis was used to compare Western blot bands within each turtle. COX-1 and COX-2 were found in the liver, kidney, grossly normal muscle, and grossly traumatized (inflamed) muscle of all study turtles. In all cases, COX-1 and COX-2 proteins were increased in traumatized muscle over grossly normal nontraumatized muscle. The highest levels of COX-1 and COX-2 proteins were found in kidney and liver. There was no statistical difference between the amount of COX-1 protein in liver and kidney, but traumatized muscle compared with grossly normal muscle had significantly greater COX-1 but not COX 2 protein concentrations. There was no statistical difference between the amount of COX-2 protein in liver and kidney. Traumatized muscle expressed nonstatistically significant greater amounts of COX-2 compared with grossly normal muscle. COX-1 and COX-2 proteins are expressed in turtle tissues, and both isoforms are upregulated during inflammation of muscle tissue. Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that block both COX isoforms might be more efficacious than COX-2-selective drugs. This work suggests that NSAIDs should be evaluated for potential liver and kidney toxicity in turtles. PMID:22779232

  8. North Carolina Geological Survey's role in siting a low-level radioactive (LLRW) waste disposal facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southeast Compact Commission in 1986 selected North Carolina to host the Southeast's LLRW disposal facility for the next twenty years. The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) for six years has played a major role in the State's efforts by contributing to legislation and administrative code, policy, technical oversight and surveillance and regulation as a member of the State's regulatory team. Future activities include recommendation of the adequacy of characterization and site performance pursuant to federal code, state general statutes and administrative code, and review of a license application. Staff must be prepared to present testimony and professional conclusions in court. The NCGS provides technical advice to the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP), the regulatory agency which will grant or deny a LLRW license. The NCGS has not participated in screening the state for potential sites to minimize bias. The LLRW Management Authority, a separate state agency siting the LLRW facility, hired a contractor to characterize potential sites and to write a license application. Organizational relationships enable the NCGS to assist the DRP in its regulatory role without conflict of interest. Disposal facilities must be sited to ensure safe disposal of LLRW. By law, the siting of a LLRW disposal facility is primarily a geological, rather than an engineering, effort. Federal and State statutes indicate a site must be licensable on its own merits. Engineered barriers cannot make a site licensable. The project is 3 years behind schedule and millions of dollars over budget. This indicates the uncertainty and complexity inherent in siting such as facility, the outcome of which cannot be predicted until site characterization is complete, the license application reviewed and the performance assessment evaluated. State geological surveys are uniquely qualified to overview siting of LLRW facilities because of technical expertise and experience in the state's geology

  9. Mineral resource assessment of pegmatite minerals in the Greenville 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; D'Agostino, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral resources of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina, were assessed between 1984 and 1990 under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The mineral resource assessments were made on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and on the distribution of mines, prospects, and mineral occurrences reported in the literature. This report is an assessment of the minerals associated with mica pegmatites in the Greenville quadrangle. It is based on the geology as mapped by Nelson and others (1989), on field studies conducted from 1952 to 1962 by the USGS for the Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA) and the concurrent examination of many of the known mica mines and prospects in Georgia, and on the published geologic literature and an unpublished report by K.H. Teague on file with the South Carolina Development Board, Division of Geology, in Columbia, S.C.

  10. A Case Study of a Beginner Gardening Program in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity refers to the lack of reliable access to nutritious and affordable foods for people of all backgrounds (Meenar and Hoover, 2012) and is a problem faced by approximately 50 million Americans (Smith, 2011) and thirteen percent of North Carolina households. Food security and poverty have been directly linked and North Carolina's poverty rate (14.3%) is above the national level (13%) (Curtis, 2010). Community gardens have been recognized globally by many experts including health p...

  11. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Davis, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 66,000 LGBT workers in South Carolina are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state legal protections. Four localities in South Carolina prohibit public sector employment discrimination against LGBT people.  Only 18% of the state’s labor force works in those localities, and only a small proportion of those workers are employed by their local governments. Currently none of South Carolina’s LGBT-inclusive local ordinances prohibit discrimination in private employment. ...

  12. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 66,000 LGBT workers in South Carolina are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state legal protections. Four localities in South Carolina prohibit public sector employment discrimination against LGBT people.  Only 18% of the state’s labor force works in those localities, and only a small proportion of those workers are employed by their local governments. Currently none of South Carolina’s LGBT-inclusive local ordinances prohibit discrimination in private employment. F...

