WorldWideScience

Sample records for carolina bottomland hardwood

  1. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2005-01-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest...

  2. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  3. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  4. Effects of restoration techniques on breeding birds in a thermally-impacted bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Matthew Buffington; John C. Kilgo; Robert A. Sargent; Karl V. Miller; Brian R. Chapman

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of revegetation techniques on breeding bird communities in a bottomland hardwood forest impacted by thermal effluent. In 1993, sections of the Pen Branch bottomland on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, were herbicide-treated (glyphosate), burned, and planted; other sections were planted only while others were unaltered and served as...

  5. Achieving restoration success: myths in bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; Callie Jo Schweitzer; James P. Shepard

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of bottomland hardwood forests is the subject of considerable interest in the Southern United States, but restoration success is elusive. Techniques for establishing bottomland tree species are well developed, yet problems have occurred in operational programs. Current plans for restoration on public and private land suggest that as many as 200,000 ha could...

  6. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2005-01-01

    Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the...

  7. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  8. Optimizing wildlife habitat quality and oak regeneration in bottomland hardwoods using midstory control and partial harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek K. Alkire; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew B. Self

    2011-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods can provide both wildlife habitat and timber. However, past high-grading practices limit future income potential and have resulted in undesirable species composition in many areas. Thus, prevalence of desirable oak species should be increased. Our study will attempt to determine the proper harvest level for bottomland hardwoods which will optimize...

  9. Carbon Storage of bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Shoch; Gary Kaster; Aaron Hohl; Ray Souter

    2009-01-01

    The emerging carbon market is an increasingly important source of finance for bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMV). Notwithstanding, there is a scarcity of empirical...

  10. Tree regeneration by seed in bottomland hardwood forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschel, Whitney A.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests (BLH) are found in temperate, humid regions of the southeastern US, primarily on alluvial floodplains adjacent to rivers. Altered hydrology in rivers and floodplains has caused changes in stand development and species composition of BLHs. We hypothesize that the driving mechanisms behind these changes are related to the regeneration process because of the complexity of recruitment and the vulnerability of species at that age in development. Here we review the state of our understanding regarding BLH regeneration, and identify potential bottlenecks throughout the stages of seed production, seed dispersal, germination, establishment, and survival. Our process-level understanding of regeneration by seed in BLHs is rudimentary, thus limiting our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic alterations on species composition. By focusing future research on the appropriate stages of regeneration, we can better understand the sources of forest-community transitions across the diverse range of BLH systems.

  11. Quantifying flooding effects on hardwood seedling survival and growth for bottomland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide in bottomland hardwood restoration necessitates improved ecological understanding of flooding effects on forest tree seedlings using methodology that accurately reflects field conditions. We examined hardwood seedling survival and growth in an outdoor laboratory where the timing, depth, duration, and flow rate of flood water can be carefully...

  12. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  13. Synopsis of wetland functions and values: bottomland hardwoods with special emphasis on eastern Texas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D.L.; Schneller-McDonald, K.; Olson, R.W.; Auble, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood wetlands are the natural cover type of many floodplain ecosystems in the southeastern United States. They are dynamic, productive systems that depend on intermittent flooding and moving water for maintenance of structure and function. Many of the diverse functions performed by bottomland hardwoods (e.g., flood control, sediment trapping, fish and wildlife habitat) are directly or indirectly valued by humans. Balanced decisions regarding bottomland hardwoods are often hindered by a limited ability to accurately specify the functions being performed by these systems and, furthermore, by an inability to evaluate these functions in economic terms. This report addresses these informational needs. It focuses on the bottomland hardwoods of eastern Texas and Oklahoma, serving as an introduction and entry to the literature. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for reference to the original literature. The first section of the report is a review of the major functions of bottomland hardwoods, grouped under the headings of hydrology, water quality, productivity, detritus, nutrients, and habitat. Although the hydrology of these areas is diverse and complex, especially with respect to groundwater, water storage at high flows can clearly function to attenuate peak flows, with possible reductions in downstream flooding damage. Water moving through a bottomland hardwood system carries with it various organic and inorganic constituents, including sediment, organic matter, nutrients, and pollutants. When waterborne materials are introduced to bottomland hardwoods (from river flooding or upland runoff), they may be retained, transformed, or transported. As a result, water quality may be significantly altered and improved. The fluctuating and flowing water regime of bottomland hardwoods is associated with generally high net primary productivity and rapid fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. These, in turn, support secondary productivity in the bottomland

  14. Hurricane Andrew Damage in Relation to Wood Decay Fungi and Insects in Bottomland Hardwoods of the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodor D. Leininger; A. Dan Wilson; Donald G. Lester

    1997-01-01

    Hurricane Andrew caused damage to more than 780 sq.km of bottomland hardwood and cypress-tupelo forests in the Atchafalaya Basin of Louisiana in August 1992. Trees in bottomland hardwood sites were examined, in early May 1994, for signs and symptoms of wood decay fungi, and for insect damage, ostensibly present before the hurricane, which may have predisposed trees to...

  15. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  16. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  17. Influences of Herbivory and Canopy Opening Size on Forest Regeneration in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven B. Castleberry; W. Mark Ford; Carl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing and canopy opening size on relative abundance and diversity of woody and herbaceous regeneration in various sized forest openings in a southern, bottomland hardwood forest over three growing seasons (1995-1997). We created 36 canopy openings (gaps), ranging from 7 to 40m...

  18. Regional forest fragmentation effects on bottomland hardwood community types and resource values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    1995-01-01

    In human-dominated regions, forest vegetation removal impacts remaining ecosystems but regional-scale biological consequences and resource value changes are not well known. Using forest resource survey data, I examined current bottomland hardwood community types and a range of fragment size classes in the south central United States. Analyses examined resource value...

  19. Effects of land use practices on neotropical migratory birds in bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Pashley; Wylie C. Barrow

    1993-01-01

    Description of the system: Bottomland hardwood forests (including bald cypress and tupelo swamp forests) are historically the dominant natural community of riverine floodplains of the southeastern United States. Their greatest single expanse was in the 21 million acre floodplain of the lower Mississippi River Valley from southern Illinois to coastal marshes along the...

  20. Creating a Knowledge Base for Management of Southern Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bliss; Stephen B. Jones; John A. Stanturf; Christine M. Hamner

    1997-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary approach to forecasting potential impacts of even-aged and uneven-aged silvicultural treatments upon bottomland hardwood ecosystems in the Southern United States. Our approach involves identifying scientists with expertise in key disciplines: utilizing the Delphi technique to develop consensus among these scientists on important system...

  1. Carbon sequestration resulting from bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand F. Nero; Richard P. Maiers; Janet C. Dewey; Andrew J. Londo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing abandonment of marginal agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) and rising global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels create a need for better options of achieving rapid afforestation and enhancing both below and aboveground carbon sequestration. This study examines the responses of six mixtures of bottomland hardwood species...

  2. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  3. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  5. Changes in plant species composition along an elevation gradient in an old-growth bottomland hardwood-Pinus taeda forest in southern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian G. Grell; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2005-01-01

    Old-growth bottomland hardwood-Pinus taeda L. forests are rare in Arkansas, and the complex relationships between plant communities and environmental conditions have not been well described in these forests. To investigate these relationships, a digital elevation model was developed for a 16.2 ha old-growth bottomland hardwood-Pinus taeda forest in...

  6. Effects of wildlife forestry on abundance of breeding birds in bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Twedt, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of silvicultural activities on birds are of increasing interest because of documented national declines in breeding bird populations for some species and the potential that these declines are in part due to changes in forest habitat. Silviculturally induced disturbances have been advocated as a means to achieve suitable forest conditions for priority wildlife species in bottomland hardwood forests. We evaluated how silvicultural activities on conservation lands in bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana, USA, influenced species-specific densities of breeding birds. Our data were from independent studies, which used standardized point-count surveys for breeding birds in 124 bottomland hardwood forest stands on 12 management areas. We used Program DISTANCE 5.0, Release 2.0 (Thomas et al. 2006) to estimate density for 43 species with > 50 detections. For 36 of those species we compared density estimates among harvest regimes (individual selection, group selection, extensive harvest, and no harvest). We observed 10 species with similar densities in those harvest regimes compared with densities in stands not harvested. However, we observed 10 species that were negatively impacted by harvest with greater densities in stands not harvested, 9 species with greater densities in individual selection stands, 4 species with greater densities in group selection stands, and 4 species with greater densities in stands receiving an extensive harvest (e.g., > 40% canopy removal). Differences in intensity of harvest influenced densities of breeding birds. Moreover, community-wide avian conservation values of stands subjected to individual and group selection, and stands not harvested, were similar to each other and greater than that of stands subjected to extensive harvest that removed > 40% canopy cover. These results have implications for managers estimating breeding bird populations, in addition to predicting changes in bird communities as a result of prescribed and future

  7. Nursery stock quality as an indicator of bottomland hardwood forest restoration success in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...

  8. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  9. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  10. Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods and the issue of woody species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests in the southcentral United States have been cleared extensively for agriculture, and many of the remaining forests are fragmented and degraded. During the last decade, however, approximately 75,000 ha of land-mainly agricultural fields-have been replanted or contracted for replanting, with many more acres likely to be reforested in the near future. The approach used in most reforestation projects to date has been to plant one to three overstory tree species, usually Quercus spp. (oaks), and to rely on natural dispersal for the establishment of other woody species. I critique this practice by two means. First, a brief literature review demonstrates that moderately high woody species diversity occurs in natural bottomland hardwood forests in the region. This review, which relates diversity to site characteristics, serves as a basis for comparison with stands established by means of current reforestation practices. Second, I reevaluate data on the invasion of woody species from an earlier study of 10 reforestation projects in Mississippi,with the goal of assessing the likelihood that stands with high woody species diversity will develop. I show that natural invasion cannot always be counted on to produce a diverse stand, particularly on sites more than about 60 m from an existing forest edge. I then make several recommendations for altering current reforestation pactices in order to establish stands with greater woody species diversity, a more natural appearance,and a more positive environmental impact at scales larger than individual sites.

  11. Results of a workshop concerning assessment of the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) to participate in the regulation of the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. This regulatory authority is exercised in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has responsibility for permit issuance, and in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Through amendments to the original statute, a series of legal actions and court decisions, and the development of operating guidance among the responsible agencies, Section 404 has evolved into the primary mechanism afforded Federal authorities for the protection of wetlands. EPA recognizes the importance of wetlands in achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, which are to protect and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. EPA Administrator Lee Thomas has identified wetlands protection as among the highest of Agency priorities. EPA recognizes that bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands have vital and unique attributes that, if lost, would severely impact the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. As part of a broad program to better protect the Nation's wetlands, EPA has therefore identified bottomland hardwood wetlands as a priority resource requiring special attention on a national basis.

  12. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  13. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  14. Bottomland hardwood reforestation for neotropical migratory birds: are we missing the forest for the trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwoods on lands managed for wildlife or timber production has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.). Although techniques have been developed for successful oak establishment, these plantings often require 5 or more years before establishing a 3-dimensional forest structure. We suggest that lands planted to fast-growing early-successional species, in combination with oaks, provide: (1) more expedient benefits to Neotropical migratory birds; (2) greater forest diversity; (3) more rapid economic return to landowners; and (4) enhanced public relations. Under good growing conditions, and with effective weed control, some fast-growing species can develop a substantial 3-dimensional forest structure in as few as 2 or 3 years. Forest-breeding Neotropical migratory birds use stands planted with early successional species several years before sites planted solely with oaks. Where desirable, succession to forests with a high proportion of oak species can be achieved on sites initially planted with fast-growing species through silvicultural management.

  15. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  16. Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Outcalt, Kenneth W.

    2002-01-01

    Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

  17. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  18. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  19. Root-collar diameter and third-year survival of three bottomland hardwoods planted on former agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...

  20. Additions to the Flora of Cleveland County, Arkansas: Collections From Moro Bottoms Natural Area, A State-Protected Old-Growth Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny Skojac; Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    An annotated list of 38 additions to the vascular flora of Cleveland County, Arkansas is presented. The additions presented were collected from Moro Bottoms Natural Area, a state-protected old-growth bottomland hardwood forest located in the northwest region of the county.

  1. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  2. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  3. Home range behavior among box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) of a bottomland forest in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) in a Maryland bottomland forest were studied over a period of years (1944-1981). Home ranges of 51 males averaged 146 + SD 48 m long and 105 + SD 38 m wide; ranges of 52 females averaged 144 + SD 52 m long and 100 + SD 38 m wide. An approximation of average home range size, based on an ellipse, is 1.20 ha for males and 1.13 ha for females. Sizes of home ranges of individuals did not differ significantly between 1945 and the full term of their captures (0 =14 yr) (AOV; P > 0.05). Mean distance between capture sites, which provides an index to range size, was not significantly different among the years of 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1975 (AOV; P > 0.05). Geographic centers of ranges of 77 males in the bottomlands showed no significant (AOV; P > 0.05) change for 46, and change over relatively short distances (0 =57 + SD 23 m) for the others. Among 70 females, there was no significant change for 46 and change over short distances (0=61 + SD 24 m) for the others. Changes in location were more frequent between 1965 and 1975, a period of pronounced population decline, than between previous decades (significant only for females, x2 P < 0.025). Hibernation sites ordinarily (21 of 23 Individuals) were within the normal bottom]and range; hibernation sites of different years were near each other (all of 4 individuals). In contrast, nesting sites were far distant, extending the home range by 400-700 m, but those of different years were near each other (6 individuals). Mating partners occupied broadly overlapping or contiguous ranges (35 records). Interactions between males (18 records) were identical to courtship behavior, and are believed not to represent territorial aggression.

  4. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Moorman; Liessa T. Woen; John C. Kilgo; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Michael D. Ulyshen

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and...

  5. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  6. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  7. Effects of silvicultural operations in a Mississippi River bottomland hardwood forest on ground beetles in the genus Brachinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne C. Thompson; Brian Roy Lockhart

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on how insects are affected by anthropogenic influences in the bottomland forests of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. This study investigates one genus of ground beetles that lives in managed forested landscapes to discover which species are positively and negatively influenced by human disturbances. Ground beetles (Carabidae) were collected...

  8. Tree-ring chronologies and stable carbon isotopic composition reveal impacts of hydro-climate change on bottomland hardwood forests of South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A. G.; Lafon, C. W.; Hyodo, A.; Boutton, T. W.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three decades, South-Central Texas has experienced an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-climatic anomalies such as extreme droughts and floods. These extreme events can have negative impacts on forest health and can strongly alter a wide range of ecosystem processes. Tree increment growth in bottomland hardwood forests is influenced by droughts and floods, which affects the carbon isotope values (δ13C) in tree-ring cellulose. This study aims to assess the impacts of hydro-climate change on the growth and physiological response of bottomland hardwood forests by investigating variations in radial growth and tree-ring carbon isotopic composition. Annual ring-width chronologies for 41 years (1975-2016) were developed from 24 water oak (Quercus nigra) trees at 4 sites along a 25 km transect located in the San Bernard River watershed. The δ13C values in cellulose were measured from 4-year ring composites including years with anomalously high and low precipitation. Dendroclimatology analysis involved correlating ring-width index with precipitation records and Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI). Radial growth was more closely associated with spring-summer (Feb-Aug) precipitation (R2 = 0.42, pstress, as indicated by narrower growth rings and increased cellulose δ13C. However, the inter-site variation in δ13C indicated large hydro-climatic variation between sites (2.79-4.24‰ for wet years and 0.53-1.50‰ for drought years). δ13C values showed an increase of 0.78‰ and 2.40‰ from the wettest (1991-1994) to the driest period (2008-2011) at two of our sites, possibly due to drought-induced moisture-deficit-stress. However, at the other two sites, the δ13C values of tree rings from the same periods decreased by 0.65‰ and 1.19‰, possibly emanating from flooding-induced stress caused by waterlogging. This study provides insights on how hydro-climatic variations affect riparian forest health in the region and acts as a baseline for

  9. Adaptive management of flows in the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Sam H; McCrodden, Brian J; Townsend, Philip A

    2005-04-01

    The lower Roanoke River in North Carolina, USA, has been regulated by a series of dams since the 1950s. This river and its floodplain have been identified by The Nature Conservancy, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the State of North Carolina as critical resources for the conservation of bottomland hardwoods and other riparian and in-stream biota and communities. Upstream dams are causing extended floods in the growing season for bottomland hardwood forests, threatening their survival. A coalition of stakeholders including public agencies and private organizations is cooperating with the dam managers to establish an active adaptive management program to reduce the negative impacts of flow regulation, especially extended growing season inundation, on these conservation targets. We introduce the lower Roanoke River, describe the regulatory context for negotiating towards an active adaptive management program, present our conservation objective for bottomland hardwoods, and describe investigations in which we successfully employed a series of models to develop testable management hypotheses. We propose adaptive management strategies that we believe will enable the bottomland hardwoods to regenerate and support their associated biota and that are reasonable, flexible, and economically sustainable.

  10. A Quantitative Assessment of the Structure and Functions of a Mature Bottomland Hardwood Community: The Iatt Creek Ecosystem Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Paul B. Hamel; Melvin L. Warren

    1999-01-01

    We report our efforts, initiated in 1995, to quantify ecological processes and functions in a relatively undisturbed, mature hardwood forest. The 320-ha site is located in central Louisiana on the upper reaches of Iatt Creek, an anastomosing minor stream bottom. The forest is a mature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)-cherrybark oak (

  11. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  12. The Effect of Herbivory by White-Tailed Deer and Additionally Swamp Rabbits in an Old-Growth Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; Winston P. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest openings create internal patchiness and offer different habitat qualities that attract wildlife, especially herbivores, that flourish along forest edges. But intense herbivory in these openings can reduce or eliminate herbaceous and woody species and thus influence local species composition and structure of the forest. This study in an old-growth bottomland...

  13. Developing a topographic model to predict the northern hardwood forest type within Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) recovery areas of the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Odom, Richard H.; Resler, Lynn M.; Ford, W. Mark; Prisley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  14. Fertilization Thinning in a 7-Year-Old Natural Hardwood Stand in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie P. Newton; Daniel J. Robison; Gerald Hansen; H. Lee Allen

    2002-01-01

    Young even-aged hardwood stands undergo a period of intense competition and self-thinning during the early years of stand development. During this time relatively little growth is accumulated by stems which will persist until rotation age. Silvicultural manipulations which accelerate the rate of stand development, concentrate growth on fewer stems of desirable...

