Sample records for carnosine retards tumor

  1. The antineoplastic effect of carnosine is accompanied by induction of PDK4 and can be mimicked by L-histidine. (United States)

    Letzien, Ulrike; Oppermann, Henry; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Gaunitz, Frank


    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring dipeptide that shows antineoplastic effects in cell culture as well as in animal experiments. Since its mode of action and the targets at the molecular level have not yet been elucidated, we performed qRT-PCR experiments with RNA isolated from glioblastoma cell lines treated with carnosine, β-alanine, L-alanine, L-histidine and the dipeptide L-alanine-L-histidine. The experiments identified a strong induction of expression of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4) under the influence of carnosine and L-histidine, but not by the other substances employed. In addition, inhibition of cell viability was only detected in cells treated with carnosine and L-histidine, with the latter showing a significantly stronger effect than carnosine. Since the tumor cells expressed the tissue form of carnosinase (CN2) but almost no serum carnosinase (CN1), we conclude that cleavage by CN2 is a prerequisite for the antineoplastic effect of carnosine. In addition, enhanced expression of PDK4 under the influence of carnosine/L-histidine opens a new perspective for the interpretation of the ergogenic potential of dietary β-alanine supplementation and adds a new contribution to a growing body of evidence that single amino acids can regulate key metabolic pathways important in health and disease.

  2. Organophosphate Flame Retardants Act as Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in MA-10 Mouse Tumor Leydig Cells. (United States)

    Schang, Gauthier; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F


    The organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have emerged as alternatives to banned brominated flame retardants but little is known about their possible activity as endocrine disruptors. Our goal was to compare the effects of 7 commonly used OPFRsin vitroon MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells to those of a major brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). The effects of OPFRs and BDE-47 on mitochondrial activity, cell counts, oxidative stress, steroid secretion and gene expression were investigated. BDE-47 and all 7 OPFRs tested significantly reduced MA-10 cell mitochondrial activity (concentrations ≥50 μM) and cell number (concentrations ≥10 μM). All of the OPFRs significantly increased (10 μM, 1.7-4.4-fold) superoxide production whereas BDE-47 had no significant effect. Basal progesterone production was significantly increased (10 μM, 1.5 to 3-fold) by 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, isodecyl diphenyl phosphate, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate, tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, and tricresyl phosphate, while BDE-47, triphenyl phosphate and tri-o-cresyl phosphate had no effect. Interestingly, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate enhanced dbcAMP-stimulated steroid production (∼2-fold), while tri-o-cresyl phosphate decreased (∼2/3) LH-stimulated steroid production. Several OPFRs affected the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of progesterone. In conclusion, all the OPFRs tested affected mitochondrial activity, cell survival, and superoxide production. Basal or stimulated steroid secretion was affected by all of the OPFRs except triphenyl phosphate; BDE-47 had no effect. Hence, the OPFRs currently used as alternatives affect Leydig cells to a greater extent than the brominated flame retardants that they have replaced.

  3. Transport characteristics of L-carnosine and the anticancer derivative 4-toluenesulfonylureido-carnosine in a human epithelial cell line

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    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea;


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the transepithelial transport of the anticancer compound 4-toluenesulfonylureido-carnosine (Ts-carnosine) and the dipeptide moiety L-carnosine was due to a hPepT1 carrier-mediated flux....

  4. Plant-made trastuzumab (herceptin inhibits HER2/Neu+ cell proliferation and retards tumor growth.

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    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant biotechnology provides a valuable contribution to global health, in part because it can decrease the cost of pharmaceutical products. Breast cancer can now be successfully treated by a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb, trastuzumab (Herceptin. A course of treatment, however, is expensive and requires repeated administrations of the mAb. Here we used an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system to produce trastuzumab in plant cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the cloning and expression of gene constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using intron-optimized Tobacco mosaic virus- and Potato virus X-based vectors encoding, respectively, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab. Full-size antibodies extracted and purified from plant tissues were tested for functionality and specificity by (i binding to HER2/neu on the surface of a human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, in fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and (ii testing the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HER-2-expressing cancer cell proliferation. We show that plant-made trastuzumab (PMT bound to the Her2/neu oncoprotein of SK-BR-3 cells and efficiently inhibited SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, mouse intraperitoneal PMT administration retarded the growth of xenografted tumors derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 Her2+ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that PMT is active in suppression of cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  5. Salmonella typhimurium peptidase active on carnosine. (United States)

    Kirsh, M; Dembinski, D R; Hartman, P E; Miller, C G


    Wild-type Salmonella typhimurium can use carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) as a source of histidine, but carnosine utilization is blocked in particular mutants defective in the constitutive enzyme peptidase D, the product of the pepD gene. Biochemical evidence for assigning carnosinase activity to peptidase D (a broad-specificity dipeptidase) includes: (i) coelution of carnosinase and dipeptidase activity from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Bio-Gel P-300 columns; (ii) coelectrophoresis of carnosinase and dipeptidase on polyacrylamide gels; and (iii) inactivation of carnosinase and dipeptidase activities at identical rates at both 4 and 42 degrees C. Genetic evidence indicates that mutations leading to loss of carnosinase activity map at pepD. Several independent pepD mutants have been isolated by different selection procedures, and the patterns of peptide utilization of strains carrying various pepD alleles have been studied. Many pepD mutations lead to the production of partially active peptidase D enzymes with substrate specificities that differ strikingly from those of the wild-type enzyme. The growth yields of carnosinase-deficient strains growing in Difco nutrient broth indicate that carnosine is the major utilizable source of histidine in this medium. PMID:26655

  6. Role of Carnosine and Melatonin in Ameliorating Cardiotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in the Rats

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    Nouf Al-Rasheed


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the possible cardiotoxicity of two different doses of 50 nm nano titanium dioxide (n-TiO2 and the possible modulating effects of the use of two natural antioxidants carnosine and melatonin. The results showed that TiO2- NPs produced deleterious effects on rat cardiac tissue as confirmed by the increased levels of serum myoglobin, troponin-T and CK-MB. Increased levels of serum Inflammatory markers represented by the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 was also noticed. Caspase3 and IGg were elevated compared to the control group in a dose dependant manner. treatment of the rats with Carnosine or melatonin. along with TiO2- NPs administration significantly improved most of the elevated biochemical markers. It was concluded that the use of Carnosine or melatonin could play a beneficial role against deleterious effects of TiO2- NPs

  7. Ergogenic Effects of β-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy


    John Caruso; Jessica Charles; Kayla Unruh; Rachel Giebel; Lexis Learmonth; William Potter


    β-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and β-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former’s merits as a buffer. Carnosine normally makes a small contribution to a cell’s total buffer capacity; yet β-alanine supplementation raises intracellular carnosine concentrations that...

  8. Structural Elucidation of a Carnosine-Acrolein Adduct and its Quantification in Human Urine Samples. (United States)

    Bispo, Vanderson S; de Arruda Campos, Ivan P; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G


    Aldehydes accumulate in inflammation, during myocardial infarction and have been associated with pain symptoms. One pathway of aldehyde detoxification is the conjugation with carnosine. A 3-methylpyridinium carnosine adduct from the reaction of carnosine and acrolein was characterized using extensive spectroscopic measurements. The adduct with urinary concentrations of 1.82 ± 0.68 nmol/mg of creatinine is one of the most abundant acrolein metabolites in urine and opens promising therapeutic strategies for carnosine.

  9. Depletion of Ascorbic Acid Restricts Angiogenesis and Retards Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model

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    Sucheta Telang


    Full Text Available Angiogenesis requires the deposition of type IV collagen by endothelial cells into the basement membrane of new blood vessels. Stabilization of type IV collagen triple helix depends on the hydroxylation of proline, which is catalyzed by the iron-containing enzyme prolyl hydroxylase. This enzyme, in turn, requires ascorbic acid to maintain the enzyme-bound iron in its reduced state. We hypothesized that dietary ascorbic acid might be required for tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, tumor growth. Here, we show that, not surprisingly, ascorbic acid is necessary for the synthesis of collagen type IV by human endothelial cells and for their effective migration and tube formation on a basement membrane matrix. Furthermore, ascorbic acid depletion in mice incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid (Gulo-/- dramatically restricts the in vivo growth of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma tumors. Histopathological analyses of these tumors reveal poorly formed blood vessels, extensive hemorrhagic foci, and decreased collagen and von Willebrand factor expression. Our data indicate that ascorbic acid plays an essential role in tumor angiogenesis and growth, and that restriction of ascorbic acid or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase may prove to be novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of cancer.

  10. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

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    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Exercise training and beta-alanine-induced muscle carnosine loading.

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    Tine eBex


    Full Text Available Purpose. Beta-alanine (BA supplementation has been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, thereby promoting high-intensity exercise performance. Trained muscles of athletes have a higher increase in carnosine concentration after BA supplementation compared to untrained muscles, but it remains to be determined whether this is due to an accumulation of acute exercise effects or to chronic adaptations from prior training. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high-volume (HV and/or high-intensity (HI exercise can improve BA-induced carnosine loading in untrained subjects.Methods. All participants (n=28 were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of BA for 23 days. The subjects were allocated to a control group, HV or HI training group. During the BA supplementation period, the training groups performed 9 exercise sessions consisting of either 75–90 min continuous cycling at 35–45% Wmax (HV or 3 to 5 repeats of 30s cycling at 165% Wmax with 4 min recovery (HI. Carnosine content was measured in soleus and gastrocnemius medialis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results. There was no difference in absolute increase in carnosine content between the groups in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. For the average muscle carnosine content, a higher absolute increase was found in HV (+ 2.95 mM; P = 0.046 and HI (+ 3.26 mM; P = 0.028 group compared to the control group (+ 1.91 mM. However, there was no additional difference between the HV and HI training group.Conclusions. HV and HI exercise training showed no significant difference on BA-induced muscle carnosine loading in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. It can be suggested that there can be a small cumulative effect of exercise on BA supplementation efficiency, although differences did not reach significance on individual muscle level.

  12. Effects of carnosine on the evoked potentials in hippocampal CA1 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-yan FENG; Xiao-jing ZHENG; Jing WANG


    Objective: To directly examine the effects of carnosine on neuronal excitation and inhibition in rat hippocampus in vivo. Methods: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid with carnosine was directly administrated over the exposed rat hippocampus. The changes of neuron activity in the CA1 region of hippocampus were evaluated by orthodromically- and antidromically-evoked potentials, as well as paired-pulse stimulation paradigm. Results: In both orthodromic and antidromic response potentials, carnosine transformed population spikes (PSs) with single spike into epileptiform multiple spikes. In addition, similar to the effect of γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) antagonist picrotoxin, carnosine decreased paired-pulse stimulating depression significantly.However, no significant change was observed in the spontaneous field potentials during the application of carnosine. Conclusion:The results indicate a disinhibition-induced excitation effect of carnosine on the CA1 pyramidal neurons. It provides important information against the application of carnosine as a potential anticonvulsant in clinical treatment.

  13. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect (United States)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo


    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  14. Role of histidine/histamine in carnosine-induced neuroprotection during ischemic brain damage. (United States)

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Majid, Arshad


    Urgent need exists for new therapeutic options in ischemic stroke. We recently demonstrated that carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide consisting of alanine and histidine, is robustly neuroprotective in ischemic brain injury and has a wide clinically relevant therapeutic time window. The precise mechanistic pathways that mediate this neuroprotective effect are not known. Following in vivo administration, carnosine is hydrolyzed into histidine, a precursor of histamine. It has been hypothesized that carnosine may exert its neuroprotective activities through the histidine/histamine pathway. Herein, we investigated whether the neuroprotective effect of carnosine is mediated by the histidine/histamine pathway using in vitro primary astrocytes and cortical neurons, and an in vivo rat model of ischemic stroke. In primary astrocytes, carnosine significantly reduced ischemic cell death after oxygen-glucose deprivation, and this effect was abolished by histamine receptor type I antagonist. However, histidine or histamine did not exhibit a protective effect on ischemic astrocytic cell death. In primary neuronal cultures, carnosine was found to be neuroprotective but histamine receptor antagonists had no effect on the extent of neuroprotection. The in vivo effect of histidine and carnosine was compared using a rat model of ischemic stroke; only carnosine exhibited neuroprotection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that although the protective effects of carnosine may be partially mediated by activity at the histamine type 1 receptor on astrocytes, the histidine/histamine pathway does not appear to play a critical role in carnosine induced neuroprotection.

  15. Antioxidant effect of carnosine treatment on renal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (United States)

    Yay, A; Akkuş, D; Yapıslar, H; Balcıoglu, E; Sonmez, M F; Ozdamar, S


    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effects of an antioxidant, carnosine, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced renal injury in diabetic rats. We used four groups of eight rats: group 1, control; group 2, carnosine treated; group 3, untreated diabetic; group 4, carnosine treated diabetic. Kidneys were removed and processed, and sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and subjected to eNOS immunohistochemistry. Examination by light microscopy revealed degenerated glomeruli, thickened basement membrane and glycogen accumulation in the tubules of diabetic kidneys. Carnosine treatment prevented the renal morphological damage caused by diabetes. Moreover, administration of carnosine decreased somewhat the oxidative damage of diabetic nephropathy. Appropriate doses of carnosine might be a useful therapeutic option to reduce oxidative stress and associated renal injury in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Inhibitory effect of the carnosine-gallic acid synthetic peptide on MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Rae; Eom, Tae-Kil; Byun, Hee-Guk


    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix components and play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes such as malignant tumor metastasis and invasion. In this study, we constructed carnosine-gallic acid peptide (CGP) to identify a better MMP inhibitor than carnosine. The inhibitory effects of CGP on MMP-2 and MMP-9 were investigated in the human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell line. As a result, CGP significantly decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels without a cytotoxic effect. Moreover, CGP may inhibit migration and invasion in HT1080 cells through the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-uPA receptor signaling pathways to inhibit MMP-2 and MMP-9. Based on these results, it appears that CGP may play an important role in preventing and treating several MMP-2 and MMP-9-mediated health problems such as metastasis.

  17. Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles. (United States)

    Bex, T; Chung, W; Baguet, A; Stegen, S; Stautemas, J; Achten, E; Derave, W


    Carnosine occurs in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle and assists working capacity during high-intensity exercise. Chronic beta-alanine (BA) supplementation has consistently been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, but the effect of training on the carnosine loading efficiency is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare muscle carnosine loading between trained and untrained arm and leg muscles. In a first study (n = 17), reliability of carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was evaluated in deltoid and triceps brachii muscles. In a second study, participants (n = 35; 10 nonathletes, 10 cyclists, 10 swimmers, and 5 kayakers) were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of slow-release BA for 23 days. Carnosine content was evaluated in soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and deltoid muscles by (1)H-MRS. All the results are reported as arbitrary units. In the nonathletes, BA supplementation increased carnosine content by 47% in the arm and 33% in the leg muscles (not significant). In kayakers, the increase was more pronounced in arm (deltoid) vs. leg (soleus + gastrocnemius) muscles (0.089 vs. 0.049), whereas the reverse pattern was observed in cyclists (0.065 vs. 0.084). Swimmers had significantly higher increase in carnosine in both deltoid (0.107 vs. 0.065) and gastrocnemius muscle (0.082 vs. 0.051) compared with nonathletes. We showed that 1) carnosine content can be reliably measured by (1)H-MRS in deltoid muscle, 2) carnosine loading is equally effective in arm vs. leg muscles of nonathletes, and 3) carnosine loading is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.

  18. [Decrease of singlet oxygen chemiluminescence by the presence of carnosine]. (United States)

    Svachko, A G; Formaziuk, V E; Sergienko, V I


    To test antiradical medicines effect the chemical production of singlet oxygen (NaClO + H2O2) was investigated. The quantity singlet oxygen chemiluminescence was decreased in the presence of Japanese Catalin and Chine Baineiting, antirheumatic Voltaren and less strong Finish Catachrome and Carnosine. American Quinax does not possess such an effect. One of the possible starting mechanisms causing different diseases (atherosclerosis, cataract etc.) is destruction of biomembranes by active forms of oxygen.

  19. Carnosine Prevents Apoptosis of Glomerular Cells and Podocyte Loss in STZ Diabetic Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedl, Eva; Pfister, Frederick; Braunagel, Margarita; Brinkkoetter, Paul; Sternik, Paula; Deinzer, Martina; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Henning, Rob H.; van den Born, Jacob; Kraemer, Bernhard K.; Navis, Gerjan; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Yard, Benito; Koeppel, Hannes


    Background/Aims: We identified carnosinase-1 (CN-1) as risk-factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Carnosine, the substrate for CN-1, supposedly is a protective factor regarding diabetic complications. In this study, we hypothesized that carnosine administration to diabetic rats might protect the kid

  20. Analysis of plasma from prostate cancer patients links decreased carnosine dipeptidase 1 levels to lymph node metastasis

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    Ulrika Qundos


    Full Text Available There is a need for a better differentiation of aggressive tumors in prostate cancer to design a tailored treatment for each patient, preferably by a minimally invasive analysis of blood samples. In a previous study, we discovered a decrease of plasma levels of carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1 in association with aggressive prostate cancer. Now this relation has been investigated and characterized further by generating several new antibodies for extended analysis of CNDP1 in plasma. Multi-antibody sandwich assays were developed and applied to 1214 samples from two Swedish cohorts that confirmed decreased levels of CNDP1 in plasma from patients with advanced disease. Therein, data from CNDP1 assays allowed a better differentiation between tumor N stages than clinical tPSA, but did not when classifying T or M stages. Further investigations can now elucidate mechanisms behind decreasing levels of CNDP1 in plasma and primary in regards to lymph node metastasis.

  1. Antioxidant properties of carnosine re-evaluated with oxidizing systems involving iron and copper ions. (United States)

    Mozdzan, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Rysz, Jacek; Nowak, Dariusz


    Carnosine has antioxidant properties and is efficient in the treatment of chemically-induced inflammatory lesions in animals. However, some studies question its biological significance as antioxidant and show lack of protection and even pro-oxidant effect of carnosine in systems containing nickel and iron ions. The ability of carnosine to: (1) reduce Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions; (2) protect deoxyribose from oxidation by Fe(2+)-, Fe(3+)-, and Cu(2+)-H(2)O(2)-EDTA systems; (3) protect DNA from damage caused by Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems; (4) inhibit HClO- and H(2)O(2)-peroxidase-induced luminol dependent chemiluminescence was tested in vitro. At concentration 10 mM carnosine reduced 16.6+/-0.5 nmoles of Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions during 20 min. incubation and added to plasma significantly increased its ferric reducing ability. Inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation by 10 mM carnosine reached 56+/-5, 40+/-11 and 30+/-11% for systems containing Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively. The damage to DNA was decreased by 84+/-9 and 61+/-14% when Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems were applied. Combination of 10 mM histidine with alanine or histidine alone (but not alanine) enhanced 1.3 and 2.3 times (Peffect on DNA. Carnosine at 10 and 20 mM decreased by more than 90% light emission from both chemiluminescent systems. It is concluded that carnosine has significant antioxidant activity especially in the presence of transition metal ions. However, hydrolysis of carnosine with subsequent histidine release may be responsible for some pro-oxidant effects.

  2. Carnosine modulates glutamine synthetase expression in senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery. (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojie; Wang, Bingyu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Yuyan; Cao, Pei; Shen, Yao; Lyu, Jianxin


    Carnosine is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia. However, few reports concern its function on senescent astrocytes during cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine on cell damage and glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in D-galactose-induced senescent astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/recovery (OGD/R). The results showed that OGD/R caused massive cell damage and a significant decrease in GS expression both in the young and senescent astrocytes. The GS expression level was partly recovered whereas it continued to decline in the recovery stage in the young and senescent astrocytes, respectively. Decreased GS expression significantly inhibited glutamate uptake and glutamine production and release. Carnosine prevented the cell damage, rescued the expression of GS and reversed the glutamate uptake activity and glutamine production in the senescent astrocytes exposed to OGD/R. The modulatory effect of carnosine on GS expression was partly antagonized by pyrilamine, a selective histamine H1 receptors antagonist, but not bestatin. Bisindolylmaleimide II, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PKC could also reverse the action of carnosine on GS expression. Thus, histamine H1 receptors and PKC pathway may be involved in the modulatory action of carnosine in GS expression in the senescent astrocytes exposed to OGD/R.


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    Gordana Kralik


    Full Text Available Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles with respect to broiler sex. Content of carnosine was slightly higher in female broiler breast muscles than in male’s (1079.85 : 1012.66 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. Female broiler thigh muscle tissue also contained higher carnosine values than male’s (464.69 : 404.97 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. The research proved that carnosine was more deposited in breast muscle tissue than in thigh muscle tissue, regardless of broiler sex. Lipid peroxidation products measured as TBARS values (mg MDA/kg tissue did not statistically differ according to broiler sex or muscle type (P>0.05. Further research needs to be directed towards control of peroxidation products during meat storage.

  4. Impairment of Electron Transfer Chain Induced by Acute Carnosine Administration in Skeletal Muscle of Young Rats

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    José Roberto Macarini


    Full Text Available Serum carnosinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that leads to an accumulation of carnosine in the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, skeletal muscle, and other tissues of affected patients. Considering that high levels of carnosine are associated with neurological dysfunction and that the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in serum carnosinase deficiency remain poorly understood, we investigated the in vivo effects of carnosine on bioenergetics parameters, namely, respiratory chain complexes (I–III, II, and II-III, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase activities and the expression of mitochondrial-specific transcription factors (NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM in skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. We observed a significant decrease of complexes I–III and II activities in animals receiving carnosine acutely, as compared to control group. However, no significant alterations in respiratory chain complexes, citric acid cycle enzymes, and creatine kinase activities were found between rats receiving carnosine chronically and control group animals. As compared to control group, mRNA levels of NRF-1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were unchanged. The present findings indicate that electron transfer through the respiratory chain is impaired in skeletal muscle of rats receiving carnosine acutely. In case these findings are confirmed by further studies and ATP depletion is also observed, impairment of bioenergetics could be considered a putative mechanism responsible for the muscle damage observed in serum carnosinase-deficient patients.

  5. Carnosine enhances diabetic wound healing in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Ansurudeen, Ishrath; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Grünler, Jacob; Peters, Verena; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Brismar, Kerstin; Forsberg, Elisabete Alcantara


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disorder with severe late complications. Normal wound healing involves a series of complex and well-orchestrated molecular events dictated by multiple factors. In diabetes, wound healing is grossly impaired due to defective, and dysregulated cellular and molecular events at all phases of wound healing resulting in chronic wounds that fail to heal. Carnosine, a dipeptide of alanine and histidine and an endogenous antioxidant is documented to accelerate healing of wounds and ulcers. However, not much is known about its role in wound healing in diabetes. Therefore, we studied the effect of carnosine in wound healing in db/db mice, a mice model of Type 2 DM. Six millimeter circular wounds were made in db/db mice and analyzed for wound healing every other day. Carnosine (100 mg/kg) was injected (I.P.) every day and also applied locally. Treatment with carnosine enhanced wound healing significantly, and wound tissue analysis showed increased expression of growth factors and cytokines genes involved in wound healing. In vitro studies with human dermal fibroblasts and microvascular-endothelial cells showed that carnosine increases cell viability in presence of high glucose. These effects, in addition to its known role as an antioxidant and a precursor for histamine synthesis, provide evidence for a possible therapeutic use of carnosine in diabetic wound healing.

  6. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats. (United States)

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M


    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  7. Carnosine content in skeletal muscle is dependent on vitamin B6 status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya eSuidasari


    Full Text Available Carnosine, a histidine-containing dipeptide, is well known to be associated with skeletal muscle performance. However, there is limited information on the effect of dietary micronutrients on muscle carnosine level. Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, the active form of vitamin B6, is involved in amino acid metabolisms in the body as a co-factor. We hypothesized that enzymes involved in β-alanine biosynthesis, the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, may also be PLP-dependent. Thus, we examined the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the muscle carnosine content of rats. Male and female rats were fed a diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg for 6 weeks. Carnosine in skeletal muscles was quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. In the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+70% and +61%, respectively than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group, whereas that in the soleus muscle of male rats was significantly higher only in the 7 mg group (+43% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. In both muscles of female rats, carnosine concentration was significantly higher in the 7 and 35 mg groups (+32% ~ +226% than in the 1 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg group (P<0.05. We also found that compared to the 1 mg group, β-alanine concentrations in the 7 and 35 mg groups were markedly elevated in gastrocnemius muscles of male (+153% and +148%, respectively, P<0.05 and female (+381% and +437%, respectively, P<0.05 rats. Noteworthy, the concentrations of ornithine in the 7 and 35 mg groups were decreased in gastrocnemius muscles of male rats (−46% and −54%, respectively, P<0.05, which strongly inversely correlated with β-alanine concentration (r=−0.84, P<0.01. In humans, 19% lower muscle carnosine content was found in soleus muscle of women of the lower plasma PLP tertile, but this was not observed in gastrocnemius muscle

  8. Carnosine Attenuates the Development of both Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob Mice (United States)

    Albrecht, Thomas; Schilperoort, Maaike; Zhang, Shiqi; Braun, Jana D.; Qiu, Jiedong; Rodriguez, Angelica; Pastene, Diego O.; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Köppel, Hannes; Baelde, Hans; de Heer, Emile; Anna Altomare, Alessandra; Regazzoni, Luca; Denisi, Alessandra; Aldini, Giancarlo; van den Born, Jacob; Yard, Benito A.; Hauske, Sibylle J.


