WorldWideScience

Sample records for carolina bay vegetation

  1. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  2. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  3. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  5. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  6. A model for the geomorphology of the Carolina Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Geometrical analysis of the Carolina Bays using Google Earth in combination with LiDAR data makes it possible to postulate that the bays formed as the result of impacts, rather than from eolian and lacustrine processes. The Carolina Bays are elliptical conic sections with width-to-length ratios averaging 0.58 that are radially oriented toward the Great Lakes region. The radial distribution of ejecta is one characteristic of impacts, and the width-to-length ratios of the ellipses correspond to cones inclined at approximately 35°, which is consistent with ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence. These observations, and the fact that these geomorphological features occur only on unconsolidated soil close to the water table, make it plausible to propose that the Carolina Bays are the remodeled remains of oblique conical craters formed on ground liquefied by the seismic shock waves of secondary impacts of glacier ice boulders ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Mathematical analysis using ballistic equations and scaling laws relating yield energy to crater size provide clues about the magnitude of the extraterrestrial event. An experimental model elucidates the remodeling mechanisms and provides an explanation for the morphology and the diverse dates of the bays.

  7. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  8. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  9. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  10. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  11. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  12. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  13. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  14. Characterization and closure of the Met Lab Carolina Bay at the Savannah River site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, K.M.; Frazier, W.L.; Haselow, L.A.; Voss, L.

    1993-07-01

    The Met Lab Carolina Bay is subject to Subtitle C of RCRA and CERCLA requirements. Located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Site, the Met Lab Carolina Bay is a marshy, oval-shaped natural depression covering approximately six acres. The Carolina Bay received wastes from three sources: the Met Lab Basin A-007 drainage outfall, the A-Area coal-fire power plant A-008 drainage outfall and the A/M-Area vehicle maintenance parking lot stormwater runoff A-009 outfall. Two characterization efforts conducted in 1988/89 and 1991 indicate the presence of metals in the sediments and soils of the bay. The greatest concentrations of the metals and organics being in the north-central portion of the bay. The metals and organics were primarily associated with surface sediments and the organic-rich soil layer to a depth of about two feet. Conclusions from the Human Health Baseline Risk indicate the future on-unit resident exposure to sediments and soil poses an unacceptable level of risk to human health. However, the assumptions built into the calculations lead to conservative human health risk findings. A qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment was performed on the Carolina Bay. This ecological assessment, based on historical and existing sampling data, was found to be insufficient to make a definitive decision on the contaminants` effects on the ecology of the bay. The proposed action for the Carolina Bay is to conduct an ecological characterization. It appears that the ecological risks will be in the driving factor in determining the remedial action for the Met Lab Carolina Bay.

  15. Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nathan; Krings, Alexander; Braham, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the "Bladen Lakes Group" which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic - oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively. Over the 2013-2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens.

  16. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  17. Remote sensing of stressed vegetation in the Carolina slate belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been used to detect stress in vegetation, but they have not been very successful for identifying which environmental factors cause the vegetation to appear stressed. Controlled comparisons of spectral characteristics of plant communities experiencing known combinations of stresses were designed to examine this problem. Landsat TM, NS-001 TMS, CIR, and AIS imagery was acquired for six stressed areas in the Carolina slate belt. Preliminary results indicated that the areas of stressed vegetation were identifiable, and that the stressed communities appeared to be undergoing early fall leaf senescence. The AIS data seemed to have the greatest potential for identifying differences among plant community spectra, but calibration will be necessary before these differences can be evaluated.

  18. Importance of Carolina Bays to the Avifauna of Pinelands in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapka, Stephen, J.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2011-07-01

    Abstract - Past anthropogenic activity has led to the destruction or alteration of Carolina bay wetlands throughout the southeastern United States. Presently, urban development, combined with a 2001 ruling by the US Supreme Court relaxing protection of isolated wetlands, poses an increasing threat to these and other isolated wetland systems; however, little information exists on the importance of these wetland systems to birds. We compared breeding and wintering bird communities of upland pine (Pinus spp.) forests with and without Carolina bays. Estimated species richness was greater in pine forests with Carolina bays than without during the winter (31.7 ± 1.3 [mean ± SE] vs. 26.9 ± 1.2; P = 0.027), but not in the breeding season (27.9 ± 2.2 vs. 26.3 ± 2.2; P = 0.644). Total relative abundance did not differ between pine forests with Carolina bays and those without in either the breeding (148.0 ± 16.0 vs. 129.4 ± 10.4 birds/40 ha; P = 0.675) or winter (253.0 ± 36.4 vs. 148.8 ± 15.1 birds/40 ha; P = 0.100) seasons. However, 23 species, 43% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in pine forests with bays during the breeding season, and 20 species, 30% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in such sites during winter. In contrast, only 6 and 1 species were observed only in pine forests without bays during the breeding and winter seasons, respectively, indicating that few species were negatively affected by the presence of bays. Thus, Carolina bays appear to enrich the avifauna of pine forests in the southeastern United States.

  19. Importance of Carolina Bays to the Avifauna of Pinelands in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Czapka; John Kilgo

    2011-01-01

    Past anthropogenic activity has led to the destruction or alteration of Carolina bay wetlands throughout the southeastern United States. Presently, urban development, combined with a 2001 ruling by the US Supreme Court relaxing protection of isolated wetlands, poses an increasing threat to these and other isolated wetland systems; however, little information exists on...

  20. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  1. Back Bay-Currituck Sound Data Report: Introduction and Vegetation Studies, Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The factors affecting the brackish to freshwater estuaries of Back Bay, Virginia, and Currituck Sound, North Carolina, have been a subject of considerable...

  2. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Processes in Long Bay of the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Xu, K.; He, R.; Wren, P. A.; Gong, Y.; Quigley, B.; Tarpley, D.

    2010-12-01

    The coastline along Long Bay of the Carolinas is a fast-growing and heavily-developed area supporting local populations, infrastructure, and a large tourism industry. Myrtle Beach and its adjacent sandy beaches are popular tourist destinations that attract millions of visitors each year, representing one of the state’s most essential natural resources. The economy of this region is closely related to the stability of the sandy beaches, which are vulnerable to coastal erosion during severe storm events. Quantifying the sediment transport processes in the nearshore and inner continental shelf regions is thus critical for both understanding the regional sediment budget and implementing effective coastal management. As a first step toward investigating the sediment transport processes, a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for Long Bay in the Carolinas has been developed. The model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), spans from Cape Fear estuary in NC to Winyah Bay estuary in SC. It considers the delivery of fluvial sediment from the Cape Fear and Pee Dee Rivers, resuspension from seabed, and transport of suspended sediment by ambient currents and waves calculated using Simulating WAve Nearshore model (SWAN). Our model simulations are driven by observed wind fields, which were collected at nearby meteorological stations maintained by National Data Buoy Center as well as at six buoys by the Palmetto Wind Research Project at Coastal Carolina University. Spatially varying sea bed conditions consisting of both hard bottoms and sandy bodies are applied in the calculation. The model is one-way nested inside a large-scale coastal circulation model that covers both the Middle Atlantic Bight and the South Atlantic Bight and provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate circulation open boundary conditions. Modeling results indicate both wind-driven currents and storm-induced waves are capable of resuspending sandy

  3. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2009-10 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Restoring vegetation adjacent to the tidal...

  4. San Francisco Bay ecotone vegetation restoration & management : 2008-09 grant report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on vegetation restoration and management at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation management is often straightforward:...

  5. HELL HOLE BAY, WAMBAW SWAMP, LITTLE WAMBAW SWAMP, AND WAMBAW CREEK WILDERNESSES, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Martin, Clay M.

    1984-01-01

    Four wildernesses, including Hell Hole Bay about 10. 6 sq mi, Wambaw Swamp about 8 sq mi, Little Wambaw Swamp about 4 sq mi, and Wambaw Creek about 2. 5 sq mi, are swamp lands in the Francis Marion National Forest on the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, about 30 mi northeast of Charleston. A mineral survey of the wildernesses showed that one of the areas, Wambaw Swamp, has a peat resource potential. An estimated 810,000 tons of demonstrated peat resources on the dry basis occurs in an area of substantiated peat resource potential within easy access to a good road network. No mineral or other energy resources were identified in this study.

  6. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  7. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  8. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  9. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2006-07-13

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.

  10. Presettlement Vegetation and Natural Fire Regimes of the Grand Bay/Banks Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project was to develop maps of the original vegetation and original fireregimes of the Grand Bay-Old Field Bay-Banks Lake wetland complex to provide...

  11. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  12. The East Bay Vegetation Management Consortium:\\ta subregional approach to resource management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Acosta

    1995-01-01

    Formed in response to the October 20, 1991, Oakland/Berkeley hills firestorm, the East Bay Vegetation Management Consortium (EBVMC) is a voluntary association of public agencies concerned with vegetation management and planning related to fire hazard reduction in the Oakland/ Berkeley hills. To date, a total of nine agencies are participating in the EBVMC, including...

  13. Ridge Crests within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (RIDGE_CRESTS, Polyline shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  14. Distribution of Seafloor Environments within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (SEAFLOORENV, Polygon shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  15. Ridge Crests within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (RIDGE_CRESTS, Polyline shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  16. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  17. Estimating vegetation coverage in St. Joseph Bay, Florida with an airborne multispectral scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, K. J.; Faller, K. H.; Iverson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A four-channel multispectral scanner (MSS) carried aboard an aircraft was used to collect data along several flight paths over St. Joseph Bay, FL. Various classifications of benthic features were defined from the results of ground-truth observations. The classes were statistically correlated with MSS channel signal intensity using multivariate methods. Application of the classification measures to the MSS data set allowed computer construction of a detailed map of benthic features of the bay. Various densities of segrasses, various bottom types, and algal coverage were distinguished from water of various depths. The areal vegetation coverage of St. Joseph Bay was not significantly different from the results of a survey conducted six years previously, suggesting that seagrasses are a very stable feature of the bay bottom.

  18. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. [(sea grasses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R. J.; Gordon, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental water penetration film and black and white near infrared film were used to study the distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Detailed description of the grass beds was obtained by flying at an altitude of 5,000 feet, at low tide when wind conditions were minimal. Results show that there was a 36% reduction in the amount of submerged aquatic vegetation in the lower Chesapeake Bay from 1971 to 1974, the greatest losses occurring in the York, Piankatank and Rappahannock rivers (tabulated data is given). Recovery of some grass beds occurs primarily through seedling recruitment and subsequent vegetative growth. Cownose rays are suspected as a main factor for the decimation of some of the grass beds. Maps and photographs of the areas studied are given.

  19. Rams Head Center : an innovative vegetative roof plaza at the University of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.; Potts, A. [Cahill Associates Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A newly constructed vegetative roof plaza on the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill campus serves as a link between 2 sides of the campus. The multi-use Rams Head Center is a green roof plaza constructed over a large parking garage. As part of the campus's expansion plans, the University set rigorous environmental goals, such as balancing growth with preservation of natural drainage systems; managing stormwater as an opportunity instead of a problem; managing total stormwater volume on-site; enhancing and protecting the water quality of streams; and, reinforcing the University as a role model. During large storms, the entire green roof system discharges into a bioswale, a stormwater infiltration bed, and a recreated stream segment. The 40,000 square foot green roof plaza includes a 56,000 gallon cistern and a permanent water storage zone under the planting soil to support trees and shrubs. Visual stormwater connections and signs are placed to raise community awareness of water resource issues. This paper reviewed the basic design principles for the remainder of non-cistern areas of the green roof. Issues regarding landscape design, seasonal operation and maintenance were also discussed. 7 refs., 14 figs.

  20. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Numerical modeling of circulation and sediment transport in Long Bay, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. C.; Sullivan, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.; Haas, K.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Long Bay, South Carolina, is a heavily populated coastal region that supports a large tourism industry. Sand resources are important for both recreation and coastal habitat. Earlier geological framework studies have identified a large sand deposit oblique to the shoreline, oriented clockwise in the offshore direction. This sand feature is ~ 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3m thick, possibly providing a source for beach nourishment material. Objectives of this study are to describe the physical processes that control the transport of sediment in Long Bay, specifically off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Specifically we seek to 1) measure and model the oceanographic circulation in the region, 2) identify the processes that maintain the presence of the offshore sand feature, 3) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore through changes in wave energy propagation, and 4) identify consequences of removal of the offshore sand feature. Both observational and numerical experiments are used to study the oceanographic circulation and transport of sediment. The observational study is described in an accompanying poster and consists of eight sites that measured tides, surface waves, currents, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed forms from October 2003 to April 2004. Numerical modeling for circulation and sediment transport in the study region uses a new version of ROMS (v2.1) that now includes transport of multiple grain sizes, coupling of sediment transport to wave bottom boundary layer models, and evolution of the bottom morphology. The SWAN model is used to compute wave propagation. Results indicate that currents in the study area are strongly influenced by both tidal motion and wind driven setup / setdown. The presence of the offshore sand feature alters the residual flows in the region. Sediment transport is more significant during periods of sustained strong winds that generate local waves. Wind direction

  1. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  2. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  3. Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Models to Determine Phytoplankton Density in the Coastal Waters of Long Bay, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. E.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    The southeast coastal region is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and the increasing utilization of open water bodies has led to the deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecology, placing the future of these resources at risk. In coastal zones, a key index that can be used to assess the stress on the environment is the water quality. The shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina (SC) are heavily influenced by multiple biogeochemical constituents or color producing agents (CPAs) such as, phytoplankton, suspend matter, and dissolved organic carbon. The interaction of the various chemical, biological and physical components gives rise to the optical complexity observed in the coastal waters producing turbid waters. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. These are of great concern for human health and are detrimental to the marine life. Therefore, efficient monitoring tools are required for early detection and forecasting purposes as well as to understand the state of the conditions and better protect, manage and address the question of how various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the health of these environments. This study assesses the efficiency remote sensing as a potential tool for accurate and timely detection of HABs, as well as for providing high spatial and temporal resolution information regarding the biogeodynamics in coastal water bodies. Existing blue-green and NIR-red based remote sensing algorithms are applied to the reflectance data obtained using ASD spectroradiometer to predict the amount of chlorophyll, an independent of other associated CPAs in the Long Bay waters. The pigment is the primary light harvesting pigment in all phytoplankton and is used

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Stressors in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Quattrochi, Dale; Thom, Ronald; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land use change in Mobile and Baldwin counties on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in Mobile Bay. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for land use scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 land use scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the Bay. Theses results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid with four vertical profiles throughout Mobile Bay. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to land use driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs.

  5. Predictors of Intention to Eat 2.5 Cups of Vegetables among Ninth-Grade Students Attending Public High Schools in Eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify beliefs about eating 2.5 cups of vegetables and to assess how well these beliefs predict intention to eat them. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Setting: Two public high schools in 2 counties in eastern North Carolina. Participants: 157 ninth-grade students (mean age = 14.71 years [SD = 0.82]).…

  6. Bathymetric Contours within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (CON_1M, 1 meter interval: Polyline shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  7. BATHY - Bathymetry within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina collected by the USGS, 1999-2003 (Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  8. Bathymetric Contours within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina (CON_1M, 1 meter interval: Polyline shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  9. BATHY - Bathymetry within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina collected by the USGS, 1999-2003 (Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the USGS, in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline change along the northern...

  10. Bathymetry within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina collected by the USGS, 1999-2003 (BATHY, Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  11. Bathymetry within the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina collected by the USGS, 1999-2003 (BATHY, Grid)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  12. Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurr...

  13. Effects of vegetated field borders on arthropods in cotton fields in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bradley, J R

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurred. Early season thrips populations appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a border. Pitfall sampling disclosed no differences in ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods but did detect increased populations of crickets around fields with borders. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations were too low during the study to adequately assess border effects. Heliothines, Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg numbers and damage rates were largely unaffected by the presence or absence of a border, although in one instance egg numbers were significantly lower in fields with borders. Overall, foliage-dwelling predaceous arthropods were somewhat more abundant in fields with borders than in fields without borders. Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) were significantly more abundant in fields with borders, but stink bugs, Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) numbers appeared to be largely unaffected by border treatment. Few taxa clearly exhibited distributional edge effects relative to the presence or absence of border vegetation. Field borders like those examined in this study likely will have little impact on insect pest management in cotton under current insect management regimens.