  15. Tree Seedlings Establishment Across a Hydrologic Gradient in a Bottomland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson; W.H. Conner

    1998-01-01

    Seedling establishment and survival on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina is being monitored as part of the Pen Branch Bottomland Restoration Project. Bottomland tree species were planted from 1993-1995 across a hydrologic gradient which encompasses the drier upper floodplain corridor, the lower floodplain corridor and the continuously inundated delta. Twelve...

  16. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    values as wildlife food. FO = foliage; FR = fruit; S = seed; LA = leaf gall aphids ; BU = buds; lB =inner bark; BA = bark. Species Deer Turkey...Herbaceous plants include bedstraw, Variants and associated vegetation. Sycamore- violet, wild carrot, wild lettuce , amsonia, mint, legumes, pecan

  17. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox

    2009-01-01

    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  18. Regeneration response to tornado and salvage harvesting in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Nelson; John W. Groninger; Loretta L. Battaglia; Charles M. Ruffner

    2010-01-01

    A direct hit from an F4 tornado on May 2003, followed by a partial salvage logging operation at Mermet Lake State Conservation Area on the Ohio River bottoms of southern IL have provided a rare opportunity to assess the responses of a bottomland hardwood forest to severe wind and soil disturbances. The study area encompasses 700 acres and is representative of many...

  19. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

  20. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; McCarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.; Sargent, Sarah; Kilgo, John

    2012-02-06

    ABSTRACT Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995-2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 _ 37,444 fruits; 12,009 _ 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 _ 7,667 fruits; 5,079 _ 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 _ 8,351 fruits; 4,621 _ 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 _ 8,301 fruits; 4,102 _ 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 _ 5,034 fruits; 3,261 _ 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995-2003). Fruit availability was highest June-September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. Land managers could enhance fruit availability for wildlife by

  1. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; Mccarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995–2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 ± 37,444 fruits; 12,009 ± 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 ± 7,667 fruits; 5,079 ± 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 ± 8,351 fruits; 4,621 ± 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 ± 8,301 fruits; 4,102 ± 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 ± 5,034 fruits; 3,261 ± 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995–2003). Fruit availability was highest June–September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. As a result, land managers could enhance fruit availability for

  2. Effect of fertilizer treatments on an alkaline soil and on early performance of two bottomland oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder; Matthew John Kramer; Freida Eivazi

    2008-01-01

    Many acres of once productive Missouri farmland along the Missouri River are being planted to bottomland hardwoods. Once trees become established on many of these sites, however, most show symptoms of chlorotis due to high pH levels (>7.5) in soil. Six treatments containing combinations of iron (Fe), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) were tested for their effectiveness...

  3. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  4. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  5. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  6. Litterfall in the hardwood forest of a minor alluvial-floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    within mature deciduous forests, annual development of foliar biomass is a major component of aboveground net primary production and nutrient demand. As litterfall, this same foliage becomes a dominant annual transfer of biomass and nutrients to the detritus pathway. We report litterfall transfers of a mature bottomland hardwood forest in a minor alluvial-floodplain...

  7. Habitat use and survival rates of wintering American woodcocks in coastal South Carolina and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Seginak, J.T.; Longcore, Jerry R.; Sepik, Greg F.

    1993-01-01

    Habitat use and survival rates of radio-marked American woodcocks (Scolopax minor) were studied during the winter in coastal South Carolina (1988-89) and Georgia (1989-90). Soon after they arrived, woodcocks were captured in mist nets or in modified shorebird traps or by nightlighting. Each bird was weighed, aged, sexed, and fitted with a 4-g radio transmitter and monitored daily until it died or could not be located or until its radio failed. During the day, the woodcocks in South Carolina frequented seasonally flooded stands of gum-oak-willow (Liquidambar-Quercus-Salix) > 75% of the time and Pinus spp.) plantations during the remaining time. The predominantly used understory vegetation was switch cane (Arundinaria gigantica). In Georgia, woodcocks used bottomland hardwoods, young pine plantations (cuttings that had regenerated naturally. Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) dominated the used understory species at these sites. The woodcocks in South Carolina rarely made daily moves between daytime and nighttime cover, whereas the birds in Georgia made regular flights. At both sites, the daily survival rates of females were low, especially in the absence of losses from hunting. Daily survival rates of females ranged from 0.992 in adults to 0.994 in young. Daily survival rates of males ranged from 1.0 in adults to 0.996 in young. We determined no significant differences in the daily survival rates of woodcocks by age or sex in either South Carolina or Georgia. Probable predators of radio-marked woodcocks included bobcats (Lynx rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and barred owls (Strix varia).

  8. Site index determination techniques for southern bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2013-01-01

    Site index is a species-specific indirect measure of forest productivity expressed as the average height of dominant and codominant trees in a stand of a specified base age. It is widely used by forest managers to make informed decisions regarding forest management practices. Unfortunately, forest managers have difficulty in determining site index for southern US...

  9. Bottomland Hardwood Reforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Allen; Harvey E. Kennedy

    1989-01-01

    We prepared this bulletin to assist you--as a farmer or other private landowner--in reestablishing forests on part of your land. It will be most useful to you if your land is in the Lower Mississippi Valley and your main reason for reforestation is to produce wildlife habitat, either for private enjoyment or as a means of obtaining supplemental income. In addition to...

  10. Hydrology of a natural hardwood forested wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the hydrology of a natural forested wetland near Plymouth, NC, USA. The research site was located on one of the few remaining, undrained non-riverine, palustrine forested hardwood wetlands on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. A 137 ha watershed within the 350ha wetland was selected for intensive field study. Water balance components...

  11. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  12. Weed management at ArborGen, South Carolina SuperTree Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Arnette

    2009-01-01

    Weed management is vital to producing healthy hardwood seedlings. Several methods are available to each nursery, and it is common knowledge that what works for one situation may not work for another. The weed control methods used in nursery beds of hardwood species at the South Carolina SuperTree Nursery (Blenheim) are listed below.

  13. Spatial ecology and behavior of eastern box turtles on the hardwood ecosystem experiment: pre-treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea F. Currylow; Brian J. MacGowan; Rod N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    To understand better how eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) are affected by forest management practices, we monitored movements of box turtles prior to silvicultural treatments within the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana. During 2007 and 2008, we tracked 23-28 turtles on six units of the HEE. Estimated minimum convex...

  14. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  15. Defects in hardwood timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  16. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  17. Seeding and Planting Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin T. Bonner

    1965-01-01

    I would like to start by giving a complete prescription for planting any hardwood species by a cheap and simple method that will insure excellent survival and good growth. Unfortunately, this is impossible, for we at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory are still several years away from such prescriptions with nearly all of our important hardwoods. With most species,...

  18. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  19. Modeling the Local Ecological Response to Regional Landscape and Global Change Forcings: A Case Study of Bioenergy in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terando, A. J.; Costanza, J. K.; Tarr, N. M.; Apt, R.; Rubino, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable energy policies in Europe have led to a growing market for bioenergy, and especially wood pellets, as a means to reduce fossil fuel emissions and the attendant socio-environmental consequences from climate change. However the introduction of this market has the potential to create significant negative ecological impacts whose costs are borne far from Europe. Because of its existing forest products infrastructure and resources, the Southeast US is viewed as an attractive supplier of wood pellets to Europe. Consequently, a new global telecoupling has developed between these two regions linking the natural capital of one region to the energy needs and greenhouse gas abatement policy of the other. Additionally, habitat for many important wildlife species in the Southeast lie within a rapidly urbanizing region characterized by low-density auto-dependent growth. Combined, these two forcings have the potential to rapidly degrade species-rich ecosystems. Here the ecological effects of increased European demand for wood pellets are examined in North Carolina. Future land use and vegetation change were projected using the results from linked urbanization, vegetation dynamics, life cycle analysis, and forest timber economics models. Ecological impacts as measured for 16 amphibian and avian species were evaluated under five bioenergy production scenarios and one urbanization-only scenario. Results indicate that highly vagile or upland species are able to take advantage of the increase in vegetated land cover, even if the majority of new habitat is in intensively managed forests. Conversely, more sessile and range-limited species, particularly those found in coastal plain systems such as bottomland hardwood forest, show steeper declines under the wood pellet scenarios than under the urbanization-only scenario. These results highlight the challenge of evaluating the sustainability of developing markets that seek to mitigate certain aspects of global environmental

  20. Linking freshwater tidal hydrology to carbon cycling in bottomland hardwood wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Brooke J. Czwartacki; Craig J. Allan; Devendra M. Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Hydrology is recognized as one of the principal factors regulating soil biogeochemical processes in forested wetlands. However, the consequences of tidally mediated hydrology are seldom considered within forested wetlands that occur along tidal water bodies. These tidal water bodies may be either fresh or brackish, and the tidal streams function as a reservoir to...

  1. Influence of Canopy Density on Ground Vegetation in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Billups

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the influence of canopy density on ground vegetation in naturally formed gap and non-gap habitats (environments) in a blackwater river floodplain. Tree seedlings were more important (relatively more abundant) in the non-gap habitat, and grass was more important in the gap habitat, but there were elevation x habitat interactions. Also, there was an...

  2. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  3. Hardwood siding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Cooper

    1967-01-01

    A 6-year exposure test of three styles of siding made from nine hardwoods and given three treatments showed that full-length yellow-poplar vertical tongue-and-groove siding dip-treated in a water-repellent preservative performed best.

  4. Look to the hardwoods!

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. McQuilken

    1957-01-01

    The northeast is hardwood country. To be sure, central and northern Maine and the higher elevations of the Green Mountains, White Mountains, and Adirondacks have their spruce-fir; cool, moist sites throughout the region typically support some hemlock; and white pine - the original foundation of the lumber industry in North America - is widely represented by scattered...

  5. Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project for the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Boatwright, N.I. III [Canal Environmental Services (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Fall 1993 Hardwood Seed Collection Project was conducted as an initial step towards regenerating creek habitat on the Savannah River Site (SRS) that was damaged by past plant operating activities. Seed from various hardwood species was collected from the coastal plain of South Carolina (See Table 1). The contract required that seed collected from each tree be kept separate through processing and delivery. Height and dbh measurements and a photograph of each tree were also required. The contract procurement area was expanded eastward in an effort to alleviate problems associated with locating adequate seed sources in and around SRP.

  6. Butt Rot of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. I. McCracken

    1977-01-01

    Butt rot is the most serious cause of cull throughout the South, and affects all hardwood species. Defined as any decay at the base of a living tree, butt rot accounts for the loss of millions of board feet of southern hardwood timber annually. In one study of loess and alluvial hardwood sites in the Midsouth, butt rot was found in 40 percent of the trees being...

  7. The Effects of Timber Harvesting on Neotropical Migrants in Cove Hardwood Forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2005-01-01

    I compared avian species richness, density, and diversity for neotropical migrants, short distance migrants, and permanent residents following timber harvesting in cove hardwood forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. The forest stands were 4-103 years old, had undergone a clearcut or selective tree removal, and represented four successional...

  8. Beetle-killed stands in the South Carolina piedmont: from fuel hazards to regenerating oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; G. Geoff Wang; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2012-01-01

    Impacts of spring prescribed fire, mechanical mastication, and no-treatment (control) on fuels and natural hardwood tree regeneration were examined in beetle-killed stands in the South Carolina Piedmont. Mechanical mastication ground the down and standing dead trees and live vegetation into mulch and deposited it onto the forest floor. The masticated debris layer had...

  9. Changing Markets for Hardwood Roundwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Albert Schuler

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hardwood roundwood has been used to produce lumber, cabinet plywood, and veneer. Hardwoods also have been a major part of the pulpwood consumption in the northern tier of the eastern United States since the early 1960?s, while southern pines have been the predominant species used in southern tier states. However, since the 1960's there has been a...

  10. Flood tolerance of oak seedlings from bottomland and upland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze

    2009-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...

  11. New estimates of hardwood lumber exports from the central hardwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Luppold; E. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Exports have become an increasingly important part of the overall hardwood lumber market. However, recent findings indicate that much of the reported growth of hardwood lumber exports in the 1980's was based on inflated volume data. This paper presents new estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Asia and Europe with emphasis on the central hardwood region of the...

  12. Insect and Disease Pests of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. P. Abrahamson; F. I. McCracken

    1971-01-01

    Insects and diseases seldom kill southern hardwood trees in managed stands, but they cause major economic losses by lowering wood quality and reducing tree growth. In discussing the most important insects and diseases of southern hardwoods, let us consider first those that attack natural hardwood stands and then those associated with plantation culture.

  13. Economics of herbicide application methods in hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1988-01-01

    Forest managers can use the data presented here to determine the least-cost herbicide application method for precommercial thinning treatments in hardwood sapling stands. Herbicides used in managing immature hardwood stands must be applied ustng individual-tree methods: broadcast applications in hardwoods are not selective and may result in signtficant damage to...

  14. Strategic plans for the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Keith E. Woeste

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University is to advance the science of hardwood tree improvement and genomics in the central hardwood region of the United States by: developing and disseminating knowledge on improving the genetic quality of hardwood tree species; conserving fine hardwood germplasm; developing...

  15. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  16. Soil Management in Hardwood Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. G. Blackmon

    1978-01-01

    Several soil management techniques--fertilization, deep plowing, cover cropping, summer fallowing, Irrigation, and cultivation--can benefit hardwood plantations. The applicability of the treatments to plantations of cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, green ash, yellow-poplar, and oaks depends largely on site conditions.

  17. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  18. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  19. Herbicide practices in hardwood plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian D. Beheler; Charles H. Michler

    2013-01-01

    Control of competing vegetation is an important early cultural practice that can improve survival and vigor in hardwood tree plantings. The type of program used depends on landowner objectives, species of weeds present, equipment available, and types of herbicides available. Pre-planting planning can greatly increase effectiveness of an herbicide program for the first...

  20. Impacts of Flooding Regime Modification on Wildlife Habitats of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Lower Mississippi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Fredrickson (Gaylord Memorial Lab, University of Missouri-Columbia, Puxico, Missouri) personal communication (Nov 1980). 16 fI (Liguidambar...and elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) while in the unchannelized area, switch cane (Arundinaria gigantea), blueberry (Vaccinium spp.), and sebastian... blueberry , and other fruits are taken seasonally (USDA 1971). Animal foods include crayfish, clams, insects, earthworms, arthropods, amphibians and

  1. Characterization of Soil Processes in Bottomland Hardwood Wetland- Nonwetland Transition Zones in the Lower Mississippi River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Plant Tissues," Phytochemistry , Vol 7, pp 1973-1988. Anderson, P. H. 1977. "Delineation of Deciduous Wetland Forests in Northeastern Connecticut," M.S... thesis , University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Anderson, W. B., and Kemper, W. D. 1965. "Corn Growth as Affected by Aggregate Stability, Soil

  2. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina has remained stable at 3.8 million acres. Nonindustrial private owners control two-thirds of the region's timberland. Volume of softwood growing stock increased by 6 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet, while hardwood growing-stock volume dropped 2 percent to 3.7 billion cubic feet. Net...

  3. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center: its strategic plans for sustaining the hardwood resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Michael J. Bosela; Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste

    2003-01-01

    A regional center for hardwood tree improvement, genomics, and regeneration research, development and technology transfer will focus on black walnut, black cherry, northern red oak and, in the future, on other fine hardwoods as the effort is expanded. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) will use molecular genetics and genomics along with...

  4. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  5. The state of hardwood lumber markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; William G. Luppold

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1990-91 recession has temporarily dampened the demand for hardwood lumber, the decade of the 1980s was a period of strong growth in the hardwood market. After experiencing a flat market in 1980 and a decline in 1982, the demand for hardwood lumber by both the domestic industry and the export market increased strongly—from 8 billion board feet in 1982 to 11...

  6. Calculating competition in thinned northern hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon A. Winsauer; James A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Describes four methods of calculating competition to individual trees and compares their effectiveness in explaining the 3-year growth response of northern hardwoods after various mechanized thinning practices.

  7. Comparison of site preparation methods and stock types for artificial regeneration of oaks in bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon W. Shaw; Daniel C. Dey; John Kabrick; Jennifer Grabner; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2003-01-01

    Regenerating oak in floodplains is problematic and current silvicultural methods are not always reliable. We are evaluating the field performance of a new nursery product, the RPM™ seedling, and the benefit of soil mounding and a cover crop of redtop grass to the survival and growth of pin oak and swamp white oak regeneration on former bottomland cropfields....

  8. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...

  9. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  10. A stocking diagram for midwestern eastern cotonwood-silver maple-American sycamore bottomland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; Thomas. Faust

    2010-01-01

    A stocking diagram for Midwestern bottomland eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.)-silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.)-American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) forests was developed following the methods of S.F. Gingrich (1967. Measuring and evaluating stocking and stand density in upland...

  11. Canker Rots in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.I. McCracken

    1978-01-01

    Canker-rot fungi cause serious degrade and cull in southern hardwoods, especially the red oaks. Heartwood decay is the most serious form of damage, but the fungi also kill the cambium and decay the sapwood for as much as 3 feet (.91 m) above and below the entrance point into the tree. The ability of these fungi to kill the cambium and cause cankers distinguishes them...

  12. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  13. Microcomputer Techniques for Developing Hardwood Conservation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNiel

    1991-01-01

    Hardwoods are disappearing from the California landscape at alarming rates. This is due to a variety of influences, both natural and man made. It is clear that conservation and rehabilitation of hardwood resources will require a large effort on the part of research institutes, universities, government agencies, special interest groups, private developers, maintenance...

  14. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair value... and subsidized imports of hardwood plywood from China. Accordingly, effective September 27, 2012, the...

  15. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  16. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  17. The Effects of Prescribed Burning and Thinning on Herpetofauna and Small Mammals in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina: Preliminary Results of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran S. Kilpatrick; Dean B. Kubacz; David C. Guynn; J. Drew Lanham; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    Due to heavy fuel loads resulting from years of fire suppression, upland pine and mixed pine hardwood forests in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina are at risk of severe wildfire. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study (NFFS) was conducted on the Clemson Experimental Forest to study the effects of prescribed burning and thinning on a multitude of factors,...