    We previously demonstrated that polymorphisms in the carnosinase-1 gene (CNDP1) determine the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Carnosine, the substrate of the enzyme encoded by this gene, is considered renoprotective and could possibly be used to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we examined the effect of carnosine treatment in vivo in BTBR (Black and Tan, BRachyuric) ob/ob mice, a type 2 diabetes model which develops a phenotype that closely resembles advanced human DN. Treatment of BTBR ob/ob mice with 4 mM carnosine for 18 weeks reduced plasma glucose and HbA1c, concomitant with elevated insulin and C-peptide levels. Also, albuminuria and kidney weights were reduced in carnosine-treated mice, which showed less glomerular hypertrophy due to a decrease in the surface area of Bowman’s capsule and space. Carnosine treatment restored the glomerular ultrastructure without affecting podocyte number, resulted in a modified molecular composition of the expanded mesangial matrix and led to the formation of carnosine-acrolein adducts. Our results demonstrate that treatment with carnosine improves glucose metabolism, albuminuria and pathology in BTBR ob/ob mice. Hence, carnosine could be a novel therapeutic strategy to treat patients with DN and/or be used to prevent DN in patients with diabetes. PMID:28281693

  9. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Sozeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, S.U. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Department of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology, SE16440 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)


    Research highlights: > L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. > FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. > Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. > The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was {approx}11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the

  10. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.


    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  11. Ergogenic effects of β-alanine and carnosine: proposed future research to quantify their efficacy. (United States)

    Caruso, John; Charles, Jessica; Unruh, Kayla; Giebel, Rachel; Learmonth, Lexis; Potter, William


    β-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and β-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former's merits as a buffer. Carnosine normally makes a small contribution to a cell's total buffer capacity; yet β-alanine supplementation raises intracellular carnosine concentrations that in turn improve a muscle's ability to buffer protons. Numerous studies assessed the impact of oral β-alanine intake on muscle carnosine levels and exercise performance. β-alanine may best act as an ergogenic aid when metabolic acidosis is the primary factor for compromised exercise performance. Blood lactate kinetics, whereby the concentration of the metabolite is measured as it enters and leaves the vasculature over time, affords the best opportunity to assess the merits of β-alanine supplementation's ergogenic effect. Optimal β-alanine dosages have not been determined for persons of different ages, genders and nutritional/health conditions. Doses as high as 6.4 g day(-1), for ten weeks have been administered to healthy subjects. Paraesthesia is to date the only side effect from oral β-alanine ingestion. The severity and duration of paraesthesia episodes are dose-dependent. It may be unwise for persons with a history of paraesthesia to ingest β-alanine. As for any supplement, caution should be exercised with β-alanine supplementation.

  12. Carnosine's effect on amyloid fibril formation and induced cytotoxicity of lysozyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine W Wu

    Full Text Available Carnosine, a common dipeptide in mammals, has previously been shown to dissemble alpha-crystallin amyloid fibrils. To date, the dipeptide's anti-fibrillogensis effect has not been thoroughly characterized in other proteins. For a more complete understanding of carnosine's mechanism of action in amyloid fibril inhibition, we have investigated the effect of the dipeptide on lysozyme fibril formation and induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our study demonstrates a positive correlation between the concentration and inhibitory effect of carnosine against lysozyme fibril formation. Molecular docking results show carnosine's mechanism of fibrillogenesis inhibition may be initiated by binding with the aggregation-prone region of the protein. The dipeptide attenuates the amyloid fibril-induced cytotoxicity of human neuronal cells by reducing both apoptotic and necrotic cell deaths. Our study provides solid support for carnosine's amyloid fibril inhibitory property and its effect against fibril-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The additional insights gained herein may pave way to the discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effects against amyloid fibril formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. L-carnosine 对 NIT-1胰岛细胞的影响及机制%Effects of L-carnosine on NIT-1 islet cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉莉; 桂书彦; 杨雁; 袁刚


    目的:研究肌肽(L-carnosine)对高糖培养的NIT-1细胞胰岛素分泌、增殖和凋亡的影响及机制.方法:(1)正常和高糖培养细胞72 h,放射免疫法测定葡萄糖刺激的胰岛素分泌,然后分别换不同浓度葡萄糖和L-carnosine培养,测定胰岛素分泌;(2)细胞分为C组(11.1 mmol/L glucose)、H组 (33.3 mmol/L glucose)、H+A组(33.3 mmol/L glucose +1 mmol/L L-carnosine)和H+B(33.3 mmol/L glucose+ 20 mmol/L L-carnosine)组培养72 h,BrdU检测细胞增殖,流式细胞术检测凋亡,RT-PCR测定bcl-2和caspase-3 mRNA的表达,荧光法检测caspase-3活性.结果:(1)高糖组细胞胰岛素分泌减少; 20 mmol/L L-carnosine显著增加正常和高糖组胰岛素分泌(P<0.01),且呈正相关(P<0.01);(2)高糖组细胞增殖和凋亡均增加(均P<0.01),但总体数目减少;1 mmol/L L-carnosine使增殖增加,凋亡减少(P<0.01);(3) 高糖组caspase-3 mRNA表达明显增加,bcl-2 mRNA明显减少(P<0.05);1 mmol/L L-carnosine使前者明显减少(P<0.05),后者明显增加(P<0.01);不同浓度L-carnosine均明显降低caspase-3活性.结论:高浓度L-carnosine可单独刺激细胞分泌胰岛素,低浓度的L-carnosine可增加NIT-1细胞增殖并减少高浓度葡萄糖所导致的凋亡.Caspase-3和Bcl-2可能参与了L-carnosine保护NIT-1细胞的过程.%AIM: To investigate the protective effect of L — carnosine on insulin secretion, proliferation and ap-optosis of (3 — cells impaired by high glucose. METHODS: NIT — 1 cells were pre — treated with glucose at concentrations of 11. 1 mmol/L ( control level ) and 33.3 mmol/L ( high level ) for 72 h, and then the cells were stimulated with various concentrations of glucose (0,5 and 25 mmol/L ) and/or L — carnosine (0,1 and 20 mmol/L ). The level of insulin in the medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. To detect the effect of L — carnosine on proliferation and apoptosis, NIT — 1 cells were divided into 4 groups according to different culture conditions for 72 h

  14. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats. (United States)

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C


    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  15. Conformations of Carnosine in Aqueous Solutions by All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations and 2D-NOSEY Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Zhang; Dan Wang; Wen-juan Wu


    All-atom molecular simulations and two-dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectrum have been used to study the conformations of carnosine in aqueous solution.Intramolecular distances,root-mean-square deviation,radius of gyration,and solvent-accessible surface are used to characterize the properties of the carnosine.Carnosine can shift between extended and folded states,but exists mostly in extended state in water.Its preference for extension in pure water has been proven by the 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment.The NMR experimental results are consistent with the molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system. (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K


    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions.

  17. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity. (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K


    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats.

  18. Identification and characterization of a mouse dipeptidase that hydrolyzes L-carnosine. (United States)

    Otani, Hiroto; Okumura, Nobuaki; Hashida-Okumura, Akiko; Nagai, Katsuya


    L-Carnosine is a bioactive dipeptide present in mammalian tissues including the central nervous system. We have recently shown that L-carnosine is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the autonomic nervous system, but the mechanisms for its biosynthesis and degradation have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we report the biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of a mammalian protein that has a 17% overall amino acid sequence homology with a Lactobacilus carnosinase, PepV. A recombinant protein expressed in E. coli has the enzymatic ability to digest L-carnosine and various other dipeptides, and this activity is inhibited by bestatin. It requires Mn2+ for enzymatic activity and its effect is reversible. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that a few neuronal populations express this protein at very high levels. It is highly expressed in the parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus and the mitral cell layer of the olfactory bulb. In addition, neuronal processes, but not cell bodies, are stained in the striatum. In all these areas, the protein did not colocalize with the glial fibrilary acidic protein. These results suggest that a peptidase that digests L-carnosine is enriched in several specific neuronal populations in the central nervous system.

  19. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine. (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K


    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity.

  20. Ergogenic Effects of β-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Caruso


    Full Text Available β-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and β-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former’s merits as a buffer. Carnosine normally makes a small contribution to a cell’s total buffer capacity; yet β-alanine supplementation raises intracellular carnosine concentrations that in turn improve a muscle’s ability to buffer protons. Numerous studies assessed the impact of oral β-alanine intake on muscle carnosine levels and exercise performance. β-alanine may best act as an ergogenic aid when metabolic acidosis is the primary factor for compromised exercise performance. Blood lactate kinetics, whereby the concentration of the metabolite is measured as it enters and leaves the vasculature over time, affords the best opportunity to assess the merits of β-alanine supplementation’s ergogenic effect. Optimal β-alanine dosages have not been determined for persons of different ages, genders and nutritional/health conditions. Doses as high as 6.4 g day−1, for ten weeks have been administered to healthy subjects. Paraesthesia is to date the only side effect from oral β-alanine ingestion. The severity and duration of paraesthesia episodes are dose-dependent. It may be unwise for persons with a history of paraesthesia to ingest β-alanine. As for any supplement, caution should be exercised with β-alanine supplementation.

  1. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of carnosine derivatives as selective and efficient sequestering agents of cytotoxic reactive carbonyl species. (United States)

    Vistoli, Giulio; Orioli, Marica; Pedretti, Alessandro; Regazzoni, Luca; Canevotti, Renato; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo


    Carnosine aryl derivatives as sequestering agents of RCS: Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are cytotoxic mediators representing a novel drug target, as they are presumed to play a pathogenic role in several diseases. Carnosine is a selective RCS-sequestering agent, but is rapidly hydrolyzed by serum carnosinase. Herein we describe the in silico design, synthesis, and evaluation of a set of carnosine aryl derivatives.Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are important cytotoxic mediators generated by lipid oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and represent a novel drug target, as they are presumed to play a pathogenic role in several diseases. L-Carnosine (L-CAR, beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a specific detoxifying agent of RCS, but is rapidly hydrolyzed in human serum by carnosinase, a specific dipeptidase. Herein we describe the in silico design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of carnosine derivatives that are resistant to carnosinase and that have increased quenching efficacy. Stability against carnosinase-mediated turnover was achieved by isomerization of the histidine residue, leading to D-carnosine (D-CAR, beta-alanyl-D-histidine), which maintains the same quenching activity of L-carnosine. A molecular modeling approach was then used to design derivatives characterized by an increased quenching efficacy. The most promising candidates were synthesized, and their stability and quenching activity were evaluated. This study describes a set of aryl derivatives that are characterized by high stability in human plasma and a quenching activity toward 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), chosen as a model of RCS, up to threefold greater than D-carnosine.

  2. Effect of dietary histidine on contents of carnosine and anserine in muscles of broilers. (United States)

    Kai, Shinichi; Watanabe, Genya; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu


    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) are dipeptides mainly found in skeletal muscle and brain of many vertebrates, and particularly high concentrations are observed in chicken pectoral muscles. It was reported that these peptides have many functions, such as antioxidant activity. In this study, we examined the effect of different levels of dietary histidine on carnosine and anserine contents in broiler muscles. The 14-days-old female Chunky strain broilers were given feeds containing three different levels of histidine; 67% (Low-His), 100% (Control) and 200% (High-His) of histidine requirement according to the NRC (1994). Chicks were fed experimental diets for 10 days. Both dipeptides in muscle were significantly decreased. In particular, carnosine was not detected at all in the Low-His group and was significantly increased in the High-His group. Both dipeptides were not detected in plasma. These results indicated the possibility to produce chicken meat with enhanced amount of these dipeptides by high histidine feeding.

  3. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  4. Bioactive peptide carnosin protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by abrogation of oxidative stress in rats. (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa; Kazemian-Mahtaj, Azam; Khodadadi, Iraj


    Context Oxidative stress is a common mechanism of liver injury. Carnosine is a dipeptide having strong antioxidant effects. Objectives We investigated the effects of carnosine on lead-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Materials and methods Animals received an aqueous solution of lead acetate (500 mg Pb/L in the drinking water) and/or daily oral gavage of carnosine (10 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Rats were then weighed and used for the biochemical (commercial kits), molecular (standard chemical methods) and histological (microscopic) evaluations. Results Lead-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue was indicated by a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (8.25 ± 0.15 nmol/mg) as well as decrease in the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (1.72 ± 0.25 μmol/g) and total thiol (SH) groups) 1.9 ± 0.22 μmol/g). Carnosine treatment decreased MDA (4 ± 0.08 nmol/mg), whereas it increased the contents of total thiol (3.25 ± 0.04 μmol/g) and TAC (3.44 ± 0.32 μmol/g) in the lead group. Carnosine also prevented the decreased body weight (p induced hepatotoxicity, indicated by molecular, biochemical and histopathological analyses through inhibiting lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant defence systems. Therefore, carnosine makes a good candidate to protect against the deleterious effect of chronic lead intoxication.

  5. Effects of carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss) (United States)

    Fish meal may contain “unknown growth factors” that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-ß-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. ...

  6. Carnosine and neocuproine as neutralizing agents for copper overload-induced damages in cultured human cells. (United States)

    Arnal, Nathalie; de Alaniz, María J T; Marra, Carlos A


    Copper is dangerous when it is present in excess, mainly because it can participate in the Fenton reaction, which produces radical species. As a consequence of copper pollution, people are involuntarily exposed to a copper overload under sub-clinical and sub-symptomatological conditions, which may be very difficult to detect. Thus, we investigated (i) the possible use of the chelator molecules carnosine and neocuproine to prevent the Cu overload-induced damage on cellular lipids and proteins, as tested in human cell culture systems, and (ii) the differential response of these two chelating agents in relation to their protective action, and the type of copper ion involved in the process, by using two types of human cultured cells (HepG2 and A-549). Cu treatment clearly enhanced (pcomplexing agent for Cu(II), but also an effective antioxidant that can dismutate superoxide radicals, scavenge hydroxyl radicals and neutralize TBARS formation. Carnosine should be investigated in more detail in order to establish its putative utility as an agent to prevent copper-associated damages in biological systems.

  7. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People (United States)

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi


    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  8. Fire retardants for wood

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    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković


    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  9. Litter-Spinning Retarders (United States)

    Wilson, John C.


    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  10. Biological activities of the natural imidazole-containing peptidomimetics n-acetylcarnosine, carcinine and L-carnosine in ophthalmic and skin care products. (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A


    Apart from genetically programmed cell aging, different external aggressors related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) can accelerate the skin aging phenomenon. Oxidative stress associated with the formation of lipid peroxides is suggested to contribute to pathological processes in aging and systemic diseases known as the risk factors for cataract. Despite the fact that L-carnosine-related peptidomimetics N-acetylcarnosine (N-acetyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) (NAC) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) are metabolically related to L-carnosine and have been demonstrated to occur in tissues of many vertebrates, including humans, these compounds were shown resistant toward enzymatic hydrolysis. A series of related biocompatible imidazole-containing peptidomimetics were synthesized in order to confer resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis and ex vivo improvement of protective antioxidative properties related to L-carnosine. The included findings revealed a greater role of N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) and carcinine ex vivo in the prolongation and potentiation of physiological responses to the therapeutical and cosmetics treatments with L-carnosine as antioxidant. 3-D molecular conformation studies proposed the antioxidant activity of peptidomimetics (carcinine, L-prolylhistamine, N-acetylcarnosine, L-carnosine) for metal ion binding, quenching of a number free radicals, and binding of hydroperoxide or aldehyde (including dialdehyde LPO products) in an imidazole-peroxide adducts. NAC can act as a time release (carrier) stable version of L-carnosine during application in ophthalmic pharmaceutical and cosmetics formulations which include lubricants. Carcinine, L-prolylhistamine show efficient deactivation of lipid hydroperoxides monitored by HPLC and protection of membrane phospholipids and water soluble proteins from the lipid peroxides-induced damages. This activity is superior over the lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E. The biologically significant applications of

  11. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal and cognitive function: an exploratory study.

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    Marina Yazigi Solis

    Full Text Available Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d(-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1 and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2.In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation, with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task being performed before and after exercise on each occasion.In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99 or omnivores (p = 0.27; nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19. Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27. In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P 0.05 of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise.28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d(-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists.

  12. Graphene Oxides Decorated with Carnosine as an Adjuvant To Modulate Innate Immune and Improve Adaptive Immunity in Vivo. (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Zhi, Xiao; Li, Chao; Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Qiu, Xusheng; Ding, Chan; Ma, Lijun; Lu, Hongmin; Chen, Di; Liu, Guangqing; Cui, Daxiang


    Current studies have revealed the immune effects of graphene oxide (GO) and have utilized them as vaccine carriers and adjuvants. However, GO easily induces strong oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction at the site of injection. It is very necessary to develop an alternative adjuvant based on graphene oxide derivatives for improving immune responses and decreasing side effects. Carnosine (Car) is an outstanding and safe antioxidant. Herein, the feasibility and efficiency of ultrasmall graphene oxide decorated with carnosine as an alternative immune adjuvant were explored. OVA@GO-Car was prepared by simply mixing ovalbumin (OVA, a model antigen) with ultrasmall GO covalently modified with carnosine (GO-Car). We investigated the immunological properties of the GO-Car adjuvant in model mice. Results show that OVA@GO-Car can promote robust and durable OVA-specific antibody response, increase lymphocyte proliferation efficiency, and enhance CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell activation. The presence of Car in GO also probably contributes to enhancing the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through modulating the expression of some cytokines, including IL-6, CXCL1, CCL2, and CSF3. In addition, the safety of GO-Car as an adjuvant was evaluated comprehensively. No symptoms such as allergic response, inflammatory redness swelling, raised surface temperatures, physiological anomalies of blood, and remarkable weight changes were observed. Besides, after modification with carnosine, histological damages caused by GO-Car in lung, muscle, kidney, and spleen became weaken significantly. This study sufficiently suggest that GO-Car as a safe adjuvant can effectively enhance humoral and innate immune responses against antigens in vivo.

  13. Circulating carnosine dipeptidase 1 associates with weight loss and poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer.

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    Peter Arner

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia (CC is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia.Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32 or without (n = 27 cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer.Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1 was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008. In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results.In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC.

  14. The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in human colon cancer cells.

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    Barbara Iovine

    Full Text Available In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively. Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia

  15. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.


    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  16. Fire-retardant foams (United States)

    Gagliani, J.


    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  17. l-carnosine dipeptide overcomes acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in HT29 human colon cancer cells via downregulation of HIF1-alpha and induction of apoptosis. (United States)

    Iovine, Barbara; Guardia, Francesca; Irace, Carlo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta


    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) protein is over-expressed in many human cancers and is a major cause of resistance to drugs. HIF-1α up-regulation decreases the effectiveness of several anticancer agents, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), because it induces the expression of drug efflux transporters, alters DNA repair mechanisms and modifies the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic factors. These findings suggest that inhibition of HIF-1α activity may sensitize cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. We previously reported that l-carnosine reduces HIF-1α expression by inhibiting the proliferation of colon cancer cells. In the present study we investigated the effect of l-carnosine on HT29 colon cancer cells with acquired resistance to 5-FU. We found that l-carnosine reduces colon cancer cell viability, decreases HIF-1α and multi-drug resistant protein MDR1-pg expression, and induces apoptosis. Moreover, the l-carnosine/5-FU combination lowers the expression of some chemoresistance markers. The combination index evaluated in vitro on the HT29-5FU cell line by median drug effect analysis reveals a significant synergistic effect.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction, amyloid pathology, and cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice.

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    Carlo Corona

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenic road map leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD is still not completely understood; however, a large body of studies in the last few years supports the idea that beside the classic hallmarks of the disease, namely the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles, other factors significantly contribute to the initiation and the progression of the disease. Among them, mitochondria failure, an unbalanced neuronal redox state, and the dyshomeostasis of endogenous metals like copper, iron, and zinc have all been reported to play an important role in exacerbating AD pathology. Given these factors, the endogenous peptide carnosine may be potentially beneficial in the treatment of AD because of its free-radical scavenger and metal chelating properties. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we explored the effect of L-carnosine supplementation in the 3xTg-AD mouse, an animal model of AD that shows both Aβ- and tau-dependent pathology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that carnosine supplementation in 3xTg-AD mice promotes a strong reduction in the hippocampal intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and completely rescues AD and aging-related mitochondrial dysfunctions. No effects were found on tau pathology and we only observed a trend toward the amelioration of cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that carnosine can be part of a combined therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD.

  19. The effects of ascorbic acid, taurine, carnosine and rosemary powder on colour and lipid stability of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere. (United States)

    Sánchez-Escalante, A; Djenane, D; Torrescano, G; Beltrán, J A; Roncalés, P


    This research was aimed at evaluating the inhibition of oxidative changes of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere (70% O(2)+20% CO(2)+10% N(2)) by natural antioxidants: ascorbic acid (500 ppm), taurine (50 mM), carnosine (50 mM), rosemary powder (1000 ppm) and their combinations with the first. Beef patties stored at 2±1°C for 20 days were evaluated for colour (L*, a*, b*, C* and H*), TBARS, metmyoglobin formation (% of total myoglobin), psychrotrophic microbial counts and sensory odour and discolouration. Rosemary, either alone or with ascorbic acid, was highly effective in inhibiting both metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation; sensory analysis was in agreement with these results. Ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid+taurine and ascorbic acid+carnosine treatments showed a limited inhibitory effect of myoglobin oxidation, while carnosine and carnosine+ascorbic acid were effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. Taurine alone failed to exert any antioxidant effect. Principal components analysis confirmed these results.

  20. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats. (United States)

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina


    The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism.

  1. Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature

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    Matthew Cooke


    Full Text Available Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscle by 20–80%.Several studies have reported that β-ALA supplementation can increase high-intensity intermittent exercise performance and/or training adaptations. Although the specific mechanism remains to be determined, the ergogenicity of β-ALA has been most commonly attributed to an increased muscle buffering capacity.More recently, researchers have investigated the effects of co-ingesting β-ALA with creatine monohydrate to determine whether there may be synergistic and/or additive benefits. This paper overviews the theoretical rationale and potential ergogenic value of β-ALA supplementation with or without creatine as well as provides future research recommendations.

  2. Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome

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    Kalenahalli Jagadish Kumar


    Full Text Available Congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth retardation and facial dysmorphism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder seen among children born to consanguineous couple of Arab ethnicity. This syndrome is commonly known as Sanjad-Sakati or hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome (HRD. We report 13-year-old Hindu boy with hypoparathyroidism, tetany, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay, compatible with HRD syndrome.

  3. Reactivity, Selectivity, and Reaction Mechanisms of Aminoguanidine, Hydralazine, Pyridoxamine, and Carnosine as Sequestering Agents of Reactive Carbonyl Species: A Comparative Study. (United States)

    Colzani, Mara; De Maddis, Danilo; Casali, Gaia; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Aldini, Giancarlo


    Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are endogenous or exogenous byproducts involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of different oxidative-based disorders. Detoxification of RCS by carbonyl quenchers is a promising therapeutic strategy. Among the most studied quenchers are aminoguanidine, hydralazine, pyridoxamine, and carnosine; their quenching activity towards four RCS (4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and malondialdehyde) was herein analyzed and compared. Their ability to prevent protein carbonylation was evaluated in vitro by using an innovative method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The reactivity of the compounds was RCS dependent: carnosine efficiently quenched 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, pyridoxamine was particularly active towards malondialdehyde, aminoguanidine was active towards methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and hydralazine efficiently quenched all RCS. Reaction products were generated in vitro and were characterized by HRMS. Molecular modeling studies revealed that the reactivity was controlled by specific stereoelectronic parameters that could be used for the rational design of improved carbonyl quenchers.

  4. Mono- and di-halogenated histamine, histidine and carnosine derivatives are potent carbonic anhydrase I, II, VII, XII and XIV activators. (United States)

    Saada, Mohamed-Chiheb; Vullo, Daniela; Montero, Jean-Louis; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves


    Mono- and di-halogenated histamines, l-histidine methyl ester derivatives and carnosine derivatives incorporating chlorine, bromine and iodine were prepared and investigated as activators of five carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I, II and VII, and the transmembrane hCA XII and XIV. All of them were activated in a diverse manner by the investigated compounds, with a distinct activation profile.

  5. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 Occurring from Hyperglycemia-Induced Neural Tube Defects Is Ameliorated by Carnosine But Not Folic Acid in Chicken Embryos. (United States)

    Tan, Rui-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Huang, Wen-Shan; Tsoi, Bun; Hu, Dan; Wan, Xin; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Qi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong


    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of the embryonic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic gestation. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis influenced by hyperglycemia was investigated using chicken embryo models. High-concentration glucose was administered into chicken eggs and resulted in increased plasma and brain tissue glucose, and suppressed expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The rate of NTD positively correlated with hyperglycemia. Furthermore, abnormally increased O-GlcNAcylation, a nutritionally responsive modification, of the key neural tube marker Pax3 protein led to the loss of this protein. This loss was not observed in a folate-deficiency NTD induced by methotrexate. Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, showed significant recovery effects on neural tube development. In contrast, folic acid, a well-known periconceptional agent, surprisingly showed relatively minimal effect. Higher expression levels of the Pax3 protein were found in the carnosine-treated groups, while lower expression levels were found in folic acid groups. Furthermore, the abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of the Pax3 protein was restored by carnosine. These results suggest new insights into using endogenous nutrients for the protection of embryonic neurodevelopment affected by diabetes gestation. The abnormal excessive O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 may be responsible for the neural tube defects associated with hyperglycemia.