  14. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  15. Sediment Retention Dynamics and Vegetation Along Three Tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K.; Ross, K.; Hupp, C.; Alexander, L.; Alexander, L.

    2001-12-01

    Coastal Plain riparian wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic United States are the last place for sediment and contaminant storage before reaching critical estuarine and marine environments. The deteriorating health of the Chesapeake Bay has been attributed in part to elevated sediment loads. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of channelization and urbanization on sediment deposition and geomorphic processes along the Pocomoke and Chickahominy Rivers and Dragon Run, three Coastal Plain tributaries. Floodplain microtopography was surveyed in 100 x 100 m grids at three characteristic reaches along each river and woody vegetation analyses were conducted. Floodplain suspended sediment concentrations and short and long-term sedimentation rates were estimated at each reach using single stage sediment sampler arrays, clay pads and dendrogeomorphic techniques, respectively. Site hydroperiod and flow characteristics were determined from USGS gaging station records, floodplain water level recorders, and field observations. Channelized floodplain reaches along the Pocomoke River are flooded less frequently, have lower mineral sedimentation rates (2 mm/yr to 6 mm/yr) and woody species diversity than the unchannelized reaches. Along the Chickahominy River, floodplain wetlands close to urban centers are flooded more frequently, but have shorter hydroperiods (3.5 days/yr compared to more than 45 days/yr), lower sedimentation rates (1.8 mm/yr to 6.8 mm/yr), and lower woody species diversity (0.51 to 1.95 on the Shannon-Weiner diversity index) than floodplains further downstream. Suspended sediment delivery and deposition rates are significantly influenced by floodplain hydroperiod duration and channel-floodplain connectivity. These results suggest that understanding floodplain sediment dynamics and geomorphic processes with respect to dominant watershed landuse patterns is critical for effective water quality management and restoration efforts.

  16. Differences in the Effect of Coal Pile Runoff (Low pH, High Metal Concentrations) Versus Natural Carolina Bay Water (Low pH, Low Metal Concentrations) on Plant Condition and Associated Bacterial Epiphytes of Salvinia minima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, A H; Tuckfield, R C; McArthur, J V

    2016-05-01

    Numerous wetlands and streams have been impacted by acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in lowered pH and increased levels of toxic heavy metals. Remediation of these contaminated sites requires knowledge on the response of microbial communities (especially epiphytic) and aquatic plants to these altered environmental conditions. We examined the effect of coal pile runoff waters as an example of AMD in contrast to natural water from Carolina Bays with low pH and levels of metals on Salvinia minima, a non-native, metal accumulating plant and associated epiphytic bacteria. Treatments included water from two Carolina Bays, one AMD basin and Hoagland's Solution at two pH levels (natural and adjusted to 5.0-5.5). Using controlled replicated microcosms (N = 64) we determined that the combination of low pH and high metal concentrations has a significant negative impact (p epiphytes. Solution metal concentrations dropped indicating removal from solution by S. minima in all microcosms.

  17. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Design Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Setting Eastern North Carolina. Subjects Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Results Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42·1%) than those who did not (24·0%; Pshopping was 11·4 (SD 9·0) km (7·1 (SD 5·6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4·0 (SD 3·7) km (2·5 (SD 2·3) miles). Conclusions Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets. PMID:23701901

  18. Assessing vulnerable and expanding vegetation stands and species in the San Francisco Bay Area for conservation management under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morueta-Holme, N.; Heller, N. E.; McLaughlin, B.; Weiss, S. B.; Ackerly, D.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of suitable climatic areas for species and vegetation types is expected to shift due to ongoing climate change. While the pace at which current distributions will shift is hard to quantify, predictions of where climatically suitable areas will be in the future can allow us to map 1) areas currently occupied by a species or vegetation type unlikely to persist through the end of this century (vulnerable stands), 2) areas likely to do better in the future and serve as nuclei for population expansion (expanding stands), and 3) areas likely to act as climate refugia (persisting stands). We quantified the vulnerability of 27 individual plant species and 27 vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as the conservation importance, vulnerability, and resilience of selected management sites for climate change resilient conservation. To this end, we developed California-wide models of species and vegetation distributions using climate data from the 2014 California Basin Characterization Model at a 270 m resolution, projected to 18 different end-of century climate change scenarios. Combining these distribution models with high resolution maps of current vegetation, we were able to map projected vulnerable, expanding, and persisting stands within the Bay Area. We show that vegetation and species are expected to shift considerably within the study region over the next decades; although we also identify refugia potentially able to offset some of the negative impacts of climate change. We discuss the implications for managers that wish to incorporate climate change in conservation decisions, in particular related to choosing species for restoration, identifying areas to collect seeds for restoration, and preparing for expected major vegetation changes. Our evaluation of individual management sites highlights the need for stronger coordination of efforts across sites to prioritize monitoring and protection of species whose ranges are contracting

  19. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Sediment and Vegetation as Reservoirs of Vibrio vulnificus in the Tampa Bay Estuary and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Eva; Young, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Vibrio vulnificus occurs naturally in estuarine habitats and is readily cultured from water and oysters under warm conditions but infrequently at ambient conditions of <15°C. The presence of V. vulnificus in other habitats, such as sediments and aquatic vegetation, has been explored much less frequently. This study investigated the ecology of V. vulnificus in water by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) and in sediment, oysters, and aquatic vegetation by culture. V. vulnificus samples were taken from five sites around Tampa Bay, FL. Levels determined by qPCR and culture were significantly correlated (P = 0.0006; r = 0.352); however, V. vulnificus was detected significantly more frequently by qPCR (85% of all samples) compared to culture (43%). Culturable V. vulnificus bacteria were recovered most frequently from oyster samples (70%), followed by vegetation and sediment (∼50%) and water (43%). Water temperature, which ranged from 18.5 to 33.4°C, was positively correlated with V. vulnificus concentrations in all matrices but sediments. Salinity, which ranged from 1 to 35 ppt, was negatively correlated with V. vulnificus levels in water and sediments but not in other matrices. Significant interaction effects between matrix and temperature support the hypothesis that temperature affects V. vulnificus concentrations differently in different matrices and that sediment habitats may serve as seasonal reservoirs for V. vulnificus. V. vulnificus levels in vegetation have not been previously measured and reveal an additional habitat for this autochthonous estuarine bacterium. PMID:25636843

  1. Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest

  2. Spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation index and its influencing factors—a case study of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Yu, Ge

    2016-10-01

    The coastal zone is an area characterized by intense interaction between land and sea, high sensitivity to regional environmental changes, and concentrated human activities. Little research has investigated vegetation cover changes in coastal zones resulting from climate change and land-use change, with a lack of knowledge about the driving mechanism. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can be used as an indicator for change of the coastal environment. In this study, we analyzed the interannual changes and spatial distribution of NDVI in the coastal zone around Jiaozhou Bay in Qingdao, a coastal city undergoing rapid urbanization in northeast China. The underlying causes of NDVI variations were discussed in the context of climate change and land-use change. Results showed that the spatio-temporal distribution of NDVI displayed high spatial variability in the study area and showed a typical trend of gradually increasing from coastal to inland regions. The significant increase area of NDVI was mainly found in newly added construction land, extending along the coastline towards the inland. Land vegetation cover demonstrated a certain response relationship to sea-land climate change and land-based activities. The impact of land-based human activities was slightly greater than that of sea-land climate change for land vegetation cover. The results indicate that promoting ecological policies can build an ecological security framework of vegetation suitable for the resource characteristics of coastal cities. The framework will buffer the negative effects of sea-land climate change and land-based human activities on vegetation cover and thereby achieve the balance of regional development and ecological benefits in the coastal zone.

  3. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  4. Effects of water exchange and vegetation on the macroinvertebrate fauna composition of shallow land-uplift bays in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Joakim P.; Wikström, Sofia A.; Kautsky, Lena

    2008-04-01

    Shallow bays with soft sediment bottoms are common habitats along the Swedish and Finnish Baltic Sea coastline. These bays undergo a process of geomorphometric evolution with the natural isostatic land-uplift process, whereby open bays and sounds decrease in depth and are gradually isolated from the sea, forming bays with narrow openings. This study tested the relationship between the morphometric isolation of the bays from the sea and the macroinvertebrate fauna community of these bays. Additionally, we tested the specific role of the submerged vegetation as an indicator of the macroinvertebrate fauna community. We chose two environmental factors for the analyses, water exchange of the bays and the taxon richness of the macroflora in the bays. We found a hierarchical relationship between water exchange, flora taxon richness, and fauna biomass and taxon richness using structural equation modelling: decreased biomass and taxon richness of fauna were related to decreased flora taxon richness, which in turn was related to decreased water exchange. Using multivariate redundancy analysis, the two environmental factors included in the model were found to explain 47.7% of the variation in the fauna taxon composition and 57.5% of the variation in the functional feeding groups of the fauna. Along the morphometric isolation gradient of the bays, the fauna assemblages changed from a community dominated by gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans, to a community mainly consisting of a few insect taxa. Moreover, the proportion of predators, gathering collectors, and shredders increased while that of filtering collectors and scrapers decreased. Our results indicate that the density and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate fauna are higher in less morphometrically isolated bays than in more isolated bays in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, we suggest that the taxon richness of macroflora can serve as an indicator of the fauna community.

  5. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 15m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  8. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    marina), (2) wild celery (V. americana), (3) sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and (4) redhead grass (P. perfoliatus). Molecular and cultivation...depth and density on germination and development of Zostera marina L. seeds. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 7(3):55–58. Granger, S., M. Traber, S. W...sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and redhead grass (P. perfoliatus) collected from different regions of the Chesapeake Bay. Molecular and cultivation

  9. Reevaluation of Vegetational Characteristics at the CERC (Coastal Engineering Research Center) Field Research Facility, Duck, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    roemerianue Scheele Black needle rush .uncaginaceae Triglochin stz’iata R. & P. Arrow grass Lamiaceae *Lyjcopus euaopaeua L. Water horehound AMoard2...punctata L. Horacuint Salvia iijrata L. Sage Lauraceae Persen borbonia (L.) Sprengel. Red bay *Sasaaa albid’m~ (Nuttall) Nees Sassafras Liliacese *AtZiwn

  10. Assessment of coastal vegetation degradation in False bay, South Africa, using WV-2 imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation of the coast around the world fulfils an important role. It acts as a buffer against the impacts from the oceans such as waves and wind and protects the coastal hinterland from wind-blown sand and coastal erosion. However, due...

  11. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  12. Remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation in lower Chesapeake Bay - A comparison of Landsat MSS to TM imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Klemas, V.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat MSS and TM imagery, obtained simultaneously over Guinea Marsh, VA, as analyzed and compares for its ability to detect submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). An unsupervised clustering algorithm was applied to each image, where the input classification parameters are defined as functions of apparent sensor noise. Class confidence and accuracy were computed for all water areas by comparing the classified images, pixel-by-pixel, to rasterized SAV distributions derived from color aerial photography. To illustrate the effect of water depth on classification error, areas of depth greater than 1.9 m were masked, and class confidence and accuracy recalculated. A single-scattering radiative-transfer model is used to illustrate how percent canopy cover and water depth affect the volume reflectance from a water column containing SAV. For a submerged canopy that is morphologically and optically similar to Zostera marina inhabiting Lower Chesapeake Bay, dense canopies may be isolated by masking optically deep water. For less dense canopies, the effect of increasing water depth is to increase the apparent percent crown cover, which may result in classification error.

  13. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  14. Late-Quaternary records of vegetation and fire in southeastern North Carolina from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jessica; Jones, Kaylee B.; Gamble, Douglas W.; Benedetti, Michael M.; Taylor, Audrey K.; Lane, Chad S.

    2017-10-01

    We conducted fossil pollen, charcoal, and geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake spanning the last ∼50,000 cal yr B.P. to examine the linkages between climate, vegetation, and fire activity on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and particularly emphasize changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Application of the modern analog technique (MAT) to fossil pollen data allowed for quantitative estimates of Holocene climate, but Pleistocene assemblages had no modern analogues preempting their use for quantitative reconstructions. The MAT data indicate markedly lower mean annual precipitation and temperatures during the late Pleistocene relative to the Holocene. Increased charcoal accumulation during interstadials indicates increased fire activity during these warm intervals. Geochemical data (δ13C, δ15N, C:N) and pollen concentrations indicate a sparsely-vegetated Pleistocene landscape that produced few fires followed by an increase in biomass and fire activity around the lakes during the Holocene transition. A Quercus spp. maximum in the early Holocene is associated with low charcoal abundances, while increased dominance of Pinus spp. during the middle Holocene is associated with dramatic increases in charcoal. It is unclear if the Quercus-Pinus transition was the result of changing fire regimes or if the fire regime changed in response to vegetation. The regional asynchronicity of the Quercus-Pinus transition may indicate another forcing mechanism besides climate change, such as prehistoric human activity, is responsible for the ecological change. Macroscopic charcoal and C:N ratios reach unprecedented values during the late Holocene, possibly as a result of deforestation by both prehistoric Native Americans and later immigrant populations.

  15. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  16. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  17. NOAA submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitat mapping orthoimagery, collection subset 2 of 2, coastal North Carolina and SE Virginia, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0086104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orthophotography was flown in coastal regions of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia in an effort to establish long term mapping and monitoring of submerged...

  18. NOAA submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitat mapping orthoimagery, collection subset 1 of 2, coastal North Carolina and SE Virginia, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0086096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orthophotography was flown in coastal regions of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia in an effort to establish long term mapping and monitoring of submerged...

  19. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  20. Watershed and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation and Seagrasses in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammed; Thom, Ron; Quattrochi, Dale; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellism Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriguez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    vegetation. The impact of land use change on sediment concentrations was evaluated by analyzing the LSPC and EFDC sediment simulations for the four land use scenarios. Such analysis was also performed for storm and non-storm periods. In- situ data of total suspended sediments (TSS) and light attenuation were used to develop a regression model to estimate light attenuation from TSS. This regression model was used to derive marine light attenuation estimates throughout Mobile bay using the EFDC TSS outputs. The changes in sediment concentrations and associated impact on light attenuation in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on seagreasses and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) habitat. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of sediments due to land use driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs.

  1. Associations between access to farmers' markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-11-01

    We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Eastern North Carolina. Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42.1%) than those who did not (24.0%; P < 0.001). The mean objectively measured distance to the farmers’ markets where women reported shopping was 11.4 (SD 9.0) km (7.1 (SD 5.6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4.0 (SD 3.7) km (2.5 (SD 2.3) miles). Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets.