  18. U.S. hardwood exports, hardwood exports to Japan, hardwood resource situation, and the future of U.S. exports to Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at some basic information about total U.S. hardwood exports and products as well as hardwood exports to Japan. It also discusses the U.S. hardwood resource situation and how we can best use the resource base to suppy Japanâs needs.

  19. Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; David M. Hix; Robert P. Long; P. Charles, eds. Goebel

    2004-01-01

    Proceedings of the 14th Central Hardwood Forest conference held 16-19 March in Wooster Ohio. Includes 102 papers and abstracts dealing with silviculture, wildlife, human dimensions, harvesting and utilization, physiology, genetics, soils, nutrient cycling, and biometrics.

  20. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.T.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level

  1. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  2. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate.

  3. Four Mile Creek bottomland restoration program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors were cooled by a once-through cooling cycle, using water from the Savannah River and discharging the effluent to small tributaries of the Savannah River. Four Mile Creek (also known as Fourmile Branch) is a third order tributary of the Savannah River on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. It received thermal effluent from C Reactor from 1955 to 1985, which increased the flow rate, water depth and water temperature. Prior to 1955, the base flow was approximately one cubic meter per second, but increased, with the reactor effluent, to approximately 11 cubic meters per second, raising the water depth in the channel by 15 to 30 cm. Effluent temperature at the outfall was approximately 60 C and at the delta was 40 to 45 C, depending on the operation level of the reactor, the season of the year and the specific meteorological conditions. The increased flow rate also increased erosion in the upper reaches of the stream with deposition of this eroded material occurring in the delta averaging 60 cm of newly deposited sand on top of the former substrate

  4. Carpenterworm Moths and Cerambycid Hardwood Borers Caught in Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Solomon; L. Newsome; W. N. Darwin

    1972-01-01

    A portable, battery-operated light trap was used in hardwood stands in Mississippi. Ten species of hardwood borers were captured with carpenterworm moths being taken in the greatest numbers. Many cerambycid borers were also captured.

  5. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  6. U.S. hardwood lumber production: 1963 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Between 1963 and 2003 northern hardwood lumber production more than doubled while production in the southern regions increased by less than 25 percent. In 1963 the major users of hardwood lumber were the furniture manufacturers located in the southeast region, and hardwood flooring producers located in the south central region. By contrast more than 60 percent of the...

  7. Pacific Rim and Midle East Markets for Hardwood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic changes have taken place in the U.S. hardwood export market since 1975. World demand for U.S. hardwood logs, lumber, and veneer has quadrupled. Exports to Europe and particularly the Pacific Rim, have grown significantly. The focus of this presentation is on the Pacific Rim and Middle East markets. Reasons for overseas demand of U.S. hardwood products are...

  8. 40 years of hardwood lumber comsumption: 1963 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of hardwood lumber consumption found that demand has changed dramatically over the past four decades as a result of material substitution, changes in construction and remodeling products markets, and globalization. In 1963 furniture producers consumed 36 percent of the hardwood products lumber used by domestic manufacturers. Producers of hardwood...

  9. Supplying the Pacific Rim With U.S. Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. grows much more hardwood timber each year than is used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. We present a quick look at our Eastern hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability), and suggest necessary cooperation by our export customers in the Pacific Rim to help assure adequate supplies of hardwood products....

  10. Growth and shifts in eastern hardwood lumber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in eastern U.S. hardwood lumber production indicates that total output increased sharply between 1977 and 1991. The increase, however, was much more pronounced in the East's northern tier of states than in the southern. This paper first examines recent hardwood lumber usage trends and historic hardwood lumber production trends. Changes...

  11. Are there regional differences in US hardwood product exports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; William Luppold

    2016-01-01

    Exporting is a critical component of the product mix for many domestic hardwood firms. Previous research has identified factors associated with hardwood lumber exporting behavior, but less is known about the advantages and disadvantages to exporting associated with the region within which a firm is located, or about exporting of secondary hardwood products. A procedure...

  12. A technique for predicting clear-wood production in hardwood stems: A model for evaluating hardwood plantation development and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Dave R. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    The management of artificial hardwood stands suffers from a paucity of information. As a result, many managers and scientists turn to conventional pine plantation management as a source for informing silvicultural decisions. Such an approach when managing hardwoods ignores the development occurring in natural hardwood stands, which produce stems prized for their growth...

  13. Hooded Warbler Nesting Success Adjacent to Group-selection and Clearcut Edges in a Southeastern Bottomland Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Moorman; David C. Guynn; John C. Kilgo

    2002-01-01

    During the 1996, 1997, and 199X breeding seasons, WC located and monitored Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) nests in a bottomland forest and examined the effects of edge proximity, edge type, and nest-site vegetation on nesting success. SW- cessful Hooded Warbler nests were more concealed from below and were located in nest patches with a greater...

  14. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  15. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  16. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  17. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  18. Medium density fiberboard from mixed southern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Woodson

    1977-01-01

    Medium-density fiberboards of acceptable quality were made from a mixture of barky chips from 14 southern hardwoods. Boards made from fiber refined at three different plate clearances did not vary significantly in bending, internal bond (IB), or linear expansion. but, lack of replications and the fact that the refiner was not loaded to capacity caused these results to...

  19. 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey W. Stringer; David L. Loftis; Michael Lacki; Thomas Barnes; Robert A. Muller

    1999-01-01

    There were 32 oral presentations, 11 abstracts, and 22 poster presentations presented at the 12th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Presentation topics included wildlife management, nutrient dynamics, stand structure, reforestation/reclamation, timber harvesting, modeling and inventory, silviculture, disturbance effects, and genetics/tree improvement.

  20. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: extension and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. MacGowan; Lenny D. Farlee; Robert N. Chapman

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts on plants and animals. Information from the HEE should and will be made available to a diverse group of potential users. This paper summarizes educational efforts during the pre-treatment period and highlights potential mechanisms and...

  1. Mechanized systems for harvesting eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2010-01-01

    In the central Appalachian region, hardwoods traditionally have been harvested by chainsaw felling with trees and logs extracted from the forest to landings by rubber-tired skidders, bulldozers, and crawler tractors. In recent years, mechanized systems that include feller bunchers and cut-to-length (CTL) processors coupled with forwarders and clambunk and grapple...

  2. Development of Hardwood Seed Zones for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa S. Post; Frank van Manen; R. A. Cecich; A. M. Saxton; J. F. Schneider

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have...

  3. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  4. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  5. Snag longevity in managed northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Little information on standing snag and coarse woody debris longevity exists for New England forest types. Forest managers thus lack the information on changes over time of the habitat components influenced by the decay process. We examined the fate of 568 snags that occurred on a long-term hardwood growth study on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. Approximately...

  6. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  7. Sprout Singling in North Alabama Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma Naka; Philip G. Cannon

    2004-01-01

    Many commercial hardwood species grow quite well in northern Alabama and most regenerate by stump sprouts after harvest. The number of sprouts on a stump depends on several factors such as species and stump size. To determine if the practice of singling (removing all but the single best sprout from a stump) might be a means of accelerating the growth rate of one stem...

  8. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  9. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  10. Properties of recycled polypropylene based composites incorporating treated hardwood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Galia; Jaunslavietis, Jevgenijs; Ozolins, Jurijs; Neiberte, Brigita; Verovkins, Anrijs; Vitolina, Sanita; Shakels, Vadims

    2016-05-01

    The effect of different treatment of hardwood sawdust under mild conditions on contact angles, adhesion energy and water sorption was studied. A comparison of these indices for the hardwood treated sawdust and the composites filled with them was performed. The treatment promoted the compatibility between the recycled polypropylene and the hardwood filler. The inclusion of the lignin-based compatibiliser in the composite, containing the ammoxidised wood filler, essentially improved its mechanical properties.

  11. Estimating the size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Smith; William G. Luppold; Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2003-01-01

    The size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania in 1999 is estimated at 1.311 BBF by 556 mills. Study results show an 11 percent higher estimate of the volume of hardwood lumber produced and a 60 percent greater number of Pennsylvania sawmills in 1999 as compared to the 1.186 BBF of hardwood lumber by 339 sawmills estimated by the USDC Census Bureau for the...

  12. Hooded-Warbler Nesting Success Adjacent to Group-Selection and Clearcut Edges in a Southeastern Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.; Kilgo, J.C.

    2002-01-11

    Location and monitoring of Hooded-Warbler nests in a bottomland forest and examined the effects of edge proximity, edge type and nest-site vegetation on nesting success. Probability of parasitism by Brown-headed cowbirds was higher near clearcut edges and parasitism reduced clutch-size and numbers of fledglings per successful nest. Study was conducted in a primarily forested landscape, so cowbird abundance or negative edge effects may have been low relative to agricultural landscapes in the South.

  13. Developments to the Sylvan stand structure model to describe wood quality changes in southern bottomland hardwood forests because of forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Growth models can produce a wealth of detailed information that is often very difficult to perceive because it is frequently presented either as summary tables, stand view or landscape view visualizations. We have developed new tools for use with the Sylvan model (Larsen 1994) that allow the analysis of wood-quality changes as a consequence of forest management....

  14. Second-year growth and bole quality response of residual poletimber trees following thinning in an even-aged bottomland hardwood sawtimber stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A., Jr. Skojac; James S. Meadows; Andrew W. Ezell

    2010-01-01

    Poletimber trees were classified as either superior or inferior poletimber stock, and then retained on separate plots receiving identical thinning treatments. Differences in post-treatment response were used to evaluate the potential of the two poletimber classes to produce grade sawtimber in the thinned sawtimber stand. Treatments included: an unthinned control, two...

  15. Teaching Professional Codes of Ethics to Forestry and Wildlife Students: A Case Study Using Diameter-Limit Harvesting in a Bottomland Hardwood Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Ralph D. Nyland

    2004-01-01

    Professional ethics involve statements by a professional organization to guide the behavior of its members, and to help them determine acceptable and unacceptable behavior in a given situation. Most, if not all, natural resource organizations have Code of Ethics. How to incorporate them across the curriculum and in individual courses of a natural resources program is a...

  16. Summer Roost Tree Selection by Eastern Red, Seminole, and Evening Bats in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Ford, W.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Ozier, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotraction of six eastern red bats, six seminole bats and twenty-four evening bats to 55, 61, and 65 day roosts during 1996 to 1997 in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. For each species, testing was done for differences between used roost trees and randomly located trees. Also tested for differences between habitat characteristics surrounding roost trees and randomly located trees. Eastern Red and Seminole bats generally roosted in canopies of hardwood and pine while clinging to foilage and small branches. Evening bats roosted in cavities or under exfoliating bark in pines and dead snags. Forest management strategies named within the study should be beneficial for providing roosts in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

  17. Development of old-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 22-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley M. Filip; David A. Marquis; William B. Leak

    1960-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests provide the industries of New England with their most valuable woods: yellow birch and sugar maple for veneer, paper birch for turning stock, and other hardwood species for a variety of specialty products. As a result of recent developments in hardwood pulping, these northern hardwood forests now represent a tremendous reservoir of raw...

  18. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  19. U.S. Hardwood sawmill log procurement practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Iris Montague; Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2015-01-01

    U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill...

  20. Application of Advanced Technologies for Improvement of Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler

    1999-01-01

    Hardwood tree improvement in Indiana is on the brink of entering the 21st century with the recent initiation of the Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) at Purdue University. At a time when midwestern agriculture has enthusiastically embraced genetically modified insect and herbicide resistant corn and soybean crops and all the human genes are...

  1. Growth and Yield of Appalachian Mixed Hardwoods After Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade C. Harrison; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas E. Burk; Donald E. Beckand

    1986-01-01

    G-RAT (Growth of Hardwoods After Thinning) is a system of computer programs used to predict growth and yield of Appalachian mixed hardwoods after thinning. Given a tree list or stand table, along with inputs of stand age, site index, and stand basal area before thinning, G-RAT software uses species-specific individual tree equations to predict tree basal area...

  2. Match Your Hardwood Lumber to Current Market Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This article explains how hardwood lumber producers can best market their product. The study included four segments of the market for hardwood lumber. These segments were: furniture, cabinet, dimension and flooring, and molding/millwork manufacturers. The article explains how the study was conducted and the characteristics of companies (i.e., potential customers) that...

  3. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  4. Changes in walnut and other hardwood markets: 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Scott. Bowe

    2013-01-01

    After a decade of record demand in the 1990s, production and price of hardwood lumber declined moderately between 1999 and 2005 and then plummeted between 2005 and 2009. The decline in hardwood lumber price affected all species. However, walnut was the last species to decline in price, starting in 2007, and has had the largest price increase since hitting its low point...

  5. Hardwood chip market--was 2006 a "normal" year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2007-01-01

    In the context of other recent years, 2006 turned out to be a relatively "normal" year for the U.S. hardwood chip market in terms of factors that influence supply and demand; such as prevailing weather conditions, energy price trends, and pulp and paper production. Gulf Coast hurricanes and rising energy prices drove hardwood chip and pulpwood markets in 2005...

  6. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  7. The Impact of Insects in the Northern Hardwoods Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. J. Macaloney

    1966-01-01

    The northern hardwoods type occupies about 16 percent -- 8.2 million acres -- of the commercial forest land in the Lake States. The timber has high unit values and represents about 42 percent of the total value of all the commercial forest in the region. Increasing values and markets for northern hardwoods in recent years have stressed the need for better quality in...

  8. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  9. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  10. The U.S. Hardwood Situation Related to Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; John Tansey

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. grows more hardwood timber each year than is being used for domestic and export markets. However, we do have some problems. In this paper, the authors present a quick look at our hardwood resource situation (species, quality, availability). They also describe where the timber is growing for several species, talk about availability in the Southeast region, and...

  11. Tests for Long-Run Relationships in Hardwood Lumber Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Hardwood lumber prices are unique because of the large number of marketable species and variability of prices across species. Previous research showed that long-run fashion decisions regarding species selection may be influenced by price, so the interaction between fashion and species price may act to keep prices (hence, demand) of different hardwood species together...

  12. Researching effects of prescribed fire in hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Tara Keyser; Susan C. Loeb; David L. Loftis; W. Henry McNab; Joy M. O' Keefe; Callie Jo Schweitzer; Martin Spetich

    2012-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management Research Work Unit (RWU 4157) is a group of research teams located across the South, strategically placed to conduct research in physiographic sub-regions of the upland hardwood ecosystems including the southern Appalachian Mountains, the Cumberland Plateau, the Boston Mountains, and the Missouri Plateau. Our RWU is one of 16...

  13. Market Definition For Hardwood Timber in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Karen Lee Abt; David N. Wear

    1999-01-01

    Direct estimation of aggregate hardwood supply is seriously complicated by the diversity of prices, species, and site conditions in hardwood stands. An alternative approach is to aggregate regional supply based on stumpage values of individual stands, arguably the real driver of harvest decisions. Complicating this approach is that species-specific prices are only...

  14. Domestic hardwood lumber consumption and exports, yesterday and today

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Domestic Hardwood lumber consumption has changed considerably in this century, but how do these changes differ from changes that have occurred over the last 50 years and how have they affected lumber price? In this article, we examine how changes in consumption have influenced aggregate Hardwood lumber prices as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusted...

  15. Central hardwood forest resources: a social science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Herbert W. Schroeder; Paul H. Gobster

    1991-01-01

    People-forest interactions in the Central Hardwoods region are expanding in scope and importance and are generating increasing controversy. In order to manage Central Hardwoods in a manner that contributes most fully to the needs of people, it is important that we better understand the perceptions, goals, objectives, and values of forest users, owners, managers, and...

  16. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans

  17. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina

    2009-01-01

    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  18. Central Hardwoods ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Hardwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Brandt; Hong He; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Patricia Butler; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Matthew Albrecht; Richard Blume-Weaver; Paul Deizman; John DePuy; William D. Dijak; Gary Dinkel; Songlin Fei; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Michael Leahy; Stephen Matthews; Paul Nelson; Brad Oberle; Judi Perez; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jeffrey E. Schneiderman; John Shuey; Adam B. Smith; Charles Studyvin; John M. Tirpak; Jeffery W. Walk; Wen J. Wang; Laura Watts; Dale Weigel; Steve. Westin

    2014-01-01

    The forests in the Central Hardwoods Region will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystems in the Central Hardwoods Region of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends,...

  19. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: diseases in hardwood tree plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2006-01-01

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease...

  20. 78 FR 67979 - Hardwood Lumber and Hardwood Plywood Promotion, Research and Information Order; Referendum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... lumber and hardwood plywood are used in products like flooring, furniture, moldings, doors, and kitchen... flooring, furniture, moldings, doors, and kitchen cabinets. USDA would conduct the referendum. The program..., and consumer information activities funded by mandatory assessments. These programs are designed to...

  1. Panel discussion: Marketing hardwoods at the George O. White State Forest Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Hoss

    2011-01-01

    The George O. White State Forest Nursery is a hardwood nursery located in a state dominated by hardwood species. Marketing and selling our hardwoods is what we do. Depending on the year and seed availability, we grow about 65 species of hardwood trees and shrubs. During the last 5 years, we have grown about 60 hardwood species per year. We also grow about six species...

  2. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Moorman; Liessa T. Bowen; John C. Kilgo; Clyde E. Sorenson; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Mike D. Ulyshen

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during...

  3. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  4. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  5. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  6. A comparison of site index curves for northern hardwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean

    1979-01-01

    Gives an inventory and compares site index curves for 13 northern hardwood species. Differences illustrate the need for more precise site index curves that are applicable to local soil and site conditions.

  7. Proceedings: workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Contains 18 papers and 16 poster abstracts on the history of fire, fire ecology, fire and ecosystem management, and fire and the future presented at the workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape.

  8. Vegetative Propagation and the Genetic Improvement of North American Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    Progress and problems in vegetative propagation of important North American hardwoods are reviewed with emphasis on rooting cuttings and the application of propagation techniques in breeding research. Some problems in rooting physiology are discussed.

  9. Managing mountain hardwoods - a ten-year appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1961-01-01

    Ten years ago - in 1949 - four 5-acre plots were established on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to show the effects upon mountain hardwoods of each of four management treatments.

  10. Interference by weeds and deer with Allegheny hardwood reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; David A. Marquis

    1983-01-01

    Deer browsing and interference from forest weeds, particularly hayscented fem (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore), New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis L.), and short husk grass (Brachyelytrnm erectum Schreb.), influence the establishment of Allegheny hardwood reproduction. We determined the...