  6. Development of novel fire retardants (United States)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  7. Firefighters and flame retardant activism. (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel


    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  8. Auto cannibalism in mental retardation

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    Rohit Verma


    Full Text Available Mental retardation (MR deems an individual more vulnerable to psychopathologies. The individual may develop an array of behavioral disturbances manifesting themselves in the form of aggressive and destructive conduct, violent fits of anger, stereotyped, or self-injuring behavior. Self-injurious behavior is heterogeneous in nature ranging from mild to severe variant. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy with MR with self-inflicted severe oral injuries of cannibalistic nature presenting as cleft lip and palate. A more extensive research is needed on the problem behaviors in mentally retarded patients for early detection and effective and timely intervention leading to a better outcome.

  9. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

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    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))


    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.).

  10. Aging, proteotoxicity, mitochondria, glycation, NAD+ and carnosine: possible inter-relationships and resolution of the oxygen paradox

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    Alan R Hipkiss


    Full Text Available It is suggested that NAD+ availability strongly affects cellular aging and organism lifespan: low NAD+ availability increases intracellular levels of glycolytic triose phosphates (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone-phosphate which, if not further metabolized, decompose spontaneously into methylglyoxal (MG, a glycating agent and source of protein and mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS. MG-damaged proteins and other aberrant polypeptides can induce ROS generation, promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibit proteasomal activity. Upregulation of mitogenesis and mitochondrial activity by increased aerobic exercise, or dietary manipulation, helps to maintain NAD+ availability and thereby decreases MG-induced proteotoxicity. These proposals can explain the apparent paradox whereby aging is seemingly caused by increased ROS-mediated macromolecular damage but is ameliorated by increased aerobic activity. It is also suggested that increasing mitochondrial activity decreases ROS generation, while excess numbers of inactive mitochondria are deleterious due to increased ROS generation. The muscle- and brain-associated dipeptide, carnosine, is an intracellular buffer which can delay senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and delay aging in senescence-accelerated mice. Carnosine’s ability to react with MG and possibly other deleterious carbonyl compounds, and scavenge various ROS, may account for its protective ability towards ischemia and ageing.

  11. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation (United States)

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.


    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  12. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted. (United States)

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  13. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga


    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  14. Β-alanine and l-histidine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement in L-carnosine supply. (United States)

    Usui, Takuya; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi


    The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of β-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]β-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively. The RUI of [(3)H]β-alanine was taurine- and γ-aminobutyric acid-sensitive, and the in vitro uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells showed time- concentration- and temperature-dependent [(3)H]β-alanine uptake, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved in β-alanine transport across the inner BRB. [(3)H]β-Alanine uptake was inhibited by taurine and β-guanidinopropionic acid, suggesting that taurine transporter (TAUT/SLC6A6) is responsible for the influx transport of β-alanine across the inner BRB. Regarding l-histidine, the l-leucine-sensitive RUI of [(3)H]l-histidine was identified, and the in vitro [(3)H]l-histidine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells suggested that a carrier-mediated process was involved in l-histidine transport across the inner BRB. The inhibition profile suggested that L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1/SLC7A5) is responsible for the influx transport of l-histidine across the inner BRB. These results show that the influx transports of β-alanine and l-histidine across the inner BRB is carried out by TAUT and LAT1, respectively, suggesting that the retinal l-carnosine is supplied by enzymatic synthesis from two kinds of amino acids transported across the inner BRB.




  16. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.


    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  17. Potential Antifibrotic and Angiostatic Impact of Idebenone, Carnosine and Vitamin E in Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy A. Abdelazim


    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of individual and combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on ameliorating some of the biochemical indices of nano-sized titanium dioxide (n-TiO2 in mice liver. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of nano-sized anatase TiO2 (21 nm on hepatic cell lines (HepG 2 was investigated. Additionally, n-TiO2 was orally administered (150 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, followed by a daily intragastric gavage of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month. Results: n-TiO2 induced significant cytotoxicity in hepatic cell lines and elevated the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, hepatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC and nitrite/nitrate (NOx levels. Meanwhile, glutathione-S-transferase (GST activity was significantly reduced. Moreover, RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that n-TiO2 significantly altered the mRNA and protein expressions of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1 and Smad-2, as well as vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced these results.Conclusion: Idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with the combination regimen demonstrating the most pronounced effect. Oxidative stress, liver fibrosis and angiogenesis may be implicated in n-TiO2-induced liver toxicity.

  18. An "enigmatic" L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine)? Cell proliferative activity as a fundamental property of a natural dipeptide inherent to traditional antioxidant, anti-aging biological activities: balancing and a hormonally correct agent, novel patented oral therapy dosage formulation for mobility, skeletal muscle power and functional performance, hypothalamic-pituitary- brain relationship in health, aging and stress studies. (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E


    Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the

  19. [Clinical studies on pramipexol retard]. (United States)

    Klivényi, Péter; Vécsei, László


    Pramipexol retard is the newest drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The prolonged release of the agent in this preparation allows a more continuous dopaminergic stimulation than previous preparations, without reducing the agent's already known and proven clinical efficiency. In addition, it has a more favourable adverse effect profile than previous preparations, and patient compliance can also be better as it needs to be taken only once daily. These benefits have been proven in recent clinical studies, of which the most important ones are reviewed here.

  20. Our Sedation Experience on Mentally Retarded Patients


    Metin Alkan


    Aim: The majority of dental treatments can be performed under local anesthesia. However, sedation or general anesthesia are often required for mentally retarded patients presenting a lack of cooperation. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of mentally retarded patients treated under sedation. Material and Method: The records of the 214 mentally retarded patients that were treated under sedation between 2010-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The retrospective ...

  1. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded (United States)

    McSweeney, Anthony


    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布冠好; 杨国宇; 李宏基


    We studied the inhibition effects of carnosine on lipid peroxidation of meat products during cold storage and compared the antioxidant activity of carnosine and other antioxidants by detecting the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and metmyoglobin in meat lipid peroxidation products. The results showed that carnosine significantly inhibited the formation of TBARS and metmyoglobin in ground pork during storage at 4 ℃ .Carnosine was more effective in inhibiting the lipid peroxidation in ground pork cold-stor ed for 5 days than phytate and VitC. In addition, 1.5% carnosine was more effective in inhibiting the lipid peroxidation in salted ground beef cold-stored for 5 days than 0.5% STP or 0.02% BHA. Carnosine may be used as a natural antioxidant for cold storage of meat products, and plays an important role in inhibiting oxidative rancidity and prolonging the shelf life.%通过检测肉品脂类过氧化产物中硫代巴比妥酸反应物(TBARS)和高铁肌红蛋白的含量,研究肌肽在肉品冷藏过程中对脂类氧化的抑制作用,并比较肌肽与其他抗氧化剂之间的抗氧化活性.结果显示,肌肤显著抑制了冷藏碎猪肉中TBARS和高铁肌红蛋白的形成量;肌肽对冷藏5d猪肉脂类氧化的抑制作用高于植酸和VitC;1.5%肌肤对冷藏5d的加盐碎牛肉的氧化抑制作用大于0.5%三聚磷酸钠(STP)和0.02%丁基羟基茴香醚(BHA).肌肽可作为一种天然抗氧化剂应用于肉品贮藏中,对抑制氧化酸败和延长货架期有重要作用.

  3. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.


    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  4. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  5. Operant Conditioning of Mental Retardates' Visual Monitoring. (United States)

    Perryman, Roy E.; And Others


    To study improvement of visual monitoring of retardates, specialized training methods backed up by incentives were used. The extent to which these training techniques might be expected to produce results which would generalize was explored. Subjects were eight female mental retardates (ages 15-22) with IQs from 38 to 69. (Author/SJL)

  6. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded. (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  7. Human Sexuality for the Mentally Retarded. (United States)

    Zitzow, Darryl; And Others

    The Human Sexuality for the Mentally Retarded program sought to provide cognitive awareness of human sexuality for mentally retarded trainable residents (5 to 21 years old) as well as inservice staff training regarding attitudes and cognitive awareness changes. Cognitive awareness training focused on body parts, discrimination of the sexes,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA


    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.



    Rastogi, C. K.


    SUMMARY Parents of 50 mentally retarded children were investigated for their attitudes towards their retarded children. Both the parents showed more negative attitudes toward their severely retarded child. In general mothers exhibited more negative attitude than the fathers.

  10. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine. (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine


    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities.

  11. Bone tumor (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  12. Determination of L-Carnosine and Its Related Substances by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定L-肌肽原料药的含量及其有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩木南; 陈晓辉; 其其格; 纪晓影; 毕开顺


    目的 建立HPLC测定L-帆肽原料药的含量并进行有关物质检查.方法 采用Kromasil NH2色谱柱(4.6 mm×200 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-40 mmol·L-1磷酸氢二钾溶液(44:56,磷酸调pH 6.3),流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为210 nm,柱温35℃.结果 L-肌肽在9.93~99.3 mg·L-1内线性关系良好(r=-0.999 8),平均回收率为100.5%(RSD=1.0%),检测限为1 ng(S/N=3).L-肌肽与有关物质分离良好.结论 该方法操作简便、重复性好,专属性强,可用作L-肌肽原料药的含量测定和有关物质检查.%OBJECTIVE To establish a HPLC method for determining the content of L-camosine and its related substances. METHODS The determination of L-carnosine and the separation of its related substances was performed on a Kromasil NH2 average recovery was 100.5% with RSD of 1.0%. The related substances of L-carnosine were completely separated from L-carnosine. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1 ng (S/N=3) . CONCLUSION A reproducible and specific method is provided for thedetermination of L-carnosine and its related substances.

  13. Separation of N-derivatized di- and tri-peptide stereoisomers by micro-liquid chromatography using a quinidine-based monolithic column - Analysis of l-carnosine in dietary supplements. (United States)

    Wang, Qiqin; Sánchez-López, Elena; Han, Hai; Wu, Huihui; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Marina, Maria Luisa; Jiang, Zhengjin


    In the present study, a new analytical methodology was developed enabling the enantiomeric determination of N-derivatized di- and tri-peptides in dietary supplements using chiral micro-LC on a monolithic column consisting of poly(O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(MQD-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)). After optimization of the mobile phase conditions, a baseline resolution of the stereoisomers of 24 out of 53 N-derivatized di- and tri-peptides was obtained. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl- and 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl-peptide stereoisomers were separated with exceptionally high selectivity and resolution. The monolithic column was then applied to the quantitative analysis of l-carnosine and its enantiomeric impurity in three different commercial dietary supplements. Method validation demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The determined amounts of l-carnosine in commercial formulations were in agreement with the labeled content for all analyzed samples, and the enantiomeric impurity was found to be below the limit of detection (LOD), showing the potential of the poly(MQD-co-HEMA-co-EDMA) monolithic column as a reliable tool for the quality control of l-carnosine in dietary supplements by micro-LC.

  14. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita


    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  15. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites (United States)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam


    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  16. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded (United States)

    Weisbord, H. F.


    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  17. Approximations of solutions to retarded integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Bahuguna


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a retarded integrodifferential equation and prove existence, uniqueness and convergence of approximate solutions. We also give some examples to illustrate the applications of the abstract results.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We establish explicit bounds on some more general retarded integral inequalities which can be used as convenient tools in some applications, and give some examples which show the feasibility of our results.

  19. Inequalities applicable to retarded Volterra integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Pachpatte


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to establish explicit bounds on certain integral inequialities which can be used as tools in the study of certain classes of retarded Volterra integral equations.

  20. Cortical Response of Retardates for AER Audiometry (United States)

    Hogan, Donald D.


    Averaged auditory evoked responses were obtained from 15 retarded and motor-handicapped subjects and from 15 nonretarded subjects in order to investigate comparative responsiveness and response features. (Author)

  1. Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning


    One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Graphene Straw Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang


    Full Text Available This article was prepared by spin-coating the evaporation process graphene oxide having a shell core structure GO/straw flame retardant composite materials, through the oxygen index apparatus and SEM measured the relationship between the flame retardant properties and the morphological structure of the flame retardant composite material, the experiment preparation process is simple, environmentally friendly non-toxic, and the resulting GO/straw flame retardant composite material having a high fire retardant properties.

  3. A Study on Normal Siblings of Mentally Retarded Persons



    This study examined how normal people perceive their mentally retarded siblings and what they see to be their future relationship. Normal siblings of mentally retarded persons were given a questionnaire regarding their relationships with their parents and mentally retarded siblings during childhood and how they introduced their mentally retarded siblings to their fiancees. In most cases, they had good relationships with their mentally retarded siblings during childhood. Most of them also inte...

  4. Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor. (United States)

    Mauceri, L; Sorge, G; Incorpora, G; Pavone, L


    Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor.

  5. Retardance and flicker modeling and characterization of electro-optic linear retarders by averaged Stokes polarimetry. (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco J; Márquez, Andrés; Gallego, Sergi; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto


    A polarimetric method for the measurement of linear retardance in the presence of phase fluctuations is presented. This can be applied to electro-optic devices behaving as variable linear retarders. The method is based on an extended Mueller matrix model for the linear retarder containing the time-averaged effects of the instabilities. As a result, an averaged Stokes polarimetry technique is proposed to characterize both the retardance and its flicker magnitude. Predictive capability of the approach is experimentally demonstrated, validating the model and the calibration technique. The approach is applied to liquid crystal on silicon displays (LCoS) using a commercial Stokes polarimeter. Both the magnitude of the average retardance and the amplitude of its fluctuation are obtained for each gray level value addressed, thus enabling a complete phase characterization of the LCoS.

  6. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann


    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  7. Laser Feedback Technique for Precise Retardation Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Li-Gang; ZHANG Shu-Lian


    @@ A simple and precise retardation measurement based on laser feedback is demonstrated. The measurement principle is based on polarization flipping induced by optical feedback from an external birefringence cavity.The measured wave plate is located in the external cavity. When the length of the external cavity is tuned,the polarization states of laser will flip between two eigenstates, and the position of polarization flipping in one period of intensity modulation will vary with retardation of the wave plate. The duty ratio of two eigenstates is used to determine the retardation. Main advantages of the technique are that it is compact, low cost, fast and flexible. Especially, it is insensitive to a fluctuation of laser intensity and is suitable for on-line measurement. The experimental results have shown that the measurement uncertainty is better than 0.03° in the range 30°-150°.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran AJDINSKI


    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the fact that many scientific researches, the mental retardation are treated as a complex and specific human phenomenon, the author of this paper likes to point out three basic questions. Those are the definition of mental retardation, classification of the some of the characteristics of the mentally retarded persons.In connection with this questions practically all of the former awareness is presented and also for this aim is used a huge list of literature.Here is made a synthesis of many opinions of the eminent authors. With this presentation, concerned specialists, parents and students could be acquaintance with most important facts about the mentioned problems, which are elaborated in this paper.

  9. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.


    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  10. 肌肽在血管性痴呆治疗中的应用及研究进展%Application and Progress of Carnosine in Treatment of Vascular Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婧; 陈婷; 张金莲; 徐阿晶; 刘艳


    血管性痴呆是临床发病率排在第二位的认知障碍性疾病,以白质损伤引起的认知功能障碍和胶质细胞的激活为主要病理表现.目前临床上药物治疗疗效有限,且不能有效逆转损伤、减缓疾病的进程,因此,对新药物的研发存在迫切的需求.肌肽(β-丙氨酰-L-组氨酸)是由β-丙氨酸和L-组氨酸两种氨基酸组成的天然二肽,能够由外周进入神经中枢系统,转变成组氨酸后成为组胺,是体内组胺的天然储存库,对急性脑缺血损伤发挥保护作用.近年研究发现肌肤对血管性痴呆的保护作用不是通过肌肤-组氨酸-组胺的途径,而是通过抑制兴奋性氨基酸毒性、氧自由基的产生、胶质细胞的激活以及髓鞘的退化发挥保护作用,由此证明肌肽对于血管性痴呆有着潜在的临床治疗作用.本文针对肌肽对血管性痴呆治疗的研究进展进行综述.%Vascular dementia (VaD),which is recognized as the second most prevalent type of dementia is often observed in patients with hypertension or atherosclerosis.Its characteristic damage involves progressive demyelination,cognitive impairment and white matter rarefaction.However,pathogenetic mechanisms are far from understood,with currently no effective agents to prevent or reverse its progression.Therefore,it's necessary to develop new agents for treatment or prevention ofVaD.Carnosine (β3-alanyl-L-histidine) is a natural dipeptide that is highly expressed in the central nervous system,and can easily enter the brain from the periphery.Carnosine can converse to histidine and then histamine.Carnosine had a protective effect in VaD,which did not involve the carnosine-histidine-histamine metabolic pathway,but may be due to an inhibition of excitatory amino acid,reactive oxygen specie generation,glia activation and myelin degeneration.These data suggest that carnosine may have potential value for the therapeutic treatment in VaD.This review focuses on the

  11. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses (United States)

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  12. Let the Mentally-Retarded Shine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Of all the people with disabilities, the mentallyretarded not only are the most difficult to be part of the society and to get jobs but also add to the family burdens. This has become a big headache for Shanghai, the leading industrial city of China, which has about 70,000 mentally-retarded among the 520,000 persons with disabilities.

  13. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.


    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  14. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers. (United States)

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  15. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded. (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  16. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable. (United States)

    Hollander, Russell


    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  17. Genetic and epigenetic defects in mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.M.; Bokhoven, H. van


    Mental retardation (MR) is a highly diverse group of cognitive disorders. The high incidence of MR, 2-3% in most populations, and the high burden for families and society makes this condition one of the major unsolved problems in modern medicine. Gene defects account for about half of all patients a

  18. Theories of Dual Diagnosis in Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sevin, Jay A.


    Provides historical review of theory development in the field of dual diagnosis, defined as co-occurrence of mental health disorders with mental retardation. Noting that current etiological theories have practical implications for treatment and prevention of dual diagnosis, discusses current status of etiological theories and future directions for…

  19. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li


    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  20. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data are...

  1. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System...

  2. Methylglyoxal-Mediated Stress Correlates with High Metabolic Activity and Promotes Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer (United States)

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Bellier, Justine; Durieux, Florence; Bletard, Noëlla; Sherer, Félicie; Lovinfosse, Pierre; Peulen, Olivier; Verset, Laurine; Dehon, Romain; Demetter, Pieter; Turtoi, Andrei; Uchida, Koji; Goldman, Serge; Hustinx, Roland; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila


    Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and induces the formation of advanced glycation end-products that are implicated in several pathologies including cancer. All mammalian cells have an enzymatic defense against MG composed by glyoxalases GLO1 and GLO2 that converts MG to d-lactate. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts, in a series of 102 CRC human tumors divided into four clinical stages. We consistently detected a high level of MG adducts and low GLO1 activity in high stage tumors compared to low stage ones suggesting a pro-tumor role for dicarbonyl stress. Accordingly, GLO1 depletion in CRC cells promoted tumor growth in vivo that was efficiently reversed using carnosine, a potent MG scavenger. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG adducts accumulation is a consistent feature of high stage CRC tumors. Our data point to MG production and detoxification levels as an important molecular link between exacerbated glycolytic activity and CRC progression. PMID:28117708

  3. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders. (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental retardation...

  4. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation (United States)

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate


    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  5. Flame retardancy and its mechanism of polymers flame retarded by DBDPE/Sb2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jian-dong; LI Rong-xun; FENG Shao-hua; LIU Guang-ye; ZHAO Jian-qing


    The flammability characterization and thermal composition of polymers flame retarded by decabromodiphenylethane(DBDPE) and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) were studied by cone calorimeter and thermogravimetry (TG). The results show thatABS/DBDPE/Sb2O3 has the similar flammability parameters and thermal composition curves to ABS/DBDPO/Sb3O3. It suggests thatDBDPE/Sb2O3 has the similar flame retardant behavior to DBDPO/Sb2O3. The heat release rate (HRR) and the effect heat combustion (EHC) curves of polymers flame retarded by DBDPE/Sb2O3 all decrease, but the mass loss rate (MLR) curve slightly increase. It shows that the decrease of HRR is not due to the increase of char formation ratio but the generation of incombustible gases. The major flame retardant mechanism of DBDPE/Sb2O3 is gas phase flame retardant mechanism. Increasing content of Sb2O3in DBDPE/Sb2O3 can improve the flame retardant property and thermal stability of aerylonitrile butadiene styrene. Sb203 has a good synergistic effect with DBDPE.

  6. Organophosphorus flame retardants – Toxicity and influence on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bruchajzer


    Full Text Available Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs – persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexylphosphate (TEHP, tris(2-butoxyethylphosphate (TBEP, triphenyl phosphate (TPP, tris(2-chloroethylphosphate (TCEP, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl-phosphonium chloride (THPC, tributyl phosphate (TBP, tricresyl phosphate (TCP, tris(2-chloroisopropylphosphate (TCPP, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropylphosphate (TDCP and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulphate (THPS. In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP. They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(2:235–264


    Bruchajzer, Elżbieta; Frydrych, Barbara; Szymańska, Jadwiga Anna


    Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs) have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-phosphonium chloride (THPC), tributyl phosphate (TBP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCP) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate (THPS). In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP). They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs.

  8. β-Alanine does not act through branched-chain amino acid catabolism in carp, a species with low muscular carnosine storage. (United States)

    Geda, F; Declercq, A; Decostere, A; Lauwaerts, A; Wuyts, B; Derave, W; Janssens, G P J


    This study was executed to investigate the effect of dietary β-alanine (BA) on amino acid (AA) metabolism and voluntary feed intake in carp (Cyprinus carpio) at mildly elevated temperature to exert AA catabolism. Twenty-four fish in 12 aquaria were randomly assigned to either a control diet or the same diet with 500 mg BA/kg. A 14-day period at an ideal temperature (23 °C) was followed by 15 days at chronic mildly elevated temperature (27 °C). After the 15 days, all fish were euthanised for muscle analysis on histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD), whole blood on free AA and carnitine esters. The carnosine and anserine analysis indicated that all analyses were below the detection limit of 5 µmol/L, confirming that carp belongs to a species that does not store HCD. The increases in free AA concentrations due to BA supplementation failed to reach the level of significance. The effects of dietary BA on selected whole blood carnitine esters and their ratios were also not significant. The supplementation of BA tended to increase body weight gain (P = 0.081) and feed intake (P = 0.092). The lack of differences in the selected nutrient metabolites in combination with tendencies of improved growth performance warrants further investigation to unravel the mechanism of BA affecting feed intake. This first trial on the effect of BA supplementation on AA catabolism showed that its metabolic effect in carp at chronic mildly elevated temperature was very limited. Further studies need to evaluate which conditions are able to exert an effect of BA on AA metabolism.

  9. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt


    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  10. Pediatric alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation. (United States)

    Ornek, Kemal; Atilla, Huban; Zilelioğlu, Güler


    Absence or deficiency of tear volume (alacrima) is rarely seen in pediatric ophthalmology. It is often a part of the multiple systemic anomalies like Riley-Day syndrome and anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, or it may be associated with adrenal gland insufficiency, achalasia, and neurologic disorders like Allgrove's syndrome. We report on a 7-year-old girl presenting alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation with normal adrenocortical function.

  11. MRI in children with mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Ares, Gustavo; Joyes, Beatrice; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallee, Louis [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France)


    In mental retardation (MR) an aetiological diagnosis is not always obtained despite a detailed history, physical examination and metabolic or genetic investigations. In some of these patients, MRI is recommended and may identify subtle abnormal brain findings. We reviewed the cerebral MRI of children with non-specific mental retardation in an attempt to establish a neuroanatomical picture of this disorder. Thirty children with non-specific MR were selected to undergo cerebral MRI. The examination included supratentorial axial slices, mid-sagittal images and posterior fossa coronal images. Brain malformations, midline and cerebellar abnormalities were studied. In 27 of 30 patients, the neuroimaging evaluation revealed a relatively high incidence of cerebral and posterior fossa abnormalities. The most frequent were: dysplasia of the corpus callosum (46%; hypoplasia, short corpus callosum and vertical splenium), partially opened septum pellucidum and/or cavum vergae (33%), ventriculomegaly (33%), cerebral cortical dysplasia (23%), subarachnoid space enlargement (16.6%), vermian hypoplasia (33%), cerebellar and/or vermian disorganised folia (20%), and subarachnoid spaces enlargement in the posterior fossa (20%). Other anomalies were: enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces (10%), white matter anomalies (10%) and cerebellar or vermian atrophy. MRI has shown a high incidence of subtle cerebral abnormalities and unexpected minor forms of cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Even if most of these abnormalities are considered as subtle markers of brain dysgenesis, their role in the pathogenesis of mental retardation needs further investigation. (orig.)

  12. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks


    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Activity of N-substituted Carnosine Amide Derivatives%N-取代肌肽酰胺类衍生物的合成及生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧皓; 孙佳明; 黄晓光; 纪扬; 代婷婷; 高晓晨; 李晓东; 张辉


    A series of carnosine derivatives were synthesized by modification of primary amino groups of carnosine, eleven target compounds were obtained and characterized by NMR, UV-Vis and HR-MS. Acrolein scavenging activity test results showed that most compounds exhibited some acrolein scavenging activities, es-pecially compound 4k showed the highest acrolein scavenging activity which was stronger than carnosine. Spleen cell proliferation test results showed that most compounds exhibited some spleen cell proliferation activi-ties, compounds 4b, 4d and 4k showed stronger spleen cell proliferation activities than the positive control conA. Hydrogen peroxide injury pre-protection results showed that most compounds exhibited some pre-protec-tion effects, especially compounds 4a, 4j and 4k showed stronger ECV-304 cell pre-protection effects than carnosine. Plasma stability assay results showed that compared with carnosine, eleven compounds had good plasma stability.%以肌肽为原料,对伯氨基进行了结构修饰,合成了11种肌肽衍生物.化合物的结构经核磁共振、紫外-可见光谱及高分辨质谱分析确证.丙烯醛清除活性测试结果表明,在实验浓度下大部分化合物表现出一定的清除丙烯醛活性,尤其是化合物4k对丙烯醛的清除活性高于肌肽.脾细胞增殖活性测试结果表明,在实验浓度下大部分化合物表现出一定的脾细胞增殖活性,特别是化合物4b,4d和4k对脾细胞的增殖活性高于阳性对照伴刀豆球蛋白A.过氧化氢诱导血管内皮细胞损伤的预保护实验结果表明,在实验浓度下大部分化合物表现出一定的预保护作用,其中化合物4a,4j和4k对过氧化氢诱导血管内皮细胞损伤的预保护作用大于肌肽.血浆稳定性实验结果表明,与肌肽相比,11种化合物均具有很好的血浆稳定性.