  2. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for

  3. Shoreline vegetation distribution in relation to wave exposure and bay characteristics in a tropical great lake, Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azza, N.; Van de Koppel, J.; Denny, P.; Kansiime, F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the presumption that wind-wave exposure is a major regulator of vegetation distribution within lakes. Along a 675-km stretch of shore in northern Lake Victoria (Uganda), the pattern of vegetation distribution in relation to shoreline features, and the variation of shoreline swamp are

  4. Production and Field Planting of Vegetative Propagules for Restoration of Redhead Grass and Sago Pondweed in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    1997). Most SAV species reproduce both sexually (flower, pollen , fruit, and seed) and asexually (clonally) for population expansion and long-term...perfoliatus produce abundant seeds (e.g., Yeo 1966; Ailstock and Shafer 2004), seed viability and germination success tend to be relatively low under most...technical note describes techniques for restoring P. perfoliatus and S. pecti- nata in the mesohaline region of Chesapeake Bay through the use of over

  5. Investigation of vegetation-induced drag parameterizations for natural and nature-based extreme events coastal protection in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, S.; Suckale, J.; Ferreira, C.; Arkema, K.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing intensity and frequency of extreme meteorological events around the world highlight the need for resilient coastal defenses. For more than a century, it has been recognized that coastal ecosystems such as marshes and mangroves may mitigate the damage caused by natural hazards such as storms. Aquatic vegetation can potentially attenuate waves and currents through drag forces, with strong implications for sediment transport processes and hence morphological evolution. However, although observations exist that support such a theory, an accurate quantification of the protective role of coastal ecosystems remains a standing challenge for the scientific community, which manifests itself in the large, diverse set of available empirical expressions for parameterizing the fluid-vegetation interaction. We propose a comparison of different state-of-the-art parameterizations for the effect of vegetation on hydrodynamics (particularly, the drag coefficient), with varying degrees of complexity and number of required input variables. The inter-comparison of such alternatives, when validated against field data, can lead to a modeling framework that optimizes the trade-offs between complexity, input requirements and uncertainty in the results. We focus our numerical study on storm events in the marshes and wetlands of Chesapeake Bay. We simulate the hydrodynamics via the Non-Linear Shallow Water Equations, which are in turn solved numerically through a Finite Volume scheme. The simulations are complemented by an ongoing 2-years field campaign, where we continuously collect hydrodynamic measurements such as free surface elevation and vertical velocity profiles, biophysical characteristics of the vegetation and high-resolution topo-bathymetric data of the site. Field measurements are used for calibration and validation purposes. We also investigate some implications on sediment transport processes. We expect that results from our study can support policy makers and

  6. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  7. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Khanna

    Full Text Available The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  8. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of β-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81 mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), β-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and β-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands.

  9. Late-glacial and Holocene record of vegetation and climate from Cynthia Bay, Lake St Clair, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, F. V. L.; Colhoun, E. A.; Barton, C. E.

    2000-10-01

    A Late-glacial-Holocene pollen record was obtained from a 3.96 m sediment core taken from Lake St Clair, central Tasmania. Modern vegetation and pollen analyses formed the basis for interpretation of the vegetation and climate history. Following deglaciation and before ca. 18450 yr BP Podocarpus lawrencei coniferous heath and Astelia-Plantago wet alpine herbfield became established at Lake St Clair. A distinct Poaceae-Plantago peak occurs between 18450 and 11210 yr BP and a mean annual temperature depression from ca. 6.2°C to 3°C below present is inferred for this period. The marked reduction in Podocarpus and strong increase of Poaceae suggests reduced precipitation levels during the period of widespread deglaciation (ca. 18.5-11 kyr BP). The local Late Pleistocene-Holocene non-forest to forest biostratigraphical boundary is dated at 11.2 kyr BP. It is characterised by expansion of the subalpine taxa Athrotaxis/Diselma with Nothofagus gunnii, and by the establishment of Nothofagus cunninghamii with Eucalyptus spp. A Phyllocladus bulge prior to the expansion of Nothofagus cunninghamii, reported at other Tasmanian sites, is not present at Lake St Clair. Nothofagus cunninghamii cool temperate rainforest peaked at 7800 yr BP, probably under wetter climatic conditions than present. The maximum development of rainforest in the early-middle Holocene may indicate that the temperature was slightly warmer than present, but the evidence is not definitive. The expansion of Eucalyptus spp. and Poaceae after 6000 yr BP may be partly a disclimax effect as a result of Aboriginal burning, but appears also to reflect reduced precipitation. The changes in vegetation and inferred climate can be explained by major changes in synoptic patterns of southern Australia and the adjacent southwest Pacific.

  10. Flow, sedimentation, and biomass production on a vegetated salt marsh in South Carolina: toward a predictive model of marsh morphologic and ecologic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Mudd, S. M.; Morris, J. T.; Furbish, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    A 1-D model for exploring the interaction between hydrodynamics, sedimentation, and plant community evolution on a salt marsh populated by Spartina alterniflora is developed. In the model tidally induced flows over marsh platforms are affected by S. alterniflora through drag forces. In general macrophyte characteristics are determined by a wide range of processes; here, based on field studies at North Inlet estuary, South Carolina, the biomass of the S. alterniflora on the marsh platform is simply related to their time of submergence under tidally induced flows. Additionally, field data collected at North Inlet are used to relate biomass to plant area per unit volume, stem diameter, and an empirical drag coefficient. Sedimentation is also related to biomass, through either organogenic deposition or trapping of suspended sediment particles. The morphologic evolution of simulated marshes is explored by varying the sedimentation process and the rate of sea level rise. Different sedimentation processes result in marshes with different morphologies. An organogenic marsh is predicted to evolve under a regime of steady sea level rise into a platform with a relatively flat surface, whereas a marsh developed primarily through a trapping mechanism is predicted to have a surface that slopes gently away from the salt marsh creek. As predicted by 0-D modeling studies, sea level rise may be accommodated up to a certain critical sea level rise rate, after which the salt marsh platform will drown. Marshes that accrete through sediment trapping adjust to changes in sea level more rapidly than marshes that accrete through organogenic deposition.

  11. 78 FR 56611 - Safety Zone, Shallowbag Bay; Manteo, NC; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...: A. Background On October 4, 2013 fireworks will be launched from a barge located in Shallowbag Bay in Manteo, North Carolina as part of the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. The temporary safety zone...

  12. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  13. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  14. Movements of a loggerhead sea turtle found on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting females were monitored on the beach between Sandbridge and the North Carolina state line by personnel from the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge (BBNWR). On...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and rare plants in North Carolina. Vector polygons in the data set...

  16. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  17. South Carolina's forests, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner

    1998-01-01

    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the seventh inventory of South Carolina’s forest re-sources. Data on the extent, condition, and classification of forest land and associated timber volumes, growth, removals, and mortality are described and interpreted. Whereas data on nontimber commodities associated with forests were also collected,...

  18. Carolinas Communication Annual, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, David B.

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 issue of "Carolinas Communication Annual" contains the following articles: "Give Me That Old Time Religion?: A Study of Religious Themes in the Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan" (John S. Seiter); "The Three Stooges versus the Third Reich" (Roy Schwartzman); "Interdisciplinary Team Teaching: Implementing…

  19. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Depressional Forested Wetland in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    Depressional forested wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays are common land features in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern US. Those wetlands play important roles in providing wildlife habitats, water quality improvement, and carbon sequestration. Great stresses have been imposed on those important ecosystems...

  20. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  1. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  2. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: HABITATS (Habitats Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and coastal...

  3. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  4. Galveston Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary is located on the upper Texas Gulf coast (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). It is composed of four major sub-bays—Galveston, Trinity, East, and West Bays. It is Texas’ largest estuary on the Gulf Coast with a total area of 155,399 hectares (384,000 acres) and 1,885 km (1,171 miles) of shoreline (Burgan and Engle, 2006). The volume of the bay has increased over the past 50 years due to subsidence, dredging, and sea level rise. Outside of ship channels, the maximum depth is only 3.7 m (12 ft), with the average depth ranging from 1.2 m (4 ft) to 2.4 m (8 ft)— even shallower in areas with widespread oyster reefs (Lester and Gonzalez, 2002). The tidal range is less than 0.9 m (3 ft), but water levels and circulation are highly influenced by wind. The estuary was formed in a drowned river delta, and its bayous were once channels of the Brazos and Trinity Rivers. Today, the watersheds surrounding the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, along with many other smaller bayous, feed into the bay. The entire Galveston Bay watershed is 85,470 km2 (33,000 miles2 ) large (Figure 1). Galveston Island, a 5,000 year old sand bar that lies at the western edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf of Mexico, impedes the freshwater flow of the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers into the Gulf, the majority of which comes from the Trinity. The Bolivar Peninsula lies at the eastern edge of the bay’s opening into the Gulf. Water flows into the Gulf at Bolivar Roads, 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 Galveston Pass, between Galveston Island and Bolivar Peninsula, and at San Luis Pass, between the western side of Galveston Island and Follets Island.

  5. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  6. Carolina Sandhills NWR Flora and Fauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This list was complied by members of the South Carolina Association of Naturalists on October 28, 2007 at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. The list...

  7. Bayes and empirical Bayes: do they merge?

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Sonia; Scricciolo, Catia

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian inference is attractive for its coherence and good frequentist properties. However, it is a common experience that eliciting a honest prior may be difficult and, in practice, people often take an {\\em empirical Bayes} approach, plugging empirical estimates of the prior hyperparameters into the posterior distribution. Even if not rigorously justified, the underlying idea is that, when the sample size is large, empirical Bayes leads to "similar" inferential answers. Yet, precise mathematical results seem to be missing. In this work, we give a more rigorous justification in terms of merging of Bayes and empirical Bayes posterior distributions. We consider two notions of merging: Bayesian weak merging and frequentist merging in total variation. Since weak merging is related to consistency, we provide sufficient conditions for consistency of empirical Bayes posteriors. Also, we show that, under regularity conditions, the empirical Bayes procedure asymptotically selects the value of the hyperparameter for ...

  8. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  9. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  10. Report of Alaska waterfowl investigations, summer 1941, lower Yukon River, Chevak, Hooper Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigated Hooper Bay, Chevak, Inland, Kashunuk village, areas. Covers mammals, birds, plants, vegetation, harvest and hunting, predation, marine mammals, climate,...

  11. Little River Inlet Navigation Project, Brunswick County, North Carolina and Horry County, South Carolina. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    truitti + + Phylum Cnidaria Ectopleura duinorti-pri + + Turritopsis nutricula + + Hydractiniidac (undet.) + Bougainvillia rugosa + Carveia franciscana...Department of Commerce Forest Service, USDA Soil Conservation Service, USDA Department of Health , Education, and Welfare Department of Housing and...Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Resources South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department South Carolina Department of Health and

  12. 75 FR 65695 - North Carolina Disaster Number NC-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... following areas as adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage and Economic... Carolina: Bladen, Columbus, Edgecombe, Greene, New Hanover, Sampson, Wilson. South Carolina: Horry....

  13. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  14. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  15. Health and safety on North Carolina farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Many rural areas in North Carolina do not receive the professional health care they deserve. North Carolina Farm Bureau recognized this unfilled need and implemented its Healthy Living for a Lifetime program in 2010. This initiative is one way to help improve the health of the state's 52,000 family farmers.

  16. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  17. CASCO BAY PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  18. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  19. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  20. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  1. 76 FR 11522 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public Service... not have access to ADAMS, or who encounter problems in accessing the documents located in...

  2. 76 FR 77021 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company, North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency... Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are... single unit Westinghouse three-loop pressurized water reactor located in Wake and Chatham Counties,...

  3. 76 FR 77024 - In the Matter of Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Carolina Power & Light Company North Carolina Eastern, Municipal Power Agency, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving Indirect Transfer of Control of Licenses I Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) and North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency are the owners of...

  4. The Russell gold deposit, Carolina Slate Belt, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.; Cunningham, C.G.; Logan, M.A.V.; Seal, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Gold deposits have been mined in the Carolina slate belt from the early 1800s to recent times, with most of the production from large mines in South Carolina. The Russell mine, one of the larger producers in North Carolina, is located in the central Uwharrie Mountains, and produced over 470 kg of gold. Ore grades averaged about 3.4 grams per tonne (g/ t), with higher-grade zones reported. The Russell deposit is interpreted to be a sediment-hosted, gold-rich, base-metal poor, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in which gold was remobilized, in part, during Ordovician metamorphism. The ore was deposited syngenetically with laminated siltstones of the late Proterozoic Tillery Formation that have been metamorphosed to a lower greenschist facies. The Tillery Formation regionally overlies subaerial to shallow marine rhyolitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Uwharrie Formation and underlies the marine volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Cid Formation. Recent mapping has shown that a rhyolitic dome near the Russell mine was extruded during the deposition of the lower part of the Tillery Formation, at about the same time as ore deposition. Relict mafic, rock fragments present in the ore zones suggest contemporaneous bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) volcanism. The maximum formation age of the Russell deposit is younger than 558 Ma, which is similar to that of the larger, well known Brewer, Haile, and Ridgeway deposits of South Carolina. Gold was mined from at least six zones that are parallel to the regional metamorphic foliation. These strongly deformed zones consist of northeast-trending folds, high-angle reverse faults, and asymmetric doubly plunging folds overturned to the southeast. The dominant structure at the mine is an asymmetric doubly plunging anticline with the axis trending N 45?? E, probably related to late Ordovician (456 ?? 2 Ma) regional metamorphism and deformation. Two stages of pyrite growth are recognized. Stage 1, primary, spongy pyrite, is

  5. [Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives in science and mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    On December 19, 1991, South Carolina`s Governor, established the Governor`s Mathematics and Sciences Advisory Board (MSAB) to articulate a vision and develop a statewide plan for improving science and mathematics education in South Carolina. The MSAB recognized that systemic change must occur if the achievement levels of students in South Carolina are to improve in a dramatic way. The MSAB holds two fundamental beliefs about systemic change: (1) All the elements of the science and mathematics education system must be working in harmony towards the same vision; and (2) Each element of the system must be held against high standards and progress must be assessed regularly against these standards.

  6. A study of the breast cancer dynamics in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G; Lai, J J

    1997-11-01

    This work is concerned with the study of breast cancer incidence in the State of North Carolina. Methodologically, the current analysis illustrates the importance of spatiotemporal random field modelling and introduces a mode of reasoning that is based on a combination of inductive and deductive processes. The composite space/time analysis utilizes the variability characteristics of incidence and the mathematical features of the random field model to fit it to the data. The analysis is significantly general and can efficiently represent non-homogeneous and non-stationary characteristics of breast cancer variation. Incidence predictions are produced using data at the same time period as well as data from other time periods and disease registries. The random field provides a rigorous and systematic method for generating detailed maps, which offer a quantitative description of the incidence variation from place to place and from time to time, together with a measure of the accuracy of the incidence maps. Spatiotemporal mapping accounts for the geographical locations and the time instants of the incidence observations, which is not usually the case with most empirical Bayes methods. It is also more accurate than purely spatial statistics methods, and can offer valuable information about the breast cancer risk and dynamics in North Carolina. Field studies could be initialized in high-rate areas identified by the maps in an effort to uncover environmental or life-style factors that might be responsible for the high risk rates. Also, the incidence maps can help elucidate causal mechanisms, explain disease occurrences at a certain scale, and offer guidance in health management and administration.

  7. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  8. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  9. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  10. Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Bay Tributary Strategies were developed by the seven watershed jurisdictions and outlined the river basin-specific implementation activities to reduce nutrient and sediment pollutant loads from point and nonpoint sources.

  11. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  12. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  13. An Ophiostoma sp. causing a vascular wilt disease of red bay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng) is also pathogenic to other species in the Lauraceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Fraedrich

    2007-01-01

    Extensive mortality of red bay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng) has been observed in the coastal plains of South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Dead and dying trees exhibit wilt-like symptoms, and a fungus (an Ophiostoma sp.) and an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus [Eichhoff]) have been implicated in...

  14. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company......’s purpose: selling millions of goods, some of which are ‘designer’ items and some of which are considered design icons....

  15. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  4. Libraries in North Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northcarolina.html Libraries in North Carolina To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. Asheville Mountain AHEC (MAHEC) Library and Knowledge Services 121 Hendersonville Rd. Asheville, NC ...

  5. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  6. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Calhoun County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  7. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Abbeville County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  8. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  9. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Edgefield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  10. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Barnwell County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  11. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  12. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  13. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  14. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  15. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. VEGETATIONAL CHANGES FOLLOWING VOLCANIC ERUPTIVE EVENTS FROM PHYTOLITH ANALYSIS FROM LAKE POUKAWA CORE, HAWKES BAY, NEW ZEALAND%新西兰霍克湾普卡瓦湖岩芯植硅体分析所揭示的火山喷发事件后的植被变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnA.CARTER

    2003-01-01

    New information on the response of vegetation to air-fall volcanic ash is provided by analysis of phytolithsfrom sediments containing major tephra beds. The top 50 m of a 197-m core in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand provide a continuousvegetation record spanning the time period from approximately 50 ka BP to the present. Significant changes in phytolithassemblages occur at the same depth as four major tephra, indicating a sharp decline in trees and shrubs and a surge in grassand Cyperaceae. A series of successional changes follow each major tephra fall. Initially the woody taxa are killed off andreplaced by grass and Cyperaceae that rapidly colonise the fresh surface. Trees and or shrubs succeed the grass and Cyperaceaeafter a significant lag.%含火山灰层沉积的植硅体分析为了解植被对从空中下降的火山灰的反应提供新的信息.新西兰霍克湾的一个深197m钻孔的上部50 m样品,提供了距今约50ka以来连续的植被记录.植硅体组合在4个主要的火山灰层都发生了明显的变化,表现在树木和灌木的急剧下降及禾草类和莎草科的繁盛.在每次火山灰降落后,都会有一系列的继后变化,木本类最早死亡,禾草类和莎草科取而代之,并很快占据裸露的地表.经过一个相当长的滞后时间,树木和/或灌木重新替代草本和莎草科.