  11. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwood types in the Northeast (revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    A practical guide to the management of northern hardwoods for timber production in New England and New York. Both even-aged management are considered, and specific treatments are prescribed for a range of stand conditions and management objectives.

  12. Epicormic branching on eight species of Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1966-01-01

    Epicormic branches and associated defects are leading causes of degrade and value loss in lumber sawed from hardwood logs. The degrade may be in the form of small knots, ingrown bark, wood blemishes, and/or rot.

  13. Research studies on tropical hardwoods for pulp and paper manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolano, J.O.; Tamolang, F.N.

    1981-01-01

    Kraft cooking of hardwood mixtures containing combinations of Shorea polysperma, S. negrosensis, Pentocone contorta, S. squamata, Dipterocarpus grandifluorus, Anisoptera thurifera, S. blume, and Hopea acuminata at 170 degrees gave pulp in 48% yield, with permanganate No. 13.8, burst factor 70-80, tear factor 129-130, MIT double folds 475-700, and breaking length 8500-9800 m. Physiochemical and strength characteristics of tropical hardwoods and their pulps are also reviewed.

  14. Nursing advocacy in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Acomb, Tracy K; Schneider, Susan M; Clough, Robert W; Veenstra, Brittney A

    2007-09-01

    To identify the ways oncology nurses in one state advocate for patients, as well as the resources they use to do so. Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. North Carolina. 141 RNs in North Carolina who were members of the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS). Subjects completed a two-page, self-administered questionnaire comprised of fixed-choice and open-ended questions. Demographics, frequency of advocating for patient services, and awareness of ONS resources. Nurses in North Carolina advocate for patients in a variety of ways. A need exists to develop ongoing methods to keep nurses up to date on advocacy issues, as well as to establish mentoring opportunities for them. Nurses believe that they are most challenged in addressing patients' financial and insurance concerns. Oncology nurses frequently advocate for patients' needs. The findings provide direction for future initiatives to educate nurses about their role in patient advocacy and available resources. Ongoing education and research are needed to enhance the role of oncology nurses as patient advocates.

  15. The Wood and Bark of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites - A Pictorial Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1980-01-01

    Provides a pictorial description of the structure and appearance of 23 pine-site hardwoods, an overview of hardwood anatomy, and data on the resource and certain important physical properties of stemwood and bark.

  16. Understanding chain-of-custody certification in the Appalachian hardwood region: Primary manufacturers' practices and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris B. Montague

    2011-01-01

    Many obstacles may deter hardwood manufacturers from obtaining chain-of-custody certification. Because the hardwood and softwood forest products industries have many differences between them, current certification systems may not fit the unique demographics of the hardwood industry. For this reason, it is important to understand chain-of-custody certification as it...

  17. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  18. Changes in Tennessee's secondary hardwood processing and sawmill industries from 2005 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Delton Alderman; Doug. Schnabel

    2012-01-01

    Tennessee is in the center of the Eastern hardwood region and has experienced large declines in employment by primary and secondary hardwood processors since 2005 in a pattern similar to the one these processors have experienced nationally. The objective of this article is to examine changes in national hardwood processing industries between 2005 and 2009 and compare...

  19. Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree improvement including breeding and molecular marker applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2264 Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer. If you operate a hardwood veneer dryer, you must record the annual volume percentage of softwood veneer...

  1. The changing structure of the hardwood lumber industry with implications on technology adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The hardwood sawmilling industry has been changing over the last 50 years as a result of changes in hardwood sawtimber inventory and in the demand for hardwood lumber. In 1950 the industry was composed of numerous individual mills, few of which produced more than 3 million board feet of lumber annually. During this time the furniture industry was the major user of...

  2. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the Eastern Hardwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Many markets for hardwood lumber have experienced growth in recent years. Eastern and Central hardwood lumber production reached an estimated 11.2 billion board feet in 1988, a twenty year high. Wood furniture, flooring, and exports have also experienced growth in the last ten years. During the same period, annual growth on eastern hardwood forests has exceeded annual...

  3. Decision Criteria for German Hardwood Lumber Buyers: Market Needs and Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Ponzurick; Robert J. Bush; Dieter Schaupp; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of hardwood exports to the German market. A mail survey was conducted which resulted in a 47.8 percent rate of response. Of those German hardwood buyers responding to the survey, 71 percent purchased hardwood lumber directly from North America.

  4. Marketing low-grade hardwoods for furniture stock - a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1979-01-01

    A hardwood shortage of high-grade lumber exists while there is a surplus of low-grade hardwood timber. Two things are needed for the surplus to correct the shortage: a new manufacturing system and a new marketing technique. Utilization research at the Princeton Forestry Sciences Laboratory has developed the new system for converting low-grade hardwood for furniture use...

  5. Determinant Product and Supplier Attributes in Domestic Markets for Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Steven A. Sinclair; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Product and supplier attributes that are critical in hardwood lumber purchase decisions (i.e., determinant) were investigated in four segments of the domestic market for hardwood lumber: millwork producers (Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2431), hardwood dimension and flooring producers (SIC 2426), wood household furniture producers (SIC 2511), and wood...

  6. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  7. Factors influencing changes in U.S. hardwood log and lumber exports from 1990 to 2011. BioResources

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2013-01-01

    Domestic consumption of hardwood products in the United States since 2000 has trended downward, making exports the single most important market for higher grade hardwood lumber and a major market for higher value hardwood logs. Between 1990 and 2011, hardwood lumber exports increased by 46%. During most of this period, Canada was the largest export market for U.S....

  8. Spatial and temporal variations of water balance components due to a bottomland hedgerow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Ghazavi, G.; Merot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wooded linear structures in general, and hedgerows in particular, were formerly very abundant in the European landscape, but have undergone a considerable decline in their density in the past decades, before being stabilized. Currently, we observe locally an increase due to the multiple advantages offered by these structures and the effect of agricultural policies. The aim of the present study was to quantify spatially and temporally the impact of an oak hedgerow (Quercus robur) on the various terms of the water balance. This study was carried out at the plot scale by focusing on aspects related to water transfer in the soil and aquifer. From the results obtained on a local scale, we proposed a functional scheme that allowed us to represent the role of hedge trees in water cycle. In this study, groundwater level and soil-water potential were monitored continually at various distances from the hedgerow along two 28 m length transects, at a spacing of 10 m, enabling us to obtain fine-scale information on the functioning of the soil-groundwater system. We evaluate tree transpiration from sap flow density measurements. Functional scheme were proposed illustrating the role of hedgerow, which can then be used for integrating the impact of the hedge trees into hydrological models. For the period when oak trees had their leaves (leafed period), the determining processes that need to be represented are the rainfall interception, tree transpiration and capillary rise. Other terms of the water balance, such as drainage, are directly affected by the presence of the hedgerow. Drainage is strongly reduced under the hedgerow, and decreases significantly at a certain distance from the hedgerow, when capillary rise increased under the hedgerow and decreased far away. Our results show that the impact of a bottomland hedgerow on water balance components can be highly variable according to the climatic conditions. Hedge tree transpiration increased for a wet year when soil

  9. The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisius Rio Mardikanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acoustical properties of four Indonesian tropical hardwood species were evaluated in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine acoustical parameters e.g. logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, sound velocity as well as density and wood stiffness; and to evaluate the potential of those species for acoustical purposes. Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia, Mahoni (Swietenia mahagony, Acacia (Acacia mangium and Manii wood (Maesopsis eminii were selected in this research. Three different cutting plane patterns of sawn timber (quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn were converted into small specimens. The methods for determining acoustical properties were longitudinal vibration testing and time of flight of ultrasonic wave method. The result showed no significant difference (α=0.05 of acoustical properties in logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, and ultrasonic velocity means on quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn for all wood species tested. We found that Mahoni and Sonokeling had good acoustical properties of logarithmic decrement, ultrasonic wave velocity, and ratio of wood stiffness to wood density; and is preferred for crafting musical instruments. Acacia and Manii woods are recommended for developing acoustic panels in building construction because those species possess higher sound absorption values.

  10. [Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives in science and mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    On December 19, 1991, South Carolina`s Governor, established the Governor`s Mathematics and Sciences Advisory Board (MSAB) to articulate a vision and develop a statewide plan for improving science and mathematics education in South Carolina. The MSAB recognized that systemic change must occur if the achievement levels of students in South Carolina are to improve in a dramatic way. The MSAB holds two fundamental beliefs about systemic change: (1) All the elements of the science and mathematics education system must be working in harmony towards the same vision; and (2) Each element of the system must be held against high standards and progress must be assessed regularly against these standards.

  11. Cultivation of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-site conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Abbeville County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  13. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  14. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  15. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. Boletus durhamensis sp. nov. from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Alan E. Bessette; Owen L. McConnell

    2016-01-01

    A new bolete with cinnamon-brown pores, Boletus durhamensis, is described. Collected in northern North Carolina, it is possibly mycorrhizal with Quercus spp. Morphological and molecular characters support this taxon as a new species.

  6. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  8. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Calhoun County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  9. Testing and analysis of internal hardwood log defect prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The severity and location of internal defects determine the quality and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. Models have been developed to predict the size and position of internal defects based on external defect indicator measurements. These models were shown to predict approximately 80% of all internal knots based on external knot indicators. However, the size...

  10. Validation of an internal hardwood log defect prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The type, size, and location of internal defects dictate the grade and value of lumber sawn from hardwood logs. However, acquiring internal defect knowledge with x-ray/computed-tomography or magnetic-resonance imaging technology can be expensive both in time and cost. An alternative approach uses prediction models based on correlations among external defect indicators...

  11. Competition and climate affects US hardwood-forest tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Individual-tree measurements have been collected periodically on sites established in Kentucky, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania to investigate the effects of thinning on the growth and yield of valuable hardwood species. These plots were installed between 1959 and 1985. The long-term characteristics of this data set of 47,853 trees allowed us to investigate potential...

  12. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: goals, design, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca A. Kalb; Cortney J. Mycroft

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) is a long-term, landscape-level field experiment initiated in 2006 by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources-Division of Forestry. The HEE is a multi-disciplinary, collaborative research project involving researchers from Purdue University, Indiana State University, Ball State University, Indiana University of Pennsylvania,...

  13. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  14. Quality index tables for some eastern hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. Mendel; William H. Smith; William H. Smith

    1970-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the quality-index concept, presents log-quality index tables for a selected group of eastern hardwood tree species, and explains how timber operators can use Q.I. for evaluating the lumber that can be sawed from logs and trees.

  15. Economic considerations of uneven-age hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Uneven-age management or partial cutting methods as described in this paper allow foresters to manage eastern hardwood stands and harvest forest products without clearcutting. These methods can involve regular periodic harvests, at least for the short term, based on stand conditions and growing-site capabilities. We are not going to make the decision as to which is the...

  16. A CT-based Simulator for Hardwood Log Veneering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Profits for hardwood veneer manufacturers are dependent on proper initial log breakdown (flitching) decisions. While human skill is often adequate to ãreadä bark indicators of internal defects, it is much more difficult to envision potential veneer patterns that result from different flitching options. Different veneer patterns greatly affect potential markets and...

  17. Automatic scanning of rough hardwood lumber for edging and trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook Lee

    2001-01-01

    Scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. Nevertheless, it is important to improve lumber processing early in the manufacturing stream because much wood material is...

  18. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  19. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  20. Why hardwoods do not grow naturally in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Larsen

    1924-01-01

    Unfortunately the beautiful hardwood trees which are native to the Eastern States do not grow naturally in the West. We have here only aspen, cottonwood, small birch, hawthorns, cherry, and alder. On the Pacific coast are oak and maple, but limited largely to lower moist sites such as streams bed and canyons. The general absence of broad leaf trees in the West is most...

  1. The northern hardwood forests of the Anthracite Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The northern hardwood type forest is found only in the northern counties of the Anthracite Region. It dominates the highlands from Sullivan County on the west, to Monroe County on the east. The early lumbermen back in the 1860's, according to Illick and Frontz, "found (some) valleys, hillsides and mountains covered with a dense growth of enormous white pine...

  2. Computer Vision Systems for Hardwood Logs and Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Tai-Hoon Cho; D. Zhu; R. Conners

    1991-01-01

    Computer vision systems being developed at Virginia Tech University with the support and cooperation from the U.S. Forest Service are presented. Researchers at Michigan State University, West Virginia University, and Mississippi State University are also members of the research team working on various parts of this research. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood...

  3. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System Technology for the Hardwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    For the last few years the authors have been extolling the virtues of a multiple sensor approach to hardwood defect detection. Since 1989 the authors have actively been trying to develop such a system. This paper details some of the successes and failures that have been experienced to date. It also discusses what remains to be done and gives time lines for the...

  4. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  5. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  6. The economic potential of CT scanners for hardwood sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald G. Hodges; Walter C. Anderson; Charles W. McMillin

    1990-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a knowledge of internal log defects prior to sawing could improve lumber value yields significantly. This study evaluated the potential economic returns from investments in computerized tomographic (CT) scanners to detect internal defects in hardwood logs at southern sawmills. The results indicate that such investments would be profitable...

  7. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  8. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  9. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  10. Resistance of eastern hardwood stems to fire injury and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the protective features and defensive responses of eastern hardwood species exposed to fire. Trees survive fire through protective features such as thick bark and the induced defenses of compartmentalization. Dissection of trees exposed to prescribed fire in an oak forest in southern Ohio highlights the need to distinguish between bark scorch, stem...

  11. Allegheny hardwood regeneration response to even-age harvesting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bjorkbom; Russell S. Walters; Russell S. Walters

    1986-01-01

    Allegheny hardwood regeneration response to block clearcutting, alternate strip clearcutting, and two-cut shelterwood, and in an uncut control was compared. Stand regeneration success was evaluated 5 years after harvest. Clearcutting resulted in high mortality of advance regeneration. Thus, regeneration by block clearcutting was not successful, though both alternate...

  12. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  13. Pattern of defect associated with stem stubs on northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo

    1965-01-01

    Decay and discoloration are the principal defects that reduce quality of northern hardwoods in New England. We need to know how to minimize these defects in young growing stock, and how to recognize them in merchantable trees. To determine accurately the amount of internal defect in trees, we must know the quantitative relationships between external signs on stems and...

  14. Sawtooth forces in cutting tropical hardwoods native to South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. P. Loehnertz; I. V. Cooz

    As a result of design, operation, and maintenance, sawblades used in tropical sawmills can cause many problems. Improvements in these areas are needed to reduce the waste associated with sawing of tropical species that are regarded as difficult to cut. In this study, cutting experiments that simulated bandsawing of tropical hardwoods showed the effect of chip...

  15. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1981-01-01

    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  16. Oak woodlands and other hardwood forests of California, 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Waddell; T.M. Barrett

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a multiownership assessment of oak woodlands and other hardwood forests in California, excluding only reserved lands outside of national forests. Because sampling intensity on woodlands was doubled from the previous 1981-84 inventory, and because national forests were inventoried, this is the most complete assessment to date for California...

  17. Machine Vision Systems for Processing Hardwood Lumber and Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline

    1992-01-01

    Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...

  18. Current status of the U.S. hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. manufacturing sector has seen challenging years during the past decades. The major driver behind the decline of U.S. manufacturing prowess has been the ongoing globalization of trade, which has brought market share losses for U.S.-based manufacturing in many hardwood lumber consuming industries. The wood furniture, flooring, and millwork industries, for...

  19. Indicators of regenerative capacity for eastern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Steve Horsley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the eastern United States are characterized by a complex mix of species associations that make it difficult to construct useful indicators of long-term sustainability, in terms of future forest composition and stocking levels. The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study examines regeneration adequacy in the state. The study uses the Forest Service's...

  20. Hardwoods planted in old fields favored by prior tree cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean; F. Bryan Clark; Robert D. Williams

    1976-01-01

    Hardwoods were planted in a long-abandoned field. Growth was poor in a grassy area, better in areas formerly having natural trees or planted pine, and outstanding in an area formerly having planted black locust. Improved growth was associated with better soils structure and more foliar nitrogen.

  1. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith

    1976-01-01

    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  2. Forest management and nutrient cycling in eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Patric; David W. Smith

    1975-01-01

    The literature was reviewed for reports on nutrient cycling in the eastern deciduous forest, particularly with respect to nitrogen, and for effects of forest management on the nutrient cycle. Although most such research has dealt with conifers, a considerable body of literature relates to hardwoods. Usually, only those references that dealt quantitatively with nutrient...

  3. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  4. Bark thermal properties of selected central hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretel E. Hengst; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1993-01-01

    Some physical, thermal, and chemical properties of bark of eleven tree species native to the central hardwood region were measured to determine their potential to protect the vascular cambium from damage by fire. The relationship between dbh and bark thickness for each of sixteen species was determined. For purposes of monitoring seasonal trends, two species (Quercus...

  5. Seasonal influence on Ohio hardwood stumpage price trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Eric. McConnell

    2014-01-01

    The average annual percentage rates of change in real sawtimber stumpage prices from 1978 through 2012 (dollars per thousand board feet, Doyle) for the 10 commercial hardwood species of Ohio were determined. Each species was then further examined for differing trend lines between the spring and fall reporting periods. Annual real rates of change ranged from -1.10...

  6. Central hardwood forests: recent trends in a robust resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. W. Birch; D. A. Gansner; W. H. McWilliams

    1993-01-01

    Re-inventories completed for each of four Central Hardwood States (Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) show that forest area is increasing and stocking hit new highs; there is 27 percent more growing-stock volume than a decade ago. Large increases in volume have been recorded for all but the smallest diameter classes. Volume in trees 15 inches in diameter...

  7. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as ...

  8. Properties of flakeboards from hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. -Y. Hse

    1975-01-01

    Boards 0.5 inch thick were made from 3-inch-long flakes of 9 species of southern hardwoods commonly found on pine sites. The main effects of species were due to variation in wood density; low-density species compacted readily when pressed, and the resulting good flake contact improved bonding and gave boards of high strength. With species having specific gravities...

  9. An Old-Growth Definition for Western Hardwood Gallery Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Kindscher; Jenny Holah

    1998-01-01

    Western hardwood gallery forests are found across an extremely large, diverse geographical area that encompasses the Great Plains in the United States and Canada. Remnant forests of this type still exist in the "Prairie Peninsula," which historically projected an eastern finger into Ohio. The forests are restricted to floodplains of major rivers and are in...