  13. SHALE GAS EXTRACTION AND WATER CONSUMPTION IN NORTH CAROLINA: A PRIMER

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Manoj K.; Daniel G. Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    About 25,000 acres of area underlying the Deep and Dan River Basins in North Carolina has been identified to contain large shale gas reservoirs that could be used for the natural gas production. This study attempted to quantify the impact of potential hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) activities in the existing water resources of North Carolina. Supply and demand analysis was conducted using a water balance approach. Availability of surface water resources was quantified using the streamflow...

  14. North Carolina's Anti-Predatory Lending Law: Still A Problem Despite New Study

    OpenAIRE

    Litan, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study of North Carolina's anti-predatory lending law conducted by three analysts at the University of North Carolina purports to show that the law has been effective in curbing undesirable lending abuses while having essentially no negative side-effects on the volume of legitimate subprime lending to borrowers unable to qualify for prime credit. These findings are in stark contrast to the findings of earlier studies. This essay suggests one reason for the discrepancy: T...

  15. North Carolina – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    North Carolina law provides virtually no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. No state-wide statute has been enacted in North Carolina to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Also, little judicial or administrative action surrounding discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in the employment context or otherwise appears to exist.

  16. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, indemic southeastern stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  17. Cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midway, S.R.; Aday, D.D.; Kwak, T.J.; Gross, K.

    2010-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, we investigated cover preference of the Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus), an imperiled, endemic southeastern USA stream fish. Fish were tested individually and given 24 hours to make a selection from four cover options, including rock, leaf pack, mussel shell, and an artificial cover unit. Among 30 trials, Carolina madtom preferred the artificial cover unit, selecting it 63% of the time. Rock was selected 23% of the time, and leaf pack 13%. Mussel shells were not selected during any trial.

  18. An example of a DOE [Department of Energy]/university partnership: South Carolina Pilot Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of educational institutions in South Carolina proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in July 1989 a working partnership for mutual improvement of technical capability in the environmental restoration and waste management fields. The institutions forming the consortium are Clemson University, the University of South Carolina, the Medical University of South Carolina, and South Carolina State College. A major component of the partnership is applied research closely coupled with the problems and issues of the Savannah River site regarding demonstration of waste management processes and concepts of disposal and disposal site closure. A primary benefit to DOE from this partnership is expected to be improved public perception of the actions being taken by DOE to protect the public, particularly in areas of environmental restoration and waste management. It is evident at the Savannah River site that this is a key factor in successfully achieving the site's mission. The strength of the interest of the South Carolina institutions in developing initiatives in waste management forecasts a healthy long-term prospect for the partnership. The State of South Carolina has established a hazardous waste research fund of approximately $650 thousand annually for research by the partnership universities to seek better ways to maintain a healthy environment and to reduce, dispose of, or store waste products safely

  19. Book Review: "RADICAL REFORM: INTERRACIAL POLITICS IN POST-EMANCIPATION NORTH CAROLINA DEBORAH BECKEL"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. REDD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As Edwin Alderson, a prominent North Carolina educator stated biracial organizations attracted "plain people ...demanding their share in the government, and their right to be trained for its responsibilities" and created more self-reliant and resourceful people who were wiser when it came to local government. I found Beckel's book reads like an interesting historical story about how North Carolina was affected by civil equality. Beckel starts out her book with an Introduction about biracial relationships. This led to interracial cooperation, and eventually influenced North Carolina organizations. The State’s organizations were massive, and the North Carolina Knights and the Alliancemen had plans to pass some labor laws and get involved politically. At this time, around 1890, the Knights of Labor has 250 locals in 50 counties with the members half and half, Black and White. The Alliance had 55,000 Blacks and 90,000 Whites. In the last chapter "Race and Home Rule," (p. 178 Beckel shares with us that the voting rights were expanded for both the Blacks and the Whites. In conclusion, Beckel tells us: "Many of the state's most energetic citizens simply left for what they hoped would be greater rights and opportunities outside North Carolina."(p.211. In 2010, North Carolina statistics showed 21.6% of the registered voters are Black, where there are 73.2% registered voters who are White.

  20. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.