  20. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  1. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  2. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  3. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  4. Wildlife underpasses on U.S. 64 in North Carolina: integrating management and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark D.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Wilson, Travis W.; Cox, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter on wildlife underpasses on U.S. Highway 64 in North Carolina is from a book on highways, wildlife, and habitat connectivity. U.S. 64 is an important route in North Carolina connecting major population centers and highways that underwent a major upgrade from a two-lane rural road to a major highway. New routes were proposed for a large portion of the project (28 miles) to improve driver safety and increase speed limits to 70 miles per hour (from the previously posted 55 mph). The authors review the geographical, historical, political, and social setting; the roadway and environmental issues; the rationale for the project; critical factors; outcomes of the project; and lessons learned. The area of the project supports high wildlife densities, including American black bears, white-tailed deer, red wolves, and bobcats. Critical factors to be incorporated into wildlife mitigation measures: driver safety, underpass construction costs, and permitting by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The U.S. 64 underpasses, completed in 2005, were the first in North Carolina designed specifically for wildlife and according to specifications provided by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC). The authors describe the underpass specifications recommended based on this project, including size, control of public access, fencing, gates, and maintenance (notably vegetation management). The authors conclude that one of the most beneficial outcomes of this project was the fact that, since the completion of the U.S. 64 underpasses, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) routinely considers wildlife passageways for road projects in the state.

  5. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  6. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  9. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  15. Habitat Management Plan for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Carolina Sandhills NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Carolina...

  16. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  17. How field monitoring of green infrastructure stormwater practices has led to changes in North Carolina's Stormwater BMP design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. F.; Winston, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Green Infrastructure stormwater management is comprised of many biologically-based stormwater treatment practices. Two of which, bioretention and level spreader- vegetative filter strips, have been extensively studied at over 10 different field locations across North Carolina by NC State University. The result of this research has been dramatic changes to the state of North Carolina's stormwater BMP Design Manual, which now allows a greater amount of flexibility for the design of each practice than most other design manuals. The purpose of this presentation is to present a summary of research conducted in North Carolina and associate that research with specific changes made in the state's design guidance for both bioretention (Table 1) and level spreader- vegetated filter strip systems (Table 2). Among the changes are type of vegetation, ratio of hydraulic loading, underdrainage configuration, and fill media selection. References (in print) associated with the tables are listed below: Hathaway, J.M. and W.F. Hunt. 2008. Field Evaluation of Level Spreaders in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 134(4):538-542. Hunt, W.F., A.R. Jarrett, J.T. Smith, L.J. Sharkey. 2006. Evaluating Bioretention Hydrology and Nutrient Removal at Three Field Sites in North Carolina. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 132 (6): 600-608. Hunt, W.F., J.M. Hathaway, R.J. Winston, and S.J. Jadlocki. 2010. Runoff Volume Reduction by a Level Spreader - Vegetated Filter Strip System in Suburban Charlotte, NC. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 15(6): 399-503. Jones, M.P. and W.F. Hunt. 2009. Bioretention Impact on Runoff Temperature in Trout Sensitive Waters. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 135(8): 577-585. Li, H., L.J. Sharkey, W.F. Hunt, A.P. Davis. 2009. Mitigation of Impervious Surface Hydrology using Bioretention in North Carolina and Maryland. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14(4): 407-415. Line, D.E. and W.F. Hunt. 2009

  18. 环杭州湾地区自然植被净初级生产力的变化特征及其成因%Characters of natural vegetation net primary productivity and their driving factors in the region around Hangzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙善磊; 周锁铨; 薛根元; 娄伟平; 吉宗伟; 石建红

    2011-01-01

    利用1971—2006年环杭州湾地区25个气象站的降水、温度和云量资料及全球CO2年平均体积分数资料,采用LPJ全球动态植被模式(Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model),通过模拟环杭州湾地区的植被年净初级生产力(Annual Net Primary Productivity,ANPP),分析了该地区ANPP的变化特征,并探讨了植被ANPP变化的可能原因。结果表明:1)就环杭州湾地区,36a间植被ANPP均表现出不同程度的增加,尤其以嘉兴市北部、绍兴市东部较明显;全区平均增加速率为1.5243g·m-2·a-2;2)通过多元线性回归分析发现,环杭州湾地区平均云量与植被ANPP的关系最为密切,偏相关系数为-0.5175,而温度、降水与植被ANPP的关系不明显;同时,植被ANPP对气候变化的响应存在一定的地域性差异;3)在全区平均情况下,36a间由温度下降、降水增加、云量减小、CO2体积分数升高引起的植被ANPP变化趋势分别为-0.0813、-0.0171、0.7601、0.8673g·m-2·a-2,其对应的贡献率分别为-5.18%、-1.09%、48.38%、55.21%。由此可见,该地区植被ANPP变化的主要强迫因子是CO2体积分数和云量,而降水变化对植被ANNP的变化作用不大。%Based on data of the precipitation,temperature and cloud cover of 25 stations in Hangzhou Bay region and the global annual volume fraction of CO2 from 1971 to 2006,the annual vegetation net primary productivity (ANPP) is simulated by the LPJ mode l (Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamic global vegetation model).The temporal and spatial characters of the ANPP in the region are analyzed and the driving factors of ANPP are further investigated.Results show that:1)The average increasing rate of ANPP is 1.524 3 g·m-2·a-2 in the whole region.However,ANPP spatially show different increasing rates from 1971 to 2006,with the significant rate in the north of Jiaxing and the east of Shaoxing.2) The multiple linear regression analysis shows that there is a

  19. Newspaper Advertising Trends and Teacher Supply in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Graham, Patricia L.

    This year-long research project documented critical issues of supply and demand for teachers in the Carolinas. Researchers focused on the number of public and private school education positions advertised in the four major newspapers serving South Carolina and the Charlotte metropolitan region of North Carolina. They documented advertising trends…

  20. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the adequate provision for waste disposal is an essential part of the infrastructure needed in the development of Richards Bay as a deepwater harbour and industrial/metropolitan area. Having considered various options for waste...

  1. Vegetation and Environmental Gradients of the Prudhoe Bay Region, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    up to 0.2 m tall and 0.5 m in diameter (Everett The morphology of the North Slope in general 1980d). has been reviewed by H.J. Walker (1973). The...vascular flora by families. Fhe high percentagesPyrolacefe 2 0.84 Ericaceae 5 2.10 for the families Poaceae , Cyperaceae, Brassica- Primulaceae 4 1.68...19. versity of Washington, p. 46-50. Churchill, E.D. (1955) Phytosociological and en- Chapin, F.S., 111 (1973) Morphological and physi- vironmental

  2. Audubon vegetation monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the summary and the analysis of vegetative data for the Audubon Refuge from NPWRC. The data included measurements of vegetation density, vegetation...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. The amphibians and reptiles of the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Chesterfield County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports the results of a survey of the amphibians and reptiles occurring in the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, Chesterfield County, South...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  9. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  10. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  11. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  12. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  13. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  14. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  15. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  16. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  17. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  18. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  19. 2008 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) South Carolina Lidar - Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  1. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  2. RCP Local School Projects in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports prepared in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document discusses 4 major educational programs conducted in North Carolina since 1965. "The Story of Merger and Educational Change in Moore County" is a report relating to school redistricting; "The Mathematics Project in Greensboro"…

  3. RCP Local School Projects in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports of projects and programs operating in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document highlights major curriculum-change programs in South Carolina which were initiated in 1966. The 4 projects reported are "Curriculum Study in Berkeley County," which had as its purpose the identification and…

  4. 40 CFR 81.334 - North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.334 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... County X Wayne County X Wilkes County X Wilson County X Yadkin County X Yancey County X North Carolina... County X Wayne County X Wilkes County X Wilson County X Yadkin County X Yancey County X North...

  5. South Carolina's forest resources - 2000 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2001-01-01

    This bulletin highlights the principal findings of an annual inventory of South Carolina's forest resources. Data summaries are based upon 60 percent of the plots in the State. Additional data summaries and bulletins will be published as the full set of plots are completed.

  6. Turkey Creek, Sumter County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    adopted unit hydrographs werr developed using rl f above described procedure. Unit hydrograph basic data are given ir Table 6 and the unit hydrograph...MEMBERS John A. Andrea Spartanburg Water Works P. O. Box 231 Spartanburg, S. C. Harold T. Babb Carolinas-Virginia Nuclear Power Asso. Parr, S. C. W

  7. North Carolina Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in foods and nutrition for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline, including…

  8. South Carolina Guide for Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, Carmen; Evans, Hattie

    South Carolina's Guide to Child Development addresses three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The first unit of the guide, Child Development I, concerns the processes of understanding prenatal development, caring for an infant, providing care for children between 1 and 6 years of age, and delivering care for the…

  9. Does prescribed fire benefit wetland vegetation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, C.; Bounds, D.L.; Ruby, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fire on wetland vegetation in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States are poorly known, despite the historical use of fire by federal, state, and private landowners in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Prescribed fire is widely used by land managers to promote vegetation that is beneficial to migratory waterfowl, muskrats, and other native wildlife and to reduce competition from less desirable plant species. We compared vegetative response to two fire rotations, annual burns and 3-year burns, and two control sites, Control 1 and Control 2. We tested the effects of fire within six tidal marsh wetlands at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay Wildlife Management Area in Maryland. We examined changes in total live biomass (all species), total stem density, litter, and changes in live biomass and stem density of four dominant wetland plant species (11 variables). Our results suggest that annual prescribed fires will decrease the accumulation of litter, increase the biomass and stem densities of some wetland plants generally considered less desirable for wildlife, and have little or no effect on other wetland plants previously thought to benefit from fire. ?? 2011 US Government.

  10. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  11. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  12. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  13. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  14. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gazeau

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic and benthic incubations (bare and Posidonia oceanica vegetated sediments were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain. Results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was on average near metabolic balance (−4.6±5.9 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and the benthic compartment, which was autotrophic (17.6±8.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. During two cruises in March and June 2002, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at several stations in the bay to estimate the whole-system metabolism and to examine its relationship with partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU spatial patterns. Moreover, during the second cruise, when the residence time of water was long enough, net ecosystem production (NEP estimates based on incubations were compared, over the Posidonia oceanica meadow, to rates derived from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and oxygen (O2 mass balance budgets. These budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the planktonic heterotrophy in shallow waters relative to the maximum depth of the bay (55 m. This generated a horizontal gradient from autotrophic or balanced communities in the shallow seagrass-covered areas, to strongly heterotrophic communities in deeper areas of the bay. It seems therefore that, on an annual scale in the whole bay, the organic matter production by the Posidonia oceanica may not be sufficient to fully compensate the heterotrophy of the planktonic compartment, which may require external organic carbon inputs, most likely from land.

  15. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  16. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  17. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  18. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  19. The Bayes Inference Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  20. SODAR DATA FROM OYSTER BAY AT WINYAH BAY NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.; Kohn, J.; Rigas, N.; Boessneck, E.; Kress, E.; Gayes, P.

    2013-04-29

    The SecondWind Triton® is a SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) sonic wind profiler (Triton® sodar) system capable of profiling the wind characteristics up to 200m above the instrument. SODAR systems transmit acoustic chirps into the atmosphere and measure the backscattered signal returned to the device. The primary source of acoustic scattering is variations in air temperature, which cause changes in the refractive index of sound. By measuring the Doppler-shifted frequency of these returned signals, the Triton® can calculate the wind’s speed and direction for the volume of air above the instrument, measured at ten fixed heights, known as station heights. The Triton® is specifically designed for the purpose of wind energy resource assessment as it can remotely capture wind data at heights above ground where wind turbine rotors operate. The measurements made include horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and turbulence. Other integrated sensors provide time and location via GPS, barometric pressure, humidity, and the tilt of the instrument. The study area is located east of Georgetown, South Carolina in North Inlet - Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The monitoring period for data in this report begins 5/14/2009 9:30:00 AM EST and ends 8/2/2010 11:40:00 AM EST.

  1. Utilization of EREP data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S190A, S190B, and S192 photographs and imagery were studied, using standard air-photo interpretation techniques supplemented by color additive viewing and density slicing. The EREP data were found to have potential usefulness for natural resource inventory work, water quality monitoring, and land use mapping for specific problems at scales up to 1:30,000. Distinctions between forest types in North Carolina are limited to conifers, mixed conifer-hardwoods, and hardwoods. Geologic interpretation was limited to detection of lineaments; lithologic differentiation and soil group mapping have proved infeasible in North Carolina except for differentiation of wetland soils in the coastal plain. Imagery from the S192 multispectral scanner has proved to be capable of useful discriminations for vegetation and crop analysis.

  2. Bayes Multiple Decision Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wensong

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach for this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for the use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow in this paper a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through...

  3. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  4. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  5. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  6. Total Vegetation 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are polygons that contain vegetated pixels in the May, 2002 imagery from aerial overflight of the Grand Canyon. Vegetation was mapped between stage elevations...

  7. Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD) hosts information on all plant communities in the Netherlands. This substantial archive consists of over 600.000 recent and historic vegetation descriptions. The data provide information on more than 85 years of vegetation recording in various habitats covering te

  8. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  9. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  10. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    loblolly pine plantations . Rates of forested wetland loss in the South were greatest from the 1950’s to the 1970’s, but losses still occur due to...are all suitable. Managed forests and pine plantations are considered suitable only if soils, litter, and ground-layer vegetation have not been...tree diameter, is a measure of the dominance and biomass of trees in a forest stand. VCTDEN applies to all functions. In South Carolina Headwater

  11. Dioxin contamination in Sampit River: Winyah Bay system, Georgetown County South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Double-crested cormorants feeding in the Sampit River below the International Paperr co. discharge were collected for dioxin analyses. Whole body samples were...

  12. H08781: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Vicinity of Winyah Bay Entrance, South Carolina, 1964-06-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  14. F00202: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Vicinity of Winyah Bay Entrance, South Carolina, 1964-06-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  16. 2012 NOAA Color MLLW Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  17. H08768: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Bull Bay, South Carolina, 1963-12-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H08778: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Bull Bay, South Carolina, 1964-05-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color MLLW Mosaic of Long Bay, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  20. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  1. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  2. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit One: Coastal Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Presented are teaching materials designed to supplement North Carolina's course of study plans in earth science for the intermediate grades and junior high schools. This manual is one of a collection produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under a Sea Grant project entitled "Man and the Seacoast." Included are 27…

  3. North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, North Carolina, under the leadership of Governor Mike Easley and the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission, has worked to improve understanding of a critical factor in student learning and teacher retention: the conditions under which teachers work. In 2006, 66 percent (more than 75,000) school-based licensed…

  4. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of South Carolina dated 03/29/2013. Incident: Windsor Green Condo Complex Fire. Incident Period: 03/16/2013....

  5. Perceptions of Innovations: An Examination of South Carolina Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of South Carolina public school superintendents regarding individual and organizational attitudes toward innovation. Specific characteristics of South Carolina public school superintendents and public school districts, including enrollment, poverty level, school report card grades, age,…

  6. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  7. Terrapene carolina triunguis (three-toed box turtle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory K. Adams; Jennifer H. Adams

    2013-01-01

    Terrapene carolina triunguis is the western-most subspecies of T. carolina and has a range that stretches from southeast Kansas and central Missouri south to the Gulf Coast (Conant and Collins 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts....