  10. Hardwoods on pine sites: competition or antagonistic symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain

    1990-01-01

    Early development of natural loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) regeneration was monitored in two research studies and two research demonstrations between 1980 and I989 in southern Arkansas. Site preparation and hardwood control incorporated the use of herbicides, mechanical treatments, or...

  11. Integrating walnut and other hardwoods into agroforestry practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibu. Jose

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry systems have been proposed as alternative, environmentally benign systems for agricultural production in temperate North America. Walnut and other hardwoods have been successfully integrated in most agroforestry practices include alley cropping, silvopastural, windbreaks, and riparian buffers. Because of walnuts relatively thin crowns and nut production,...

  12. Predicting diameters inside bark for 10 important hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Hilt; Everette D. Rast; Herman J. Bailey

    1983-01-01

    General models for predicting DIB/DOB ratios up the stem, applicable over wide geographic areas, have been developed for 10 important hardwood species. Results indicate that the ratios either decrease or remain constant up the stem. Methods for adjusting the general models to local conditions are presented. The prediction models can be used in conjunction with optical...

  13. Response of northern hardwood forests to nutrient perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Eagar; Scott Bailey; Amey Bailey

    1999-01-01

    Substantial amounts of calcium have been depleted from the soils of northern hardwood forests in northern New Engtand over the past 50 years. Portions of this depleted calcium have been incorporated into the biomass of the aggrading forests; however, significant amounts have been leached into drainage waters and lost from the ecosystem.

  14. Western hardwoods : value-added research and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; W. W. Von Segen; S. A. Willits

    1995-01-01

    Research results from the value-added research and demonstration program for western hardwoods are summarized in this report. The intent of the program was to enhance the economy of the Pacific Northwest by helping local communities and forest industries produce wood products more efficiently. Emphasis was given to value-added products and barriers to increased...

  15. Economics of hardwood silviculture using skyline and conventional logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Baumgras; Gary W. Miller; Chris B. LeDoux

    1995-01-01

    Managing Appalachian hardwood forests to satisfy the growing and diverse demands on this resource will require alternatives to traditional silvicultural methods and harvesting systems. Determining the relative economic efficiency of these alternative methods and systems with respect to harvest cash flows is essential. The effects of silvicultural methods and roundwood...

  16. Species composition of regeneration after clearcutting Southern Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Loftis

    1989-01-01

    Regeneration after clearcutting of Southern Appalachian hardwood stands varies substantially in species composition not only among sites of different quality and previous-stand composition, but also among sites of similar quality and similar previous-stand composition. Severe competition from less desirable species for available growing space is cOllDlon in regenerated...

  17. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  18. A century of progress in weed control in hardwood seedbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Weeds have existed in nurseries since before the time Bartram grew hardwoods during the 18th century. Hand weeding was the primary method of weed control during the first part of the 20th century. From 1931 to 1970, advances in chemistry increased the use of herbicides, and advances in engineering increased the reliance on machines for cultivation. Many managers now...

  19. Education activities of the Eastern Carolina Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckenrode, M.; Hudson, O.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Eastern Carolinas Section (ECS) Education Committee has successfully tapped into all grade levels of eastern North Carolina's public schools. The keys to access are building a section organization geared toward education and maintaining a wide variety of products from which teachers can choose. The education committee conservatively estimates that in 1990 it relayed information on nuclear-related issues to over a thousand students

  20. 75 FR 55599 - Little River National Wildlife Refuge, McCurtain County, OK; Revised Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... climate change. These impacts are expected to stress and alter the bottomland hardwood forest ecosystem... hardwood forests. The Refuge is approximately 96 percent forested with small areas of open water, shrub... third- growth bottomland hardwood forests, with inclusions of loblolly pine components on high terraces...

  1. Changes in U.S. hardwood lumber exports, 1990 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    The volume of hardwood lumber exported from the United States grew by 63 percent between 1990 and 2006 before decreasing by 29 percent between 2006 and 2008. Canada is both the largest export market for U.S. hardwood lumber and the largest source country for hardwood lumber imported into the United States. In the last 19 years China/Hong Kong has displaced Japan as the...

  2. Seasonal diets of insectivorous birds using canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa, T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Mike D.

    2007-07-01

    ABSTRACT. Little is known about how insectivorous bird diets are influenced by arthropod availability and about how these relationships vary seasonally. We captured birds in forest-canopy gaps and adjacent mature forest during 2001 and 2002 at the Savannah River Site in Barnwell County, South Carolina, and flushed their crops to gather information about arthropods eaten during four periods: spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration. Arthropod availability for foliage- and ground-gleaning birds was examined by leaf clipping and pitfall trapping. Coleopterans and Hemipterans were used by foliage- and ground-gleaners more than expected during all periods, whereas arthropods in the orders Araneae and Hymenoptera were used as, or less than, expected based on availability during all periods. Ground-gleaning birds used Homopterans and Lepidopterans in proportions higher than availability during all periods. Arthropod use by birds was consistent from spring through all migration, with no apparent seasonal shift in diet. Based on concurrent studies, heavily used orders of arthropods were equally abundant or slightly less abundant in canopy gaps than in the surrounding mature forest, but bird species were most frequently detected in gaps. Such results suggest that preferential feeding on arthropods by foliage-gleaning birds in p p habitats reduced arthropod densities or, alternatively, that bird use of gap and forest habitat was not determined y food resources. The abundance of arthropods across the stand may have allowed birds to remain in the densely vegetated gaps where thick cover provides protection from predators.

  3. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  4. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2015 Phase 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  5. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  7. 2015 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  9. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  15. Changes in Carbon Flux at the Duke Forest Hardwood Ameriflux Site Due to Land Cover/Land Use Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area has been ranked by Forbes as the fastest growing cities in the United States. As a result of the rapid growth, there has been a significant amount of urban sprawl. The objective of this study was to determine if the changes in land use and land cover have caused a change in the carbon flux near the Duke Forest AmeriFlux station that was active from 2001 to 2008. The land cover and land use were assessed every two years to determine how land cover has changed at the Duke Forest Hardwoods (US-Dk2) AmeriFlux site from 2001 to 2008 using Landsat scenes. The change in land cover and land use was then compared to changes in the carbon footprint that is computed annually from 2001 to 2008. The footprint model for each wind direction determined that there are changes annually and that the research will determine if these changes are due to annual weather patterns or land use and land cover changes.

  16. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  17. The Effects of Character Education in South Carolina's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the use of Character Education in South Carolina's public high schools. Every high school in South Carolina is given a yearly survey from the South Carolina Department of Education that deals with both character education and violence in the school. This quantitative study used public accessed data,…

  18. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  19. Herbicide hardwood crop tree release in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Shepard M. Zedaker; James E. Johnson; David W. Smith; Gary W. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Chemical crop tree release treatments were applied to young hardwood stands at three sites in central West Virginia to evaluate the effectiveness of glyphosate as Accord (41.5% SL), imazapyr as Arsenal AC (53.1% SL) and Chopper (27.6% EC), and triclopyr as Garlon 3A (44.4% triethylamine salt SL), and Garlon 4 (61.6% butoxyethyl ester EC) using hack-and-squirt injection...

  20. PREFACE: Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignone, Frank; Creswick, Richard; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Purohit, Milind

    2009-07-01

    The Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics, 2008 (CISNP'08) was organized and held at the University of South Carolina by the Department of Physics in May 2008, to celebrate the 75th birthdays of Professors Frank Avignone (South Carolina) and Ettore Fiorini (Milan) and to commemorate the 75th birthday of the late Peter Rosen (DOE). Although much of the work done by these luminaries has been in non-accelerator areas such as double beta-decay, the meeting covered many topics in neutrino physics as well, including neutrino oscillations, supernova explosions, neutrino nucleosynthesis, axions, dark matter, dark energy, and cosmology. Talks included presentations of recent theoretical progress, experimental results, detector technology advances and a few reminiscences. This is the second such symposium held at Carolina, the first was held in 2000. We were fortunate to have attracted many top speakers who gave scintillating presentations, most of which have been put in writing and are presented in this volume. Many thanks go to various people involved in this conference, including of course Drs Avignone, Fiorini and Rosen whose efforts over the years provided us with the opportunity, and all the speakers, many of whom took time out of their very busy schedules to come to Columbia and give talks and then to write them up. Thanks also to our Department Chairman, Professor Chaden Djalali, and to our support staff which included Mr Robert Sproul, Ms Mary Papp, Ms Beth Powell and Mr R Simmons. Finally, we must thank our funding agencies which are the South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, The Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the University of South Carolina. The Editorial Team: Frank Avignone (USC) Richard Creswick (USC) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) Milind Purohit (USC, Chief Editor) CISNP Scientific Advisory Committee: Wick Haxton (Seattle) Barry Holstein (Amherst) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) CISNP Organizing Committee: Richard Creswick (USC) Chaden Djalali (USC

  1. Assessing changes in the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry with a focus on markets and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening...

  2. The hardwood chip market in 2004 : up in the North/Down in the South : so what's up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2005-01-01

    The hardwood chip market gained some stability in the first half of 2004 with a modest upturn in hardwood pulp production and as timber supply emerged from the dampening clouds of unusually wet weather that prevailed throughout the Eastern United States in 2003. Although U.S. pulp production and exports increased in 2004, the hardwood pulp market began to show signs of...

  3. Low-grade and character-marked hardwoods: A research review and synthesis of solid wood manufacturing and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matt Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    There is a substantial body of research from the past half-century addressing hardwood utilization and markets in North America. This synthesis is the first to our knowledge to consider two major (and related) aspects of this research concurrently: low-grade hardwood utilization and marketing of character-marked wood features. We first consider low-grade hardwood...

  4. Factors affecting the merchandising of hardwood logs in the southern tier of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Wagner; Bryan Smalley; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of the eastern United States, hardwood boles are sawn into logs and then separated by product before proceeding to future processing. This type of product merchandising is facilitated by large differences in the relative value of hardwood logs of different species and grades. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing the...

  5. International trade of U.S. hardwood lumber and logs, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    United States (U.S.) hardwood log and lumber exports surged in the early- and mid-1970s in response to the adoption of floating exchange rates. However, assessing these changes in international trade became difficult in the 1980s due to increased underreporting of hardwood lumber and log shipments between the U.S. and Canada. By 1990, these data problems were rectified...

  6. Hardwood rangeland landowners in California from 1985 to 2004: production, ecosystem services, and permanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn Huntsinger; Martin Johnson; Monica Stafford; Jeremy S. Fried

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study of California hardwood rangelands shows significant change in landowner characteristics and goals. Results of three studies spanning 1985 to 2004 were used to develop and evaluate a multiagency research and extension program known as the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program. Program-sponsored education and research aimed at encouraging...

  7. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  8. Developing a Multi Sensor Scanning System for Hardwood Inspection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    For the last few years the authors as part of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods have been attempting to develop a multiple sensor hardwood defect detection system. This development activity has been ongoing for approximately 6 years, a very long time in the commercial development world. This paper will report the progress that has been made and will...

  9. Rule-driven defect detection in CT images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with automated detection and identification of internal defects in hardwood logs using computed tomography (CT) images. We have developed a system that employs artificial neural networks to perform tentative classification of logs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This approach achieves a high level of classification accuracy for several hardwood species (...

  10. A review and validation of the IMPLAN model for Pennsylvania's solid hardwood product industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss

    1993-01-01

    The IMPLAN model for Pennsylvania was reviewed with respect to the industries processing the state's solid hardwood resources. Several sectors were found to be under represented in the standard sources of industrial activity. Further problems were attributed to the lack of distinction between hardwoods and softwoods in the national model. A further set of changes...

  11. U.S. hardwood fiber demand and supply situation : globalization and structural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Irene Durbak

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews demand and supply trends for hardwood fiber in the United States. The objective is to illustrate nationwide shifts in demand and supply and show how the hardwood pulpwood market reacts to those shifts at a regional level. Thus, the market situation is illustrated using an economic rationale, and trends are projected under assumptions about future...

  12. The Market for U.S. Hardwoods in the United Kingdom: Market Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the characteristics of the market and U.S. hardwood product preferences. Importers were mostly channel intermediaries that supplied end users and secondary manufacturers. Eighty percent of importers purchased North American lumber and the majority of importers dealt with both temperate and...

  13. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  14. Biotechnological efforts for preserving and enhancing temperate hardwood tree biodiversity, health, and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Shaneka S. Lawson; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    Hardwood tree species in forest, plantation, and urban environments (temperate regions of the world) are important biological resources that play a significant role in the economy and the ecology of terrestrial ecosystems, and they have aesthetic and spiritual value. Because of these many values of hardwood tree species, preserving forest tree biodiversity through the...

  15. Possible Demands for Eastern Hardwoods Resulting from Harvest Restrictions in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to conserve the habitat of the northern spotted owl in the Pacific Northwest have placed softwood timber supplies under a great deal of pressure and driven up the price of softwood lumber. Hardwoods could meet some of the demand for products that have previously been manufactured from softwood species. Hardwood structural lumber may soon become an economically...

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs:CT scanning, machine vision and data utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Luis G. Occena; A. Lynn Abbott; Nand K. Gupta

    1999-01-01

    Sawing of hardwood logs still relies on relatively simple technologies that, in spite of their lack of sophistication, have been successful for many years due to wood?s traditional low cost and ready availability. These characteristics of the hardwood resource have changed dramatically over the past 20 years, however, forcing wood processors to become more efficient in...

  17. Morphology of pulp fiber from hardwoods and influence on paper strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Horn

    1978-01-01

    The results of this investigation showed that physical properties of sheets made from hardwood fiber are very dependent upon fiber morphology. Chemical variation of pulp fibers did not exhibit an influence on sheet strength. Of the morphological characteristics investigated, those contributing the most were fiber length, L/T ratio, and fibril angle. Hardwood fines (...

  18. Changes in the international trade balance of U.S. hardwood products from 1990 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    We examine U.S. exports and imports of hardwood products from 1990 to 2013. These products include logs, lumber, veneer, chips, molding, cooperage, plywood, and flooring. The values of hardwood products exported and imported have fluctuated over the years but have generally inceased. More substantial changs have occurred with the countries and regions receiving U.S....

  19. Procedures used to estimate hardwood lumber consumption from 1963 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Matthew Bumgardner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an explanation for and procedures used to estimate hardwood lumber consumption by secondary hardwood processing industries from 1963 to 2002. This includes: classification of industry and industry groups, development of proxy prices used to estimate lumber consumption, assumptions used to convert dimension purchases to lumber consumption, estimation...

  20. Mortality trends and traits of hardwood advance regeneration following seasonal prescribed fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Brose; David Van Lear

    2003-01-01

    Fire ecology studies in eastern hardwood forests generally use traditional, plot-based inventory methods and focus on sprouting stems to detect changes in vegetative composition and structure. Fire intensity often is not quantified or even subjectively classified and, if quantified, is not used in subsequent analysis. Consequently, reported responses of hardwood...

  1. Assessing the impacts of global competition on the Appalachian hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers, Inc. was surveyed in 2005 to determine the perceived impacts of globalization on large Appalachian sawmills. While much has been written regarding the impacts of globalization on secondary manufacturing, less is known about primary links in the hardwood supply chain. The results suggested that globalization...

  2. Intermediaries in the U.S. hardwood lumber market: comparing and contrasting sawmills and distributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Robert. Smith

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand changes in the hardwood lumber supply chain from the perspective of lumber producers and distributors and to assess the degree of judgmental convergence between suppliers and buyers of hardwood lumber. Results from two nationwide surveys conducted in 2008 and 2009 were used for the analysis. Findings confirmed a...

  3. Automatic Color Sorting System for Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1996-01-01

    The color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is becoming more important in the manufacture of hardwood products. Consumers, while admiring the natural appearance of hardwoods, do not like excessive color variation across product surfaces. Color uniformity is particularly important today because of the popularity of lightly stained products. Unfortunately, color sorting...

  4. Consumer ring count and grain texture preferences of selected eastern United States hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman; Matthew Bumgardner; Scott Bowe; David Brinberg

    2008-01-01

    Historically, eastern hardwoods have been a staple of forest products production. However, hardwood producers are now faced with serious challenges from substitutable products, such as imports of foreign species, utilization of foreign species in overseas manufacture (e.g., case goods, etc.), and composite-based materials that are imported or manufactured here in the...

  5. Height of Tallest Saplings in 10-year-old Appalachian Hardwood Clearcuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1977-01-01

    Stem characteristics, mainly height, of the tallest hardwood saplings in 10-year-old circular clearcut openings were evaluated for several Appalachian hardwoods in West Virginia. Heights of the tallest saplings were not influenced by cardinal directions on two oak sites. Saplings were taller near the center of 150-, 2OO-, and 250-foot openings than saplings in the...

  6. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  7. A segmental analysis of current and future scanning and optimizing technology in the hardwood sawmill industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.A. Bowe; R.L. Smith; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    A nationwide survey of advanced scanning and optimizing technology in the hardwood sawmill industry was conducted in the fall of 1999. Three specific hardwood sawmill technologies were examined that included current edger-optimizer systems, future edger-optimizer systems, and future automated grading systems. The objectives of the research were to determine differences...

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. North Carolina speed management recommendations for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nearly 5,000 people lost their lives in speeding-related crashes in North Carolina over the past : 10 years. Nearly twice as many individuals suffered disabling injuries. Among those killed were : 131 children younger than age 14, 85 teens aged 14 to...

  12. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  13. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  14. Connecting with Rice: Carolina Lowcountry and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Collins, Larianne; Wise, Susan S.; Caughman, Monti

    2012-01-01

    Though lasting less than 200 years, large-scale rice production in South Carolina and Georgia "probably represented the most significant utilization of the tidewater zone for crop agriculture ever attained in the United States." Rice is a specialty crop where successful cultivation relied heavily upon "adaptation" to nature via…

  15. South Carolina Superintendents' Change Style Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Annette Ghent; Cox, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the change style preferences of superintendents, and how they differ from school principals and from business leaders and whether a superintendent's change-style preference affects student achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the change-style preferences of South Carolina superintendents, compare them with…

  16. Demographics and density estimates of two three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis populations within forest and restored prairie sites in central Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. O’Connor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Box turtles (Terrapene carolina are widely distributed but vulnerable to population decline across their range. Using distance sampling, morphometric data, and an index of carapace damage, we surveyed three-toed box turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis at 2 sites in central Missouri, and compared differences in detection probabilities when transects were walked by one or two observers. Our estimated turtle densities within forested cover was less at the Thomas S. Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Center, a site dominated by eastern hardwood forest (d = 1.85 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.13, 3.03] than at the Prairie Fork Conservation Area, a site containing a mix of open field and hardwood forest (d = 4.14 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.99, 8.62]. Turtles at Baskett were significantly older and larger than turtles at Prairie Fork. Damage to the carapace did not differ significantly between the 2 populations despite the more prevalent habitat management including mowing and prescribed fire at Prairie Fork. We achieved improved estimates of density using two rather than one observer at Prairie Fork, but negligible differences in density estimates between the two methods at Baskett. Error associated with probability of detection decreased at both sites with the addition of a second observer. We provide demographic data on three-toed box turtles that suggest the use of a range of habitat conditions by three-toed box turtles. This case study suggests that habitat management practices and their impacts on habitat composition may be a cause of the differences observed in our focal populations of turtles.