  14. Parenting provided by adults with mental retardation. (United States)

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D


    Studies assessing the quality of parenting provided by adults with mental retardation present conflicting conclusions. Some consider the majority to be doing reasonably well, whilst others report frequently unsatisfactory caretaking. There are a number of reasons for such different views. First, inconsistent selection criteria make it hard to compare across studies. In particular, sample composition will be influenced by the recruitment source. For example, if parents have been chosen from voluntary educational programmes a rather different picture is likely to be found than if they have been selected from individuals known to, or referred by, statutory agencies. On the whole, authors working with subjects from the former source have been rather more optimistic than those working with parents referred because there were already serious concerns about parenting difficulties or about delayed child development. Secondly, the majority of studies have used poorly defined global measures of parenting, with variable criteria of what constitutes adequate care. Some have concentrated on physical care and hygiene, whilst others have looked for the presence of affection and warmth. A child's reception into care as the sole measure of the quality of parenting is an unsatisfactory criterion because parental retardation has itself occasionally been used as the basis for removal of a child into care, even in the absence of other evidence of neglect or abuse. Thirdly, methodological flaws are found in studies that have used observational assessments of parenting. Such studies have suggested mothers with mental retardation tend to lack interactive skills (such as high levels of praise and imitation, and low restrictiveness) which are known to be associated with optimal child development. Control groups have often not been matched on social and other variables which might be expected to exert a significant influence upon parenting practices. In addition, the generalisability of

  15. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui


    Full Text Available The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives. Flame retardancy, thermostability, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were tested regarding to the prepared wallcoverings. The results showed that 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O could improve flame retardancy and thermostability of paper-based PVC wallcoverings; plasticizer tricresyl phosphate increased flame retardancy of the prepared materials auxiliarily. Also, flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings with higher flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical property was prepared using plant fiber paper with fix quantity of 90 g/m3 as base material, using 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O as inorganic flame retardant, and using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. For the flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings in this study, the limit oxygen index (LOI reaches 32.3, maximal smoke density is 16.91 %, and the horizontal and longitudinal wet tensile strength reaches 1.38 kN·m−1 and 1.51 kN·m−1 respectively. Meanwhile, its flame retardancy meets the requirements about flame retardancy for material Class B1 listed in Chinese National Standards GB 8624-2012, Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products. This research creates an effective path to prepare paper-based PVC wallcoverings with high flame retardancy.

  16. Hypothalamic tumor (United States)

    Complications of brain surgery may include: Bleeding Brain damage Death (rarely) Infection Seizures can result from the tumor or from any surgical procedure on the brain. Hydrocephalus can occur with some tumors and ...

  17. Wilms Tumor (United States)

    ... Wilms tumor is 1 pound at diagnosis. Some children also may have nausea, stomach pain, high blood pressure (hypertension), blood in the urine, loss of appetite, or fever. Even though Wilms tumors often are ...

  18. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.


    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Brain Tumors (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. The research of far infrared flame retardant polyester staple fiber (United States)

    Li, Qingshan; Zhang, Kaijun; Luo, Jinqong; Li, Ji’an; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Qianqian; Jin, Yongxia; Liu, Bing


    Far infrared flame retardant slices was prepared, fiber with far infrared flame retardant composite function was also prepared by the method of melt spinning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the fibrous microscopic structure. In the SEM images, functional ultrafine powder particle size and distribution in the fiber were visible. The results show that the functional ultrafine powder is evenly distributed on the fibrous surface, which is closely combined with fiber, and the far infrared emissivity is F, which is more than (8 to 14 microns) 0.88. Far infrared flame retardant polyester fiber has not only good flame retardant, but also environmental health effect: releasing negative ions and launch far-infrared, which shows wide application prospect. The fiber was processed into far-infrared flame retardant electric blanket, whose functional indicators and flame retardant properties are not reduced.

  1. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults. (United States)

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M


    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community.

  2. Our Sedation Experience on Mentally Retarded Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Alkan


    Full Text Available Aim: The majority of dental treatments can be performed under local anesthesia. However, sedation or general anesthesia are often required for mentally retarded patients presenting a lack of cooperation. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of mentally retarded patients treated under sedation. Material and Method: The records of the 214 mentally retarded patients that were treated under sedation between 2010-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The retrospective data included demographic variables, duriation of anesthesia, anti-epileptic drugs used, level of sedation, anesthetic agents, the type of dental treatment and adverse events during and after sedation. Results: In this study the mean age of patients was 22,49±9,54. The female/male ratio was 109/105. The number of ASA I, II, III patients were 43, 157 and 14 respectively. 16.8% of the patiens (n=36 was on one anti-epileptic drug regimen, while 29.9% of the patiens (n=54 was on more than one anti-epileptic drug regimen. The sedation levels were determined as minimal sedation (6.5%, n=14, moderate sedation (35%, n=75 and deep sedation (58.4%, n=125 respectively. The midazolam-ketamine combination was the most preferred anesthetic regimen (41.1%, n=88. Single dental extraction was the most performed dental treatment (58.4%, n=125. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was encountered in 3.7% of patients (n=8. Respiratuar depression occurred in 2 patients. Two patients developed bronchospasm, while one patient developed postoperative agitation, deep bradycardia and allergic reaction respectively. Discussion: We are of the opinion that sedation can be performed safely by choosing the appropriate drug and method without depressing respiration and reflexes.

  3. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartel, Bernhard, E-mail: [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)


    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  4. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino Intrauterine growth retardation

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    Adriana Cuartas Calle


    Full Text Available

    El crecimiento fetal anormal es un aspecto de gran interés en la obstetricia actual y un dilema clínico relativamente frecuente. La falla del crecimiento sigue siendo un enigma a pesar de los adelantos que ha habido en su conocimiento: el diagnóstico temprano y preciso del retardo del crecimiento puede aminorar la incidencia de complicaciones y muerte en fetos con este problema. Por ello es necesario mejorar las técnicas para identificar esta entidad y asegurar una atención apropiada durante el embarazo y el parto. En este artículo se resumen datos acerca de la definición del retardo del crecimiento fetal, su fisiopatología, clasificación, etiología, diagnóstico y manejo.

    Abnormal fetal growth is a very important aspect In present-day obstetrics and a frequent clinical dilemma. Fetal failure to grow continues to be puzzling, despite advances in its knowledge; early and precise diagnosis of growth retardation can diminish the incidence of complications and death of fetuses with this problem. It becomes therefore necessary, in the presence of growth retardation, to improve diagnostic techniques and assure proper attention during pregnancy and delivery. Information is summarized in this review on the definition, pathophysiology, classification, etiology, diagnosis and handling of fetal growth retardation.

  5. [Negative destructive behavior in young retarded children]. (United States)

    Dosen, A


    Twenty percent of a population of mentally retarded children, who underwent clinical observation because of behavior problems, demonstrated serious aggressive, destructive, negativistic and hyperactive behavior patterns. According to the parents this type of behavior developed between two and four years of age. It remains unclear whether this behavior is caused by a differential rate of maturation of certain brain structures or by unfavorable emotional and environmental variables. A psychotherapeutic approach to the treatment of these children led to positive results. It is supposed that if left untreated, a symptom shift can occur towards neurotic, depressive or aggressive behavior when the child gets older.

  6. Tactile function of educable mentally retarded children. (United States)

    McCracken, A


    The tactile perception ability of 29 seven-and eight-year-old educable mentally retarded children was evaluated by using the tactile perception portions of the Southern California Sensory Integration Tests. The children were also observed for tactile defensive behavior. Compared to normal children of the same age (as reported in normative data), this sample of children was significantly inferior in manual form, finger identification, graphesthesia, and perception of simultaneous stimuli, but not in the localization of single stimuli. During the testing, 62 percent showed tactile defensive behavior. The role of tactile perception in the development of symbolic communications is reviewed.

  7. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of carnosine (beta- alanyl-1- histidine on the wound healing in rats Avaliação do efeito radioprotetor da carnosina (beta-alanil-1- histidina no processo de cicatrização em ratos

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    Rosana Aramaki Tanaka


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of carnosine (beta- alanyl-1-histidine on the wound healing in rats. Therefore, 48 male rats were submitted to a surgical procedure to perform a rectangular wound in the anterior-dorsal region. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups randomly chosen: control; irradiated; carnosine irradiated and carnosine group. The irradiated and carnosine irradiated group were exposed to a dose (6Gy of gamma irradiation, in the whole body, 72 hours after surgery. The carnosine and carnosine irradiated groups, in addition to the surgical procedure and the irradiation, received two doses of carnosine aqueous solution, the first one being injected 48 hours after surgery, and the second one 1 hour and 30 minutes before irradiation. The tissue repair of the 4 groups was evaluated at 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after inflicting the wound, by morphological, histochemical and histophysical methods. At all examined periods, it could be observed that the animals from the carnosine irradiated group presented a better developed granulation tissue than the irradiated group and closely similar to that of the control group. Thus, under the experimental conditions used, it was possible to conclude that carnosine is an effective radioprotective substance.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito radioprotetor da carnosina (beta-alanil-1-histidina no processo de cicatrização em ratos. Para isto, 48 ratos machos foram submetidos a um procedimento cirúrgico para realização de uma ferida retangular na região dorsal anterior. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos experimentais: controle, irradiado, carnosina irradiado e carnosina. Os grupos carnosina e carnosina irradiado foram exposto a uma dose de corpo todo de 6 Gy de radiação gama, 72 horas após a cirurgia para confecção da ferida. O grupo carnosina e carnosina irradiado, adicionalmente, ao procedimento cirúrgico e a

  8. Aspects of Verbal Behavior Cited by Listeners in Judging Speakers as Retarded or Not Retarded. (United States)

    Kernan, Keith T.; And Others


    Results of asking 30 nonprofessionals for reasons speakers were judged to be retarded or not indicated that quality of speech (articulation, prosody, etc.) and the structure, content, and coherence of discourse are more important than sentence-level grammatical features in forming impressions of cognitive competence. (Author/DB)

  9. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.


    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications, undetectabl


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The authors’ in their exposure likes to point the most complicated problems, which appeared when the mentally retarded child was born in a family that is followed by dramatic changes of their wishes and aspirations. In this contexts the authors elaborated many questions as well as:· relation between the parents;· mentally retarded child in the setting and living ambient;· social problems of mentally retarded children and their families;· the rule of the treats in the work with parents of mentally retarded child.

  11. Research on Alkaline Filler Flame-Retarded Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; ZHANG Houji; WANG Jiaolan


    Used as flame retardant of tunnel asphalt pavement, organic bromides produce a large amount of poisons and smoke in construction and flame retardation stage. The alkaline filler was found to replace mineral filler, and the flame-retarded asphalt mixtures were produced. Experimental results show that these asphalt mixtures are smoke restrained; the performances and construction technology of asphalt pavement are not influenced; also the alkaline filler is of low-price. So this kind of flame-retarded asphalt mixtures is suitable for tunnel pavement.

  12. Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults. (United States)

    Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D


    Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.

  13. Polarization characterization of liquid-crystal variable retarders (United States)

    Montes, Iván.; Bruce, Neil C.; López-Téllez, Juan M.


    A comparison between two experimental techniques to characterize retardance as a function of applied voltage of liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR) is presented. In the first method the variable retarder was rotated between two polarizers with their transmission axes parallel, and the retardance was calculated from the Fourier series coefficients for each applied voltage. The second method involved using two polarizers with their transmission axes perpendicular to each other, the variable retarder was placed between the polarizers with its optical axis at 45° from the horizontal, and a final stage known as "phase unwrapping" is used on experimental data to obtain the voltage-retardance function. With these two experimental methods, the voltage-retardance relationship was obtained. To verify the accuracy of this characterization a second experiment involving the production of specific polarization states was performed as the basis of a Mueller polarimeter. A method based on measuring the optical signal resulting from the application of a predetermined set of fixed values of retardance in each retarder was used. 16 elements of the Mueller matrix of a polarizer with its transmission axis at 0° and 90° were measured, and the results are compared to the expected theoretical values.

  14. Mental Retardation (MR Etiology in Children Referred to Care Services

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    Mahdi Foroutan


    Conclusion: Considering Mental Retardation (MR financial burden, planning to reduce and control preventable factors such as parents’ drug abuse could be possible through education and cultural changes.

  15. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials (United States)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.


    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; Bin Zhao; De-yi Wang; Yu-zhong Wang


    A novel encapsulated flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen (MSMM-Al-P) was prepared by encapsulating with polyamide 66 (PA66-MSMM-Al-P) for the flame retardation of polyamide 6 (PA6).The structure and thermal properties of PA66-MSMM-Al-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.The flammability of PA6 containing' flame retardants (MSMMAl-P and PA66-MSMM-Al-P) was investigated by the limiting oxygen index test,vertical burning test and cone calorimeter.The flame retardancy and cone calorimetric analyses suggested a synergistic effect between PA66 and MSMM-Al-P in the flame-retardant PA6.Thermal stability of the flame-retardant PA6 was also investigated.

  17. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades. (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  18. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Kastner, Ted; And Others


    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  19. Fire Retardant Textiles: A Particular Reference to China and Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Oyondi Nganyi; YU Chong-wen


    As more and more attention is paid to the utilization of fire retardant textile products in apparel, household,furnishing, and industrial sectors, this paper presents a brief survey of the use of fire retardant (FR) textile products, the rules, and regulations concerning their use, and their market potential in China and in Kenya.

  20. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth. (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  1. Community Care for People with Mental Retardation in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Dosen, Anton


    Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…

  2. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A. (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  4. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  5. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios


    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  6. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Liu

    Full Text Available Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue.Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed.In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization.Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24 ± 0.50 vs +0.12 ± 0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02, without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (% increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02. Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement.Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of NCT01530685.

  7. Preparation, Spectrochemical, and Computational Analysis of L-Carnosine (2-[(3-Aminopropanoylamino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-ylpropanoic Acid and Its Ruthenium (II Coordination Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myalo Sabela


    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium (II complexes with the polydentate dipeptide, L-carnosine (2-[(3-aminopropanoylamino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-ylpropanoic acid. Mixed-ligand complexes with the general composition [MLp(Clq(H2Or]·xH2O (M = Ru(II; L = L-carnosine; p = 3 − q; r = 0–1; and x = 1–3 were prepared by refluxing aqueous solutions of the ligand with equimolar amounts of ruthenium chloride (black-alpha form at 60 °C for 36 h. Physical properties of the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, DSC/TGA, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular structures of the complexes were elucidated using UV-Vis, ATR-IR, and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, then confirmed by density function theory (DFT calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. Two-dimensional NMR experiments (1H COSY, 13C gHMBC, and 15N gHMBC were also conducted for the assignment of chemical shifts and calculation of relative coordination-induced shifts (RCIS by the complex formed. According to our results, the most probable coordination geometries of ruthenium in these compounds involve nitrogen (N1 from the imidazole ring and an oxygen atom from the carboxylic acid group of the ligand as donor atoms. Additional thermogravimetric and electrochemical data suggest that while the tetrahedral-monomer or octahedral-dimer are both possible structures of the formed complexes, the metal in either structure occurs in the (2+ oxidation state. Resulting RCIS values indicate that the amide-carbonyl, and the amino-terminus of the dipeptide are not involved in chelation and these observations correlate well with theoretical shift predictions by DFT.

  8. Preparation, spectrochemical, and computational analysis of L-carnosine (2-[(3-aminopropanoyl)amino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid) and its ruthenium (II) coordination complexes in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Branham, Michael Lee; Singh, Parvesh; Bisetty, Krishna; Sabela, Myalo; Govender, Thirumala


    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium (II) complexes with the polydentate dipeptide, L-carnosine (2-[(3-aminopropanoyl)amino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid). Mixed-ligand complexes with the general composition [ML(p)(Cl)(q)(H₂O)(r)]·xH₂O (M = Ru(II); L = L-carnosine; p = 3 - q; r = 0-1; and x = 1-3) were prepared by refluxing aqueous solutions of the ligand with equimolar amounts of ruthenium chloride (black-alpha form) at 60 °C for 36 h. Physical properties of the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, DSC/TGA, and cyclic voltammetry. The molecular structures of the complexes were elucidated using UV-Vis, ATR-IR, and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, then confirmed by density function theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level. Two-dimensional NMR experiments (¹H COSY, ¹³C gHMBC, and ¹⁵N gHMBC) were also conducted for the assignment of chemical shifts and calculation of relative coordination-induced shifts (RCIS) by the complex formed. According to our results, the most probable coordination geometries of ruthenium in these compounds involve nitrogen (N1) from the imidazole ring and an oxygen atom from the carboxylic acid group of the ligand as donor atoms. Additional thermogravimetric and electrochemical data suggest that while the tetrahedral-monomer or octahedral-dimer are both possible structures of the formed complexes, the metal in either structure occurs in the ²⁺ oxidation state. Resulting RCIS values indicate that the amide-carbonyl, and the amino-terminus of the dipeptide are not involved in chelation and these observations correlate well with theoretical shift predictions by DFT.

  9. Studies on Flame Retardants on Malaysian Coir Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwaleed Awad Khidir


    Full Text Available In this study to the effect of the utilization of urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant on Malaysian coir fiber was evaluated. Flammability and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA tests were used to evaluate the fire retardancy. Weight loss and percentage of mass residue were used as a measure from the results of flammability and TGA, respectively. The results revealed the effectiveness of using urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant for Malaysian coir fiber. However, for the samples treated with retardant high concentration the weight loss is not significant with the time of dipping treatment. This indicates that the just dip application for the fire retardant of higher concentration is sufficient.

  10. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em


    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  11. The Helmholtz theorem and retarded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo


    Textbooks frequently use the Helmholtz theorem to derive expressions for the electrostatic and magnetostatic fields but they do not usually apply this theorem to derive expressions for the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, even when there is no formal objection to doing so because the proof of the theorem does not involve time derivatives but only spatial derivatives. Here we address the question as to whether the Helmholtz theorem is useful to derive expressions for the fields of Maxwell's equations. We show that when this theorem is applied to Maxwell's equations we obtain instantaneous expressions of the electric and magnetic fields, which are formally correct but of little practical usefulness. We then discuss two generalizations of the theorem which are shown to be useful to derive the retarded fields.

  12. The Helmholtz theorem and retarded fields (United States)

    Heras, Ricardo


    Textbooks frequently use the Helmholtz theorem to derive expressions for electrostatic and magnetostatic fields but they do not usually apply this theorem to derive expressions for time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, even when there is no formal objection to doing so because the proof of the theorem does not involve time derivatives but only spatial derivatives. Here we address the question as to whether the Helmholtz theorem is useful in deriving expressions for the fields of Maxwell’s equations. We show that when this theorem is applied to Maxwell’s equations we obtain instantaneous expressions of the electric and magnetic fields, which are formally correct but of little practical usefulness. We then discuss two generalizations of the theorem which are shown to be useful in deriving the retarded fields.

  13. Human placental lactogen and intrauterine growth retardation. (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A


    Serum human placental lactogen levels were measured after 36 weeks' gestation in 264 serum samples from 109 women with normal pregnancies and in 137 serum samples from 70 women with pregnancies complicated by fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IGR). The fetal and placental weights were significantly lower in the IGR groups while the maternal ages were not different. There was a significantly lower hPL value at each week from 36 to 41 (except for the 39th) in the IGR group. Sixty percent of the women with IGR had hPL values less than 6 mug/ml, and 18.6% were less than 4 mug/ml. It is suggested that a low serum hPL value obtained during the last month of pregnancy should alert the physician to the possibility of intrauterine problems, including IGR.

  14. Trisomy 21: from chromosomes to mental retardation. (United States)

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Kerdelhué, Bernard


    The first descriptions of the trisomy 21 phenotype were by Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol (1838), Edouard Séguin (1846) and later by John L. H. Down in 1862. It took more than a century to discover the extra-chromosomal origin of the syndrome commonly called "Down's syndrome" and which, we suggest, should be referred to as "Trisomy 21". In this review we are presenting the landmarks, from the pioneering description of the syndrome in 1838 to Jérôme Lejeune's discovery of the first genetic substrate for mental retardation. The sequencing of HSA21 was a new starting point that generated transcriptome studies, and we have noted that studies of gene over-expression have provided the impetus for discovering the HSA21 genes associated with trisomy 21 cognitive impairment.

  15. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Asticio [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 4016, Concepción (Chile); Mar Sánchez-López, María del [Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain); García-Martínez, Pascuala [Departament d' Òptica, Universitat de València, 45100 Burjassot (Spain); Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Óptica y Tecnología Electrónica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain)


    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  16. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants (United States)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.


    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  17. Pindborg tumor (United States)

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.


    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  18. Pindborg tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal


    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  19. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure. (United States)

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M


    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  20. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; P K Ray


    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation increases with increasing level of overload as well as with increasing spot temperature. It is also observed that modification in crack growth behaviour is a function of location of heating spot and maximum retardation is observed at + 5 position.

  1. A near-infrared zero-order achromatic retarder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arijit Saha; Kallol Bhattacharya; Ajoy Kumar Chakraborty


    Phase retarders normally show strong wavelength dependence. Achromatic retarders which exhibit nearly identical characteristics over a wide wavelength spectrum is used in polychromatic light. The present investigation deals with a technique to design and study the characteristics of an achromatic combination of birefringent plates in 800–2000 nm range. The retarder has been designed using calcite, crystalline quartz and ADP. The thicknesses of the plates are 19.38 m, 446.14 m and 12.57 m respectively. The new arrangement of three birefringent plates proposed has the promise of producing a zero-order quarter wave achromatic combination with fairly good accuracy.

  2. Synthesis and application of amino resinous intumescent flame retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming GAO; Rongjie YANG


    A kind of amino resinous intumescent flame retardants (IFR) was firstly synthesized, and the structure of the main composition was determined to be a caged bicyclic macromolecule containing phosphorus. The 30% weight of IFR was added into the flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) to get retardant FPUF which has 26.5% of the limiting oxygen index. The date of CONE show that the heat release, smoke and gas of the flame retardant FPUF are much decreased and the activation energy decreases by 54kJ-mor1. It shows that the IFR can catalyze decomposition and carbonization of FPUF.

  3. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Gitte J; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Bangsgaard, Regitze;


    ABSTRACT: WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation) and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract......, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12) located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had...... a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described...

  4. Pituitary Tumors (United States)

    ... impairment, and behavioral changes. Tumors can also either produce excessive amounts of hormone or limit how much hormone is produced. The hormones most commonly affected include: growth hormone (regulates body height and structure), prolactin (controls ...

  5. Ear Tumors (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... the Ears, Nose, and Throat Additional Content Medical News Ear Tumors ... NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  6. Tumor Grade (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  7. Pituitary tumor (United States)

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  8. Wilms' Tumor (United States)

    ... team and have training in child development, recreation, psychology or social work. If your child must remain ... conditions/wilms-tumor/basics/definition/CON-20043492 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of ...

  9. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu


    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  10. Ependymal tumors. (United States)

    Moynihan, Timothy J


    Ependymal tumors are rare malignancies that arise from the cells that line the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Although they are more common in children, adults may also be effected by ependymal tumors. Prognosis is dependent on tumor location, histology, especially for myxopapillary tumors that tend to occur in the lumbar spine, extent of surgical resection, and stage of disease. Standard therapy consists of complete resection when feasible. The exact role of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with radiographically confirmed complete resection is poorly defined. Patients with known residual disease may benefit from local radiation therapy, but the extent of radiation field and total dose are controversial. Even in patients treated with involved field radiotherapy, most relapses occur within the original tumor bed, thus local control remains the biggest obstacle to effective therapy. Chemotherapy has little impact against this tumor and has no role in the adjuvant setting, outside of a well designed clinical trial, with the possible exception of children younger than 5 years in an effort to delay radiation. A minority of patients may respond to one of several chemotherapy regimens at the time of recurrence, but the impact of this therapy is limited. Newer treatment strategies are needed.

  11. Inhibition of Complement Retards Ankylosing Spondylitis Progression (United States)

    Yang, Chaoqun; Ding, Peipei; Wang, Qingkai; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Jianquan; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Chen, Jianfeng; Yang, Guang; Hu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xuhui


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) resulting in back pain and progressive spinal ankyloses. Currently, there are no effective therapeutics targeting AS largely due to elusive pathogenesis mechanisms, even as potential candidates such as HLA-B27 autoantigen have been identified. Herein, we employed a proteoglycan (PG)-induced AS mouse model together with clinical specimens, and found that the complement system was substantially activated in the spinal bone marrow, accompanied by a remarkable proportion alteration of neutrophils and macrophage in bone marrow and spleen, and by the significant increase of TGF-β1 in serum. The combined treatment with a bacteria-derived complement inhibitor Efb-C (C-terminal of extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus) remarkably retarded the progression of mouse AS by reducing osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that two important modulators involved in AS disease, TGF-β1 and RANKL, were elevated upon in vitro complement attack in osteoblast and/or osteoclast cells. These findings further unravel that complement activation is closely related with the pathogenesis of AS, and suggest that complement inhibition may hold great potential for AS therapy. PMID:27698377

  12. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI


    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  13. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s.