  8. Community College Laws of North Carolina, 1987 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This publication contains the laws governing the community college system of North Carolina (Chapter 115D of the General Statutes of North Carolina, and other relevant statutes in Chapters 115, 115B, and 116). Chapter 115D contains provisions applying to state administration, local administration, financial support, budgeting, accounting, and…

  9. Impact of marine inundation after a period of drought on the lakeshore vegetation of Lake St Lucia, South Africa : resilience of estuarine vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, E. J. J.; Ellery, W. N.; Dullo, B. W.; Grootjans, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The shore of Lake St Lucia in the vicinity of Catalina Bay, in the southern part of the lake, receives freshwater input as surface and groundwater seepage from the adjacent elevated coastal plain. Vegetation, water quality and landform were recorded on the lakeshore and on the dry lakebed near one o

  10. Optics professional development in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Pamela O.; Hilliard-Clark, Joyce; Bowles, Tuere

    2010-08-01

    Using the Photonics Leaders (PL2) program model of recruitment and retention, photonics content, parental engagement, internship, and a hybrid virtual format, the session's goal is to inform outreach coordinators and scientists of strategies used to develop teachers' awareness and skills in teaching Optics to ethnically diverse students who lack traditional experiences in the discipline. The National Science Foundation (NSF) Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) funded program highlights initial findings of a pilot study with middle and high school teachers from The Science House at North Carolina State University sharing lessons learned and future scale-up plans.

  11. How does vegetation community shape geomorphological evolution? Tradeoffs among tide, sediment fluxes and vegetation configuration in the Virginia Coast Reserve (VA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Larsen, L.; Fagherazzi, S.; Wiberg, P.

    2016-12-01

    During recent decades coastlines have experienced unprecedented morphological modifications caused by sea level rise, subsidence, extreme events like hurricanes and a reduction of sediment supply. Most previous modeling studies on flow-vegetation-sediment interactions have focused on one specific vegetated community, but we lack a general understanding of the conditions that lead to the emergence of multiple vegetation species feedbacks. Using a modeling approach, this study generates new understanding of how sediment transport and ecogeomorphic interactions involving water flow, sediment, and vegetation influence landscape in coastal wetlands. The broad goal of this project is to distinguish between the influence of saltmarsh and seagrass experiencing different feedback and forcing on sediment deposition. We focus our study on the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER site, where we apply numerical modeling (Delft-3D) and subsequent analyses to determine the sets of environmental conditions under which eco-geomorphological feedbacks drive the wetland system to different landscape structures. Our numerical results show that salt marsh and seagrass reduce the volume of water in a shallow coastal bay up to 15% during each tidal cycle when compared to the case without vegetation. From a morphodynamic point of view, our study reveals the important role that vegetation plays in altering water residence times and increasing sedimentation in the bay. Vegetation also affects bay geomorphology by locally reducing bed shear stress and hence increasing sediment deposition. By evaluating alternative densities, heights and spatial distributions of seagrass and salt marsh, we develop different future projections that should be considered in the design of restoration strategies in shallow coastal bays such as those in the Virginia Coast Reserve.

  12. Vapor Intrusion Facilities - South Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  13. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1958, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, and descriptions of enforcement activities.

  14. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  15. CHWAKA BAY MANGROVE SEDIMENTS, ZANZIBAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed-Studies on Benthic denitrification in the Chwaka bay mangrove. Extensive mangrove ... In this case, six sediment cores were taken randomly from the three study sites as above and a ..... Academic Press. Orlando. pp. 277-293.

  16. Annual report, Bristol Bay, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery management activities for Bristol Bay for 1955, including lists of operators, extensive statistics, descriptions of enforcement activities, and...

  17. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  18. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  19. 77 FR 48150 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Grover Compressor Station. Carolina Gas states that it would convert the three standby compressor units... Energy Regulatory Commission Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 25, Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation (Carolina Gas), 601 Old Taylor...

  20. Bathymetry, substrate and circulation in Westcott Bay, San Juan Islands, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Curran, Chris; Smith, Collin; Schwartz, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore bathymetry, substrate type, and circulation patterns in Westcott Bay, San Juan Islands, Washington, were mapped using two acoustic sonar systems, video and direct sampling of seafloor sediments. The goal of the project was to characterize nearshore habitat and conditions influencing eelgrass (Z. marina) where extensive loss has occurred since 1995. A principal hypothesis for the loss of eelgrass is a recent decrease in light availability for eelgrass growth due to increase in turbidity associated with either an increase in fine sedimentation or biological productivity within the bay. To explore sources for this fine sediment and turbidity, a dual-frequency Biosonics sonar operating at 200 and 430 kHz was used to map seafloor depth, morphology and vegetation along 69 linear kilometers of the bay. The higher frequency 430 kHz system also provided information on particulate concentrations in the water column. A boat-mounted 600 kHz RDI Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was used to map current velocity and direction and water column backscatter intensity along another 29 km, with select measurements made to characterize variations in circulation with tides. An underwater video camera was deployed to ground-truth acoustic data. Seventy one sediment samples were collected to quantify sediment grain size distributions across Westcott Bay. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size at the Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team sediment laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif. These data reveal that the seafloor near the entrance to Westcott Bay is rocky with a complex morphology and covered with dense and diverse benthic vegetation. Current velocities were also measured to be highest at the entrance and along a deep channel extending 1 km into the bay. The substrate is increasingly comprised of finer sediments with distance into Westcott Bay where current velocities are lower. This report describes the data collected and preliminary findings of USGS Cruise B-6

  1. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Kershaw County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Kershaw County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Kershaw County, SC.

  2. 2010 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Sumter County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Sumter County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Sumter County, SC.

  3. Technology Drives Vegetable Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Arobot for vegetable planting is able to examine growing conditions, detect disease of the vegetables and pick up the ripe ones through identifying the color; a tomato tree is able to produce up to 3,000kgs of tomatoes; sweet potatoes are growing in the air; fish and vegeta-bles are living together harmoniously...Viewing these, you may doubt that you were in a fancy world.Actually, you are here at the 12th China (Shouguang) International Vegetable Sci-tech Fair.

  4. Biomass, species composition and diversity of benthic diatoms in mangroves of the Houyu Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Changping; GAO Yahui; LIN Peng

    2005-01-01

    The biomass, species composition and diversity of benthic diatom assemblages in mud-flat soils in Kandelia candel (L.) Druce communities with and without vegetation were studied seasonally at the Houyu Bay in Fuding City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 103taxa were identified (including varieties). Eighty-four taxa were found in the mud-flat with vegetation and 74 taxa in the mud-fiat without vegetation, while the biomass was large in January and April and decreased from July to October. The most abundant species in the mud-flat with vegetation are Nitzschia cocconeiformis, Gyrosigma scalproides and N. Fasciculata, compared with G. Scalproides and N.obtusa var. Scalpelliformis in the mud-flat without vegetation. High H' values at 2 sites during all seasons suggest that diatom assemblages in the sediments of the Houyu Bay represent an original environment. Multi-dimensional scaling of diatom assemblages from mud-flats with and without vegetation shows that a slight seasonal change and only a single association occur in the angroves.

  5. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  6. A predictive model for floating leaf vegetation in the St. Louis River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2014, USEPA staff was asked by MPCA to develop a predictive model for floating leaf vegetation (FLV) in the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE). The existing model (Host et al. 2012) greatly overpredicts FLV in St. Louis Bay probably because it was based on a limited number of...

  7. Floating mats: their occurrence and influence on shoreline distribution of emergent vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azza, N.; Denny, P.; Van de Koppel, J.; Kansiime, F.

    2006-01-01

    1. A study was conducted on the northern shore of Lake Victoria (Uganda) to determine the factors controlling the occurrence of floating root mats and the influence of the floating mats on the distribution of emergent vegetation. 2. Environmental conditions within 78 bays in the study area were char

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2002 (ilgpr2002_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2005 (ilgpr2005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2002 (ilgpr2002_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2001 (ilgpr2001_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2001 (ilgpr2001_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  13. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2002 (ilgpr2002_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. JPEG Images of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data collected by East Carolina University along North Carolina Outer Banks 2002-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2005 (ilgpr2005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2001 (ilgpr2001_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2005 (ilgpr2005_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) trackline navigation collected by East Carolina University along the North Carolina barrier islands in 2005 (ilgpr2005_tracklines.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. JPEG Images of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data collected by East Carolina University along North Carolina Outer Banks 2002-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2002 (ilgpr2002_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  1. Shot navigation for North Carolina barrier island ground penetrating radar collected by East Carolina University in 2001 (ilgpr2001_shots.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  3. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  4. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  5. 75 FR 36292 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... of Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, near Erie, Pennsylvania between 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. on June 26, 2010.... The safety zone will encompass specified waters of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania starting at... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim III, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA...

  6. 77 FR 18739 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim...

  7. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Erie, PA in the Federal Register (77 FR 18739). We received no letters commenting on the proposed rule... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... restrict vessels from a portion of the Presque Island Bay during the Bay Swim V swimming event. The...

  8. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA... portion of Presque Isle bay during the Bay Swim VI swimming event. This temporary safety zone is...

  9. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  10. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  11. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  12. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  13. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  14. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  15. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  16. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  17. Cardiovascular Health of North Carolina Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiao L; Ward, Rachel; Bolin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern North Carolina (ENC). In this study, we investigated cardiometabolic risk in young adults of ENC by sampling entrant undergraduates at East Carolina University (ECU). From June to October of 2010, 525 undergraduates were screened for elevated body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, inactivity, smoking, history of diabetes or hypertension, and family history of coronary disease. Participants were classified as high-risk if they had 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors or as "MetS" if they satisfied the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Forty-four percent of those screened had 2 or more risk factors, 12.5% had 3 or more risk factors, and 1.3% met criteria for MetS. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (27.6%), overweight status (27.2%), and inactivity (27.1%) were leading risks. Females had an increased risk of inactivity compared to males (relative risk [RR] = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.3-2.52). Blacks had a 4-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (RR = 4.21; 95% Cl, 1.0-18.4), and black females had a high risk for obesity (RR = 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-13) and systolic blood pressure elevation (RR = 4.8; 95% Cl, 1.5-15). Students recognized cardiovascular disease as a valid risk to their well-being. ECU undergraduates have a high prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors. High-risk and MetS students recognize cardiovascular disease as a significant health risk, but they mistakenly maintain the self-perception that they are healthy. Efforts to understand risk perception and personal strategies of risk application are needed for this population of young adults.

  18. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  19. Changes in the small-jellyfish community in recent decades in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Song; LI Yinghong; SUN Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    We used long term monitoring data to evaluate changes in abundance and species dominance of small-jellyfish (collected with zooplankton net whose bell diameter was less than 5 cm) between 1991 and 2009 in the Jiaozhou Bay,China.Zooplankton samples were vertically towed with conical plankton net from near-bottom to surface,identified microscopically,and mapped in time-space using Grapher 7.0 and Surfer 8.0.Results show that the abundance of small-jellyfish throughout the bay had been increasing during 2001-2009 on average of 15.2 ind./m3,almost 5 times higher than that between 1991 and 2000.The occurrence of peak abundance shifted from spring to summer after 2000,and two peaks appeared in spring and summer,respectively,after 2005.Both the abundance and the frequency of blooms of small-jellyfish increased after 2000 in the bay.In addition,the biodiversity of jellyfish has increased significantly in recent years with a change in dominant species.Several new dominant species appeared after 2000,including Rathkae octopunctata in winter,Phialidium hemisphaericum in spring,summer,and autumn,Phialucium carolinae in spring,and Pleurobrachia globosa in summer and autumn,while some previous dominant species throughout the 1990s (Eirene ceylonensis,Zanclea costata,Lovenella assimilis,and Muggiaea atlantica) were no longer dominant after 2000.The abundance of small-jellyfish was positively correlated with the density of dinoflagellates,and the abundance of zooplankton.We believe that the changes in smalljellyfish abundance and species composition were the result of eutrophication,aquaculture and coastal construction activities around the bay.Concurrently,seawater warming and salinity decrease in recent decades promoted the growth and reproduction of small-jellyfish in the bay.

  20. Herpetological studies on the carolina sandhills national wildlife refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes information gathered concerning the biology of the amphibians and reptiles of the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge from summer 1995...

  1. HATTERAS_INDEX - Hatteras Island, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Carolina Sandhills NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: McCormick County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  4. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Carolina Sandhills NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  6. North Carolina School Performance Data 2016-2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — 2016-17 State, District, and School Level Drilldown Performance DataPercentages greater than 95 are displayed as >95 and percentages less than 5 are displayed as...

  7. HATTERAS_INDEX - Hatteras Island, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  8. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M. [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Menzel, Michael A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Ford, W. Mark [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Edwards, John W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sheffield, Steven R. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Bunch, Mary S. [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  9. Peat Resources Of North Carolina A Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project is part of DOE Caroliina’s inventory of the peat resources of the United States. With support from DOE and the North Carolina Energy Institute we are...

  10. The fishes of the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes data from a survey of fish species at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Data was collected from January of 1976 to August of 1977....

  11. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  12. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  13. Inventory and Monitoring Plan: Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) is to describe and recommend what natural resource surveys will be conducted at the Carolina Sandhills NWR...

  14. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  15. 33 CFR 165.1122 - San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches-Regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and... Coast Guard District § 165.1122 San Diego Bay, Mission Bay and their Approaches—Regulated navigation... waters of San Diego Bay, Mission Bay, and their approaches encompassed by a line commencing at Point La...

  16. Whole-system metabolism and CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean Bay dominated by seagrass beds (Palma Bay, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Borges

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between whole-system metabolism estimates based on planktonic and benthic incubations (bare sediments and seagrass, Posidonia oceanica meadows, and CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface were examined in the Bay of Palma (Mallorca, Spain during two cruises in March and June 2002. Moreover, planktonic and benthic incubations were performed at monthly intervals from March 2001 to October 2002 in a seagrass vegetated area of the bay. From the annual study, results showed a contrast between the planktonic compartment, which was heterotrophic during most of the year, except for occasional bloom episodes, and the benthic compartment, which was slightly autotrophic. Whereas the seagrass community was autotrophic, the excess organic carbon production therein could only balance the excess respiration of the planktonic compartment in shallow waters (2 fields and fluxes across the bay observed during the two extensive cruises in 2002. Finally, dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen budgets provided NEP estimates in fair agreement with those derived from direct metabolic estimates based on incubated samples over the Posidonia oceanica meadow.

  17. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  18. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  19. Bayes' postulate for trinomial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M. A.; Polpo, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss Bayes' postulate and its interpretation. We extend the binomial trial method proposed by de Finetti [1] to trinomial trials, for which we argue that the consideration of equiprobability a priori for the possible outcomes of the trinomial trials implies that the parameter vector has Dirichlet(1,1) as prior. Based on this result, we agree with Stigler [2] in that the notion in Bayes' postulate stating "absolutely know nothing" is related to the possible outcomes of an experiment and not to "non-information" about the parameter.

  20. University of North Carolina's experience with state medical assistance teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Jeff; Murtaugh, Lisa; Hoffman, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Events in the last several years have shown a clear need for better preparation regarding disaster management. In an effort to improve this preparation, North Carolina implemented state medical assistant teams to provide alternative care facilities, decontamination facilities, and shelter assistance during times of disaster. This article explores these teams from the perspective of the University of North Carolina, which serves as a lead agency for one of these teams. Key components of the team, training provided, and lessons learned will be discussed.