  17. Demographics and density estimates of two three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis) populations within forest and restored prairie sites in central Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kelly M; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G

    2015-01-01

    Box turtles (Terrapene carolina) are widely distributed but vulnerable to population decline across their range. Using distance sampling, morphometric data, and an index of carapace damage, we surveyed three-toed box turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis) at 2 sites in central Missouri, and compared differences in detection probabilities when transects were walked by one or two observers. Our estimated turtle densities within forested cover was less at the Thomas S. Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Center, a site dominated by eastern hardwood forest (d = 1.85 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.13, 3.03]) than at the Prairie Fork Conservation Area, a site containing a mix of open field and hardwood forest (d = 4.14 turtles/ha, 95% CI [1.99, 8.62]). Turtles at Baskett were significantly older and larger than turtles at Prairie Fork. Damage to the carapace did not differ significantly between the 2 populations despite the more prevalent habitat management including mowing and prescribed fire at Prairie Fork. We achieved improved estimates of density using two rather than one observer at Prairie Fork, but negligible differences in density estimates between the two methods at Baskett. Error associated with probability of detection decreased at both sites with the addition of a second observer. We provide demographic data on three-toed box turtles that suggest the use of a range of habitat conditions by three-toed box turtles. This case study suggests that habitat management practices and their impacts on habitat composition may be a cause of the differences observed in our focal populations of turtles.

  18. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  19. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  20. Wood Energy Potential in Northwestern South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McMinn

    1986-01-01

    The quantity of unused wood in an Ill-county area in northwestern South Carolina was projected to be more than 16 million tons annually. Wood that is unsuitable for products other than fuel amounts to nearly 9 million tons annually.The most likely energy demand by industrial plants that are good candidates for wood fuel systems is 1.5 million tons annually.Maximum...

  1. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  2. Manager's handbook for northern hardwoods in the north-central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of northern hardwoods. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  3. Comparison of two cut-to-length harvesting systems operating in eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Niel K. Huyler

    2001-01-01

    We compared production rates, operating costs, and break-even points (BEP) for small and large cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting systems operating at several machine utilization rates (MUR) in mixed hardwood and softwood stands in Vermont.

  4. Effects of periodic fire on composition and long-term dynamics of Arkansas upland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich

    2005-01-01

    Prescribed fire (at historic periodic fire frequencies) is seen as an important but little understood tool in the assortment of management techniques that could help restore oak to Arkansas upland hardwood forests and facilitate the maintenance of these keystone species.

  5. Photo guide for estimating risk to hardwood trees during prescribed burning operations in eastern oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2009-01-01

    A field guide of 40 photographs of common hardwood trees of eastern oak forests and fuel loadings surrounding their bases. The guide contains instructions on how to rapidly assess a tree's likelihood to be damaged or killed by prescribed burning.

  6. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. S. Wang; X. J. Pan; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; D. Rockwood

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust bioconversion of hardwoods. With only about 4% sodium bisulfite charge on aspen and 30-min pretreatment at temperature 180[...

  7. Seed Handling Highlights Storage of Acorns and Other Large Hardwood Seeds - Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1971-01-01

    Extended storage of heavy, high-moisture seeds is a problem the world over. Conifers and most hardwoods bear small seeds that can be stored for considerable periods at low moisture contents and low temperatures. But some of the big hardwood seeds can at best be kept overwinter; they are damaged or killed if dried to the levels commonly utilized for long-term storage....

  8. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, Robert J. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Reutebuch, Stephen E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  9. Development of an upland hardwood demonstration forest on the Mary Olive Thomas Demonstration Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth D. Hunt; John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2016-01-01

    Landowners have experienced a dizzying array of timber prices over the past several years. At one time, hardwood pulpwood brought very little per ton and today it brings as much or more than pine pulpwood. In some markets in the Southeast today, oak sawtimber is bringing more than pine poles. Many landowners, who previously said they wanted their hardwood stands left...

  10. Soil properties and growth of swamp white oak and pin oak on bedded soils in the lower Missouri River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J. W. Van Sambeek; Michael Wallendorf; Michael A. Gold

    2005-01-01

    Restoring bottomland hardwood ecosystems is of great interest along the lower Missouri River and within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. However, bottomland hardwood plantings commonly have a high failure rate. Among reasons cited for failures are frequent flooding and poorly drained site conditions. Soil bedding is a commonly used site preparation method shown to...

  11. Terrapene carolina triunguis (three-toed box turtle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory K. Adams; Jennifer H. Adams

    2013-01-01

    Terrapene carolina triunguis is the western-most subspecies of T. carolina and has a range that stretches from southeast Kansas and central Missouri south to the Gulf Coast (Conant and Collins 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts....

  12. A Comprehensive Assessment of South Carolina's External Review Team Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Paula Szulc; Nicholls, Craig; Storandt, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    To shed light on how states can use school performance data to support failing schools, the present study examined a subset of underperforming schools in South Carolina in the wake of a series of state-supported interventions. The study, part of a comprehensive evaluation of the South Carolina External Review Team Program, made extensive use of…

  13. Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Jacob Vigdor of Duke University reviews a teacher salary bonus program operating in North Carolina. Known officially as the ABC's of Public Education, the program awards teachers…

  14. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  15. Temporal and spatial variability in North Carolina piedmont stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Boggs; G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; W. Swartley; Treasure E.; W. Summer

    2009-01-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of in-stream temperature can provide useful information to managing future impacts of climate change on these systems. This study will compare temporal patterns and spatial variability of headwater in-stream temperature in six catchments in the piedmont of North Carolina in two different geological regions, Carolina slate...

  16. 76 FR 61728 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... North Carolina resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on August 25, 2011, and continuing, is of... section 310(a), Priority to Certain Applications for Public Facility and Public Housing Assistance, 42 U.S... North Carolina have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Beaufort, Carteret...

  17. Modeling Mitigation Activities in North Carolina Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment and excessive sediment loadings have contributed to the degradation of rivers, lakes and estuaries in North Carolina. The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ) has implemented several basin-wide nutrient and sediment management strategies, yet gaps remain in understanding the impact of these strategies given the complexities in quantifying the processes that govern the transport of nutrient and sediment. In particular, improved assessment of the status of nutrient and sediment loadings to lakes and estuaries throughout the state is needed, including characterizing their sources and describing the relative contributions of different areas. The NCDEQ Division of Mitigation Services (DMS) uses watershed planning to identify and prioritize the best locations to implement stream, wetland, and riparian-buffer restoration to improve water quality. To support better decision-making for watershed restoration activities we are developing a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model framework specifically for North Carolina. The SPARROW analysis (developed by the U.S. Geological Survey) relates water-quality monitoring data to better understand the effects of human activities and natural processes on surface-water quality. The core of the model consists of using a nonlinear-regression equation to describe the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and nonpoint sources on land to rivers, lakes and estuaries through the stream and river network. In this presentation, preliminary total Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) NC-SPARROW models are described that illustrate the SPARROW modeling framework incorporating specific restoration datasets and activity metrics, such as extent of riparian buffer and easements.

  18. Calorific values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M.; Steinbeck, K.

    Calorific content, specific gravity and ash content of 10 to 15 year old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in mid-summer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in calorific content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65% for wood to 5.88% for bark.

  19. Caloric values for young sprouts of nine hardwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, M. (An Foras Taluntais, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland); Steinbeck, K.

    1979-09-01

    Caloric content, specific gravity, and ash content of 6- to 15-year-old sprouts of nine hardwood species were determined in midsummer. Energy values for wood, bark, first order branches, twigs, and leaves were determined with an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The values found for coppice material averaged 4791 cal/g and were comparable to published values for older wood. Intraspecific differences among tissues were greater than the relatively small but significant differences among species. Differences in yield potential are therefore likely to outweigh variations in caloric content among species where total energy production per unit of land area is concerned. Ash content varied from 0.65 percent for wood to 5.88 percent for bark.

  20. Dielectric properties of hardwood species at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, H.; Ay, N.

    2004-01-01

    Dielectric measurements at 9.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz were made for the three hardwoods Euramerican hybrid poplar, alder, and oriental beech. The method used was based on Von Hippel's transmission line method. The measurements were carried out at room temperature of 20 deg - 24 deg C. The dielectric properties of the wood species were determined for the three principal structural directions at six different moisture conditions, covering the range of 0% to 28% moisture content. Results indicated that the behavior of all wood species studied is quantitatively similar. In general, the dielectric properties increase within the range studied with rising moisture content. The grain direction of the wood also plays a significant role

  1. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  2. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  3. Management of early-successional communities in central hardwood forests: with special emphasis on the ecology and management of oaks, ruffed grouse, and forest songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. III Thompson; Daniel R. Dessecker

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, ecology, and silviculture of central hardwood forests and the status and ecology of early-successional forest songbirds and ruffed grouse. Concludes with management guidelines for early-successional communities in central hardwood forests.

  4. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel...

  5. Leadership Characteristics and Practices in South Carolina Charter Schools. REL 2017-188

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudo, Zena H.; Partridge, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Charter school stakeholders in South Carolina, including officials at the South Carolina Department of Education, personnel at the Public Charter School Alliance of South Carolina, and leaders of South Carolina charter schools, expressed interest in understanding the leadership characteristics and practices of charter school leaders across the…

  6. Nine-year performance of four hardwoods on a harvested site with and without fertilizer tree shelters, and weed mats in southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2013-01-01

    Quality hardwood species often dominate stands on intermediate to high quality sites before regeneration. However, successfully regenerating these species after the harvest is rarely achieved on these sites. Hardwood species were planted on a high quality site in southern Illinois after clearcutting to study the effect of several cultural practices on the hardwoods...

  7. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  9. Thermoregulatory performance and habitat selection of the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlin, Adam F; do Amaral, José Pedro S; Dougherty, John Kelly; Stevens, M Henry H

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions may affect individual physiological processes that influence short-term performance and ultimately growth, survival and reproduction. As such, habitats selected by animals must provide suitable and adequate resources. Ectothermic species are highly dependent on climatic conditions and ambient temperatures that dictate body temperature regulation and in turn physiological processes. We investigated the thermoregulatory performance, habitat selection, and movements of an ectothermic vertebrate, the Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) to assess the importance of thermoregulatory physiology in habitat selection. We evaluated the relationship between habitat selection and thermoregulatory performance in Southwest Ohio over two active seasons from May until October. We found that T. carolina selected shaded habitats, including evergreen and deciduous forests, as well as herbaceous grasslands, conformed to the ambient temperatures throughout the active season, although these habitats had temperatures below those expected based on thermal optima of box turtles. Further, we found that movement was not correlated with internal body temperature. Our study shows that thermal conditions are not paramount in habitat selection of box turtles, but that cooler temperatures do not have an effect on the extent of their locomotion. PMID:29255608

  10. Growth after thinning a 35-year-old natural stand to different loblolly pine and hardwood basal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Paul A. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Growth was monitored for 4 years in a thinned stand in southern Arkansas with three pine basal areas (70, 85, and 100 ft2/ac) and three hardwood basal areas (0, 15, and 30 ft2/ac); pretreatment basal areasaveraged 119 and 33 ft2/ac for pines and hardwoods, respectively.Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial...

  11. The market for U. S. hardwoods in the United Kingdom: market needs and satisfaction with U. S. Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the product and supplier attributes that most influenced their purchase decisions. Importers of North American hardwoods were least satisfied with Lumber Straightness. Straightness, Absence of Stain and the Absence of Surface Checks were the most important lumber attributes. On Time Shipment...

  12. Injection of 2,4-D to remove hardwood midstory within red-cockaded woodpecker colony areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner

    1989-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies on the Angelina National Forest were monitored from 1984 to 1986, after hardwoods on the site had been injected with the herbicide 2,4-D. The herbicide effectively reduced the hardwood midstory; however, possible toxicity to woodpeckers and cavity tree mortality are problems associated with the...

  13. Decline in the U.S. furniture industry: a case study of the impacts to the hardwood lumber supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; William Luppold; Ed Cesa

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the wood household furniture industry has accounted for a sizeable portion of total hardwood lumber use in the United States. However, for more than a decade, imports have gained an increasing share of the hardwood furniture market, and lumber consumption by this industry has declined dramatically in the last 5 years. We used a case study methodology to...

  14. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and hardwood regeneration after thinning natural shortleaf pine forests in southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anup KC; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2016-01-01

    Understory pine and hardwood regeneration in the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests were measured in 1995 for the first time following thinning and hardwood control at plot establishment 1985-87. Red maple (Acer rubrum), shortleaf pine and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) were the most frequently recorded species. Understory shortleaf pine stems have declined...

  15. Composting of organically amended/treated hardwood and softwood sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takyi-Lartey, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Sawdust is a major waste produced by the wood industry. Adding value to sawdust through composting is one of the surest means by which environmental pollution could be minimized. About 500 kg of softwood and hardwood sawdust were separately mixed with mucuna leaves and kitchen waste in the ratio of 3:1:1 on weight basis and heaped using effluent from abattoir to develop composts. Objectives of the study were to monitor changes in the physico-chemical properties, NH4 + ‒ N, NO3 ‒ ‒ N, C:N ratio, minerals N, K, P, microbial load and toxic elements in the composts during a 12 week period. Germination test was also done to evaluate the stability and maturity of the composts developed. Degradation of softwood sawdust compost (SSC) was better in the mesophilic phase while that of hardwood sawdust compost (HSC) occurred in the thermophilic phase. Thus, significantly higher amount of the organic material in SSC was decomposed during the period as compared to HSC. Also, greater percentage of the nitrogen in the initial material of SSC was converted into plant-available inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + and NO3 ‒ ) than was achieved in HSC. Hence, most of the mineral nitrogen in HSC that was converted was lost, probably in the thermophilic phase. On the contrary, the amount of organic nitrogen contained in the finished composts of both SSC and HSC were adequately good for application to the soil. Additionally, concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms in SSC and HSC products were within acceptable limits in terms of toxicity on growing plants. The softwood sawdust compost was relatively more stable as compared to HSC under the experimental conditions. Concentrations of heavy metals in both SSC and HSC were also within acceptable limits that would cause no toxicity to plants. Also, moisture contents in both SSC and HSC were within the good range (40 - 60%) required for a good compost. Thus both SSC and HSC produced were of good quality. Further research targeting specific

  16. Cardiovascular Health of North Carolina Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiao L; Ward, Rachel; Bolin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern North Carolina (ENC). In this study, we investigated cardiometabolic risk in young adults of ENC by sampling entrant undergraduates at East Carolina University (ECU). From June to October of 2010, 525 undergraduates were screened for elevated body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, inactivity, smoking, history of diabetes or hypertension, and family history of coronary disease. Participants were classified as high-risk if they had 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors or as "MetS" if they satisfied the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Forty-four percent of those screened had 2 or more risk factors, 12.5% had 3 or more risk factors, and 1.3% met criteria for MetS. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (27.6%), overweight status (27.2%), and inactivity (27.1%) were leading risks. Females had an increased risk of inactivity compared to males (relative risk [RR] = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.3-2.52). Blacks had a 4-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (RR = 4.21; 95% Cl, 1.0-18.4), and black females had a high risk for obesity (RR = 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-13) and systolic blood pressure elevation (RR = 4.8; 95% Cl, 1.5-15). Students recognized cardiovascular disease as a valid risk to their well-being. ECU undergraduates have a high prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors. High-risk and MetS students recognize cardiovascular disease as a significant health risk, but they mistakenly maintain the self-perception that they are healthy. Efforts to understand risk perception and personal strategies of risk application are needed for this population of young adults.

  17. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  18. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  19. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  20. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  1. North Carolina DOT peer exchange on performance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Transportation Asset Management Plans (TAMP), held on February 5 and 6, 2014, in Columbia, South Carolina. This event was sponsored by the Transportation...

  2. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  3. North Carolina School Performance Data 2016-2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — 2016-17 State, District, and School Level Drilldown Performance DataPercentages greater than 95 are displayed as >95 and percentages less than 5 are displayed as...

  4. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M. [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Menzel, Michael A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Ford, W. Mark [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Edwards, John W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sheffield, Steven R. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Bunch, Mary S. [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  5. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  6. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  8. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  10. Pathology of aural abscesses in free-living Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Richards, Jean M; Robertson, John; Holladay, Steven; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2004-10-01

    Aural abscess or abscess of the middle ear is common in free-living Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) of Virginia (USA) and elsewhere. Although its etiology remains unknown, hypovitaminosis A has been suggested on the basis of similar lesions occurring in captive chelonians fed diets that are deficient in vitamin A. This hypothesis was supported by significantly greater body burdens of organochlorine compounds (reported disruptors of vitamin A metabolism) and a nonsignificant trend toward lower serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in free-living box turtles with this lesion. The tympanic epithelium was evaluated in 27 box turtles (10 with aural abscesses and 17 without). Lesions of the tympanic epithelium of box turtles with aural abscesses included hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, hyperemia, cellular sloughing, granulomatous inflammation, and bacterial infection. These changes were more severe in turtles with aural abscesses than in those without and were more severe in tympanic cavities that had an abscess compared to those without when the lesion was unilateral. Organs from 21 box turtles (10 with aural abscesses and 11 without) from the study population were examined for microscopic lesions, and minimal histopathologic changes were found, none of which were similar to those found in the tympanic epithelium. Histopathologic changes in box turtles with aural abscesses were consistent with a syndrome that may involve hypovitaminosis A.