  14. Tumor growth inhibition through targeting liposomally bound curcumin to tumor vasculature. (United States)

    Mondal, Goutam; Barui, Sugata; Saha, Soumen; Chaudhuri, Arabinda


    Increasing number of Phase I/II clinical studies have demonstrated clinical potential of curcumin for treatment of various types of human cancers. Despite significant anti-tumor efficacies and bio-safety profiles of curcumin, poor systemic bioavailability is retarding its clinical success. Efforts are now being directed toward developing stable formulations of curcumin using various drug delivery systems. To this end, herein we report on the development of a new tumor vasculature targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin containing a lipopeptide with RGDK-head group and two stearyl tails, di-oleyolphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cholesterol. We show that essentially water insoluble curcumin can be solubilized in fairly high concentrations (~500 μg/mL) in such formulation. Findings in the Annexin V/Propidium iodide (PI) binding based flow cytometric assays showed significant apoptosis inducing properties of the present curcumin formulation in both endothelial (HUVEC) and tumor (B16F10) cells. Using syngeneic mouse tumor model, we show that growth of solid melanoma tumor can be inhibited by targeting such liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculature. Results in immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cryosections are consistent with tumor growth inhibition being mediated by apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells. Findings in both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies are consistent with the supposition that the presently described liposomal formulation of curcumin inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor endothelium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on inhibiting tumor growth through targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculatures.

  15. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors (United States)

    ... Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System Purchase WHO Blue Book NBTS Official Statement Questions and ... Privacy Copyright Site Search Search term Submit Submit Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr

  16. Inferential reading abilities of mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded students. (United States)

    Bos, C S; Tierney, R J


    The inferential operations of mildly mentally retarded students reading at the intermediate level were investigated using methods based on discourse comprehension theory. We hypothesized that problems encountered in reading by these students are related to difficulties in generating logical inferences. Mildly retarded junior-high students and nonretarded third-grade students of the same reading comprehension level read and recalled a descriptive expository and a narrative passage. On the expository passage mildly retarded students generated the same quantity of inferences as did nonretarded students, but the inferences were qualitatively inferior. On the narrative passage the differences between the two groups were not significant. These findings were discussed in relation to the cognitive functioning of mildly retarded students.

  17. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination. (United States)

    Barton, Bonnie J.


    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  18. Management problems of mentally retarded children and their families. (United States)

    Gayton, W F


    Pediatricians faced with the difficult task of providing management services to mentally retarded children and their families are confronted with a number of difficult problems. These range all the way from deciding how to inform parents that their child is retarded to dealing with grandparents who are a source of stress. Successful handling of these problems requires a recognition that management is central to the care of the mentally retarded child. The needs of mentally retarded children and their families will not be met by interacting with families only around issues of acute physical illness. Attention must be directed toward psychosocial as well as medical variables and the emphasis must be on the total family system.

  19. Teaching about Older People with Mental Retardation: An Educational Model. (United States)

    Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others


    The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)

  20. Bounds for solutions to retarded nonlinear double integral inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain


    Full Text Available We present bounds for the solution to three types retarded nonlinear integral inequalities in two variables. By doing this, we generalizing the results presented in [3,12]. To illustrate our results, we present some applications.

  1. The Effects of Institutionalisation on Retardates Social Independence. (United States)

    Burkhart, G.; Seim, R.


    Forty retarded adults were the Ss of a study to evaluate the hypothesis that individuals who have been institutionalized for a greater percentage of their lifetime are more socially immature than those institutionalized for a smaller percentage. (CL)

  2. Stress retardation versus stress relaxation in linear viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C


    We present a preliminary examination of a new approach to a long-standing problem in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. First, we summarize how a general implicit functional relation between stress and rate of strain of a continuum with memory is reduced to the well-known linear differential constitutive relations that account for "relaxation" and "retardation." Then, we show that relaxation and retardation are asymptotically equivalent for small Deborah numbers, whence causal pure relaxation models necessarily correspond to ill-posed pure retardation models. We suggest that this dichotomy could be a possible way to reconcile the discrepancy between the theory of and certain experiments on viscoelastic liquids that are conjectured to exhibit only stress retardation.

  3. Persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Waaijers; D Kong; H.S. Hendriks; C.A. de Wit; I.T. Cousins; R.H.S. Westerink; P.E.G. Leonards; M.H.S. Kraak; W. Admiraal; P. de Voogt; J.R. Parsons


    Polymers are synthetic organic materials that have a high carbon and hydrogen content, which renders them readily combustible. When used in buildings, electrical appliances, furniture, textiles, transportation, mining, and in many other applications, polymers have to fulfill flame retardancy regulat

  4. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen


    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Families with mentally retarded children experience a great physical and psychosocial stress which demands various psychosocial strategies for effective coping. METHODOLOGY : This study was conducted in the department of Psychiatry , Government Medical College , Kota (Raj. in 2006 - 07 with the objectives of finding out the stress & coping strategies and the factors influencing these strategies in the families with mentally retarded children. Fifty mentally reta rded children were divided into two groups - Group A comprising children with IQ more or equal to 50 (n=28 and Group B comprising children having IQ less than 50 (n=22 . Parents of selected mentally retarded children were interviewed by using semi structur ed Performa containing – personnel identification data , Family Interview for Stress and Coping in Mental Retardation (FISC - MR , NIMH – Family Efficacy Scale (NIMH - FES , Problem Behavior Check List. Obtained data was analyzed by using unpaired t test , Pearson`s correlation coefficient & z - score. RESULTS : In various dimensions of perceived stress , families with mentally retarded children with IQ ˂50 (Group B experienced significantly higher daily care stress , emotional stress , social stress and total pe rceived stress than the families with mentally retarded children with IQ≥50 (Group A . Families in both groups used similar coping strategies (i.e. , awareness about mental retardation , attitude and expectation , rearing practices and social support except global support strategy which was used significantly higher by the families of children with IQ<5o. Having a female mentally retarded child and nuclear family were the factors associated with higher stress in families.

  6. Pyrolytic characteristics of burning residue of fire-retardant wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangjie; LUO Wensheng; Furuno T; REN Qiang; MA Erni


    In order to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics of the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,a multifunctional fire-resistance test oven aimed at simulating the course of a fire was used to burn fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.Samples at different distances from the combustion surface were obtained and a thennogravimetric analysis (TG) was applied to test the pyrolytic process of the burning residue in an atmosphere of nitrogen.The results showed that:1) there was little difference between fireretardant wood and its residue in the initial temperature of thermal degradation.The initial temperature of thermal degradation of the combustion layer in untreated wood was higher than that in the no burning wood sample;2) the temperature of the flame retardant in fire-retardant wood was 200℃ in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG).The peak belonging to the flame retardant tended to dissipate during the time of burning;3) for the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,the peak belonging to hemicellulose near 230℃ in the DTG disappeared and there was a gentle shoulder from 210 to 240℃;4) the temperature of the main peaks of the fireretardant wood and its burning residue in DTG was 100℃ lower than that of the untreated wood and its burning residue.The rate of weight loss also decreased sharply;5) the residual weight of fire-retardant wood at 600~C clearly increased compared with that of untreated wood.Residual weight of the burning residue increased markedly as the heating temperature increased when burning;6) there was a considerable difference with respect to the thermal degradation temperature of the no burning sample and the burning residue between fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.

  7. Mao Yuyan Brings New Fortune to Mentally Retarded Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BEIJING Fortune Training School for Mentally Retarded Children aims at developing the abilities and independence of mentally disabled children. Located at Fourth Ring Road in Chaoyang District, northeast Beijing, the school provides good housing and firstrate teaching facilities for 60 mentally retarded children aged 3 to 10. With a staff of 18, the school finally settled here in 1996 with the assistance of the Beijing municipal government and Chaoyang District government, and funds contributed by organizations in Hong

  8. Flame retardancy of paulownia wood and its mechanism



    Paulownia wood (Pauloumia tomentosa) is a special kind of wood material in that it has especially excellent flame retardancy. Using this property, it has been commonly used to make clothing wardrobes for a long time in Japan. In this research, the flame retardancy of paulownia wood has been verified by heating experiments and cone calorimeter testing. The structure and tissue of the material have been analyzed by scanning electron microscope and other methods. Moreover, the mechanism of the f...

  9. Retarded Boson-Fermion interaction in atomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sambhu N Datta


    The retarded interaction between an electron and a spin-0 nucleus, that has been derived from electro-dynamical perturbation theory is discussed here. A brief account of the derivation is given. The retarded form is correct through order 2/2. Use of the relative coordinates leads to an effective oneelectron operator that can be used through all orders of perturbation theory. A few unitary transformations give rise to the interaction that is valid in the non-relativistic limit.

  10. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun


    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  11. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure


    Keller, Alexander S.; Raju, Nikhilesh P.; Webster, Thomas F.; Stapleton, Heather M.


    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met C...

  12. Autism and Mental Retardation of Young Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.

  13. Flame retardant exposure among collegiate United States gymnasts. (United States)

    Carignan, Courtney C; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; McClean, Michael D; Roberts, Simon C; Stapleton, Heather M; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F


    Gymnastics training facilities contain large volumes of polyurethane foam, a material that often contains additive flame retardants such as PentaBDE. While investigations of human exposure to flame retardants have focused on the general population, potentially higher than background exposures may occur in gymnasts and certain occupational groups. Our objectives were to compare PentaBDE body burden among gymnasts to the general United States population and characterize flame retardants levels in gym equipment, air, and dust. We recruited 11 collegiate female gymnasts (ages 18-22) from one gym in the eastern United States. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of BDE-153 in gymnast sera (32.5 ng/g lipid) was 4-6.5 times higher than in the general United States population groups. Median concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB, and TBPH in paired handwipe samples were 2-3 times higher after practice compared to before, indicating the gymnasts contacted these flame retardants during practice. GM concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB, and TBPH were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in gym air and dust than in residences. Our findings suggest that these collegiate gymnasts experienced higher exposures to PentaBDE flame retardants compared to the general United States population and that gymnasts may also have increased exposure to other additive flame retardants used in polyurethane foam such as TBB and TBPH.

  14. The frequency of Toxocara infection in mental retarded children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kaplan


    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis is commonly seen in places where stray and Toxocara canis-infected dog population is high. There is a strong correlation between frequency of Toxocara infection, life style, and infection risk. Institutionalization of mental retarded patients increases to risk of toxocariasis. In this study, we aimed at investigating the frequency of Toxocara infection among children with mental retardation not requiring institutionalization. The study included 96 cases, who had educatable mental retardation and 85 healthy subjects who comprised the control group. Anti-Toxocara IgG or IgM antibodies were investigated in all serum samples, using ELISA method. The frequency of Toxocara infection was found significantly higher in mental retarded cases than in those in the control group (18.8% and 7.1% respectively (p 0.05. We did not find any significant difference between Toxocara seropositive and seronegative mental retarded children in terms of demographic factors and epidemiological factors that could increase the risk of Toxocara infection (p > 0.05. The present study is the first seroprevalence study carried out with a mental retarded group not requiring institutionalization. Determination of high frequency of Toxocara infection suggests that these subjects constitute a risk factor for Toxocara infection, which may be attributed to their behavioural patterns.

  15. Tapentadol retard en el dolor crónico intenso Tapentadol retard for severe chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Torres Morera


    Full Text Available Desde la introducción en España de la primera morfina de administración oral, en el año 1988, se ha ido evolucionando en la biodisponibilidad de fármacos opioides potentes no administrados por vía endovenosa. Las formulaciones que permiten la absorción de estos fármacos por la piel o por la mucosa oral han supuesto un antes y un después en la administración de medicación analgésica. Posteriormente, las nuevas formas de liberación inmediata o liberación controlada han acabado de perfilar la seguridad y eficacia de estos nuevos fármacos opioides. Tapentadol retard es un fármaco analgésico de acción central de última generación, aprobado tanto por la EMA ("European Medicines Agency" en 2010 como recientemente por la Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios ("AEMPS" para el tratamiento del dolor crónico intenso. La sinergia de sus dos mecanismos de acción, el agonismo μ-opioide y la inhibición de la recaptación de noradrenalina permite abordar el dolor desde diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. Tapentadol retard se absorbe rápidamente tras su administración oral y es excretado casi exclusivamente vía renal. Así como la eficacia analgésica de otros opioides, como codeína y tramadol dependen de su actividad metabólica, la analgesia producida por tapentadol se debe a la acción de la molécula principal, sin metabolitos farmacológicamente activos. Los trabajos analizados en esta revisión demuestran la eficacia de tapentadol retard en el tratamiento del dolor de moderado a intenso en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico, dolor crónico por artrosis de rodilla o cadera y también en pacientes con dolor por neuropatía diabética. En aspectos de seguridad, este fármaco presenta un perfil de tolerabilidad superior al de los analgésicos opioides actuales, lo cual le confiere un potencial importante en el tratamiento de dolor por procesos crónicos. En esta revisión bibliográfica se hace análisis del

  16. Fire-retardant mechanism of fire-retardant FRW by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingwen; LI Jian; LI Shujun


    The structures of the solid state products formed by the partial combustion of Korean pine wood treated with fire-retardant FRW were analyzed by microscopic FTIR.The volatile pyrolytic products of basswood (Tilia amurensis)specimens treated with FRW and its components guanylurea phosphate and boric acid were analyzed by GC-FTIR.The pyrolytic and charring process,the effects of fire-retardant,and the structural characteristics of the pyrolytic products were discussed.It was concluded that upon heating and by the catalysis of FRW and its decomposition products reactions of wood took place successively,namely the dehydration of polysaccharide,the elimination of acetic acid from hemicellulose,the degradation of polysaccharide,the degradation of lignin,the polymerization of the pyrolytic products of wood,reactions of oxygen-element-elimination of aliphatic polymers and the structural change of the latter to form aromatic structures,and charring.The pyrolysis process of wood was altered and the yield of volatile pyrolytic products was decreased by FRW treatment.

  17. 肌肽对大鼠脑片缺氧缺糖/再灌损伤的保护作用%Neuroprotective of carnosine on oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury in rat brain slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方超; 李晴; 鲁美丽; 黄国兴; 杨菁


    目的:在离体脑片缺氧缺糖/再灌损伤模型上,评价肌肽对脑组织的保护作用。方法肌肽预处理后,用缺氧缺糖/再灌(oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion,OGD/RP)来制备大鼠离体脑片损伤模型。以2,3,5-三苯基氯化四氮唑(2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride,TTC)染色法检测脑片活性;HPLC法检测海马脑片中ATP、ADP、AMP含量;荧光法检测脑组织活性氧( reactive oxygen species,ROS)。结果与对照组相比,缺氧缺糖/再灌损伤可以明显损伤大鼠海马脑片,TTC染色颜色变浅,A490 nm明显下降, ATP和ADP含量明显降低,而AMP含量明显升高,ROS明显升高,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。与模型组相比,缺氧缺糖/再灌损伤前预先加入1000、200、40μg/mL肌肽预处理15 min可显著抑制缺氧缺糖/再灌引起的损伤,TTC染色颜色加深,A490 nm明显升高,ATP、ADP、AMP含量升高,ROS含量降低,差异均具有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论肌肽可减轻缺氧缺糖/再灌导致的损伤,其机制可能与其改善脑组织能量代谢,增强抗氧化能力有关。%Objective To investigate effect of carnosine on oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion ( OGD/RP) induced injury in rat brain slices. Methods Injury of brain slices was determined by TTC methods.The contents of ATP, ADP and AMP were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.Reactive Oxygen species ( ROS) were determined by fluorescence methods.Results Compared with control group, rat hippocampal slices were significantly damaged by OGD/RP, indicated by light color and decreased A490 nm value of TTC staining.Meanwhile the contents of ATP and ADP were significantly decreased, and the content of AMP and ROS were significantly increased, the difference between two group was significant ( P<0.01).Pre-incubation with Carnosine (1000, 200, 40 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the

  18. Unexplained mental retardation: is brain MRI useful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decobert, Fabrice; Merzoug, Valerie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Radiology, 75674 Paris Cedex 14 (France); Grabar, Sophie [Cochin Hospital, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Information, Paris (France); Ponsot, Gerard [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Des Portes, Vincent [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Debrousse Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Lyon (France)


    Mental retardation (MR), defined as an IQ below 70, is a frequent cause of consultation in paediatrics. To evaluate the yield of brain MRI in the diagnostic work-up of unexplained MR in children. Patients and methods: The MRI features and clinical data of 100 patients (age 1-18 years) affected with non-progressive MR of unknown origin were compared to an age-matched control group (n=100). Two radiologists conducted an independent review of the MRI scans. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a higher incidence of brain anomalies in the MR group than in the control group (53 vs 17, OR=5.7 [2.9-11.1]), for signal abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (OR=20.3 [2.6-155.3]), lateral ventricular dilatation (OR=15.6 [2.0-124]), mild corpus callosum abnormalities (shortness, atrophy) (OR=6.8 [1.8-25.6]) and subtle cerebellar abnormalities, including fissure enlargement (OR=5.2 [1.1-26.2]). The diagnostic value of MRI abnormalities was considered good in 5% of patients (Alexander disease n=1, diffuse cortical malformation n=1, leukomalacia n=1, vermian agenesis n=1, commissural agenesis n=1), and weak in 48% of patients, in whom non-specific abnormalities did not lead to a diagnosis. Some clinical features resulted in a significantly higher percentage of abnormal MRI scans: abnormal neurological examination (82% vs 47%, P=0.008), abnormal skull circumference (66% vs 49%, P=0.04). Motor delay was associated with cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.01). (orig.)

  19. X-linked mental retardation and epigenetics. (United States)

    Froyen, Guy; Bauters, Marijke; Voet, Thierry; Marynen, Peter


    The search for the genetic defects in constitutional diseases has so far been restricted to direct methods for the identification of genetic mutations in the patients' genome. Traditional methods such as karyotyping, FISH, mutation screening, positional cloning and CGH, have been complemented with newer methods including array-CGH and PCR-based approaches (MLPA, qPCR). These methods have revealed a high number of genetic or genomic aberrations that result in an altered expression or reduced functional activity of key proteins. For a significant percentage of patients with congenital disease however, the underlying cause has not been resolved strongly suggesting that yet other mechanisms could play important roles in their etiology. Alterations of the 'native' epigenetic imprint might constitute such a novel mechanism. Epigenetics, heritable changes that do not rely on the nucleotide sequence, has already been shown to play a determining role in embryonic development, X-inactivation, and cell differentiation in mammals. Recent progress in the development of techniques to study these processes on full genome scale has stimulated researchers to investigate the role of epigenetic modifications in cancer as well as in constitutional diseases. We will focus on mental impairment because of the growing evidence for the contribution of epigenetics in memory formation and cognition. Disturbance of the epigenetic profile due to direct alterations at genomic regions, or failure of the epigenetic machinery due to genetic mutations in one of its components, has been demonstrated in cognitive derangements in a number of neurological disorders now. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the cognitive deficit in a significant percentage of patients with unexplained mental retardation results from epigenetic modifications.

  20. Reproductive rights of mentally retarded persons. (United States)

    Katalinić, Sanja; Sendula-Jengić, Vesna; Sendula-Pavelić, Martina; Zudenigo, Slaven


    Mental retardation denotes sub-average intellectual functioning, based on IQ, i.e. the inability of normal learning, accompanied by behavioral and developmental disorders. Persons with impairments (cognitive, motor, sensory or psychiatric) have often been, both through human history and today victims of discrimination and deprived of their basic human rights, both in the public and the private life spheres. Since the end of the 20th century, throughout the developed world, many disabled persons can accomplish their dreams and rights. However, the issue of sexuality is still an obstacle in realizing oneself as a whole person, of course in accordance with personal psychophysical abilities. The greatest problem is present in persons with severe disablement, considered not apt enough for information on sexuality and for expressing themselves as persons with their own sexual needs. Thus it is desirable to observe each disabled person individually and flexibly enough in order to establish parameters for the functioning of an intimate affair on the level of understanding and assent. The legal system must protect the most vulnerable and ensure for them the right of choice and consent, as well as the possibility of fulfilling their sexual needs, so that they could love and be loved. Naturally, the system must be built on foundations that satisfy the needs of its users, but also of persons engaged in work with them. Sex education should contain information regarding biological, socio-cultural and spiritual dimensions of sexuality, including cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. Unfortunately, very few educational programs with such aims provide sex education, not only for the disabled young population but also for the healthy. This review article is based on international investigations and Croatian legislative postulates. Its aim is to focus the attention of both professionals and non-professionals on this delicate problem.

  1. Testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rosti


    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors of the testes represent a unique paradigm of diseases which can be cured even in extremely advanced phase. Unfortunately, this makes them unique among adult solid tumors. Seminoma and non seminoma are relatively rare with approximatively 25,000 patients in Europe per year, but numbers are increasing world wide. Different strategies are needed depending on stage and prognostic scores. Seminoma is extremely sensitive to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, while all germ cell tumors show a very good response to chemotherapy. Clinical stage I seminoma is currently treated with radiation, single course carboplatin or surveillance policy. Clinical stage I non seminoma can also be approached with different strategies such as retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, observation or one-two courses of standard chemotherapy. Stage II seminoma may be treated with either radiation or chemotherapy, while for all advanced stages chemotherapy is mandatory. Since the mid-eighties PEB (Cisplatin, Etoposide and Bleomycin is the regimen of choice and no other schedule has proved superior in terms of efficacy. Surgery on the residual disease is crucial to the whole strategy and should be performed or attempted in all cases. Consequently, the correct treatment strategy for these tumors does not depend only on the ability of a single physician, but on a skilled team specialized in this particular tumor. Second line therapies (VeIP, PEI, TIP can cure 25%–40% of patients, but improved strategies for resistant tumors are desperately needed. High-dose chemotherapy has shown very good results in some studies while being less impressive in others. In any case, it should remain an option for relapsing patients and could be used in some cases of upfront chemotherapy in patients with slow marker decline, but this should only be considered in referring centers.

  2. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors). (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico


    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  3. Duplication of 5q21 in a mildly retarded male and his non-retarded mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, R.; Zurcher, V.; Schwartz, S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Euchromatic autosomal additions to chromosomal complements are typically associated with global effects including mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphism. We report a familial duplication that does not appear to cause consistent, significant effects. A hyperactive male with mild MR was referred for fra(X) testing at 8 yrs. His karyotype was fra(X) negative and normal except for an addition in one 5q. The abnormal 5 was also in the maternal karyotype, but all other parental chromosomes were normal. The addition (=8.5% the length of a 5) was interpreted as a duplication of band 5q21. FISH with Coatasome 5 (Oncor) showed the addition was from 5. The proband`s karyotype was designated 46,XY,dup(5)(q15q22.1)mat; his mother`s, 46,XX,dup(5)(q15q22.1). Single copy probes are being used to test the cytogenetic interpretation. At 39 yrs, the non-retarded, somewhat inattentive mother, who has a high school diploma and subsequent secretarial courses, cares for the proband and his chromosomally normal, but learning disabled sister at home. The family situation is chaotic with reported paternal psychiatric illness and abuse of the proband and his sister. The mother`s father is dead, but her four younger siblings and mother are reportedly normal. Their chromosomes have not been available. The proband was born at 40 weeks following an uneventful pregnancy, with length and weight at the 5-10th centiles. He walked and talked at about one year. At 9 yrs, his ht/wt ratio was 10th centile. Foot length as <3rd centile; soft masses were present on the anterior ankles. He was otherwise physically normal. His estimated I.Q. was 75 and he was severely hyperactive despite Ritalin. This is the first report of a familial duplication in 5q; no identical, isolated case is known. Although additional family members need evaluation, the presence of the dup(5q) in the non-retarded mother suggests that it may not be associated with the proband`s MR.

  4. Surface Modification of Fire-retardant Asphalt with Silane Coupling Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiqiang; TANG Boming


    The theory and approach of the surface modified of asphalt fire-retardant with silane coupling agent were introduced,The optimum silane dosage was determined,and the structure and properties of the asphalt fire-retardant before and after the surface modification were characterized by infrared spectrum and thermo gravimetric analysis.The dispersion effect of asphalt fire-retardant was studied.The influence of the surface modification on the hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire-retardant was analyzed.The experimental results showed that there were physical and chemical interactions between the silane coupling agent and the asphalt fire-retardant,which reduced the surface polarity of the asphalt fire retardant.The optimum silane coupling agent dosage was 0.95% of the asphalt fire retardant.The surface modification improved the thermal stability,dispersibility and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire retardant,which enhanced the compatibility between asphalt fire retardant and asphalt.

  5. Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Tie-Ling


    Full Text Available Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloy-loxyethyl phosphate were investigated by the atom transfer radical polymerization method. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to explore the thermal decomposition mode of flamed retardant cotton fabric. The weight loss rate of the flamed retardant cotton was bigger than that of the control cotton fabric, and a more final residual char of flamed retardant cotton was also observed. Flammability tests were used to study the flame retardance property of the flame retardant cotton fabric. The results showed that flamed retardant cotton fabric with 16.8% of weight gain could keep good flame retardance. Scanning electron microscope pictures were applied to investigate the morphology of residual char of the flame retardant samples.