  1. Northward extension of Carolina slate belt stratigraphy and structure, South-Central Virginia: Results from geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Peper, J.D.; Burton, W.C.; Horton, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping in south-central Virginia demonstrates that the stratigraphy and structure of the Carolina slate belt extend northward across a steep thermal gradient into upper amphibolite-facies correlative gneiss and schist. The Neoproterozoic greenschist-facies Hyco, Aaron, and Virgilina Formations were traced northward from their type localities near Virgilina, Virginia, along a simple, upright, northeast-trending isoclinal syncline. This syncline is called the Dryburg syncline and is a northern extension of the more complex Virgilina synclinorium. Progressively higher-grade equivalents of the Hyco and Aaron Formations were mapped northward along the axial trace of the refolded and westwardly-overturned Dryburg syncline through the Keysville and Green Bay 7.5-minute quadrangles, and across the northern end of the Carolina slate belt as interpreted on previous geologic maps. Hyco rocks, including felsic metatuff, metawacke, and amphibolite, become gneisses upgrade with areas of local anatexis and the segregation of granitic melt into leucosomes with biotite selvages. Phyllite of the Aaron Formation becomes garnet-bearing mica schist. Aaron Formation rocks disconformably overlie the primarily felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Hyco Formation as evidenced by repeated truncation of internal contacts within the Hyco on both limbs of the Dryburg syncline at the Aaron-Hyco contact. East-northeast-trending isograds, defined successively by the first appearance of garnet, then kyanite ?? staurolite in sufficiently aluminous rocks, are superposed on the stratigraphic units and synclinal structure at moderate to high angles to strike. The textural distinction between gneisses and identifiable sedimentary structures occurs near the kyanite ?? staurolite-in isograd. Development of the steep thermal gradient and regional penetrative fabric is interpreted to result from emplacement of the Goochland terrane adjacent to the northern end of the slate belt during

  2. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  3. Biodiversity and movement patterns of snakes in the carolina sandhills wildlife refuge of South Carolina, 2006 intermediate report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an update on ongoing snake-specific herpetology research at Carolina Sandhills NWR by Kevin Messenger. Report contains methods, data from...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  5. Vegetated land cover near residence is associated with ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Background: Greater exposure to urban green spaces has been linked to reduced risks of depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and premature death. Alleviation of chronic stress is a hypothesized pathway to improved health. Previous studies linked chronic stress with biomarker-based measures of physiological dysregulation known as allostatic load. This study aimed to assess the relationship between vegetated land cover near residences and allostatic load. Methods: This cross-sectional population-based study involved 204 adult residents of the Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina metropolitan area. Exposure was quantified using high-resolution metrics of trees and herbaceous vegetation within 500 m of each residence derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EnviroAtlas land cover dataset. Eighteen biomarkers of immune, neuroendocrine, and metabolic functions were measured in serum or saliva samples. Allostatic load was defined as a sum of biomarker values dichotomized at specific percentiles of sample distribution. Regression analysis was conducted using generalized additive models with two-dimensional spline smoothing function of geographic coordinates, weighted measures of vegetated land cover allowing decay of effects with distance, and geographic and demographic covariates. Results: An inter-quartile range increase in distance-weighted vegetated land cover was associated with 37% (46%; 27%) reduced allostatic load; significantly

  6. Riverine organic matter composition and fluxes to Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Macdonald, R. W.; Goni, M. A.; Godin, P.; Stern, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    With warming in northern regions, many changes including permafrost degradation, vegetation alteration, and wildfire incidence will impact the carbon cycle. Organic carbon (OC) carried by river runoff to northern oceans has the potential to provide integrated evidence of these impacts. Here, concentrations of dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) OC are used to estimate terrestrial OC transport in 17 major rivers draining varied vegetative and permafrost conditions into Hudson Bay and compositional data (lignin and 14C) to infer OC sources. Hudson Bay lies just south of the Arctic Circle in Canada and is surrounded by a large drainage basin (3.9 × 106 km2) dominated by permafrost. Analysis of POC and DOC in the 17 rivers indicates that DOC dominates the total OC load. The southern rivers dominate. The Nelson and Churchill Rivers to the southwest are particularly important suppliers of OC partly because of large drainage basins but also perhaps because of impacts by hydroelectric development, as suggested by a 14C age of DOC in the Churchill River of 2800 years. Higher DOC and POC concentrations in the southern rivers, which have substantive areas only partially covered by permafrost, compared to northern rivers draining areas with complete permafrost cover, implies that warming - and hence permafrost thawing - will lead to progressively higher DOC and POC loads for these rivers. Lignin composition in the organic matter (S/V and C/V ratios) reveals mixed sources of OC consistent with the dominant vegetation in the river basins. This vegetation is organized by latitude with southern regions below the tree line enriched by woody gymnosperm sources (boreal forest) and northern regions enriched with organic matter from non-woody angiosperms (flowering shrubs, tundra). Acid/Aldehyde composition together with Δ14C data for selected DOC samples suggest that most of the lignin has undergone oxidative degradation, particularly the DOC component. However, high Δ14C ages

  7. Resilience of coastal wetlands to extreme hydrologic events in Apalachicola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahsin, Subrina; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Singh, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Extreme hydrologic events such as hurricanes and droughts continuously threaten wetlands which provide key ecosystem services in coastal areas. The recovery time for vegetation after impact from these extreme events can be highly variable depending on the hazard type and intensity. Apalachicola Bay in Florida is home to a rich variety of saltwater and freshwater wetlands and is subject to a wide range of hydrologic hazards. Using spatiotemporal changes in Landsat-based empirical vegetation indices, we investigate the impact of hurricane and drought on both freshwater and saltwater wetlands from year 2000 to 2015 in Apalachicola Bay. Our results indicate that saltwater wetlands are more resilient than freshwater wetlands and suggest that in response to hurricanes, the coastal wetlands took almost a year to recover, while recovery following a drought period was observed after only a month.

  8. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  9. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  10. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  11. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  12. Total Vegetation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1992 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University for use in the...

  13. Total Vegetation 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1973 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  14. Total Vegetation 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1965 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  15. Total Vegetation 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1984 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  16. Aguirre environmental studies, Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-06-01

    The following appendices to volume I are presented: biomass of dominant microzooplankton; biomass of zooplankton in surface waters of Jobos Bay; comparison of zooplankton caught during day and night; variations in surface temperature and salinity at collection sites; distance, depth, and temperature related to dominant vegetation and sea grass; total biomass of Thalassia testudium; photosynthetic pigment diversity; invertebrate species and frequency of occurrence; distribution of macrobenthic organisms; species found on mangrove roots; distribution of fish species; and seasonal occurrence of fish species. (HLW)

  17. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  18. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  19. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  20. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  1. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  3. 77 FR 11894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ..., wilderness areas, and international parks meeting certain size criteria) in the western United States is 100...: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia...), Colorado State University, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Fort Collins,...

  4. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... areas, and international parks meeting certain size criteria) in the western United States is 100-150...: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia... Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), Colorado State University,...

  5. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  6. Peat deposits Of Dismal Swamp Pocosins, Camdem, Currituck, Gates, Pasquotank, And Perquimans Counties, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Peat is present in the Dismal Swamp of northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia. In North Carolina the peat is in 4 separate deposits located west,...

  7. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  8. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation...

  9. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Pine Barrens Treefrog Survey Data Report for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii Baird) is listed as a threatened species in need of management in South Carolina. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife...

  10. Air quality effects of South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed Cope power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of preliminary determination prepared by the South Carolina bureau of air quality control for the South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed cope...

  11. Assessing the Impact of Saltwater Intrusion in the Carolinas under Future Climatic and Sea Level Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this research is to support coastal decision-makers in North Carolina and South Carolina by providing information about potential future precipitation...

  12. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  13. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  14. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  15. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  18. Listening to the Experts: A Report on the 2004 South Carolina Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Under the leadership of State Superintendent of Education Inez Tenenbaum, with the support of the South Carolina Department of Education's Division of Teaching Quality (DTQ) and the South Carolina Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention and Advancement (CERRA), South Carolina became only the second state in the nation to study teacher…

  19. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  20. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  1. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  2. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  3. Simulation of Pollutant Transport in Marmaris Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lale BALAS

    2001-01-01

    The circulation pattern and the pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay are simulated by the developed three-dimensional baroclinic model. The Marmaris Bay is located at the Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey. Since the sp ring tidal range is typically 20~30 cm, the dominant forcing for the circulation and water exchange is due to the wind action. In the Marmaris Bay, there is sea outfall discharging directly into the bay, and that threats the bay water quality significantly. The current patterns in the vicinity of the outfall have been observed by tracking drogues which are moved by currents at different water depths. In the simulations of pollutant transport, the coliforms-counts is used as the tracer.The model provides realistic predictions for the circulation and pollutant transport in the Marmaris Bay. The transport model component predictions well agree with the results of a laboratory model study.

  4. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  5. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  6. Evaluating bio-optical models to determine chlorophyll a from hyper spectral data in the turbid coastal waters of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, J. B.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people visit the beaches of South Carolina every year and the increasing utilization of the coastal waters is leading to the deterioration of water quality and the marine ecosystem. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). This was evident during recent summer seasons particularly in the shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina, an open coast embayment on the South Atlantic Bight. These aspects threaten human and marine life. The early detection of HABs in the coastal waters requires more efficient and accurate monitoring tools. Remote sensing provides synoptic view of the entire Long Bay waters at high temporal coverage and allows resource managers to effectively map and monitor algal bloom development, near real time. Various remote sensing (RS) algorithms have been developed but were mostly calibrated to low resolution global data and or other specific sites. In the summer of 2013, a suite of measurements and water samples were collected from 15 locations along the nearshore waters of Long Bay using the Grice Laboratory R/V. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of 10 bio-optical blue-green and NIR-red based RS models applied to GER 1500 hyper spectral reflectance data to predict chlorophyll a, a proxy for phytoplankton density, in the Long Bay waters of SC. Efficiency of the algorithms performance in the study site were tested through a least squares regression and residual analysis. Results show that among the selected suite of algorithms the blue green models by Darecki and Stramski (2004) produced R2 of 0.68 with RMSE=0.39μg/l, Oc4v4 model by O'Reilly et al. (2000) gave R2 of 0.62 with RMSE=0.73ug/l, and the Oc2v4 also by O'Reilly et al (2000) gave R2 of 0.69 with RMSE=0.65. Among the NIR-red models, Moses et al (2009) two-band algorithm produced R2 of 0.75 and RMSE=1.79, and the three-band version generated R2 of 0.81 and RMSE=2.25ug

  7. Biomass dynamics of seagrasses and the role of mangrove and seagrass vegetation as different nutrient sources for an intertidal ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.

    2000-01-01

    The input of organic matter and nutrients produced by mangrove and seagrass vegetation in the intertidal bay on Inhaca island, Mozambique, was estimated. Mean mangrove tree height was 2.20 m, diameter at breast height was 6.4 cm and density was 6047 trees per hectare. Above-ground biomass of mangrov

  8. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1114 San Pedro Bay—Anaheim Bay,...

  9. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  10. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... of Neskowin, Oregon. Neskowin Marsh incorporates unique freshwater wetland and bog habitats and... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz...

  11. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay for the annual Port of San Diego... Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7261, email d11marineeventssd@uscg.mil . If you have...

  12. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... establish four temporary safety zones upon the navigable waters of San Diego ] Bay for the Port of San Diego... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego; telephone (619) 278-7261, email John.E.Bannon@uscg.mil . If...

  13. Ground-water and precipitation data for South Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Jones, Kathy H.; Stringfield, Whitney J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous water-level data collected from 53 wells in South Carolina during 1990 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs are presented for selected wells to illustrate the effects that changes in ground-water recharge and artificial ground-water discharge have had on the ground-water reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are listed in tables. Monthly mean water levels for 1990 and for the entire period of record at each monitoring well are depicted in hydrographs. Also included are precipitation records from ten National Weather Service stations in South Carolina.

  14. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region....

  15. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  16. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  17. Coma / Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a coma? A coma is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness (consciousness being the awareness of the ... opening or making sounds) than a person in deep coma. Characteristics of the vegetative state include: Return of a sleep-wake cycle with ...

  18. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  19. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  20. Spatial Vegetation Data for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced the Vegetation Spatial Database Coverage (vegetation map) for the...

  1. Nesting ecology of roseate spoonbills at Nueces Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Cromartie, E.

    1982-01-01

    We conducted a study in 1978-1980 of the nesting ecology of Roseate Spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja) in a relatively polluted environment at Nueces Bay, Texas. For 154 marked nests, the average clutch size was 3.0 eggs; 73% of the eggs hatched, and 87% of the nests were successful (hatched at least 1 young). The average nest success rate (total fledglings:total eggs) was 50% or 1.5 fledglings per total nests. Incubation began the day after the first egg was laid, and the incubation period for each egg was 22 days. Eggs hatched in the order that they were laid; the first and second eggs hatched on consecutive days, and the second, third, and fourth eggs hatched every other day. Nest composition and size were highly consistent, but nest placement varied considerably and was dependent on the vegetative configuration of the dredge-material islands. Growth rate of nestlings conformed to a 'standard' growth curve, where body weight of nestlings at fledging equaled that of adults. There was no difference in weight gain among siblings based on actual age. Nestlings fledged at about 6 weeks of age, when feather development was complete. At fledging, the bills of juveniles had almost reached adult width, but bill length was only 67% that of adults. In general, environmental pollutants were low (Nueces Bay, Texas, though the area is surrounded by industries and agricultural lands. Apparently, spoonbills are less sensitive to these contaminants than are other aquatic species

  2. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we re

  3. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF COASTAL CONDITIONS TO TSUNAMI INUNDATION OF BIMA BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Area along the coast that includes the territorial waters of the Bima Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, is prone to tsunamis, evidenced by the historical tsunamis record in 1815 due to the volcanic eruption of Tambora, 1818, 1836 and 1992 caused by earthquakes associated with tectonic system in the north of the island of Sumbawa, and 1892 were sourced from a distant source. Based on the coastal characteristics, the research area was divided into four types of beaches, namely: Steep rocky beach; Coastal walled plain; Flat coastal mangroves; and Flat sandy beaches. According to the lateral measurement, houses were built in the plains with a minimum height difference of 0.04 m at Rababuntu beach and a maximum of 22.63 m in New Asakota area. The settlement closest distance to the coastline is 10.3 m in Rababuntu, while the farthest extent is at Kawananta 194.58 m from the shoreline. The local bathymetry range between 1 and 42.5 m, where the inside of the very shallow waters of the Bay of Bima, gradually steeper at the mouth of the bay to the open sea. This conditions will influence the wave when entering the bay. It will come with large enough speed at the mouth of the bay, spread along the coastal waters of the eastern and continue spreading to all parts with the diminishing velocity, but the height increasing when it reaches shallow water, especially in the waters of the western Gulf of Bima. Several factors can affect the amount of risk that would be caused by the tsunami, in the research area include are: (1 The research area is located in an enclosed bay; (2 The local sea floor depths around the bay is relatively shallow waters; (3 Coastal characteristics of the research area is dominated by a gently sloping beach morphology with low relief, especially in the area of ??Bajo, Rababuntu and Bontokape and other beaches in the city of Bima; (4 Residential location very close to the shoreline; (5 Minimal vegetation cover; and (6 The presence of the

  5. Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

    2010-04-01

    The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column

  6. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  7. The Carolina Sandhills: Quaternary eolian sand sheets and dunes along the updip margin of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Fitzwater, Bradley A.; Whittecar, G. Richard; Mahan, Shannon; Garrity, Christopher P.; Aleman Gonzalez, Wilma B.; Dobbs, Kerby M.

    2016-01-01

    The Carolina Sandhills is a physiographic region of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province in the southeastern United States. In Chesterfield County (South Carolina), the surficial sand of this region is the Pinehurst Formation, which is interpreted as eolian sand derived from the underlying Cretaceous Middendorf Formation. This sand has yielded three clusters of optically stimulated luminescence ages: (1) 75 to 37 thousand years ago (ka), coincident with growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet; (2) 28 to 18 ka, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM); and (3) 12 to 6 ka, mostly coincident with the Younger Dryas through final collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Relict dune morphologies are consistent with winds from the west or northwest, coincident with modern and inferred LGM January wind directions. Sand sheets are more common than dunes because of effects of coarse grain size (mean range: 0.35–0.59 mm) and vegetation. The coarse grain size would have required LGM wind velocities of at least 4–6 m/sec, accounting for effects of colder air temperatures on eolian sand transport. The eolian interpretation of the Carolina Sandhills is consistent with other evidence for eolian activity in the southeastern United States during the last glaciation.