  11. Microclimates and energetics of free-living box turtles, Terrapene carolina, in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penick, David N; Congdon, Justin; Spotila, James R; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    We measured microclimate, field metabolic rates (FMRs), water flux, and activity patterns of telemetered box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in South Carolina from September 1987 to October 1988. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and were active only sporadically during the rest of the year. Using the doubly labeled water method, we found that water flux averaged 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 mL kg(-1) d(-1) in winter, spring, and summer/fall, respectively. FMR for the same periods averaged 0.028, 0.065, and 0.124 mL CO(2) g(-1) h(-1). Differences in FMR among seasons were significant but not between sexes. Using operative temperatures, we predicted standard and maximum metabolic rates of turtles. In winter, FMR was elevated above standard metabolic rates and close to maximum metabolic rates, whereas in spring and summer/fall, FMR fell midway between standard and maximum metabolic rates. We used a model to predict metabolic rates, geographical distribution, and potential reproductive output of box turtles across latitudes in eastern North America. Low FMR and low annual reproductive output may allow box turtles to survive and flourish in unpredictable resource environments by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive success.

  12. 76 FR 72844 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: South Carolina; Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under... Available Control Technology for the Portion of York County, South Carolina,'' ``Negative Declaration for...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans: South Carolina; Negative Declarations for...

  13. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  15. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  16. Fire, Drought, and Forest Management Influences on Pine/Hardwood Ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Vose; B.D. Clinton; W.T. Swank

    1993-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of pitch pine/hardwood ecosystems in the southern Appalachians depends on intense wildfire. These ecosystems typically have a substantial evergreen shrub component (Kalmia latifolia) which limits regeneration of future overstory species. Wildfires provide microsite conditions conducive to pine regeneration and reduce...

  17. Surface fire effects on conifer and hardwood crowns--applications of an integral plume model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Dickinson; Anthony Bova; Kathleen Kavanagh; Antoine Randolph; Lawrence Band

    2009-01-01

    An integral plume model was applied to the problems of tree death from canopy injury in dormant-season hardwoods and branch embolism in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) crowns. Our purpose was to generate testable hypotheses. We used the integral plume models to relate crown injury to bole injury and to explore the effects of variation in fire...

  18. Time domain ultrasonic signal characterization for defects in thin unsurfaced hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer

    2002-01-01

    One of the major users of thin, unsurfaced hardwood lumber is the pallet manufacturing industry. Almost all manufactured products spend part of their life cycle on a pallet during transportation. This makes pallets a critical component of both the transportation and manufacturing sectors of the economy. Many newly constructed wooden pallets, however, are not currently...

  19. Oak mast production and animal impacts on acorn survival in the central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Kellner; Jeffery K. Riegel; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment we measured mast production in white (Quercus alba) and black (Q. velutina) oak, and quantified the impacts of seed predators on acorn survival over a 3-year period. Specifically, we measured the proportion of acorns of each species infested with weevils (Curculio spp...

  20. Leaf fall, humus depth, and soil frost in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hart; Raymond E. Leonard; Robert S. Pierce

    1962-01-01

    In the mound-and-depression microtopography of the northern hardwood forest, leaves are blown off the mounds and collect in the depressions. This influence of microtopography on leaf accumulation is responsible for much of the variation in humus depth; and this, in turn, affects the formation and depth of soil frost.

  1. The role of young, recently disturbed upland hardwood forest as high quality food patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Douglas J. Levey; John M. McCord

    2011-01-01

    Young (1-10 year post-disturbance) upland hardwood forests function as high-quality food patches by providing abundant fruit, and nutritious foliage and flowers that attract pollinating and foliar arthropods and support high populations of small mammals that, in turn, are prey for numerous vertebrate predators. Reductions in basal area increase light penetration to the...

  2. A framework for assessing climate change vulnerability and identifying adaptation responses in the central hardwoods region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia R. Butler; Leslie A. Brandt; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; Patricia D. Shannon; Chris W. Swanston

    2014-01-01

    The Central Hardwood region contains a mosaic of forests, woodlands, savannas, and other ecosystems that will increasingly be affected by a changing climate over the next century. Understanding potential impacts is important to sustaining healthy forests under changing conditions. The objectives of the Climate Change Response Framework (forestadaptation.org) are to...

  3. The internal bond and shear strength of hardwood veneered particleboard composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Chow; J.J. Janowiak; E.W. Price

    1986-01-01

    The effects of several accelerated aging tests and weather exposures on hardwood reconstituted structural composite panels were evaluated. The results indicated that the internal bond and shear by tension loading strength reductions of the panels were affected by the exposure test method. The ranking of the effects of various exposure tests on strength values in an...

  4. Soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning in mixed-conifer and hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Concilio; Siyan Ma; Qinglin Li; James LeMoine; Jiquan Chen; Malcolm North; Daryl Moorhead; Randy Jensen

    2005-01-01

    The effects of management on soil carbon efflux in different ecosystems are still largely unknown yet crucial to both our understanding and management of global carbon flux. To compare the effects of common forest management practices on soil carbon cycling, we measured soil respiration rate (SRR) in a mixed-conifer and hardwood forest that had undergone various...

  5. Radial growth of hardwoods following the 1998 ice storm in New Hampshire and Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2003-01-01

    Ice storms and resulting injury to tree crowns occur frequently in North America. Reaction of land managers to injury caused by the regional ice storm of January 1998 had the potential to accelerate the harvesting of northern hardwoods due to concern about the future loss of wood production by injured trees. To assess the effect of this storm on radial stem growth,...

  6. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four regeneration practices--34 year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1987-01-01

    Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...

  7. A system for optimal edging and trimming of rough hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of improving lumber processing early in manufacturing, scanning of unplaned, green hardwood lumber has received relatively little attention in the research community. This has been due in part to the difficulty of clearly imaging fresh-cut boards whose fibrous surfaces mask many wood features. This paper describes a prototype system that scans...

  8. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  9. Evaluation of a multi-sensor machine vision system for automated hardwood lumber grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading technologies. The...

  10. Predicting volumes and numbers of logs by grade from hardwood cruise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Robert L. Brisbin; Mary J. Humphreys; Mary J. Humphreys

    1988-01-01

    The equations presented allow the estimation of quality and quantity of logs produced from a hardwood stand based on cruise data. When packaged in appropriate computer software, the information will provide the mill manager with the means to estimate the value of logs that would be added to a mill yard inventory from a timber sale.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of environmental variables affecting diameter growth of individual hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; F. Thomas Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    The value of environmental variables as measures of site quality for individual tree growth models was determined for 12 common species of eastern hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Periodic diameter increment was modeled as a function of size, competition and environmental variables for 1,381 trees in even-aged stands of mixed-species. Resulting species...

  12. Impact of construction and remodeling markets on the U.S. secondary hardwood products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    The housing correction that started in 2007 continues to run its course. Excessive inventory levels, limited credit availability, and record foreclosure rates continue to have an impact on U.S. housing markets. With inventories high and demand for new construction low, the U.S. hardwood industry's largest markets for appearance-grade products remain under pressure...

  13. Changes in the relationship between annual tree growth and climatic variables for four hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.R. Smith; J.C. Rennie

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize temporal and spatial variability in the growth response of four major hardwood species (white oak, chestnut oak, northern red oak, and yellow-poplar) to climatic fluctuations, and to evaluate the role of environmental factors associated with difference in response among individuals. The study incorporated tree-ring data collected...

  14. Science in the hardwood ecosystem experiment: accomplishments and the road ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Saunders; Robert K. Swihart

    2013-01-01

    Over the next century, the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) in Indiana will provide numerous opportunities for collaborative research on how forest management affects the ecological, economic, and social resources of southern Indiana. Here, we highlight the pre-treatment research conducted at the HEE sites from 2006 through 2008 and discuss the role that pre-...

  15. Long-term effects of single prescribed fires on hardwood regeneration in oak shelterwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2010-01-01

    One of the arguments against using prescribed fire to regenerate oak (Quercus spp.) forests is that the improvement in species composition of the hardwood regeneration pool is temporary and multiple burns are necessary to achieve and maintain oak dominance. To explore this concern, I re-inventoried a prescribed fire study conducted in the mid-1990s...

  16. Examining the Use of Internal Defect Information for Information-Augmented Hardwood Log Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Occeña; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Suraphan Thawornwong

    1997-01-01

    In present-day hardwood sawmills, log breakdown is hampered by incomplete information about log geometry and internal features. When internal log scanning becomes operational, it will remove this roadblock and provide a complete view of each logâs interior. It is not currently obvious, however, how dramatically this increased level of information will improve log...

  17. Survey studies how to reach primary hardwood producers with new information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Araman; Robert Smith; Matthew Winn

    2009-01-01

    It is important for the timber industry to obtain new knowledge in order to stay competitive, increase productivity, or to produce new products from a sometime changing resource. We sought to understand how new knowledge— innovative techniques, improved technology, and marketing information—reach our primary forest industries in the United States. We surveyed hardwood...

  18. Development of growth and yield models for southern hardwoods: site index determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Paul McTague; Daniel J. Robison; David O' Loughlin; Joseph Roise; Robert Kellison

    2006-01-01

    Growth and yield data from across 13 southern States, collected from 1967 to 2004 from fully-stocked even-aged southern hardwood forests on a variety of site types, was used to calculate site index curves. These derived curves provide an efficient means to evaluate the productivity-age relation which varies across many sites. These curves were derived for mixed-species...

  19. Impact of product mix and markets on the economic feasibility of hardwood thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1989-01-01

    Results demonstrate how the economic feasibility of commercial hardwood thinning is impacted by tree diameter, product mix, and primary product markets. These results indicate that multiproduct harvesting can increase revenues by $0.01/ft³ to $0.32/ft³; and that small shifts in price levels or haul distance can postpone commercial thinning...

  20. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  1. Development of second-growth northern hardwoods on Bartlett Experimental Forest - a 25-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1961-01-01

    Second-growth timber occupies more than one-third of the commercial northern hardwood forest land in New England. The origin of these stands - clearcutting, or land abandonment with or without fire - determined their present characteristics; they are essentially even-aged, with a high proportion of intolerant and intermediate species and many stems of sprout origin (...

  2. Regeneration after cutting of old-growth northern hardwoods in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1958-01-01

    Past experience with cuttings in old-growth northern hardwoods has demonstrated that the primary regeneration problem is to obtain a large proportion of desirable species of good quality. Regardless of method or intensity of cutting, the total amount of reproduction usually is adequate. Second-growth stands are a different story: this report pertains only to old-growth...

  3. RAYSAW: a log sawing simulator for 3D laser-scanned hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning of hardwood logs provides detailed high-resolution imagery of log surfaces. Characteristics such as sweep, taper, and crook, as well as most surface defects, are visible to the eye in the scan data. In addition, models have been developed that predict interior knot size and position based on external defect information. Computerized processing of...

  4. The international hardwood lumber market and potential impacts on your bottom line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Luppold; Matthew. Bumgardner

    2014-01-01

    Even if you don't sell logs or lumber to foreign customers, the international hardwood market can impact your business in significant ways, and smart business leaders are taking notice so that they are ready for shifting market impacts. Many people believe that lumber exporting is only an opportunity for larger sawmills. However, even if you have a portable mill...

  5. Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing hardwood lumber in Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the building industry have become of increasing importance. Materials and energy consumed during manufacture of building materials such as lumber affect a building’s environmental performance. This study determined environmental impacts of manufacturing hardwood lumber in the southeastern US using the life-cycle inventory method....

  6. Environmental impact of producing hardwood lumber using life-cycle inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; S.A. Bowe

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Showing wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry. This study examined hardwood lumber manufacturing using Life-Cycle Inventory...

  7. Bats of the hardwood ecosystem experiment before timber harvest: assessment and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Sheets; John O. Whitaker; Virgil Jr. Brack; Dale W. Sparks

    2013-01-01

    Before experimental harvest of the Yellowwood (YW) and Morgan-Monroe (MM) State Forests (Indiana) as part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, bats were sampled using mist nets at four locations in MM and five locations in YW during each summer 2006 through 2008. Netting locations were adjacent to forest stands scheduled for experimental manipulations following...

  8. Automated hardwood lumber grading utilizing a multiple sensor machine vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading...

  9. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  10. In vitro propagation of tropical hardwood tree species — A review (2001-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Shaneka S. Lawson; Kaitlin J. Palla; Micah E. Stevens; Ying. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Tropical hardwood tree species are important economically and ecologically, and play a significant role in the biodiversity of plant and animal species within an ecosystem. There are over 600 species of tropical timbers in the world, many of which are commercially valuable in the international trade of plywood, roundwood, sawnwood, and veneer. Many of these tree...

  11. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  12. Establishing even-age northern hardwood regeneration by the shelterwood method--a preliminary guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Carl H. Tubbs

    1973-01-01

    The shelterwood system of regeneration with northern hardwoods is a reliable method of obtaining even-age stands of both tolerant and moderately tolerant species. Details of applying the two-cut system are described along with the necessary modifications for encouraging moderately tolerant species.

  13. Deer and diversity in Allegheny hardwood forests: managing an unlikely challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. deCalesta

    1994-01-01

    High white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density and interfering vegetation were identified as factors affecting the regeneration of hardwood forests in the Allegheny National Forest and surrounding forests in northwestern Pennsylvania. Research was designed by Forest Service scientists to quantify these effects. A high degree of interest in...

  14. Species diversity of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in northern hardwood forests with differing management histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L Lindner; Harold H. Burdsall; Glen R. Stanosz

    2006-01-01

    Effects of forest management on fungal diversity were investigated by sampling fruit bodies of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in forest stands that have different management histories. Fruit bodies were sampled in 15 northern hardwood stands in northern Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. Sampling was conducted in five old-growth stands, five uneven-age...

  15. The Number of Hardwood Sawmills Continues to Decrease - Is that Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    2005-01-01

    The following Guest Editorial, "The Number of Hardwood Sawmills Continues to Decrease - Is that Bad?" is presented by William G. Luppold, Ph.D., of the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station - Forestry Sciences Laboratory. In this article, Dr. Luppold examines many of the key issues surrounding the size and loss of sawmills, which has influenced...

  16. Effect of resin variables on the creep behavior of high density hardwood composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Tang; Jianhua Pu; C.Y Hse

    1993-01-01

    The flexural creep behavior of oriented strandboards (OSB) fabricated with mixed high, density hardwood flakes was investigated. Three types of adhesives, liquid phenolic-formaldehyde (LPF), melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF), and LPF (face)/MUF (core) were chosen in this investigation. The resin contents (RC) used were 3.5 percent and 5.0 percent. The flakes...

  17. Changes in Microbial Nitrogen Across a 100-Year Chronosequence of Upland Hardwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis W. Idol; Phillip E. Pope; Felix, Jr. Ponder

    2002-01-01

    Soil microorganisms mediate many of the major processes involved in soil N cycling. Also, they are strong competitors with plants for available soil N. Thus, changes in microbial N because of forest harvesting may have significant impacts on N availability and overall forest N cycling. A chronosequence of upland hardwood forest stands in southern Indiana, USA, ranging...

  18. An appraisal of early reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; George Hart

    1961-01-01

    How shall I cut to get reproduction? What kind of reproduction will I get if I cut the way I am planning to? All foresters have asked themselves these questions. To help supply some answers to these questions for the northern Appalachian hardwood area, the authors have summarized and analyzed before- and after-cutting reproduction data collected over a period of 10...

  19. Resistance is not futile: The response of hardwoods to fire-caused wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Kevin Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fires wound trees; but not all of them, and not always. Specific fire behavior and differences among tree species and individual trees produce variable patterns of wounding and wound response. Our work focuses on the relationships between fire behavior and tree biology to better understand how hardwood trees resist injury to the lower stem and either survive or succumb...

  20. Revegetation after strip cutting and block clearcutting in northern hardwoods: a 10-year history

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Martin; Hornbeck James W.; Hornbeck James W.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the density and biomass of trees, shrubs, and herbs were measured periodically over 10 years following a progressive strip cutting and block clearcutting of northern hardwoods. At 10 years after clearcutting, yellow birch was the most numerous commercial or uncommercial tree on the block clearcut; sugar maple on the strip cut. Pin cherry dominated the...

  1. Development of a central hardwood stand following whole-tree clearcutting in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Martin

    1995-01-01

    Little information is available concerning the initial stages of forest regeneration following intensive harvesting of central hardwood stands in the northeastern part of the range. Establishment of commercial species, density, and rate of biomass accumulation of the regeneration are of major concern to both foresters and landowners contemplating a harvest. To help...

  2. Influence of stand density on stem quality in pole-size northern hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; David J. Books

    1971-01-01

    Relates the type and frequency of limbs and limb-related defects in the first two logs of five hardwood species to residual basal area 15 years after initial cutting. Also discusses other tree characteristics influenced by stand density and the applicability of present silvicultural guides to improve stem quality.

  3. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  4. Relationships between growth, quality, and stocking within managed old-growth northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Gronewold; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of long-term growth dynamics is central to the development of sustainable uneven-aged silvicultural systems for northern hardwood forests in eastern North America. Of particular importance are quantitative assessments of the relationships between stocking control and long-term growth and quality development. This study examined these relationships in a...

  5. Climatic and pollution influences on ecosystem processes in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; David D. Reed; Glenn D. Mroz; Andrew J. Burton; John A. Witter; Donald A. Zak

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan gradient study was established in 1987 to examine the effects of climate and atmospheric deposition on forest productivity and ecosystem processes in the Great Lakes region. Four intensively-monitored northern hardwood study sites are located along a climatic and pollutant gradient extending from southern lower Michigan to northwestern upper Michigan. The...

  6. Analysis of harvesting opportunities for thinning eastern hardwoods on steep terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1988-01-01

    Harvesting cost and revenue models were used to evaluate yarding costs by yarder type and to compare stump-to-mill harvesting costs to revenues available from multiproduct thinnings in eastern hardwoods. This analysis includes six types of cable yarders and thinnings in stands where the average diameter at breast height of trees harvested ranged from 7 to 12 inches. To...