  6. Tumor thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh;


    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......-one patients were included; the most common malignancies were renal cell carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=3), and lung cancer (n=3). Indication for the scan was initial staging (n=15) and suspected recurrence (n=6). Several vessels were affected, the most common was the inferior vena cava (n=14......), but most other major branches of the venous vasculature was represented, and some patients had thrombi in several vessels. FDG uptake was linear in 7 patients, linear with a dilated vessel in 6 patients, and focal in 7 patients. The mean SUVmax of the primary tumors was 10.3 (range, 2.6-31.2; median, 6...

  7. A kinetic model of tumor growth and its radiation response with an application to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin Z; Hui, Susanta K


    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the growth of tumor volume and its response to a single fraction of high dose irradiation. We made several key assumptions of the model. Tumor volume is composed of proliferating (or dividing) cancer cells and non-dividing (or dead) cells. Tumor growth rate (or tumor volume doubling time, Td) is proportional to the ratio of the volumes of tumor vasculature and the tumor. The vascular volume grows slower than the tumor by introducing the vascular growth retardation factor, theta. Upon irradiation the proliferating cells gradually die over a fixed time period after irradiation. Dead cells are cleared away with cell clearance time, Tcl. The model was applied to simulate pre-treatment growth and post-treatment radiation response of rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and metastatic brain tumors of five patients who were treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). By selecting appropriate model parameters, we showed the temporal variation of the tumors for both th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sheela


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The placental development is an essential step in developing effective strategies or the prediction of various maternal and fetal medical and developmental problems . Oxygen transfer and nutrients to the fetus will be actively regulated by the placenta . AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To study morphological changes of placenta in Intrauterine growth Retardation and to correlate morphological changes of placenta with fetal outcome . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Placental tissue samples were obtained from 50 pregnancies complicated by IUGR and 50 normal uncomplicated pregnancies with gestational age between 28 to 42 weeks attending King George hospital Visakhapatnam . INCLUSIVE CRITERIA : An IUGR fetuses whose estimated fetal weight less than those in 10 th percentile are included in the study . Birth weight percentiles were determined by previously published normal curves . EXCLUSIVE CRITERIA: fetuses with known syndromes , chromosomal anomalies and twins . For all patients included in the data set gestational age was estimated from the last menstrual period or early ultra - sonogram before the 12 th week of gestation . The final data set was composed of 50pregnancies complicated by IUGR and APGAR scores . Because preeclampsia is an important maternal factor associated with IUGR , these cases were further divided into t wo subgroups according to presence of hypertension . Samples were taken both from vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections . All the placentas were examined by pathologists . The placentas were weighed . For each case one or two samples from the umbilical cor ds , extra placental membrane , and parenchyma were taken . Gross pathological findings were confirmed by histology . Histological data included are ischemic necrosis , decidual vascularity , acute chorioamni oni tis , fibrinoid necrosis and choriangiosis . Appropriate statistical parameters were used . Chi - square test was conducted to compare placental pathological changes

  9. Disease profile of 400 institutionalized mentally retarded patients in Kuwait. (United States)

    Farag, T I; al-Awadi, S A; el-Badramary, M H; Aref, M A; Kasrawi, B; Krishna Murthy, D S; el-Khalifa, M Y; Yadav, G; Marafie, M J; Bastaki, L


    In this preliminary report we summarize the results of a 4-year multidisciplinary systematic, etiological clinicogenetic survey of 400 institutionalized mentally retarded patients in Kuwait. All had an intelligence quotient below 50. A constitutional disorder, as the direct cause of the mental retardation, was found in 203 patients (50.75%)): a chromosomal abnormality in 37 (9.25%), Mendelian disorders in 137 (34.25%), MCA/MR in 22 (5.55%) and CNS malformations in 7 cases (1.75%). In 157 patients (39.35%) a pre-, peri or postnatal cause was ascertained. No etiological diagnosis was detected in 40 patients (10%). A detailed analysis of the "disease profile" is given and compared with the results of previous diagnostic genetic surveys among different institutionalized mentally retarded populations in Western and developing countries.

  10. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič


    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Flame Retardant and Antimicrobial Jute Textile Using Sodium Metasilicate Nonahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.


    Full Text Available Flame retardant and antimicrobial functionalities were imparted in jute textile using sodium metasilicate nonahydrate (SMSN, commonly known as “water glass”. Sodium metasilicate nonahydrate (SMSN was applied in jute fabric in different concentration by padding method followed by drying. Flame retardancy of the fabric was evaluated by Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI and burning behaviour under vertical flammability tester including the char length. Burning rate was found to decrease by almost 10 times after an application of 2% SMSN compared to the control sample. Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis of both the control and treated jute fabrics were utilized to understand the mechanism of developed flame retardance in jute fabric. It was observed that the SMSN treated samples showed excellent antimicrobial property against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Antimicrobial properties of both the control and treated jute fabrics were also measured quantitatively.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-shan Kong; Bing-bing Wang; Quan Ji; Yan-zhi Xia; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu


    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride. The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter (CONE). The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34, and the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), CO and CO_2 concentrations during combustion are much lower compared with those of viscose fibers. Calcium carbonate and calcium oxide were formed during thermal degradation of calcium alginate fibers at different temperatures. The shape of calcium alginate fibers is well kept after LOI test. The rigid combustion residue char acts as an effective barrier to the outward diffusion of flame and heat. The combustion process and flame retardant mechanism of calcium alginate fibers are also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Flammability characteristics of araldite based composite mixed with inorganic hybrid flame retardant represent zinc borate - antimony trioxide as a surface layer(4mm thickness have been studied by thermal erosion test . Antimony trioxide was added to zinc borate with various amounts (10%,20% and 30% to forming a hybrid flame retardant for enhance the action of this material to react flame . The result composite material was exposed to a direct flame generated from Oxyacetylene torch (3000ºC with different flame exposure intervals (10,20mm, and studies the range of resistance of retardant material layer to the flames and protected the substrate. The optimum results were with large percentage from protective layer which is zinc borate-30% antimony trioxide and large exposed distance.

  14. [A case of Wilm's tumor with full symptomatic WAGR syndrome]. (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, D; Daszkiewicz, P


    The authors of this paper presented a case of a baby with full-symptomatic WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genital tract malformation and mental retardation) treated in the I Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Pediatrics, Medical Academy Poznań. The etiology of this syndrome was discussed (deletion of the 13th band of the 11th chromosome short arm). The reason for treatment failure was analysed.

  15. Brain tumor - children (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  17. Understanding Brain Tumors (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  18. Brain tumor - primary - adults (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  19. Retardation effects in induced atomic dipole-dipole interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, S D


    We present mean-field calculations of azimuthally averaged retarded dipole-dipole interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate induced by a laser, at both long and short wavelengths. Our calculations demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions become significantly stronger at shorter wavelengths, by as much as 30-fold, due to retardation effects. This enhancement, along with inclusion of the dynamic polarizability, indicate a method of inducing long-range interatomic interactions in neutral atom condensates at significantly lower intensities than previously realized.

  20. Role-taking, moral development, and mental retardation. (United States)

    Perry, J E; Krebs, D


    Role-taking ability and level of moral development were measured in three groups of boys and girls including 16 moderately retarded adolescents (mean chronological age 15; mean mental age 9), 16 nonretarded adolescents matched for chronological age, and 16 nonretarded children matched for mental age. The mentally retarded adolescents scored significantly lower on role-taking ability and moral development than the adolescents matched for chronological age. They did not differ from children of their same mental age in role-taking ability; and they tended to score lower in moral development. The results supplied qualified support for Kohlberg's theory of moral development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Janikowski


    Full Text Available Category material and immaterial retardation is the canonical element of the strategy for the implementation of sustainable development. Earth's non-renewable environmental resources are limited and finite, not only in the local or regional context, they are finite and exhaustible also in a global context. It is necessary to slow down consumption of resources, and it means cultural change. Category material and immaterial retardation in view of the multi-dimensional needs further in-depth research and disseminating positive examples.

  2. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation


    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi


    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  3. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.


    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致


    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  5. [Adults with mild mental retardation and intelligence tests]. (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka


    One of the criteria for mild mental retardation is a total level of less than 70 IQ points measured by an intelligence test. The results of intelligence tests are approximate. There are differences in the norms of test versions, and measurement error must be taken into account in individual testing. A total level of 80 measured by adult tests utilized in Finland does not exclude the possibility of mild mental retardation, and a total level of 60 does not confirm it. The test performance should be compared with other measures, such as school and work history, practical functional capacity and previous test results.

  6. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  7. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay


    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  8. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings. (United States)

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.


    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  9. An Annotated Bibliography on the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. (United States)

    Cass, Michael, Comp.; Schilit, Jeffrey, Comp.

    Presented is an annotated bibliography with approximately 250 entries relating to the severely and profoundly retarded. Citations are listed alphabetically by author under the following categories: assessments, measurements, evaluations; associations; attending behavior; behavior modification; books; classical conditioning; cognitive development;…

  10. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations. (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi


    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  11. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.


    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  12. Fluid-Structure Interaction Using Retarded Potential and ABAQUS (United States)


    but require the formuation and factoring of a global stiffness matrix. This is very costly and even prohibitive especially for Manuacript approved...Dimensional Retarded Potential Fluid - Finite Element Structural Analysis, NRL Memorandum, Report 5903, May 1987. 20. Tamm. M. A., A Parametric Patch

  13. Quantitative Assessments of Sensitivity to Reinforcement Contingencies in Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.


    Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…




  15. Synergistic Study on the Effect of Flame Retardants on Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwajiobi, C.C


    Full Text Available the fire characteristic proportion of Halleacilliata has been carried out. The timber was treated with different concentrations of ammonium chloride (0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.50, and 0.55 mol/dm3 and borax (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.12 mol/dm3 . Flammability tests such as ignition time, flame propagation rate and after-glow time were carried out and the results showed that the flame retardants drastically reduced the flame propagation rate and after-glow time while ignition time and percentage add-on (% increased. Synergy was observed when the two flame retardants were mixed at different concentrations which gave better retarding properties than when treated individually. These results are interpreted as arising from the fact that on heating, these flame retardants evolve molecules that interfere with the chemistry and pyrolysis of combustion of timber.

  16. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi


    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  17. Foveal phase retardation changes associated with normal aging. (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean A; Elsner, Ann E; Hobbs, Timothy; Burns, Stephen A


    This study quantified normal age-related changes to the photoreceptor axons in the central macula using the birefringent properties of the Henle fiber layer. A scanning laser polarimeter was used to acquire 15° × 15° macular images in 120 clinically normal subjects, ranging in age from the third decade to the eighth. Raw image data of the macular cross were used to compute phase retardation maps associated with Henle fiber layer. Annular regions of interest ranging from 0.25° to 3° eccentricity and centered on the fovea were used to generate intensity profiles from the phase retardation data, which were then analyzed using sine curve fitting and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The amplitude of a 2f sine curve was used as a measure of macular phase retardation magnitude. For FFT analysis, the 2f amplitude, as well as the 4f, were normalized by the remaining FFT components. The amplitude component of the 2f curve fit and the normalized 2f FFT component decreased as a function of age, while the eccentricity of the maximum value for the normalized 2f FFT component increased. The phase retardation changes in the central macula indicate structural alterations in the cone photoreceptor axons near the fovea as a function of age. These changes result in either fewer cone photoreceptors in the central macula, or a change in the orientation of their axons. This large sample size demonstrates systematic changes to the central cone photoreceptor morphology using scanning laser polarimetry.

  18. Services and Provisions for Persons with Mental Retardation in Sweden. (United States)

    Melin, Lennar


    This paper focuses on recent legislation providing special services and provisions for mentally retarded persons in Sweden. The paper describes the legislation's goal in normalizing their lives, the types of residential placements available, their educational and vocational activities, and their mental health problems. (JDD)

  19. Preliminary Study of Imipramine in Profoundly Retarded Residents. (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others


    The effects of imipramine were assessed in 10 profoundly retarded subjects (aged 8-25 years) who exhibited either depressionlike symptoms or acting out behaviors. Results of observation, interval sampling, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist indicated behavioral deterioration on irritability, lethargy/social withdrawal, and hyperactivity…

  20. Sexual Health and Behavior of Mentally Retarded Pupils in Japan (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Angela Aparecida


    Sex education has always been a controversial topic. Although sex education at schools has improved in general, sex education for mentally retarded pupils still encounters prejudice and conservatism as a result of several misconceptions about the subject. This research was performed in the form of a survey of opinions about sex education in…

  1. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton (United States)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  2. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals. (United States)

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…




  4. Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report. (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

    The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

  5. Issues in Mental Health Counseling with Persons with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Prout, H. Thompson; Strohmer, Douglas C.


    Reviews mental-health issues concerning persons with mental retardation, particularly as these issues apply to mental-health counseling. Included in this review is a discussion of the prevalence of psychopathology, types of problems presented, issues in clinical bias, access to community services, assessment techniques, and specific…

  6. Oral Health of Institutionalized Individuals with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Jurek, George H.; Reid, William H.


    Residents (n=702) of Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation institutions were given dental examinations, and findings were compared with data from 1,077 residents 9 years earlier. Data were analyzed for oral pathology, unmet dental needs, contribution of dental care to habilitation, and effectiveness of the dental service system.…

  7. A Training Model for Peer Tutoring with Mentally Retarded Individuals. (United States)

    Vacc, Nicholas

    A program in which mentally retarded persons are trained to tutor their peers is described. Considered are selection and training aspects of such a program, and emphasized is the importance of the relationship between tutor and student. Tutors are explained to learn principles of establishing specific plans and keeping basic records. (CL)

  8. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  9. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages (United States)

    Castro, Josefina Granja


    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  10. Polysiloxane-Based Organoclay Nanocomposites as Flame Retardants (United States)


    density polyethylene- nanoclay composites: The effect of poly ( acrylic acid ) on mechanical properties , XRD, morphology properties and water absorption...exhibited enhanced FR properties relative to copolye- sters and copolyamides[3–5]. The thermal studies suggested that the polyamic acid portion of...RETARDANT THERMAL PROPERTIES COPOLYMERS DECOMPOSITION THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE

  11. A Note on Left-Handedness and Severity of Mental Retardation (United States)

    Hicks, Robert E.; Barton, A. Keith


    This paper presents data supplementing previous reports of elevated incidence of left handedness for the mentally retarded. The new data confirm a positive relationship between degree of retardation and incidence of left-handedness. (GO)

  12. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases. (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham


    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity.

  13. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation]. (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk


    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  14. Health-related Physical Fitness in Children with Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Bazyar


    Full Text Available Human health is highly dependent on the condition of health-related physical fitness and particularly body composition. Adolescence is unique in this regard, especially when the adolescents are mentally retarded, about whom information on physical fitness is limited. Thus, the objective of this paper was to study the components of health-related physical fitness with emphasis on body composition and weight gain and loss in mentally retarded students of Roodbar. Statistical sample included 91 mentally retarded male students with mean age of 13.44±1.56, mean height of 167±6.97, and mean IQ of 68.7±7.8. Physical fitness components were assessed using modified Brockport Physical Fitness Test (BPFT including cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition (by calculation of body mass index. The results indicated that in terms of body mass index, 40% of participants were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 10% were obese. In addition, body fat percentage was high in 11.9% of subjects and very high in 13% of them. The mean aerobic power of mentally retarded boys aged 12-14 was measured 31.5% (ml/kg/min, indicating 25% and 35% lower physical fitness, respectively, compared to their normal peers and the reference values. The present study revealed that a significant proportion of mentally retarded adolescents in Roodbar are suffering from either underweight or overweight. Moreover, their physical fitness in all components is not desirable compared to their normal peers.

  15. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...... presents an overview of the cell-specific biogenesis of CCK peptides, and a description of the CCK expression in tumors and of the cholecystokininoma syndrome. Finally, assays for the diagnosis of CCK-producing tumors are reviewed....

  16. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles. (United States)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  17. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence. (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others


    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  18. Mineralisation and primary biodegradation of aromatic organophosphorus flame retardants in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgens, S.S.; Helmus, R.; Waaijers, S.L.; Uittenbogaard, D.; Dunnebier, D; Vleugel, M; Kraak, M.H.S.; de Voogt, P.; Parsons, J.R.


    Halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs), such as the aromatic organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been proposed as potential replacements for brominated flame retardants i

  19. Koppitz errors on the Bender-Gestalt for adult retardates: normative data. (United States)

    Andert, J N; Dinning, W D; Hustak, T L


    Normative data on the Koppitz developmental scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt test were derived from a sample which included 510 protocols of adult resident retardates. Percentile norms are presented on Koppitz error scores for three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two AAMD ranges of retardation based on Stanford-Binet IQs.

  20. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials (United States)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  1. Cardiac surgery for adults with mental retardation. Dilemmas in management. (United States)

    Goldhaber, S Z; Reardon, F E; Goulart, D T; Rubin, I L


    In summary, cardiac surgery for adults with mental retardation raises a series of controversial legal, economic, ethical, medical, and nursing dilemmas. During the past 20 years, many improvements have taken place in the care of these patients. However, in the future, judicial and statutory mandates requiring high-quality medical care for persons with mental retardation may conflict increasingly with hospital cost-control legislation and thereby affect clinical decisions. For example, it is conceivable that elective repair of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect in an asymptomatic patient will expend the limited resources necessary to carry out emergency revascularization in a symptomatic patient with impending myocardial infarction. This issue becomes even more delicate when the asymptomatic patient is a mentally retarded ward of the state, and the symptomatic patient is a middle-aged man supporting a wife and several college-age children. There may be no easy solution to this problem, and it will provide the grist for many bioethicists. Fortunately, from a practical point of view, we do not currently have to choose between these patients to receive treatment. Our hope is that health care for mentally retarded patients will not be compromised. We believe that decisions about patient management should be based on enlightened clinical judgment rather than on preconceived notions about this population. In the quest for optimal health care delivery, the special needs of these patients should be considered when cardiac catheterization and possible cardiac surgery are contemplated. Although we have presented an approach to a patient with cardiac disease requiring cardiac surgery, we believe that this approach can be utilized for any retarded patient requiring acute medical care. Currently, because there has not been much training in this area, many physicians and nurses lack first-hand experience in caring for the mentally retarded. This inexperience may lead to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoja GESHOSKI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess body structure deformities among people with mental retardation.Knowing the structure of people with mental retardation’s physical deformities is the starting basis of a quality program for preventive and corrective work. Also, it is a starting point in the process of special education and rehabilitation in regards to their removal and mitigation.The structure of the physical deformities among persons with mental retardation were analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to everyday life activities.The inquiry covered 170 respondents with mental retardation in both sexes. All respondents were placed in an institution for treatment of persons with severe and profound mental retardation (Special Institute Deep River. On the basis of two criteria, participants are divided into groups. The first criterion forestablishing a group of level of mental retardation: Group I - severe mental retardation (TMR and Group II - profound mental retardation (DMR. A second criterion for establishing the age group of respondents: Group I - age 18 years; Group II- Age 19 - 30 years and Group III - over 31 years. The structure of the physical deformities was analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to activities in everyday life.For the purposes of the planned research , an integral protocol is established for the evaluation of physical deformities among persons with disabilities, including: an application form for general information about the respondents, a questionnaire to assess somatic status, and a clinical sheet and test activities in everyday life (Test ASZH, Rusk, 1971. All data obtained by the research are expressed quantitatively and treated with the following statistical methods and procedures: number of repetitions, frequency and percentages, measure of central tendency, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation, χ2 and Fisher Exact - test

  3. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery (United States)

    ... Disease Lung Carcinoid Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the ... be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat (and ...

  4. Tumors and Pregnancy (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  5. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  6. Brain Tumors (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  7. Childhood Brain Tumors (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  8. Mental retardation after prenatal exposure. Re-analysis indicated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paile, W. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland). Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority


    The current risk assessment for severe mental retardation after prenatal exposure to the A-bomb radiation is based on 21 cases exposed to more than 0.005 Gy, of which 17 were exposed in the most sensitive period 8-15 weeks p.c. The latest analysis, applying the best fitting model, indicates a threshold with a lower 95% bound of 0.06-0.31 Gy, depending on whether 2 cases with Down's syndrome are included or not. The authors have interpreted this as suggesting a threshold in the low-dose region. In the dose group 0.10-0.49 Gy, except one case with Down's syndrome there is only one other case, exposed 8 weeks p.c. to 0.14 Gy. However, in a RERF report (TR 13-91) concerning brain abnormalities detected by MRI in retarded persons, the same case is described. According to this report he was actually exposed to 0.86 Gy. The distance was 1060 m, and his mother exhibited severe epilation. These details indicate that the higher dose is correct and the lower dose is erroneous. In a small material the misclassification of one case has a deep influence on the result of the data analysis. Reclassification of this case will lead to a considerable change in the estimated threshold, notably in the 95% lower bound of the threshold. There will be no indication of severe retardation after less than 0.5 Gy even in the most sensitive period. This does not preclude a milder effect on intelligence from lower doses. The fraction of severe retardation after exposure to 1 Sv in the period 8-15 weeks p.c. has been estimated at 40%. The effect on intelligence score has been estimated at 30 IQ units per Sv in the same period. These estimates have been combined in ICRP 60 to create a model, based on a presumed normal distribution of IQ scores, according to which the final outcome for an individual is determined by his expected IQ without exposure. Thus the dose required to make an otherwise normal individual retarded would be high, while a much lower dose would be enough to bring an

  9. Recurrent cholecystitis in an elderly mentally retarded patient with pica. (United States)

    Miyakawa, Koichi; Ito, Masanobu; Hatta, Kotaro; Eto, Ko; Arai, Heii


    The case of a 64-year-old patient with pica and severe mental retardation who was admitted to our hospital for treatment of recurrent cholecystitis is reported. Abdominal ultrasound showed sludge in the gallbladder, but no stones. Abdominal CT revealed a foreign body in the duodenum resembling a suction cup of the type commonly used in kitchens and bathrooms. The object could not be removed because it was deeply embedded in the hypertrophic intestinal mucosa. A nasogastric tube was inserted for feeding, since the object impeded the passage of solid foods. The patient's fever and abdominal pain subsequently resolved, and laboratory data improved. The indwelling feeding tube prevented recurrence of cholecystitis. Since pica is common not only in patients with mental retardation but also in dementia patients, the present case may also relate to the treatment of acute abdominal conditions in dementia patients.

  10. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Brenner


    Full Text Available Flame-retardants (FR are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs. Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  11. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhao and Jan Gou


    Full Text Available Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS. Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  12. Fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Velayudhan


    Full Text Available Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported.

  13. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation. (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C


    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  14. Carotenemia in mentally retarded children I. Incidence and etiology (United States)

    Patel, H.; Dunn, H. G.; Tischler, B.; McBurney, A. Karaa


    The incidence and etiology of carotenemia in mentally retarded children were examined. Fasting serum carotenoid and vitamin A levels were measured in 77 profoundly mentally retarded children aged 3 to 19 years who were receiving a standard diet containing 2000 IU of carotene (expressed in terms of vitamin A activity) and supplemented by 2000 IU of vitamin A daily. Seventeen of the 77 patients had serum carotenoid levels of more than 300 μg./ml. The particulate size of food had a significant inverse relationship to serum carotenoid levels and was an important factor in determining carotenemia. The serum vitamin A level was also higher in children on homogenized diet than in those on pureed feeds, while the lowest level was noted among patients on a chopped diet. Besides particulate size of food, other factors may also be operative in determining carotenemia. PMID:4707231


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xingshi


    Objective: To investigate the variations of contingent negative variation (CNV) of petients with mental retardation. Methods: The CNV was recorded in 16 children with mental retardation (MR) and 14 healthly age-matched controls. And CNV retest was carried out in 11 children with MR after one yeat treatment of Piracetam. Results: Compared with the normal control, the CNV of MR group showed prolonged postimperative negative variation (PINV) duration (P<0.01) and total A-C duration (P < 0.01), decreased amplitude B (P<0.01 ), and reduced preimperative A-S2 area (P<0.01). A comparison of the CNV of MR group was made between before and after one year treatment of Piracetam and no significant difference was found. Conclusions:The significant CNV variations were found in children with MR and these abnormal changes presisted throughout the Piracetam treatment.

  16. Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Shen


    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.

  17. Prevalence of mental retardation among children in RS Pura town of Jammu and Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the Prevalence of mental retardation in children 3 to 10 years of age. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the framework of a population based, single centre, cross-sectional study at R.S.Pura town, 22 kms south- west of Jammu city. Results: A total of 61 (0.79 percent of the 7,707 children surveyed had positive screening results on the Ten Questions instrument. 56 (0.72percent children were diagnosed as suffering from mental retardation. Serious mental retardation was diagnosed in 48 children and mild mental retardation was diagnosed in 8 children. The combined prevalence estimates of mild and serious mental retardation were 7.2/1000. No notable sex differences were observed for either serious or mild retardation. Interpretation: The prevalence rates of mental retardation among children less than 19 years of age in R. S. town compares favorably with studies from developed world.

  18. Modeling and prediction of retardance in citric acid coated ferrofluid using artificial neural network (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Fung; Sheu, Jer-Jia


    Citric acid coated (citrate-stabilized) magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been conducted and applied in the biomedical fields. Using Taguchi-based measured retardances as the training data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the prediction of retardance in citric acid (CA) coated ferrofluid (FF). According to the ANN simulation results in the training stage, the correlation coefficient between predicted retardances and measured retardances was found to be as high as 0.9999998. Based on the well-trained ANN model, the predicted retardance at excellent program from Taguchi method showed less error of 2.17% compared with a multiple regression (MR) analysis of statistical significance. Meanwhile, the parameter analysis at excellent program by the ANN model had the guiding significance to find out a possible program for the maximum retardance. It was concluded that the proposed ANN model had high ability for the prediction of retardance in CA coated FF.