  8. Flu Resistance to Antiviral Drug in North Carolina

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-19

    Dr. Katrina Sleeman, Associate Service Fellow at CDC, discusses resistance to an antiviral flu drug in North Carolina.  Created: 12/19/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/19/2011.

  9. South Carolina Field Recordings in the Archive of Folk Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephanie A., Comp.

    This document describes recordings of the Library of Congress's unique collections of folklife and ethnomusicology from South Carolina. Information given includes length of recording, name of recorder, dates of recording, and content of recording. Recordings include songs, spirituals, hymns, sermons, prayers, dialect tales, and street songs.…

  10. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  11. Retaining Physical Therapists in North Carolina Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this research was to describe school-based physical therapists in North Carolina (NC) and examine relationships between personality traits of this group, their job satisfaction and their perception of factors that influence decisions to remain at or leave their jobs. School-based physical therapists across NC (n=97) anonymously…

  12. Correlates of Mental Health Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, R.; Grzywacz, J.G.; Swantes, Melody

    2012-01-01

    . Methods: Structured interview data were obtained from farmworkers (N = 69) in 6 counties in eastern and western North Carolina. Findings: Results indicated that a substantial number of farmworkers have poor mental health, as indicated by elevated depressive symptoms (52.2%) and anxiety (16.4%). Results...

  13. Social Stratification: The Digital Divide In North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to provide access to the internet in rural areas, in most areas of information technology the gap between urban and rural areas is growing. Urban residents are far more likely to have access to computer services than their rural counterparts. Whites much more likely to have access to the internet at home compared to African Americans in North Carolina.

  14. 77 FR 56250 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  15. Assessing the potential for biomass energy development in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tim O. Adams; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the potential for developing a sustainable biomass energy industry in South Carolina was conducted. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥1-inch diameter at breast height, and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and understory...

  16. Cracking the Egg: The South Carolina Digital Library's New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Christopher G.; Boyd, Kate Foster

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the historical foundations of the South Carolina Digital Library, a collaborative statewide program that ties together academic special collections and archives, public libraries, state government archives, and other cultural resource institutions in an effort to provide the state with a comprehensive database of online…

  17. North Carolina's nursing workforce: planning today for a reformed tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraher, Erin P; Jones, Cheryl B

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are the single largest component of North Carolina's health workforce, and nursing jobs are an essential driver of the state's economic recovery. We propose 5 recommendations for creating a nursing workforce system that, if implemented, would position the state to meet the future health care needs of North Carolinians.

  18. An Analysis of South Carolina Per Pupil State Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    In many states, including South Carolina, school choice is being discussed as perhaps the best way to both improve student achievement and spend education dollars more efficiently. The evidence from the 12 school choice programs currently running around the country is that the increased competition among public and private schools leads to more…

  19. Instructor's Field Manual: North Carolina Outward Bound School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward Bound, Morganton, NC.

    A supplement to the North Carolina Outward Bound School's Instructor's Handbook, this field manual presents useful, but not required, information gleaned from old timers and resource books which may enable the instructor to conduct a better course. Section one considers advantages and disadvantages and provides directions and topographical maps…

  20. North Carolina's Higher Education System: Success or Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew; Vedder, Richard

    2008-01-01

    North Carolina has long prided itself on what many perceive to be one of the finest systems of higher education in the country. Aside from having a number of nationally recognized private schools of distinction (e.g., Duke, Wake Forest, Davidson), the state has invested aggressively with public funds. State government appropriations for higher…

  1. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  2. A Cross Generational Dialect Study in Western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the relationship between African American English and White Vernacular English as spoken in a small rural town in western North Carolina for consistencies in vowel production by group membership and for participation in the Southern Vowel Shift (SVS), a vowel rotation currently occurring in the Southern United States. A…

  3. Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L.; Reiniger Belinda M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine their level of support for school-based sexuality education, including homosexuality education. Overall, support for sexuality education (and many sexuality education topics) was strong, but homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. There was strong support for…

  4. School Financing in South Carolina, Recent Legislation and Funding Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Bobby L.

    This paper discusses five scenarios that have had an impact on school finance in the state of South Carolina during recent years. These scenarios include (1) the Education Finance Act of 1977 (EFA); (2) the Education Improvement Act of 1984 (EIA); (3) the issue of fiscal independence; (4) school fees; and (5) school bonds. The EFA was designed to…

  5. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  6. Retaining Physical Therapists in North Carolina Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this research was to describe school-based physical therapists in North Carolina (NC) and examine relationships between personality traits of this group, their job satisfaction and their perception of factors that influence decisions to remain at or leave their jobs. School-based physical therapists across NC (n=97) anonymously…

  7. South Carolina's Model for Initiating Hispanic 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Robert; Rembert, Kellye

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, through the initiative of several county Extension agents, South Carolina 4-H has established a successful model for bringing Hispanic youth into our program. We have found the most effective method is to initiate contact and establish partnerships with the principals and ESOL instructors in the local schools. Through this…

  8. South Carolina Student Accountability System OSIRIS Instruction Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This manual expresses the South Carolina State Department of Education's understanding of the new, computerized school administration system called OSIRIS and the policy regarding its use with the Student Accountability System (SAS). The SAS is a method used to obtain a cumulative headcount of students served in certain programs specified in the…

  9. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  10. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Greenwood, J.R.; Achim, A.; Gardiner, B.A.; Nicoll, B.C.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  11. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  12. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe...... an instance are conditionally independent given the class of that instance. When this assumption is violated (which is often the case in practice) it can reduce classification accuracy due to “information double-counting” and interaction omission. In this paper we focus on a relatively new set of models......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  13. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  14. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) provides a literature review of wave dissipation by vegetation. INTRODUCTION: Flooding...coastal mangrove forests of Vietnam (Quartel et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Mazda et al. 1997), salt marshes of the United States (Bradley and...et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Cooper 2005, Möller and Spencer 2002, Möller et al. 1999). A year-long study by Cooper (2005) found that wave

  15. Scientists Engage South Carolina Community in Earthquake Education and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Beutel, E.; Jaume', S.; Levine, N.; Doyle, B.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists at the College of Charleston are working with the state of South Carolina's Emergency Management Division to increase awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards throughout South Carolina. As part of this mission, the SCEEP (South Carolina Earthquake Education and Preparedness) program was formed at the College of Charleston to promote earthquake research, outreach, and education in the state of South Carolina. Working with local, regional, state and federal offices, SCEEP has developed education programs for everyone from professional hazard management teams to formal and informal educators. SCEEP also works with the media to ensure accurate reporting of earthquake and other hazard information and to increase the public's understanding of earthquake science and earthquake seismology. As part of this program, we have developed a series of activities that can be checked out by educators for use in their classrooms and in informal education venues. These activities are designed to provide educators with the information and tools they lack to adequately, informatively, and enjoyably teach about earthquake and earth science. The toolkits contain seven activities meeting a variety of National Education Standards, not only in Science, but also in Geography, Math, Social Studies, Arts Education, History and Language Arts - providing a truly multidisciplinary toolkit for educators. The activities provide information on earthquake myths, seismic waves, elastic rebound, vectors, liquefaction, location of an epicenter, and then finally South Carolina earthquakes. The activities are engaging and inquiry based, implementing proven effective strategies for peaking learners' interest in scientific phenomena. All materials are provided within the toolkit and so it is truly check and go. While the SCEEP team has provided instructions and grade level suggestions for implementing the activity in an educational setting, the educator has full reign on what to showcase

  16. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood insurance studies, and flood-plain management. Flood-frequency estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used a multistate approach to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina (Feaster and others, 2014). The multistate approach has the advantage over a single state approach of increasing the number of streamflow-gaging station (streamgages) available for analysis, expanding the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across state boundaries, and building on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural streamgages in the Southeastern United States. This investigation was funded as part of a cooperative program of water-resources investigations between the USGS, the South Carolina Department of Transportation, and the North Carolina Department of Transportation. In addition, much of the data and information for the Georgia streamgages was funded through a similar cooperative program with the Georgia Department of Transportation.

  17. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  18. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  19. The Relationship of Fast ForWord Scientific Learning to North Carolina End of Grade Reading Scores at a Middle School in Anson County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Jamie Ledsinger

    2012-01-01

    Anson County School District wished to determine the relationship between Fast ForWord Scientific Learning data and North Carolina End of Grade reading scores at Anson Middle School in Anson County, North Carolina. The specific research questions that guided this study include: 1. How does the literacy intervention, Fast ForWord, affect EOG growth…

  20. An Analysis of the Implementation of the South Carolina Anti-Bullying Legislation in the Middle Schools Involved in the Abbeville, South Carolina, School District Lawsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Canty, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the anti-bullying policies of 24 South Carolina middle schools that were involved in the "Abbeville" lawsuit. These schools sued the state of South Carolina alleging that the school finding system was inadequate. The schools are plagued with numerous problems including being among the lowest performing…

  1. Initial results from a test of the NASA EAARL lidar in the Tampa Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Wright, Wayne C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Clayton, Tonya; Hansen, Mark; Longenecker, John; Gesch, Dean B.; Crane, Michael; Dutton, S.

    2002-01-01

    An initial test of the performance of the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) over coastal environments around the margins of an urbanized Gulf of Mexico estuary was performed over Tampa Bay in January 2002. The EAARL is a raster-scanning, water-penetrating, full-waveform adaptive lidar that is coupled to aircraft positioning systems and a downlooking color digital camera. The EAARL has unique capabilities for simultaneously mapping topography, shallow bathymetry, and vegetation. Initial analysis within 2 Tampa Bay subregions traversed by the survey flightlines has revealed that the EAARL can survey shallow bathymetry and variables associated with benthic cover in remarkable detail. The results of this ongoing study will aid in developing recommendations on the appropriate use of NASA EAARL surveys for mapping bathymetry and benthic habitats in estuaries around the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  3. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L; Ramana, M.V; Subrahmanyam, V; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    -1 J. Ind. Geophys. Union (2000) Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 185-190 Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal K.V.L.N.S.Sarma, M.V.Ramana1 , V.Subrahmanyam1 K.S.Krishna1, T.Ramprasad1 and Maria Desa1 National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre 176... of magnetic anomalies, Ramana et al. (1994) inferred some fracture zones. Due to huge sediment overburden in the Bay of Bengal surface expression of these 185 K.V.L.N.S.Sarma et al. Figure la. Bathymetry map of the Bay of Bengal. Contour interval 500 m...

  4. Analysis and Applications API eBay

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIK, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis "Analysis and Applications API eBay" is to create application based on the use of Application Programming Interface (API), released by eBay. The theoretical part is focused on explaining the fundamental issue of Internet auctions, e-commmerce, comparsion of auction portals and term "trust" as a key attribute of e-commerce. The practical part is based on analyse of principles and instruments of eBay API and create an application based on this interface. The ...

  5. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  6. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  7. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  8. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  9. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; Waite, Ian

    1988-06-01

    The Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study assessed the effects of Kerr Dam operation on the fisheries of the lower Flathead ecosystem. South Bay, the southern most lobe of Flathead Lake, is the most extensive area of shallow water, and therefore, most effected by changes in lake levels. This study began in January of 1984 and was completed in early 1987. Vegetative and structural cover are relatively limited in South Bay, a condition which could contribute to lower recruitment for some fish species. Our data show that the study area contained 0.04% structural and 5.4% vegetative cover in June at full pool. Both figures are less than 1.0% at minimum pool. Structural complexity mediates the ecological interactions between littoral zone fish and their prey, and can affect local productivity and growth in fish. Structural complexity may also be important to overwinter survival of young perch in Flathead Lake. Winter conditions, including ice cover and fall drawdown, seasonally eliminate the vegetative portion of most rooted macrophytes in South Bay. This results in substantial loss of what little structural cover exists, depriving the perch population of habitat which has been occupied all summer. The loss of cover from draw-down concentrates and probably exposes perch to greater predation, including cannibalism, than would occur if structural complexity were greater. 33 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Evolution of foredune texture following dynamic restoration, Doughboy Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlechner, T. M.; Ryu, W.; Hilton, M. J.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Growing concern regarding the geomorphic and associated biotic effects of dune management practises has led to an increase in the number of dune restoration projects globally. Most recent projects aim to enhance the efficiency of aeolian sediment dynamics and increase dune mobility by decreasing vegetation cover, but we lack objective measures to evaluate such projects. Here we demonstrate the use of landscape metrics to quantify the evolution of foredune texture following the removal of vegetation. A long-term program of marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) eradication in southern New Zealand (Doughboy Bay, Stewart Island) is examined. Four metrics: bare sand area, patch adjacency, complexity, and the range of proximity, are used to classify a series of foredune textures beginning with the pre-restoration state through the phases of marram removal, to the current state. Foredune texture at Doughboy Bay has evolved from a semi-stable to an active state as the consequence of restoration. Two metrics, bare sand and adjacency, appear to be particularly good measures of change following marram removal. Patterns and rates of change for these metrics are consistent with ground observations of increased 'naturalness' (native plant communities, sand mobility) over the same period. The set of landscape metrics derived for Doughboy Bay were compared to similar sets measured for a nearby foredune system where marram invasion has not occurred, and where conditions presumably represent equilibrium foredune texture. Since the removal of marram at Doughboy Bay and the consequent remobilization of the sand surface, the foredune texture has increased in similarity to that of the reference site, indicating a favourable shift in plant cover as a result of the restoration program. We conclude that landscape metrics can be used to track changes in foredune morphology following restoration. Second, the planning, management, and monitoring of coastal dune restoration programs will benefit

  11. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  12. The South Carolina LGBT needs assessment: a descriptive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jason D; Irwin, Jay A; Wilson, Ryan C; Miller, Henry C

    2014-01-01

    Limited quantitative information exists about the demographics and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in South Carolina, a predominately rural Southern state. Responses to a needs assessment survey (n = 715) were analyzed to understand the diversity and needs of members of the LGBT community in SC. The purpose was to inform future programming and guide the development of a more comprehensive portfolio of services to be offered by a local LGBT community center. Findings suggest that a diverse LGBT community exists in SC and needs include increased programming for community members as well as efforts to provide policy-level support and increased acceptability and understanding of LGBT persons in South Carolina.

  13. Project NO REST: Addressing Human Trafficking in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dean F

    Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking. Later, 5 communities were recruited to implement the plan at the local level. Their experiences will be used to develop a toolkit for future anti-trafficking efforts.

  14. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration.

  15. Carolinas HealthCare attends to patients, amenities; builds business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2000-01-01

    Carolinas HealthCare System has grown into a nearly two billion dollar entity by focusing on patient needs and amenities in its health care facilities. Growth of the system, the largest in North and South Carolina, is due in large part to Harry A. Nurkin, president and CEO, who started out with a run-down hospital for indigents. With the approval of the hospital board, Nurkin launched a marketing effort that included taking a lesson from the founders of the Holiday Inn hotel chain. He remodeled and developed facilities that are pleasing to patients and visitors, moved patient parking closer to the hospitals' front doors, taught key hospital personnel the basics about marketing, aligned the system with ABA and NFL teams and conducted an aggressive advertising program.

  16. Carolina Herrera引领美国优雅风潮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    简单优雅,充分显现女性风采……这就是领导美国优雅风潮、名噪半个世纪的设计师Carolina Herrera的一贯风格。Carolina Herrera是一位强调性感运动服饰的设计师。热情大胆的阳光般色彩及暴露的服饰风格都让人觉得大胆刺激。埃莱拉似乎兼备了所有成功的要素,也使得埃莱拉赢得全球女性的认同与赞赏,成为流行时尚界屹立不倒的大师级人物。

  17. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  18. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  19. Leith Creek, Scotland County, North Carolina, Detailed Project Report. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    the accuracy rf the hiqh ..ia1e. A . iso , estimates or 5lockuqe it I lqes or culve-Is ,...o ld !,. I cr ct ly speculative and not suppOrt ,h .e by...Raleigh, N. C. 27002 Appendix 2 B--6 S -0 0S6S " ... . -" " -. ~ .. .. . ___-- _, __. ___"."_.’.__"" __- Sl-\\II OFFICI NORTH CAROLINA (Cont’d

  20. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...