  7. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Hardwood Management; Roanoke, Virginia; June 1-5, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Gillespie; Dan Cramsey; Dick Miller; Dennis Hamel; Carl Puuri; F. Bryan Clark; John Erickson; Nelson Loftus; Lloyd Casey; H. Clay Smith; Bob Marquis; Martin Dale; Charles E. McGee; Robert D. Williams; Gayne G. Erdmann; R. M. Godman; Stephen G. Boyce; Paul A. Schrauder; DonaId E. Beck; David A. Marquis; James L. McConnell; Paul S. Debald; David R. Houston; Walter Knapp; Tom Turpin; Warren Bacon; Arnold Schulz

    1981-01-01

    This year's National Silviculture Workshop was held in Roanoke, Virginia and the Monongahela National Forest. The purpose of the meetings were to discuss current silvicultural issues affecting all Regions and to review in detail the state-of-the-art application of hardwood management in the United States. These proceedings include the presentations of individuals...

  8. Consumer and manufacturer perceptions of hardwood panels made from character-marked lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Nicholls; M. Bumgardner; V. Barber

    2010-01-01

    Hardwood panels made from edge-glued material are a versatile product that could be within the reach of many smaller wood products firms. However, products would need to be accepted throughout the supply chain for this opportunity to be achieved. This study evaluated preferences of consumers and manufacturers towards edge-glued panels from Alaskan red alder and paper...

  9. Consumer preferences for kitchen cabinets made from red alder: a comparison to other hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...

  10. Effects of intermediate-severity disturbance on composition and structure in mixed Pinus-hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Trammell; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer; Daniel C. Dey; Michael Steinberg

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, forest managers intend to create or maintain mixed Pinus-hardwood stands. This stand assemblage may be driven by a variety of objectives but is often motivated by the desire to enhance native forest diversity and promote resilience to perturbations. Documenting the effects of natural disturbances on species composition and stand...

  11. A weeding in ten-year-old northern hardwoods - methods and time requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton M. Blum; Stanley M. Filip

    1962-01-01

    Although weeding young northern hardwoods is not a common practice, most foresters will agree that weeding such stands is silviculturally sound in terms of improved growth and quality. Major obstacle to the widespread weeding of young stands as a routine cultural treatment is lack of information about the techniques and costs involved.

  12. Comparative physiology of a central hardwood old-growth forest canopy and forest gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. R. Gillespie; J. Waterman; K. Saylors

    1993-01-01

    Concerns of poor oak regeneration, changing climate, biodiversity patterns, and carbon cycling in the Central Hardwoods have prompted ecological and physiological studies of old-growth forests and their role in maintaining the landscape. To examine the effects of old-growth canopy structure on the physiological productivity of overstory and understory species, we...

  13. A Decision-Making Model For Managing or Regenerating Southern Upland Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Kyle Cunningham; Andrew W. Ezell; Keith L. Belli; John D. Hodges

    2004-01-01

    A decision-making model for managing or regenerating southern upland hardwoods is being created for three physiographic provinces including the Cumberland Plateau, Western Highland Rim, and Upper Coastal Plain. The model performs a stand evaluation, from a silvicultural standpoint, and declares a stand as being either manageable or in need of regeneration. Model...

  14. 80 Years of thinning research on northern hardwoods in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    Commercial and noncommercial thinning studies in northern hardwoods on the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, began in 1932. One of the studies, still maintained today, consisted of several precommercial treatments at age 25 (1959) and a commercial treatment in 2003. Although economic returns from precommercial work appear somewhat marginal and require...

  15. Biomass measurement and modeling challenges for hardwood species in the northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; David W. MacFarlane; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Biomass models for most commercially important hardwood species in the northern region of the U.S. are often based on data of very limited spatial extent and range of tree characteristics, suggesting uncertain accuracy when applied at regional scales. Also, the current models can have poor predictive ability for the proportions of biomass found in major tree components...

  16. Growth and Survival of Hardwoods and Pine Interplanted with European Alder

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Plass

    1977-01-01

    European black alder is recommended for planting on many surface mine spoils in the eastern United States. It grows rapidly on a range of spoil types and contributes to soil enrichment by fixing nitrogen and providing a leaf fall rich in nutrients. This study evaluated the effect of alder on the survival and growth of five hardwood and five pine species. After 10...

  17. Diameters of clearcut openings influence central Appalachian hardwood stem development - 10-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1981-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were studied to determine how reproduction establishment and development were influenced by circular clearcut openings of different sizes, postlogging herbicide treatments, and site quality. Ten-year results indicate that circular clearcuts should be at least 1/2 acre to gain the silvicultural effects of larger clearcuts....

  18. Revealing the Molecular Structural Transformation of Hardwood and Softwood in Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-12-05

    To better understand the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g. poplar wood) and softwood (e.g. lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 °C to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/minute with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily to be degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C-C5). Unique molecular structural features that pronounced the specific recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  19. Effects of edge contrast on redback salamander distribution in even-aged northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2002-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are sensitive to forest disturbance associated with even-aged management. We studied the distribution of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) for 4 yr at edges between even-aged northern hardwood stands along three replicate transects in each of three edge contrast types: regeneration/mature, sapling/mature, and...

  20. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  1. Cavity trees, snags, and selection cutting: a northern hardwood case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Ralph D. Nyland

    2007-01-01

    Although traditional application of the selection system includes a focus on high-value trees that may reduce cavities and snags, few studies have quantified those habitat features in managed uneven-aged stands. We examined the effects of single-tree selection cutting on cavity trees and snags in a northern hardwood stand immediately prior to the second cutting....

  2. Maximum size-density relationships for mixed-hardwood forest stands in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Solomon; Lianjun Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Maximum size-density relationships were investigated for two mixed-hardwood ecological types (sugar maple-ash and beech-red maple) in New England. Plots meeting type criteria and undergoing self-thinning were selected for each habitat. Using reduced major axis regression, no differences were found between the two ecological types. Pure species plots (the species basal...

  3. A three-dimensional bucking system for optimal bucking of Central Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Jingang Liu; Chris B. LeDoux

    2009-01-01

    An optimal tree stembucking systemwas developed for central Appalachian hardwood species using three-dimensional (3D) modeling techniques. ActiveX Data Objects were implemented via MS Visual C++/OpenGL to manipulate tree data which were supported by a backend relational data model with five data entity types for stems, grades and prices, logs, defects, and stem shapes...

  4. A Review of Techniques for Minimizing Beaver and White-Tailed Deer Damage in Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward P. Hill; Douglas N. Lasher; R. Blake. Roper

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing beaver and deer damage to hardwood forest resources are reviewed. Beaver controls considered were poisons, chemosterilants, predators, and trapping. Population reduction through trapping with 330 conibear traps for two weeks during two successive years effectively eliminates beaver from small watersheds and shows greater promise for control than...

  5. A resource at the crossroads: a history of the central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1997-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest is an oak dominated deciduous forest that stretches from Massachusetts to Arkansas and occurs in hilly to mountainous terrain. It is the largest and most extensive temperate deciduous forest in the world. During the past 20 million years or so, angiosperms have been gradually replacing gymnosperms as the dominant plant form on earth, and...

  6. Automated grading, upgrading, and cuttings prediction of surfaced dry hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; Phil Araman; A.Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, sawing, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, searches for optimal sawing solutions, and then estimates the grades of the boards that would result. The goal is to derive maximum commercial...

  7. Winter climate change affects growing-season soil microbial biomass and activity in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Durán; Jennifer L. Morse; Peter M. Groffman; John L. Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Myron J. Mitchell; Pamela H. Templer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity...

  8. Effects of pine sawdust, hardwood sawdust, and peat on bareroot soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Koll; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three organic amendments on soil properties and seedling growth at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. Pine sawdust (red pine, Pinus resinosa), hardwood sawdust (maple [Acer spp.] and aspen [Populus spp.]), and peat were individually incorporated into a loamy sand nursery soil in August 2006, and soil properties...

  9. Tangential scanning of hardwood logs: developing an industrial computer tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand K. Gupta; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Bruce Isaacson

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that noninvasive scanning of hardwood logs such as computer tomography (CT) scanning prior to initial breakdown will greatly improve the processing of logs into lumber. This belief, however, has not translated into rapid development and widespread installation of industrial CT scanners for log processing. The roadblock has been more operational...

  10. Rationale and Application of Tangential Scanning to Industrial Inspection of Hardwood Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand K. Gupta; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Bruce Isaacson

    1998-01-01

    Industrial computed tomography (CT) inspection of hardwood logs has some unique requirements not found in other CT applications. Sawmill operations demand that large volumes of wood be scanned quickly at high spatial resolution for extended duty cycles. Current CT scanning geometries and commercial systems have both technical and economic [imitations. Tangential...

  11. Preliminary Full-Scale Tests of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  12. A Comparison of Several Artificial Neural Network Classifiers for CT Images of Hardwood Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Jing He; A. Lynn Abbott

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of internal log defects, obtained by scanning, is critical to efficiency improvements for future hardwood sawmills. Nevertheless, before computed tomography (CT) scanning can be applied in industrial operations, we need to automatically interpret scan information so that it can provide the saw operator with the information necessary to make proper sawing...

  13. Using low-grade hardwoods for CLT production: a yield analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann

    2017-01-01

    Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT)...

  14. Effect of crown growing space on the development of young hardwood crop trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Crown release of individual crop trees can be used to increase the growth and competitiveness of selected trees in young hardwood stands. Forest managers need information on the response of individual trees to such thinnings to prescribe stand treatments that meet specific management objectives. Codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.),...

  15. Logging damage using an individual tree selection practice in Appalachian hardwood stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller

    1985-01-01

    Four West Virginia hardwood stands, managed using individual-tree selection for the past 30 years, were examined after the third and, in one instance, the fourth periodic harvest to determine the severity of logging damage. On existing skid roads, trees were removed with a rubber-tired skidder or a crawler tractor with a rubber-tired arch. Logging damage reduced...

  16. Impact of harvesting and atmospheric pollution on nutrient depletion of eastern US hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Adams; J.A. Burger; A.B. Jenkins; L. Zelazny

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood forests of the US may be threatened by the changing atmospheric chemistry and by changes in harvesting levels. Many studies have documented accelerated base cation losses with intensive forest harvesting. Acidic deposition can also alter nutrient cycling in these forests. The combination of increased harvesting, shorter rotations, and more...

  17. Southern pine beetles in central hardwood forests: frequency, spatial extent, and changes to forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Nowak; Kier Klepzig; D R Coyle; William Carothers; Kamal J K Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forests throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions...

  18. Effect of Hardwood Sawmill Edging and Trimming Practices on Furniture Part Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Carmen Regalado; Eugene M. Wengert; Fred M. Lamb; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    In a recent edging and trimming study at three hardwood sawmills, it was observed that the lumber volume produced was approximately 10 percent less than would be necessary to make the most valuable lumber. Furthermore, the excess portion of wood that was removed from the edging and trimming process contained a large percentage of clear wood. In light of rising costs...

  19. 78 FR 16250 - Hardwood and Decorative Plywood From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-987] Hardwood and Decorative..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (the Department..., Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and...

  20. Hardwood supply chain and the role of log brokers in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2013-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has greatly affected how companies conduct business. To be competitive, companies had to make changes to their product lines, distribution channels, marketing, and overall business strategies. This study was conducted to describe and analyze the log supply component of the hardwood forest products distribution chain and to investigate changes...

  1. Earthquakes in South Carolina and Vicinity 1698-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard L.; Talwani, Pradeep; Stevenson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes more than 300 years of South Carolina earthquake history. It is one in a series of three similar State earthquake history maps. The current map and the previous two for Virginia and Ohio are accessible at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1017/ and http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1221/. All three State earthquake maps were collaborative efforts between the U.S. Geological Survey and respective State agencies. Work on the South Carolina map was done in collaboration with the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. As with the two previous maps, the history of South Carolina earthquakes was derived from letters, journals, diaries, newspaper accounts, academic journal articles, and, beginning in the early 20th century, instrumental recordings (seismograms). All historical (preinstrumental) earthquakes that were large enough to be felt have been located based on felt reports. Some of these events caused damage to buildings and their contents. The more recent widespread use of seismographs has allowed many smaller earthquakes, previously undetected, to be recorded and accurately located. The seismicity map shows historically located and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in and near South Carolina

  2. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  3. 77 FR 64904 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Carolina Beach..., at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel movement within...

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  5. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  6. 78 FR 26361 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Keowee-Toxaway Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2503-147--South Carolina and North Carolina] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Keowee-Toxaway Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  7. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  8. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  9. Diabetes awareness among African Americans in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Angela K; Baaklini, Walid A

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of diabetes unawareness in rural North Carolina. Randomly administered an eight-question survey to African Americans age 15-74 living in Halifax County North Carolina. Ninety-five out of 116 eligible participants completed the survey (82% response rate). Most (67%) of the participants reported having two or more major risk factors for Type II diabetes (diabetes mellitus). More than half (51.6%) of the participants were obese. Most (96.8%) of the participants reported having been tested for diabetes at some point in their lives (10% testedpositive, only 8.4% of the remaining 9o% reported ever having a second test). Diabetes mellitus is a very prevalentproblem among the African American population of Halifax County North Carolina. Our study underscores the fact that patients are not systematically screened and followed-up for diabetes melitus. More healthcare and commnity programs need to be adapted to fight this serious public health problem.

  10. Hydrologic aspects of Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Kolben, R. E.; Cherry, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo, with winds in excess of 135 miles per hour(mi/h), made landfall near Charleston, S.C., early on the morning of September 22, 1989. It was the most destructive hurricane ever experienced in South Carolina. The storm caused 35 deaths and $7 billion in property damage in South Carolina (Purvis, 1990).This report documents some hydrologic effects of Hurricane Hugo along the South Carolina coast. The report includes maps showing storm-tide stage and profiles of the maximum storm-tide stages along the outer coast. Storm-tide stage frequency information is presented and changes in beach morphology and water quality of coastal streams resulting from the storm are described.

  11. Thinning, Age, and Site Quality Influence Live Tree Carbon Stocks in Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of thinning, age, and site quality on aboveground live tree carbon (ATC) (Mg/ha) stocks in upland hardwood forests of mixed-species composition in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In 1974, 80 plots ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.1 ha were established in even-aged, mixed-hardwood forests throughout the southern Appalachians. All trees...

  12. Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated hardwoods from phytoremediation: Characterisation of biomass, pyrolysis oil and char/ash fraction

    OpenAIRE

    STALS, Mark; CARLEER, Robert; REGGERS, Guy; Schreurs, Sonja; YPERMAN, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated hardwoods originating from phytoremediation is studied. Different kinds of hardwoods, i.e. Salix fragilis (crack willow), Salix jorunn ("Jorunn" willow) and Populus grimminge (Grimminge poplar) are compared in a preliminary phase. Salix fragilis scores the best on both remediation capabilities and pyrolysis characteristics. Therefore, this cultivar is chosen for in-depth research. S. fragilis stems, leaves and stems mixed with leaves are pyrolysed. ...

  13. Ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in a group of captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan; Geissler, Kyleigh; Elmore, Susan; Rotstein, David; Lewbart, Greg; Guy, James

    2004-12-01

    Seven captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from a large collection of North American chelonians in North Carolina became acutely ill in the fall of 2002. Five of the turtles died. Clinical signs included cutaneous abscessation, oral ulceration or abscessation (or both), respiratory distress, anorexia, and lethargy. The predominant postmortem lesion was fibrinoid vasculitis of various organs, including skin, mucous membranes, lungs, and liver. No inclusion bodies were detected by histopathology or electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissue. An iridovirus was isolated from tissues obtained postmortem from two of the box turtles that died. The virus was characterized by electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequence analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein as a member of the genus Ranavirus.

  14. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  15. Plants that Bite Back. Carolina Beach State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Phoebe

    This learning packet, one in a series of eight, was developed by the Carolina Beach State Park in North Carolina for the middle grades to teach about carnivorous plants. Loose-leaf pages are presented in 10 sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Carolina Beach State Park, the park's activity packet,…

  16. Enhancing hydrologic mapping using LIDAR and high resolution aerial photos on the Frances Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Maceyka; William F. Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating hydrology within coastal marine terrace features has always been problematic as watershed boundaries and stream detail are difficult to determine in low gradient terrain with dense bottomland forests. Various studies have improved hydrologic detail using USGS Topographic Contour Maps (Hansen 2001, Eidson and others 2005) or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR...

  17. Cryo-scanning electron microscopic study on freezing behavior of xylem ray parenchyma cells in hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa; Kuroda

    2000-12-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) has indicated that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) of hardwood species adapt to freezing of apoplastic water either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing, depending upon the species. DTA studies indicated that moderately cold hardy hardwood species exhibiting deep supercooling in the XRPCs were limited in latitudinal distribution within the -40 degrees C isotherm, while very hardy hardwood species exhibiting extracellular freezing could distribute in colder areas beyond the -40 degrees C isotherm. Predictions based on the results of DTA, however, indicate that XRPCs exhibiting extracellular freezing may appear not only in very hardy woody species native to cold areas beyond the -40 degrees C isotherm but also in less hardy hardwood species native to tropical and subtropical zones as well as in a small number of moderately hardy hardwood species native to warm temperate zones. Cryo-scanning electron microscopic (cryo-SEM) studies on the freezing behavior of XRPCs have revealed some errors in DTA. These errors are originated mainly due to the overlap between exotherms produced by freezing of water in apoplastic spaces (high temperature exotherms, HTEs) and exotherms produced by freezing of intracellular water of XRPCs by breakdown of deep supercooling (low temperature exotherms, LTEs), as well as to the shortage of LTEs produced by intracellular freezing of XRPCs. In addition, DTA results are significantly affected by cooling rates employed. Further, cryo-SEM observations, which revealed the true freezing behavior of XRPCs, changed the previous knowledge of freezing behavior of XRPCs that had been obtained by freeze-substitution and transmission electron microscopic studies. Cryo-SEM results, in association with results obtained from DTA that were reconfirmed or changed by observation using a cryo-SEM, revealed a clear tendency of the freezing behavior of XRPCs in hardwood species to change with changes in the

  18. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of South Carolina. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  19. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of North Carolina. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  20. Western North Carolina report card on forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Fox; Bill Jackson; Sarah Jackson; Gary Kauffmann; Mary Carol Koester; Robert Mera; Terry Seyden; Charles Van Sickle; Sealy Chipley; Jim Fox; Jeff Hicks; Matt Hutchins; Karin Lichtenstein; Kelsie Nolan; Todd Pierce; Beth Porter

    2011-01-01

    Western North Carolina encompasses 4.8 million acres of highly valued temperate forests. To help address future management and conservation decisions surrounding these resources, the report card evaluates environmental, social, and economic conditions in recent decades across an 18 county area. The report card describes the status of indicators of forest sustainability...