  19. Intumescent Biobased-Polylactide Films to Flame Retard Nonwovens


    Christelle Reti; Mathilde Casetta, Ph.D.; Sophie Duquesne, Ph.D.; René Delobel; Serge Bourbigot; Jérémie Soulestin


    The work focuses on the development of a newprocess to flame retard nonwovens, using films basedon renewable resources. Films consist in intumescentformulations of polylactic acid (PLA), ammoniumpolyphosphate (APP) blended with lignin or starchand are coated on hemp or wool nonwovens. Theobjective of this study was to investigate the fireretardant and mechanical properties of textilesprotected by FR PLA films for potential use inbuilding applications. Horizontal and vertical flamespread tests...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The present paper deals with the use of a new polymeric flame retardant material, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) for plastics. Incorporation of 15 - 20% PPS into nylon-6 has provided UL V- 0 rating for the system and there is enhancement in tensile and flexural properties. The results obtained on the thermal, crystallization and flow characteristics of the nylon-PPS system uptoa loading of 40% PPS are also discussed.

  1. Demonstration of scattering suppression in retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Pors, A.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard;


    Modifications in scattering strength of and local field enhancement by retardation-based plasmonic nanoantennas when being transformed from straight nanorods to split-ring resonators are investigated experimentally. Scattering properties are characterized with linear reflection and extinction...... is decreased, a feature that is attributed to the decrease in the nanoantenna electric-dipole response when bending the nanorods. The experimental observations are corroborated with numerical simulations using the finite-element method....

  2. Hyperbranched Polyurethane Acrylate Applied to UV Curable Flame Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ UV curable hyperbranched prepolymers based on amine-ester, ester-amide and ether-amide started with AB2-type monomers have been prepared by the authors[1~3]. A se-ries of work on allyl ether maleate hyperbranched polyesters for UV curing coatings by Hult and his colleagues has been reported[4]. However, the UV cured films from those materials are all flammable when attached to fire without addition of flame retardants.

  3. Non syndromic gingival fibromatosis in a mild mental retardation child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K Duddu


    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis is a benign oral condition characterized by enlargement of gingival tissues. It usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one of the features of a syndrome. This case report is of a 5-year-old male with severe gingival hyperplasia and mild mental retardation which was complicated by open bite, abnormal occlusion, open lip posture, and disabilities associated with mastication and speech. Full mouth gingivectomy in single sitting under general anesthesia was done with electrocautery.

  4. Skeletal demineralization and growth retardation in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genant, H.K.; Mall, J.C.; Wagonfeld, J.B.; Vander Horst, J.; Lanzl, L.H.


    Skeletal growth and mineralization in 54 adolescent and adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease have been analyzed comprehensively. Quantitative and qualitative radiologic techniques consisted of conventional roentgenography, photon absorptiometry, and radiographic morphometry. The data are correlated with the type, duration, and severity of disease, and with several modes of therapy. The results indicate that osteopenia and retardation of growth are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in adolescents, in whom the effects of corticosteroids on the skeleton are most deleterious.

  5. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method. (United States)

    Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W.; Swanson, L. W.


    Description of the theoretical foundation of the field electron retarding potential method, and review of its experimental application to the measurement of single crystal face work functions. The results obtained from several substrates are discussed. An interesting and useful fallout from the experimental approach described is the ability to accurately measure the elastic and inelastic reflection coefficient for impinging electrons to near zero-volt energy.

  6. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara


    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  7. General technique for discrete retardation-modulation polarimetry (United States)

    Saxena, Indu


    The general theory and rigorous solutions of the Stokes parameters of light of a new technique in time-resolved ellipsometry are outlined. In this technique the phase of the linear retarder is stepped over three discrete values over a time interval for which the Stokes vector is determined. The technique has an advantage over synchronous detection techniques, as it can be implemented as a digitizable system.

  8. Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique


    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip. PMID:28230090

  9. Nabumetone induces less gastrointestinal mucosal changes than diclofenac retard. (United States)

    Becvár, R; Urbanová, Z; Vlasáková, V; Vítová, J; Rybár, I; Maldyk, H; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, A; Bernacka, K; Mackiewicz, S; Gömör, B; Rojkovich, B; Siro, B; Bereczki, J; Toth, K; Sukenik, S; Green, L; Ehrenfeld, M; Pavelka, K


    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and the effects on the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of nabumetone and diclofenac retard in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). An open, multicentre, randomised, comparative, endoscopy-blind parallel group study included 201 patients with nabumetone and 193 patients with diclofenac retard suffering from moderate to severe OA of the knee or hip joint. Twelve clinical efficacy variables were assessed and a portion of the population underwent gastroduodenoscopy. All patients exhibited significant improvement in pain severity and pain relief (p nabumetone and 19% on diclofenac experienced GIT side-effects. Sixty-nine patients with nabumetone and 61 with diclofenac underwent gastroduodenoscopy. The differences in the mucosal grade for the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum at baseline were not significant. In the oesophagus there were significantly less changes after treatment with nabumetone (p = 0.007) than with diclofenac; there were similar findings in the stomach (p nabumetone and diclofenac retard have similar efficacy in the treatment of OA, but nabumetone has significantly fewer GIT side-effects.

  10. Approach to Mental Retardation and Global Developmental Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI


    Full Text Available ObjectiveMental Retardation (MR or Intellectual Disability is one of three chronic and disabling neurological disorders of children and adolescents. Its prevalence is estimated 1-3% of the population. MR is defined as significant sub-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that become detectable before the age of 18. MR may come into view before 5 years as delay in at least two developmental domains which is called Global Developmental Delay (GDD.The causes of mental retardation can be considered under the titles of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prenatal causes account for approximately 60 -80 % of the etiological factors. All patients with GDD / MR should undergo a stepwise diagnostic approach, because a specific diagnosis leads to opportunity for treatment, future planning and genetic counseling. History, physical examination and neurodevelopmental examinations are the most important parts of the approach. Recent advances in cytogenetic investigations and neuroimaging studies have led to recognition of new disorders and improvement of the diagnostic yield.Keywords: Mental retardation ; global developmental delay; diagnostic yield.

  11. Partial beta-amylolysis retards starch retrogradation in rice products. (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Jingmin; Ding, Xiaolin


    Starch retrogradation is the main cause of quality deterioration of starch-containing foods during storage. The current work investigated the effect of partial beta-amylolysis on the retrogradation of rice starch and the potential of beta-amylase in preparing rice products with extended shelf life. Isolated amylopectin, whole rice starch, and rice flour from a regular rice cultivar were partially hydrolyzed by either reagent-grade or food-grade beta-amylase. The degree of beta-amylolysis was expressed as average external chain length () for isolated amylopectin or the degree of hydrolysis (%) for other starch systems. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to monitor starch retrogradation during storage at 4 degrees C. The results indicated that partial beta-amylolysis using reagent-grade beta-amylase retarded amylopectin retrogradation by shortening the of amylopectin. When was below DP 11.6, the amylopectin retrogradation was essentially inhibited. Partial beta-amylolysis had a similar effect on the amylopectin retrogradation in the whole starch system. The maltose produced in beta-amylolysis might slightly attenuate the retrogradation-retarding effect of partial beta-amylolysis. The effect of food-grade beta-amylase on starch retrogradation was also evident, although less effective than that of reagent-grade beta-amylase. The retrogradation-retarding effect of food-grade beta-amylase was also demonstrated in rice flour system, indicating a potential method for controlling the starch retrogradation of rice products.

  12. Synergistic effects of sepiolite on intumescent flame retardant polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of sepiolite as a synergistic agent on the flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene (PP/IFR were studied using the limiting oxygen index (LOI, the UL-94 test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS, cone calorimeter test (CCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the IFR system mainly consisted of the ammonium polyphosphate modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane coupling agent, melamine and dipentaerythritol. The results from the LOI and UL 94 tests show that sepiolite added to the PP/IFR system has a synergistic flame retardant effects with the IFR system. The TGA results reveal that sepiolite enhances the thermal stability of the PP/IFR composite and increases the char residue formation. The cone calorimeter results indicate that the heat release rate, mass loss rate, total heat release and average specific extinction area of the PP/IFR/sepiolite composite decrease in comparison with the PP/IFR composite. The LRS measurements provide useful information on the carbonaceous microstructures. The morphological structures observed by SEM have demonstrated that sepiolite promote the formation of the reinforced and homogeneous char barrier on the surface of the composites. Simultaneously, the Young’s modulus and flexural modulus of the PP/IFR composites are also much better improved with the increase of sepiolite added.

  13. X chromosome inactivation and X-linked mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, H.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)


    The expression of X-linked genes in females heterozygous for X-linked defects can be modulated by epigenetic control mechanisms that constitute the X chromosome inactivation pathway. At least four different effects have been found to influence, in females, the phenotypic expression of genes responsible for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). First, non-random X inactivation, due either to stochastic or genetic factors, can result in tissues in which one cell type (for example, that in which the X chromosome carrying a mutant XLMR gene is active) dominates, instead of the normal mosaic cell population expected as a result of random X inactivation. Second, skewed inactivation of the normal X in individuals carrying a deletion of part of the X chromosome has been documented in a number of mentally retarded females. Third, functional disomy of X-linked genes that are expressed inappropriately due to the absence of X inactivation has been found in mentally retarded females with structurally abnormal X chromosomes that do not contain the X inactivation center. And fourth, dose-dependent overexpression of X-linked genes that normally {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} X inactivation may account for the mental and developmental delay associated with increasing numbers of otherwise inactive X chromosomes in individuals with X chromosome aneuploidy. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Flame retardant exposures in California early childhood education environments. (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Gaspar, Fraser; Nishioka, Marcia; Colón, Maribel; Weathers, Walter; Egeghy, Peter P; Maddalena, Randy; Williams, Jeffery; Jenkins, Peggy L; McKone, Thomas E


    Infants and young children spend as much as 50h per week in child care and preschool. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend some time each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available about environmental exposures in these environments. We measured flame retardants in air and dust collected from 40 California ECE facilities between May 2010 and May 2011. Low levels of six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and four non-PBDE flame retardants were present in air, including two constituents of Firemaster 550 and two tris phosphate compounds [tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP)]. Tris phosphate, Firemaster 550 and PBDE compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples. BDE47, BDE99, and BDE209 comprised the majority of the PBDE mass measured in dust. The median concentrations of TCEP (319 ng g(-1)) and TDCIPP (2265 ng g(-1)) were similar to or higher than any PBDE congener. Levels of TCEP and TDCIPP in dust were significantly higher in facilities with napping equipment made out of foam (Mann-Whitney p-valuesflame retardant chemicals.

  15. Flame retardants: Dust - And not food - Might be the risk. (United States)

    de Boer, J; Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Leslie, H A; Brandsma, S H; Leonards, P E G


    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared to be bioaccumulative and were found in many organisms all over the world. When PBDEs were banned or their production voluntarily terminated, alternatives appeared on the market that often had similar properties or were of more concern due to their toxicity such as halogenated phosphorus-based FRs. Here we show that in spite of the ban on PBDEs more brominated FRs are being produced, an increasing number of other FRs is being applied and FR levels in our homes are much higher than in the outdoor environment. While nowadays we live in better isolated houses and sit in front of the computer or television, on flame retarded upholstery, we are at risk due to the toxic effects of a suite of FRs. The high exposure to these substances indoors calls for better risk assessments that include mixture effects.

  16. Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira


    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD, growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1 resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week administered by subcutaneous injection.

  17. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16. (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  18. Craniotubular dysplasia with severe postnatal growth retardation, mental retardation, ectodermal dysplasia, and loose skin: Lenz-Majewski-like syndrome. (United States)

    Nishimura, G; Harigaya, A; Kuwashima, M; Kuwashima, S


    The heterogeneous group of craniotubular dysplasias is characterized by modeling errors of the craniofacial and tubular bones. Some conditions in this category cause not only skeletal abnormalities but also a variety of mesoectodermal dysplasias, as exemplified in Lenz-Majewski syndrome (MIM 151050), which comprises craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, proximal symphalangism, enamel hypoplasia, and loose skin. We report on a boy with a hitherto unknown multisystem disorder, including skeletal changes that were regarded as a form of craniotubular dysplasia. The patient had a large head, exophthalmos, a broad nasal root, anteverted nostrils, large auricles, thick lips, micrognathia, severe postnatal growth retardation with emaciation, severe mental retardation, sparse hair growth, enamel hypoplasia, and thin, loose skin with hyperlaxity. Skeletal changes consisted of thickened calvaria, sclerosis of the skull base and facial bones, thick ribs, and metaphyseal undermodeling of the tubular bones. In addition, generalized osteopenia was evident. The present disorder overlaps phenotypically with Lenz-Majewski syndrome; nevertheless, the absence of diaphyseal hyperostosis and proximal symphalangism in the present patient was not consistent with Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

  19. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek


    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  20. Heterogeneity of tumor vasculature and antiangiogenic intervention: insights from MR angiography and DCE-MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlian Zhu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Solid tumor vasculature is highly heterogeneous, which presents challenges to antiangiogenic intervention as well as the evaluation of its therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the spatial tumor vascular changes due to bevacizumab/paclitaxel therapy using a combination approach of MR angiography and DCE-MRI method. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor vasculature of MCF-7 breast tumor mouse xenografts was studied by a combination of MR angiography and DCE-MRI with albumin-Gd-DTPA. Tumor macroscopic vasculature was extracted from the early enhanced images. Tumor microvascular parameters were obtained from the pharmacokinetic modeling of the DCE-MRI data. A spatial analysis of the microvascular parameters based on the macroscopic vasculature was used to evaluate the changes of the heterogeneous vasculature induced by a 12 day bevacizumab/paclitaxel treatment in mice bearing MCF-7 breast tumor. RESULTS: Macroscopic vessels that feed the tumors were not affected by the bevacizumab/paclitaxel combination therapy. A higher portion of the tumors was within close proximity of these macroscopic vessels after the treatment, concomitant with tumor growth retardation. There was a significant decrease in microvascular permeability and vascular volume in the tumor regions near these vessels. CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab/paclitaxel combination therapy did not block the blood supply to the MCF-7 breast tumor. Such finding is consistent with the modest survival benefits of adding bevacizumab to current treatment regimens for some types of cancers.

  1. Tumor metabolism: cancer cells give and take lactate. (United States)

    Semenza, Gregg L


    Tumors contain well-oxygenated (aerobic) and poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) regions, which were thought to utilize glucose for oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, respectively. In this issue of the JCI, Sonveaux et al. show that human cancer cells cultured under hypoxic conditions convert glucose to lactate and extrude it, whereas aerobic cancer cells take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and utilize it for oxidative phosphorylation (see the related article beginning on page 3930). When MCT1 is inhibited, aerobic cancer cells take up glucose rather than lactate, and hypoxic cancer cells die due to glucose deprivation. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with an inhibitor of MCT1 retarded tumor growth. MCT1 expression was detected exclusively in nonhypoxic regions of human cancer biopsy samples, and in combination, these data suggest that MCT1 inhibition holds potential as a novel cancer therapy.

  2. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors. (United States)

    McNeill, Katharine A


    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  3. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie


    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)


    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  5. Influence of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A on the expression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germer, S.; Schmitz, H.J.; Schrenk, D. [Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Piersma, A.H.; Ven, L. van der [Lab. for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Inst. for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)


    As one of the major brominated flame retardants (BFRs) tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is widely used in flammable plastic materials. There, it is incorporated either as covalently binding BFR or as an additive leading to likely leaching out of goods. Indeed, TBBPA was found in indoor air, environmental and human samples, i.e. mother's milk. Thus a certain degree of risk for human has to be considered. Some BFRs have been suspected to act as endocrine disrupters and/or affect the development of the unborn. Induction of drug metabolism may play a role in such effects by changing the body's homeostasis of hormones, such as steroids, thyroxine, and others. BFRs are prospected to lead to thyroid hormone deficiencies, neurodevelopmental deficiencies, cancer. Furthermore a variety of inducing agents have been described as tumor promoters in rodent liver. Herein the induction of enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYP) plays a major role.

  6. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors



    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, t...

  7. Study of the Synergistic Effect of Nanoporous Nickel Phosphates on Novel Intumescent Flame Retardant Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Nie


    Full Text Available A char forming agent (CFA and silica-gel microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (Si-MCAPP were selected to form novel intumescent flame retardant system to prepare flame retardant polypropylene (PP composites, and then the influences of nanoporous nickel phosphates (NiP on the thermal and flame retardant properties of flame retardant PP composites were studied by the real time FTIR (RTFTIR spectra, limited oxygen index (LOI test, and the scanning electron microscopy. RTFTIR shows the addition of NiP can improve the thermal stability of flame retardant PP composites. LOI test shows LOI value is increased with the increase of the content of NiP, and the optimized concentration of NiP is 1.0%. Furthermore, smoke toxicity of the novel flame retardant PP composites was studied by mice experiment. The upper limit of the no death smoke concentration of the composite is 12.37 mg/L.

  8. Built-up Effect of Core Material for Microencapsulated Flame Retardant Containing Dimethyl Methyl Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Miao; DONG Kai; YANG Yong


    The flame retardants containing organophosphorus compounds have extensively been used inthe flame retarding of polymer materials.Among others,dimethyl methyl phosphate (DMMP) was applied in flame retarding of polyurethane owmg to its so much merit.However,the water-soluble property of DMMP restricted its application in textile fabric.The flame retardtag systemcontainirm DMMP will be microencapsulated to form a novel flame retardant that could be used in textiles.We have studied the builtup effect of DMMP with some inorganic compounds to improve the afterflame and afterglow suppression in the flame retarding system.The experimeatal data indicated that inorganic compounds containing various non-metal elements P,N,B and metal ions Mg2+,Al3+,Ca2+,Zn2+,Cu2+,Mn4+ could be applied in flame retarding systems as additives to effectively suppress afterflame or afterglow.

  9. Synthesis of Antistatic Composite Based on Reaction Flame Retarding Unsaturated Polyester Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shui-ping; GONG Wen-hua; ZENG Jia


    The synthesis of reaction flame retarding unsaturated polyester resin and the flame retarding mechanism are investigated. By taking the synthesis flame retarding unsaturated polyester resin as a base material,glass fibers as reinforced material, under the condition of adding graphite or carbon black respectively, the composites were manufactured. The flame retarding and antistatic properties are also studied. In the experiment, bromidebearing flame retarding resin decomposed under a high temperature. Compound HBr was set out and retarded or stopped the flame. High concentration of HBr gas wall was formed between gas and solid phrases, which decreased flame. The results show that antistatic property of carbon black is higher than that of graphite. Adding a threshed value of 1% carbon black into composite, the antistatic property is at its highest value.

  10. Synthesis,Characterization and Flame-retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins and AACHH Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Linqing; ZHANG Lianmeng; HUANG Zhixiong; HUANG Zhiliang; WANG Yanbing


    Flame retardant epoxy resins were prepared by a simple mixed method using am-monium aluminum carbonate hydroxy hydrate(AACHH)as a halogen-free flame retardant.The pre-pared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry,scanning electron microscope and limiting oxygen index(LOI)experiments.Effects of AACHH content on LOI of epoxy resins/AACHH composite and flame retardant mechanism were investigated and discussed.Results show that AACHH exhibites excellent flame-retardant properties in epoxy resin(EP).When the content of AACHH was 47.4%,the LOI of EP reached 32.2%.Moreover, the initial and terminal decomposition temperature of EP increased by 48 ℃and 40℃,respectively. The flame retarded mechanism of AACHH is due to the synergic flame retardant effects of diluting, cooling,decomposition resisting and obstructing.

  11. Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants. (United States)

    Schreder, Erika D; Uding, Nancy; La Guardia, Mark J


    Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in consumer products including furniture, children's products, building materials, and textiles. Tests of indoor media in homes, offices, and other environments have shown these compounds are released from products and have become ubiquitous indoor pollutants. In house dust samples from Washington State, U.S.A., ClOPFRs were the flame retardants detected in the highest concentrations. Two ClOPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP or TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), have been designated as carcinogens, and there is growing concern about the toxicity of the homologue tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP or TCIPP). In response to concerns about exposure to these compounds, the European Union and a number of U.S. states have taken regulatory action to restrict their use in certain product categories. To better characterize exposure to ClOPFRs, inhalation exposure was assessed using active personal air samplers in Washington State with both respirable and inhalable particulate fractions collected to assess the likelihood particles penetrate deep into the lungs. Concentrations of ∑ClOPFRs (respirable and inhalable) ranged from 97.1 to 1190 ng m(-3) (mean 426 ng m(-3)), with TCPP detected at the highest concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in the inhalable particulate fraction. Total intake of ClOPFRs via the inhalation exposure route was estimated to exceed intake via dust ingestion, indicating that inhalation is an important route that should be taken into consideration in assessments of these compounds.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-qiao Peng; De-yi Wang; Qian Zhou; Yu-zhong Wang


    A novel charring agent, bis(1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) phenylphosphine sulfide (BCPPS), has been synthesized, and it is combined with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and melamine phosphate (MP) to impart flame retardance and dripping resistance for polypropylene (PP). The fire performance of the treated PP is investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL-94) and cone calorimeter, and the thermal stability and thermal oxidative stability of the composites are studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG). It has been found that the treated PP with the optimal flame retardant formulation of APP:MP:BCPPS = 12:6:12 (weight ratio, formulation 10)gives an LOI of 31.3 and UL-94 V-0 rating. The results from cone calorimeter indicate that both the heat release rate (HRR)and the total heat evolved (THE) of IFR-PP (formulation 10) decrease significantly compared with those of neat PP. The TG result shows that the IFR-PP (formulation 10) has a high yield of residual char at high temperature. FTIR is used to investigate the residue of the treated PP that degrades at 400℃ for different time. The compact outer surface and the shaggy inner surface can be observed from the SEM graph of the residual chars after LOI test, which form a much better barrier for the transfer of heat and fuel during combustion and show good flame retardancy. Moreover, the treated PP and its residue are investigated by XPS analysis.

  13. Intumescent Biobased-Polylactide Films to Flame Retard Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Reti


    Full Text Available The work focuses on the development of a newprocess to flame retard nonwovens, using films basedon renewable resources. Films consist in intumescentformulations of polylactic acid (PLA, ammoniumpolyphosphate (APP blended with lignin or starchand are coated on hemp or wool nonwovens. Theobjective of this study was to investigate the fireretardant and mechanical properties of textilesprotected by FR PLA films for potential use inbuilding applications. Horizontal and vertical flamespread tests as well as cone calorimetry tests showthat flammability properties of nonwovens aresignificantly improved. Better mechanical propertiesare also obtained with coated nonwovens.

  14. Wheeler and Feynman electrodynamics within the framework of retarded causality

    CERN Document Server

    Yaremko, Yu


    A frontal collision of two point-like charged particles which are asymptotically free in the remote past and in the distant future is considered. Ten conserved quantities corresponding to the symmetry of a closed system of particles and electromagnetic field under the Poincare group are expressed in terms of particle variables. It is shown that an interference of outgoing electromagnetic waves (retarded Lienard-Wiechert solutions) ensures the action of the field of one source on another (mutual interaction). The combination of wave motions accords with the modified Wheeler and Feynman absorber theory of radiation where (acausal) 'perfect absorption' is replaced by an interference phenomenon.

  15. Wheeler and Feynman electrodynamics within the framework of retarded causality (United States)

    Yaremko, Yu


    A frontal collision of two point-like charged particles which are asymptotically free in the remote past and in the distant future is considered. Ten conserved quantities corresponding to the symmetry of a closed system of particles and electromagnetic field under the Poincaré group are expressed in terms of particle variables. It is shown that an interference of outgoing electromagnetic waves (retarded Liénard-Wiechert solutions) ensures the action of the field of one source on another (mutual interaction). The combination of wave motions accords with the modified Wheeler and Feynman absorber theory of radiation where (acausal) 'perfect absorption' is replaced by an interference phenomenon.

  16. Wheeler and Feynman electrodynamics within the framework of retarded causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaremko, Yu [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine)


    A frontal collision of two point-like charged particles which are asymptotically free in the remote past and in the distant future is considered. Ten conserved quantities corresponding to the symmetry of a closed system of particles and electromagnetic field under the Poincare group are expressed in terms of particle variables. It is shown that an interference of outgoing electromagnetic waves (retarded Lienard-Wiechert solutions) ensures the action of the field of one source on another (mutual interaction). The combination of wave motions accords with the modified Wheeler and Feynman absorber theory of radiation where (acausal) 'perfect absorption' is replaced by an interference phenomenon.

  17. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency. (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh


    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with mental retardation in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Samikshan


    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are thought to be the most common cause of mental retardation (MR. However, apart from a few selected types with typical aneuploidy, like Downs syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, etc., the frequency of detectable chromosomal abnormalities in association with idiopathic MR is very low. In this study, we have investigated chromosomal abnormalities in female MR subjects (n = 150 by high-resolution GTG banding. Of them, 30 cases were diagnosed as Downs syndrome. Among the remaining (n = 120, chromosomal abnormalities/marked polymorphisms were detectable in only three MR cases (0.025.

  19. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G


    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...... neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3...