  1. The South Carolina Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    senior years of college and are continuing to take the GRE and apply to graduate or professional schools. We expect at least 75% of the Student ...program as well as the expectations of the students . Ms. Tonya Hazelton, who coordinates the DOD Training Program, gave an overview of the DOD South...DOD South Carolina Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program were rising sophomores through seniors. As described below, we are

  2. Murrells Inlet, South Carolina Navigaton Project, General Design Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-02

    Ray Sisk, State Park Directdr Mr. Gurdon Tarbox, Director, Brookgreen Gdn South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation & Tourism .- Box 113, Edgar A...C..-. - -.......... ’.. G Nffire of th" (omLDMNorISTRATION JAMES B. EDWARDS DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATION GOVERNOReber 3 1975 Edgar A. Brown...Director of ResouraIs A partmeti Morine Resources Center October 28, 1975 .- ,;... .I , ’ ’". . Elmer Whitten Office of the Governor Division of

  3. Proposed Closure of Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    people use the range three times per month to practice explosion and safing techniques on C-4 plastique , TNT, detonating cord, time fuses, shape...Strategic Air Command ( SAC ) base in 1947. In the same year, the Air Technical Service Command Storage Area was established at Davis-Monthan AFB for...Recovery Act RI Remedial Investigation SAC Strategic Air Command SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act SCDHEC South Carolina Department

  4. Grass assemblages and diversity of conservation areas on the coastal plain south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A floristic analysis of the grass species assemblages of the Licuati Forest and Maputo Elephant Reserves south of Maputo Bay, Mozambique, is presented. Sampling of grass data was undertaken in six previously described, major vegetation types. TWINSPAN divisions distinguished grass assemblages that are characteristic for these major vegetation types of the study area. The results were supported by an Indirect Gradient Analysis. Further TWINSPAN divisions of a larger Maputaland data set indicated a floristic relationship between grass assemblages of similar major vegetation types in the study area and South Africa. This relationship was supported by high similarity values (> 65%, obtained with Sorenson's Coefficient. The coefficient also indicated varying degrees of similarity between grass assemblages of different major vegetation types within the study area. A rich diversity of 115 grass species and infraspecific taxa was recorded for the study area. The Chloridoideae and Panicoideae dominate the grass diversity and the genera with the most species include Eragrostis, Panicum and Digitaria. Most grass species in the study area are perennials and have a tufted growth form, but this varies considerably between vegetation types.

  5. Application of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality in Turbid Coastal Waters of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, K. A.; Ryan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. Existing remote sensing ocean color products, such as the water quality proxy chlorophyll-a, are based on ocean derived bio-optical models that are primarily calibrated in Case 1 type waters. These traditional models fail to work when applied in turbid (Case 2 type), coastal waters due to spectral interference from other associated color producing agents such as colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the predictive modeling of chlorophyll-a using a multivariate-based approach applied to in situ hyperspectral radiometric data collected from the coastal waters of Long Bay, South Carolina. This method uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify prominent wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated color-producing agents. The new model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 μg/L. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from current and future hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight to point-sources and problem areas that may contribute to a decline in water quality. The utility of this tool is in its versatility to a diverse set of coastal waters and its use by coastal and fisheries managers with regard to recreation, regulation, economic and public health purposes.

  6. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  7. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  8. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  9. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  10. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  11. Historical methyl mercury in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — San Francisco Bay, California is considered a mercury-impaired watershed. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in water and sediment as well as fish and...

  12. Contours--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is...

  13. Watermass structure in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Suryanarayana, A.; Babu, M.T.

    The distributions of temperature, salinity thermosteric anomaly, density flux function and stability along 88 degrees E in the Bay of Bengal are presented. The surface salinities showed strong gradients both horizontally and vertically in northern...

  14. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  15. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  16. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  17. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  18. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  19. Habitat--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Drakes Bay and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  20. 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron,...

  1. Bathymetry--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California (raster data file is included in...

  2. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  3. Hydrogeomorphic Regions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Generalized lithology (rock type) and physiography based on geologic formations were used to characterize hydrgeomorphic regions (HGMR) within the Chesapeake Bay...

  4. Saginaw Bay Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Sagina Bay Restoration Assessment (SBRA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and the...

  5. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  6. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Nesting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chesapeake Bay population of breeding bald eagles increased dramatically in 1981 in not only the number of breeding pairs but in the number of nests hatching...

  7. Mercury distribution in the Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-enclosed bay, Qingdao, China. More than 10 rivers enter the bay, of which most take wastes from industrial and household discharges. According to historical seasonal investigations in May, August, November 1979, the content,distribution, and development of heavy metal mercury are analyzed as a historical reference. Water samples were taken from the surface and bottom. The results revealed clear seasonal and regional changes in both horizontal and vertical directions, and close relation with major discharging rivers and plankton production. The seawater was polluted more seriously in spring than in any other seasons.However, it was the cleanest in winter during which least waste was input with low plankton production. According to historical data,the state of mercury pollution in seawater was worsening in the period, and has been improving in recent years. Terrestrial contamination was the main reason for mercury pollution in the bay.

  8. Pb distribution and translocation in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The trends of distribution, translocation and seasonal change of heavy metal Pb were studied based on the surface and bottom water sampling in Jiaozhou Bay in 1979, and compared with those in 1990's. The results showed that the source of Pb in the bay was from wastewater and sewage in the east of Jiaozhou Bay from ocean vessels. Pb concentration was higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn, and remained stable through sedimentation in the bottom layer. The overall water quality was good in 1970's. Compared with the environmental monitoring data of 1995-1999, Pb pollution had become serious. Therefore, more efforts should be made to protect the bay from Pb pollution.

  9. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  10. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  11. Bayes Factors via Savage-Dickey Supermodels

    CERN Document Server

    Mootoovaloo, A; Kunz, M

    2016-01-01

    We outline a new method to compute the Bayes Factor for model selection which bypasses the Bayesian Evidence. Our method combines multiple models into a single, nested, Supermodel using one or more hyperparameters. Since the models are now nested the Bayes Factors between the models can be efficiently computed using the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio (SDDR). In this way model selection becomes a problem of parameter estimation. We consider two ways of constructing the supermodel in detail: one based on combined models, and a second based on combined likelihoods. We report on these two approaches for a Gaussian linear model for which the Bayesian evidence can be calculated analytically and a toy nonlinear problem. Unlike the combined model approach, where a standard Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) struggles, the combined-likelihood approach fares much better in providing a reliable estimate of the log-Bayes Factor. This scheme potentially opens the way to computationally efficient ways to compute Bayes Factors in...

  12. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  13. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  14. Back Bay Stormwater Monitoring Project Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this project was to assess the influx of nutrients and solid material into Back Bay and its tributaries during and immediately following such storm...

  15. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  16. Back Bay Wilderness study : Proposed recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a list of recommendations for the proposed wilderness area on the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The recommendations come as a result of the...

  17. Bathymetry--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore Half Moon Bay, California (raster data file is included in...

  18. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  19. Underwater Video Sites in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  20. Underwater Video Transects in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico were mapped and characterized using visual interpretation...

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; French, T.

    2010-02-03

    The South Carolina Bio-Energy Research Collaborative is working together on the development and demonstration of technology options for the production of bio-fuels using renewable non-food crops and biomass resources that are available or could be made available in abundance in the southeastern United States. This collaboration consists of Arborgen LLC, Clemson University, Savannah River National Laboratory, and South Carolina State University, with support from Dyadic, Fagen Engineering, Renewed World Energies, and Spinx. Thus far, most work has centered on development of a fermentation-based process to convert switchgrass into ethanol, with the concomitant generation of a purified lignin stream. The process is not feed-specific, and the work scope has recently expanded to include sweet sorghum and wood. In parallel, the Collaborative is also working on developing an economical path to produce oils and fuels from algae. The Collaborative envisions an integrated bio-fuels process that can accept multiple feedstocks, shares common equipment, and that produces multiple product streams. The Collaborative is not the only group working on bio-energy in South Carolina, and other companies are involved in producing biomass derived energy products at an industrial scale.

  2. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  3. 天然草地分类的 Bayes 判别分析法%Bayes Discriminant Analysis Method of Natural Grassland Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文畅平; 白银涌; 曾娟娟; 苏伟

    2016-01-01

    基于多元统计分析理论,综合考虑天然草地的生态状况、可再生产能力和经济条件等因素,选择植被覆盖度、可食风干牧草产量、牧草利用率、草地可利用面积系数、草群中优良牧草比率和羊单位需草地面积6个参数作为判别因子,建立了天然草地分类的 Bayes 判别分析法。将天然草地分为温性荒漠类、温性草原类和低山地草甸类3个类别,并作为 Bayes 判别分析的3个正态总体,以新疆准噶尔盆地西部地区的31个天然草地为样本(其中18个为训练样本),以 Bayes 线性函数值和后验概率对样本所归属的总体进行识别,将建立的模型对训练样本进行回判,以回代误判率对模型进行检验。研究表明,Bayes 判别分析模型可以很好地反映不同类型天然草地间的资源属性,对训练样本的回代误判率为0;对另外13个天然草地样本的分类结果与灰色关联度分析法、投影寻踪法、投影寻踪动态聚类法、集对分析法、SOFM 神经网络法以及突变级数法等的分类结果基本一致。%The ecological situations,reproduction abilities and economic conditions of natural grassland were taken into account synthetically,and six parameters including vegetation coverage,dry edible forage grass production,forage grass utilization rate,available grassland area coefficient,forage grass utilization rate,grassland area for every sheep unit were selected as discrimination factors.Bayes discrimination anal-ysis method for natural grassland classification was put forward based on multivariate statistical analysis theory. The natural grassland was divided into 3 grades,i.e. temperate desert type,temperate steppe type and lowland mountain meadow grassland type,and regarded as three normal populations for Bayes discrimination analysis;18 natural grassland samples from western Junggar Basin,Xinjiang,China,were selected as the training samples to present Bayes linear

  4. Ecosystem history of southern and central Biscayne Bay; summary report on sediment core analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G.L.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Ishman, S.E.; Willard, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Williams, C.P.; Marot, M.E.; Murray, J.B.; Stamm, R.G.; Murray, J.H.; Budet, C.

    2003-01-01

    During the last century, the environs of Biscayne Bay have been greatly affected by anthropogenic alteration through urbanization of the Miami/Dade County area. The sources, timing, delivery, and quality of freshwater flow into the Bay have been changed by construction of a complex canal system that controls movement of water throughout south Florida. Changes in shoreline and sub-aquatic vegetation and marine organisms have been observed and changes in water delivery are believed to be the cause. Current restoration goals are attempting to restore natural flow of fresh water into Biscayne and Florida Bays and to restore the natural fauna and flora, but first we need to determine pre-alteration baseline conditions in order to establish targets and performance measures for restoration. This research is part of an ongoing study designed to address the needs of the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW) of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). By establishing the natural patterns of temporal change in salinity, water quality, vegetation, and benthic fauna in Biscayne Bay and the nearby wetlands over the last 100- 500 years the USGS, in collaboration with our partners, will provide the data necessary to set realistic targets to achieve the BBCW Project goals. Six cores from three sites in Biscayne Bay were collected in April 2002 for multidisciplinary multi-proxy analyses. This report details the results of these analyses and compares the 2002 cores to cores collected in 1997. The following are our significant findings to date: ?\tThe salinity of central Biscayne Bay has become increasingly marine and increasingly stable over the last 100 years. o\tAt No Name Bank, prior to approximately 1915, the inter-decadal and decadal salinity fluctuations appear to have been greater than after 1915 when salinities stabilized at that site. o\tContinental shelf/open marine influence on the sites has increased during the 20th century. o\tThere is no indication

  5. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  6. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  7. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  8. Using a CAI Network for Statewide Remediation: GRI in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumford, John

    1988-01-01

    Describes South Carolina's Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI), an instructional management system that links diagnostic tests and teaching modules for use by high school mathematics and reading laboratories. (TW)

  9. Geophysical and geologic studies in southern Mecklenburg County and vicinity, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederick A.

    1983-01-01

    Geophysical methods consisting of gravity, aeromagnetics and aeroradioactivity have been applied to part of the Charlotte and Carolina slate belts in southern Mecklenburg County and vicinity to help interpret geology, lithology and structure. High aeroradioactivity is associated with potassium-rich granitic plutons, muscovite-rich gneisses, schists, and metavolcanic rocks; positive gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with gabbro plutons; and negative gravity anomalies are associated with granitic plutons. At the west side of the slate belt, the Tillery phyllite is interpreted as having undergone progressive metamorphism. The underlying Uwharrie Formation extends into the Charlotte belt where it is mapped as metavolcanic rocks. Gravity models of the Carolina slate belt indicate that it is a synform containing a wedge of metasedimentary and volcanoclastic rock on plutonic basement. The basement is exposed in the adjacent Charlotte belt antiform. The northern Charlotte belt contains mainly plutonic rocks which have been divided into 3 supergroups of plutons based upon chemistry, mineralogy, texture, and age. They are: 1. Old Plutonic supergroup - plutons 545-490 m.y. that are medium to coarse-grained tonalite, quartz diorite, and granodiorites. 2. Concord-Salisbury supergroup -- plutons 426-350 m.y. which form sheet-like intrusions of differentiated gabbro; local volcanic centers with ring complexes 13 km in diameter that suggest magma chambers 0 - 8 km deep; smaller bodies of diorite, monzonite, and syenite; and small Salisbury type granodiorites. 3. Landis supergroup -- plutons 350-280 m.y. that are usually very coarse-grained, porphyritic, 'big feldspar,' potassium-rich granites. The Mecklenburg-Weddington gabbro complex of the Concord-Salisbury supergroup, the largest feature in the study area, contains three large gabbro plutons. The gabbro intruded old Plutonic complex rocks and could-have produced the metamorphic reaction K-feldspar + sillimanite

  10. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Aug.15, 201l, a new large-scale scientific facility in China, Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, started to operate. It is located in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Guangdong Province, around 50kin to both Hong Kong and Shenzhen City. The main scientific goal is to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle 013 by detecting neutrinos from the reactors at different distances.

  11. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  12. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  13. Phenological study of Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Zhan, Dongmei; Duan, Delin

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a phenological evaluation of Sargassum thunbergii, a common algal species, along the coast of Lidao Bay, Rongcheng, China. The local S. thunbergii population entered a maturation period from early June to mid-August, when seawater temperature was 14.4 to 25.1°C. Our results suggest an increase in temperature and day length during this period initiated thalli maturation. Inhabitants of the low tidal zone had higher thalli length and biomass compared with those from the mid-and high tidal zones. We observed a switch in the length frequency distribution and contribution of length classes to biomass between the small (sexual reproduction and vegetative regeneration.

  14. Tidal Marshes across a Chesapeake Bay Subestuary Are Not Keeping up with Sea-Level Rise

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Leah H.; Baldwin, Andrew H.; Kearney, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise is a major factor in wetland loss worldwide, and in much of Chesapeake Bay (USA) the rate of sea-level rise is higher than the current global rate of 3.2 mm yr-1 due to regional subsidence. Marshes along estuarine salinity gradients differ in vegetation composition, productivity, decomposition pathways, and sediment dynamics, and may exhibit different responses to sea-level rise. Coastal marshes persist by building vertically at rates at or exceeding regional sea-level rise. In...

  15. THREE YEAR VARIATION IN SHELL GROWTH OF THEMUSSEL, ELLIPTIO WACCAMAWENSIS (LEA), IN LAKEWACCAMAW, A BAY LAKE IN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) are one of the most endangered animal taxa in North America, and continued research on unionids will improve management decisions regarding their conservation. One unexplored aspect of unionid ecology is the magnitude of interannual variat...

  16. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Near-infrared Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  17. 2012 NOAA Near Infrared MLLW Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  18. 2012 NOAA Near Infrared MLLW Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  19. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Near-infrared Mosaic of Sewee Bay to Santee River, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  20. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Near-infrared Mosaic of Murphy Island to Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...