  20. Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants. (United States)

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Kong, Deguo; Hendriks, Hester S; de Wit, Cynthia A; Cousins, Ian T; Westerink, Remco H S; Leonards, Pim E G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Admiraal, Wim; de Voogt, Pim; Parsons, John R


    Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21% of the total world market of FRs, have several unintended negative effects on the environment and human health. Hence, there is growing interest in finding appropriate alternative halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Many of these HFFRs are marketed already, although their environ- mental behavior and toxicological properties are often only known to a limited extent, and their potential impact on the environment cannot yet be properly assessed. Therefore, we undertook this review to make an inventory of the available data that exists (up to September 2011) on the physical-chemical properties, pro- duction volumes, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) of a selection of HFFRs that are potential replacements for BFRs in polymers. Large data gaps were identified for the physical-chemical and the PBT properties of the reviewed HFFRs. Because these HFFRs are currently on the market, there is an urgent need to fill these data gaps. Enhanced transparency of methodology and data are needed to reevaluate certain test results that appear contradictory, and, if this does not provide new insights, further research should be performed. TPP has been studied quite extensively and it is clearly persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. So far, RDP and BDP have demonstrated low to high ecotoxicity and persistence. The compounds ATH and ZB exerted high toxicity to some species and ALPI appeared to be persistent and has low to moderate reported ecotoxicity. DOPO and MPP may be persistent, but this view is based merely on one or two studies, clearly indicating a lack of information. Many degradation studies have been

  1. Fast switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, B C; Lai, W J; Hong, M H


    A fast, switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder (EO-RPR) fabricated using the electro-optic ceramic PMN-PT is presented. This EO-RPR is useful for fast, switchable generation of pure cylindrical vector beam. When used together with a pair of half-wave plates, the EO-RPR can change circularly polarized light into any cylindrical vector beam of interest such as radially or azimuthally polarized light. Radially and azimuthally polarized light with purities greater than 95% are generated experimentally. The advantages of using EO-RPR include fast response times, low driving voltage and transparency in a wide spectral range (500 -7000 nm).

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with mental retardation in female subjects. (United States)

    Dutta, Samikshan; Shaw, Jyothi; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan


    Chromosomal abnormalities are thought to be the most common cause of mental retardation (MR). However, apart from a few selected types with typical aneuploidy, like Downs syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, etc., the frequency of detectable chromosomal abnormalities in association with idiopathic MR is very low. In this study, we have investigated chromosomal abnormalities in female MR subjects (n = 150) by high-resolution GTG banding. Of them, 30 cases were diagnosed as Downs syndrome. Among the remaining (n = 120), chromosomal abnormalities/marked polymorphisms were detectable in only three MR cases (0.025).

  3. Psychomotor retardation and externally oriented thinking in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca M


    Full Text Available Maria Luca,1 Antonina Luca,2 Carmela Calandra11Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit of the University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele” of Catania (Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Neuroscience of the University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele” of Catania (Sicily, ItalyObjective: To investigate possible correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and the depressive state, globally and with regard to the Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS-20 subscales and the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D subscales.Methods: 75 patients, suffering from Unipolar Depression, were assessed through the HAM-D and the TAS-20 and compared to the control group (n = 63. Both groups were divided into two subgroups (30–60 years old; 61–80 years old. Correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and depressive symptoms, globally and with regard to the TAS-20 subscales and the HAM-D subscales, were investigated.Results: With regard to patients, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D total score and the TAS-20 total score; the HAM-D factor V (psychomotor retardation and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale III (externally oriented thinking and the HAM-D total score. In addition a positive correlation between the HAM-D factor V and the TAS-20 subscales I and III was found and confirmed among females. In patients aged 30–60 years, the HAM-D factor V was correlated with all the TAS-20 subscales. As to the control group, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D factor I (anxiety/somatization and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale I and the HAM-D total score; the HAM-D factor I and the TAS-20 subscale. The latter was confirmed in the control group aged 30–60 years.Conclusion: The link between alexithymia and affective symptoms has been confirmed in the patients and in the control group. An interesting data is the correlation between psychomotor retardation and

  4. Law & psychiatry: mental retardation and the death penalty: after Atkins. (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S


    In Atkins v. Virginia the U.S. Supreme Court declared execution of persons with mental retardation to constitute cruel and unusual punishment, and thus to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment. However, the Court left all considerations regarding how to implement the decision explicitly to the states. Since Atkins was decided in 2002, legislatures, courts, and mental health experts have struggled with its implementation, highlighting the complexities that can arise when the courts base legal rules on clinical findings. This column reviews the Atkins case and considers the challenges associated with a clinical determination that can have life-or-death consequences for capital defendants.

  5. Stability of 2-body orbits in retarded gravitation theory (RGT)

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, C K


    The recently formulated retarded gravitation theory (RGT) explains the non-Newtonian velocities of stars in spiral galaxies, *without any new hypothesis*, and may hence be tested even in the laboratory. However, doubts have been expressed that those higher rotation velocities in RGT may be due to instabilities. We resolve these doubts by solving the full functional differential equations of RGT for a model 2-body planetary system. The solution is stable and closely agrees with the Newtonian solution for this planetary case. Thus, the big difference between RGT and Newtonian gravity for a spiral galaxy is not due to any instability in RGT.

  6. Combining cone calorimeter and PCFC to determine the mode of action of flame retardant additives


    LOPEZ CUESTA, José-Marie; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Ferry, Laurent; Longuet, Claire; Laoutid, Fouad; Friedrich, Blandine; Laachachi, Abdelghani


    Abstract The flammability of various flame retarded formulations containing different hydrated mineral fillers and/or phosphorous compounds and/or carbon nanotubes has been investigated using both cone calorimeter and PCFC. A method was proposed to evaluate the barrier effect of the flame retardant additives. This method is based on the fact that PCFC is non sensitive to physical flame retardant effects while both chemical and physical phenomena have a great effect on cone calorime...

  7. Two subtelomeric chromosomal deletions in forty-six children with idiopathic mental retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 赵正言


    @@ Mental retardation (MR) affects approximately 3% of the population. In infancy and early childhood, mental retardation often presents as developmental delay. Unexplained MR is responsible for more than half of all cases.1,2 There is some evidence that subtle chromosomal rearrangements involved in subtelomeric regions (gene-rich regions), resulting in segmental aneuploidy and gene-dosage imbalance, are significant unrecognized causes of idiopathic mental retardation (IMR).3-10

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of mental illness in mentally retarded children: a developmental model. (United States)

    Dosen, A


    Attempts have been made in recent years to discover the roots of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded children by employing a developmental approach in which the child, not the handicap, is brought more clearly into focus. This paper provides a brief overview of the developmental model that has proven useful for the author in the psychiatric diagnosis of mentally retarded children. Application of this model to the treatment of mentally ill-mentally retarded children is also addressed.

  9. 膨胀型沥青阻燃剂阻燃性能研究%On Flame Retardant Performance of Intumescent Asphalt Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌天清; 张睿卓; 宁华宇; 袁明


    Based on the flame-retardant mechanism of modified asphalt and requests and development trend of flame retard-ants, the paper chose IFR to make flame-retardant asphalt. Indicators as limiting oxygen index, synergistic efficiency and flame retardant value were employed to evaluate the flame retardant effectiveness of SBS modified asphalt. After analyzing the flammability of a dollar flame-retardant, binary formulation, ternary formulation system, the optimum composite ratio was determined.%在分析阻燃沥青阻燃机理的基础上,结合阻燃剂的使用要求及发展趋势,选用膨胀型阻燃剂IFR制备阻燃沥青.采用极限氧指数、协同效率和阻燃价值等指标评价了阻燃剂对SBS改性沥青的阻燃效果,通过分析单一阻燃剂、二元复配、三元复配体系的阻燃效果,确定膨胀型阻燃体系的最佳复配比.

  10. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baekgaard Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region. We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12 located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described in both WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. Characterization of this patient contributes further to elucidate the function of the genes in the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.

  11. Study on phase retardation characteristic of LCVR using dispersion analysis and SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Dongmei; LIU; Quan; NIU; Guocheng; ZHU; Yifeng; YU; Lintao


    To calibrate the phase retardance of a Liquid crystal variable retarder(LCVR),its birefringence dispersion characteristic was analyzed,and the Support vector machines(SVM) algorithm was adopted to establish the prediction model.The obtained SVM decision function was used as a part of LCVR phase retardance,which was generated by the driving voltage.The experimental verification was carried out with a 568 nm laser.The results show that the deviation of the experimental value and the theoretical value is about 0.0061λ.SVM method could be used as an effective method for LCVR phase retardance characteristic calibration.

  12. Phosphorus-based Flame Retardancy Mechanisms—Old Hat or a Starting Point for Future Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schartel


    Full Text Available Different kinds of additive and reactive flame retardants containing phosphorus are increasingly successful as halogen-free alternatives for various polymeric materials and applications. Phosphorus can act in the condensed phase by enhancing charring, yielding intumescence, or through inorganic glass formation; and in the gas phase through flame inhibition. Occurrence and efficiency depend, not only on the flame retardant itself, but also on its interaction with pyrolysing polymeric material and additives. Flame retardancy is sensitive to modification of the flame retardant, the use of synergists/adjuvants, and changes to the polymeric material. A detailed understanding facilitates the launch of tailored and targeted development.

  13. Effect of Flame Retardant Containing Phosphorus and Silicone on Thermal Performance of PC/ABS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ping; WU Dan; ZHONG Hanfang; DU Jianxin


    A flame retardant (DPA-SiN) containing phosphorus, nitrogen and silicon elements was synthesized. The halogen free flame retardant was incorporated into PC/ABS to improve its flame retardancy. The flame-retardant properties of the PC/ABS/DPA-SiN blends were estimated bylimiting oxygen index (LOI) values and CONE Calorimeter, while thermal stabilities were investi-gated through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The PC/ABS/DPA-SiN blends were thermally de-graded at 400 ℃ for different amounts of time and studied by Fourier transform infrared spectros-copy (FTIR) to better understand the degradation behavior of PC/ABS/DPA-SiN.

  14. Design of broad angular phase retarders for the complete polarization analysis of extreme ultraviolet radiation (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-You; Chen, Shu-Jing; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Ding, Ying-Chun


    A method of designing broad angular phase retarders in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region is presented. The design is based on a standard Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm combined with a common merit function. Using this method, a series of broad angular EUV phase retarders were designed using aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers. At photon energy of 90 eV, broad angular phase retarders with 30°, 60°, and 90° phase retardations have been realized in the angular range of 39°-51°. By analyzing and comparing the performances of the designed broad angular phase retarders, we found that the Mo/Si multilayer with more layers could obtain higher phase retardation in broader angular range when used to design the broad angular phase retarder. Broad angular phase retarders possess lower sensitivity toward changing incident angle compared with the traditional phase retarders designed with transmission periodic multilayers, and can be used for the polarization control of broad angular EUV sources. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JD1517, ZY1349, and 2652014012).

  15. Recent Developments in Halogen Free Flame Retardants for Epoxy Resins for Electrical and Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Döring


    Full Text Available The recent implementation of new environmental legislations led to a change in the manufacturing of composites that has repercussions on printed wiring boards (PWB. This in turn led to alternate processing methods (e.g., lead-free soldering, which affected the required physical and chemical properties of the additives used to impart flame retardancy. This review will discuss the latest advancements in phosphorus containing flame retardants for electrical and electronic (EE applications and compare them with commercially available ones. The mechanism of degradation and flame retardancy of phosphorus flame retardants in epoxy resins will also be discussed.

  16. Systematic Recording of Behaviors and Skills of Retarded and Psychotic Children (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith


    The reliability of the Children's Handicaps, Behavior and Skills structured interview schedule, intended to elicit information concerning mentally retarded or psychotic children, was investigated. (Author/SBH)

  17. Research Progress in Flame Retardants for Polypropylene%聚丙烯用阻燃剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    综述了聚丙烯用阻燃剂的3种阻燃作用机理,包括气相阻燃、凝聚相阻燃、中断热交换阻燃机理。重点介绍了聚丙烯用阻燃剂的研究开发进展,包括水合金属化合物阻燃剂、磷系阻燃剂、膨胀型阻燃剂、硅系阻燃剂、纳米阻燃剂等。最后,指出纳米无机阻燃剂、膨胀型阻燃剂以及具有高效阻燃、低烟、无毒的复配阻燃剂是聚丙烯崩阻燃剂未来的发展趋势。%The action mechanisms of flame retardants for polypropylene were reviewed, including gas phase flame retardancy, condensed phase flame retardancy, and interruptingheat exchange flame retardancy. The research and development status of some flame retardants for polypropylene such as hydrated metal compound flame retardants, phosphated flame retardants, intumescent flame retardants, silicone flame retardants, and nanometer flame retardants were introduced. It was pointed out that the development directions of flame retardants for polypropylene were nanometer inorganic flame retardants, intumescent flame retardants, and compound flame retardants with high-efficiency, low-smoke and non-toxicity.

  18. Modeling mechanical effects on promotion and retardation of martensitic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalekian, Mehran, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. V61Z4 (Canada); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Christian Doppler Laboratory for ' Early Stages of Precipitation' , Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)


    Research highlights: {yields} Compressive elastic stresses up to 250 MPa are applied in continuous cooling. {yields} Using the thermodynamic data and maximum value of the mechanical driving force the predicted increase in M{sub s} ({approx}0.1 K/MPa) is in agreement with experiment {yields} Austenite was deformed plastically at different temperatures (800 deg. C-1100 deg. C). {yields} High deformation temperature (i.e. 1100 deg. C) as well as low plastic strain (i.e. {epsilon}{sub ave} {approx} 30%) do not affect martensite transformation noticeably, whereas lower deformation temperature (e.g. 900 deg. C) and large plastic strain (i.e. {epsilon}{sub ave} {approx} 70%) retards martensite transformation. {yields} The theory of mechanical stabilization predicts the depression of M{sub s}. - Abstract: The influence of compressive stress and prior plastic deformation of austenite on the martensite transformation in a eutectoid steel is studied both experimentally and theoretically. It is demonstrated that martensite formation is assisted by stress but it is retarded when transformation occurs from deformed austenite. With the quantitative modeling of the problem based on the theory of displacive shear transformation, the explanation of the two opposite roles of mechanical treatment prior to or simultaneously to martensite transformation is presented.

  19. Retarded Fields of Null Particles and the Memory Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Tolish, Alexander


    We consider the retarded solution to the scalar, electromagnetic, and linearized gravitational field equations in Minkowski spacetime, with source given by a particle moving on a null geodesic. In the scalar case and in the Lorenz gauge in the electromagnetic and gravitational cases, the retarded integral over the infinite past of the source does not converge as a distribution, so we cut off the null source suitably at a finite time $t_0$ and then consider two different limits: (i) the limit as the observation point goes to null infinity at fixed $t_0$, from which the ``$1/r$'' part of the fields can be extracted and (ii) the limit $t_0 \\to - \\infty$ at fixed ``observation point.'' The limit (i) gives rise to a ``velocity kick'' on distant test particles in the scalar and electromagnetic cases, and it gives rise to a ``memory effect'' (i.e., a permanent change in relative separation of two test particles) in the linearized gravitational case, in agreement with previous analyses. Although the second limit does...

  20. Potential estrogenic effects of phosphorus-containing flame retardants. (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Lu, Meiya; Dong, Xiaowu; Wang, Cui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping; Zhao, Meirong


    As the substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), further assessments about the potential ecological safety and health risks of phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) are required because the worldwide demand for PFRs has been increasing every year. In this study, we examined the agonistic/antagonistic activity of a group of PFRs by three in vitro models (luciferase reporter gene assay, yeast two-hybrid assay, and E-screen assay). Molecule docking was used to further explain the interactions between ERα and PFRs. Data from luciferase reporter gene analysis showed three members of the nine tested PFRs significantly induced estrogenic effects, with the order of TPP > TCP > TDCPP, while TCEP and TEHP have remarkable antiestrogenic properties with calculated REC20 and RIC20 values of 10(-6) M or lower. Results from the luciferase reporter gene method are generally consistent with results obtained from the yeast two-hybrid assay and E-screen, except for the positive estrogenic activity of TBP in E-screen testing. Docking results showed that binding between ligands and ERα was stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. As a proposed alternative for brominated flame retardant, PFRs may have anti/estrogenic activity via ERα at the low dose typical of residue in environmental matrix or animals. PFRs with a short chain, halogen, and benzene ring in the substituent group tend to be estrogenic. Our research suggests that comprehensive evaluations, including health and ecological assessments, are required in determining whether PFRs are preferable as an emerging industrial substitute.

  1. Engineering Biodegradable Flame Retardant Wood-Plastic Composites (United States)

    Zhang, Linxi

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), which are produced by blending wood and polymer materials, have attracted increasing attentions in market and industry due to the low cost and excellent performance. In this research, we have successfully engineered WPC by melt blending Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Poly(butylene adipate-co-terphthalate) (PBAT) with recycled wood flour. The thermal property and flammability of the composite are significantly improved by introducing flame retardant agent resorcinol bis(biphenyl phosphate) (RDP). The mechanical and morphological properties are also investigated via multiple techniques. The results show that wood material has increased toughness and impact resistance of the PLA/PBAT polymer matrix. SEM images have confirmed that PLA and PBAT are immiscible, but the incompatibility is reduced by the addition of wood. RDP is initially dispersed in the blends evenly. It migrates to the surface of the sample after flame application, and serves as a barrier between the fire and underlying polymers and wood mixture. It is well proved in the research that RDP is an efficient flame retardant agent in the WPC system.

  2. Preliminary Study of Mental Retardation in Rovira (Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Celis


    Full Text Available limitationsin performance, significant deficiencyin intelligence and adaptative behavior, causingclinical and social disability. Most patients withmental retardation in Colombia do not receiveclinical genetics evaluation. The aims of thepresent study are to evaluate and characterizea group of patients with mental retardationfrom the population of Rovira. The presentstudy included twenty five patients with mentalretardation from Rovira (Tolima whichwere studied by clinical examination, metabolicscreening (ferric chloride, nitrosonaphtol,silver nitroprusiate, dinitrophenylhydrazineand benedict and cytogenetics (G-Bandingkariotype. Pesticide detection was perfomedby random sampling of water and tomatoes intwenty different places of water distribution,the center of the town and crop fields. A familywith three affected sibs (two females, onemale with mental retardation was identified,suggesting a genetic component. Metabolicscreening was negative and karyotypes werenormal. The analyses performed for organophosphateswere positive in 100% of the samples.Carbamates were positive in 60% of thewater source and 100% of tomato samples. Allthe samples tested were negative for organochlorides.Further studies as molecular fragile-X test, will be performed.

  3. [Kinetic patterns in the growth of transplantable mouse tumor RShM-1]. (United States)

    Svinogeeva, T P; Konopliannikov, A G; Shtein, L V


    Under study was the kinetics of growth of cervical cancer (CCM-1) transplanted on mice CBA, also the mitotic cycle and diurnal activity of tumor cells division. The tumor growth can well be described with the Hompertz equation, the constants of acceleration and retardation being equal to 0.34 day-1 and 0.004 day-1 accordingly. A linear dependence between the size, weight and number of CCM-1 celos is shown. In the tumor under study a persistant diurnal rhythm of the cell division was found with the maximum at 7 and 19 hours and the minimum at 13. The basis parameters of the mitotic cycle of tumor cells were determined: Tc=17.8 hr., G2 approximately 40 min.; S=9 hr., M approximately 24 min., G1 approximately 18.4 hr. The time of tumor doubling was 48.7 hr. The cell loss factor is as much as 42.1 per cent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P


    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  5. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information (United States)

    ... and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do not produce hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary ...

  6. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors. (United States)

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  7. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  8. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation (United States)

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Cancer Foundation joins the PBTF Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  9. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor


    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk


    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  10. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Sahai, Sharad; Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita


    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare entity and represents less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. Dr. J J Pindborg (1958) first described four cases of this unusual lesion; subsequently Shafer et al coined the term Pindborg tumor. This lesion is a locally aggressive benign odontogenic neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue. It occurs most commonly in 4th-5th-6th decade of life and bears no gender predilection. A case of CEOT in a 50-year-old male arising in the left body region is described. PMID:22639521

  11. Psychopathology and Mental Retardation: An Italian Epidemiological Study Using the PIMRA. (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Notarelli, Antonella; Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Bertelli, Marco; Cabras, Pier Luigi


    The incidence of psychopathology was studied in 176 Italian adults with mental retardation. Prevalence of answers relating to anxiety, tendency to live apart, and body complaints in individuals with mild mental retardation was documented. For people with severe intellectual impairments, mood disturbance with inconsistent behaviors was more…

  12. Veridical and False Pictorial Memory in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation (United States)

    Carlin, Michael T.; Toglia, Michael P.; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa


    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit…

  13. Dyskinetic Movement Disorder among Adults with Mental Retardation: Phenomenology and Co-occurrence with Stereotypy. (United States)

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others


    The occurrence of dyskinetic movement disorder and its co-occurrence with stereotypic behavior among adults with mental retardation were studied in 98 adults with mental retardation. Results indicated that stereotypic movement disorder was associated with increased dyskinesia scores and that dyskinesia and stereotypy may be related by common…

  14. Assessment of the Perceived School Loneliness and Isolation of Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Students. (United States)

    Luftig, Richard L.


    Perceived school loneliness and isolation of 73 partially mainstreamed retarded students (mean age 13.5 years) and their nonretarded peers was assessed using a five-point Likert-type loneliness scale. Retarded students reported significantly more loneliness and isolation than nonretarded peers suggesting that mainstreaming by itself does not…

  15. Comments on "Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Mental Retardation and Down Syndrome." (United States)

    Willerman, Lee; Schultz, Robert T.


    The relationship between mental retardation and brain size is discussed. Research suggests that a common path for many otherwise idiopathic mild retardation cases (genetic or environmental) could be small brain size, indicating reduced information processing capacity. Suggestions are made for further research on neuron number. (SLD)

  16. New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gérard


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered.

  17. Transport of fragile X mental retardation protein via granules in neurites of PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. de Diego Otero (Yolanda); E.A.W.F.M. Severijnen (Lies-Anne); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); M. Schrier (Mariëtte); R. Willemsen (Rob); B.A. Oostra (Ben)


    textabstractLack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes fragile X syndrome, a common form of inherited mental retardation. FMRP is an RNA binding protein thought to be involved in translation efficiency and/or trafficking of certain mRNAs. Recently, a subset of mRNAs

  18. A Cross-Sectional Test of the Similar-Trajectory Hypothesis among Adults with Mental Retardation (United States)

    Facon, Bruno


    The similar-sequence and the similar-structure hypotheses are the two mainstays of the developmental approach to mental retardation. In the present study, a third way, the similar-trajectory hypothesis, is described and illustrated using the WAIS-R results of adults with and without mental retardation aged from 20 to 54 years. The whole sample (N…

  19. Guidelines from the Consumer: Improving Consumer Involvement in Research and Training for Persons with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; And Others


    Interviews with 22 adults with mental retardation suggest that, although they and other individuals with mental retardation have participated in various roles in research and training, there are many barriers to meaningful consumer involvement (such as professional jargon) and there is a need to bring out individuals' strengths and capabilities.…

  20. Influence of obstetric management on outcome of extremely preterm growth retarded infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, A.H.P.; Wolf, H.; Bruinse, H.W.; Ouden, A.L. den; Smolders-de Haas, H.; Ertbruggen, I. van; Treffers, P.E.


    Aim - To describe the long term outcome of extremely preterm growth retarded infants in relation to obstetric management and various perinatal events. Methods - A cohort study was undertaken in two tertiary care centres with different obstetric management. All infants with fetal growth retardation d

  1. Ex-Post-Facto Analysis of Competitive Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Mental Retardation: National Perspective (United States)

    Moore, Corey L.; Harley, Debra A.; Gamble, David


    Disparities in proportions of competitive job placements and provision of vocational rehabilitation services by level of mental retardation were identified for 28,565 individuals. Chi-square results reveal that consumers with mild mental retardation are significantly more likely to achieve competitive jobs compared to those with more severe…

  2. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Freude, Kristine; Musante, Luciana


    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has...

  3. Decreasing Self-Stimulating Behaviors with the Profoundly Mentally Retarded, While Acknowledging Obstacles and Frustrations. (United States)

    Smith, Susan J.; Solimani, Genevieve

    Two studies examined different treatment procedures to suppress self-stimulating behaviors with the profoundly mentally retarded. In experiment 1, a fine mist of cold water from a spray bottle was applied to the neck of a teenaged student in a class for the profoundly retarded. The intervention was very successful in reducing inappropriate humming…

  4. Interference and Inhibition in Tasks of Selective Attention by Persons with and without Mental Retardation (United States)

    Merrill, Edward C.


    Persons with mental retardation often exhibit greater interference in visual selective attention tasks than do persons matched with them on CA. My goal here was to evaluate whether differences in distractor interference between persons with and without mental retardation may be related to differences in negative priming. Fifteen participants with…

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Individuals with Mental Retardation in New York State. (United States)

    Schupf, Nicole; And Others


    Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for 1986-87 was estimated at 7.3%, suggesting that management of parasitic infection is improving. Males and individuals with severe/profound mental retardation were twice as likely to have…

  6. Detection of Metabolic Disorders among Selectively Screened People with Idiopathic Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael B.; And Others


    Fifty-eight people (ages 2 to 66) receiving residential or other services for idiopathic mental retardation were evaluated for evidence of metabolic disease. Five (8%) demonstrated symptoms pointing to specific genetic metabolic defects, suggesting the need for evaluation of other similar populations with idiopathic mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  7. Retraso Mental. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #528. (Mental Retardation. Translation of ERIC EC Digest #528). (United States)

    Hawkins-Shepard, Charlotte

    This fact sheet presents basic information on mental retardation for Spanish-speaking educators and others. First, definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are presented. The fact sheet then analyzes how the new AAMR definitions differ from earlier ones,…

  8. Experimental study on retarding mortar and its application in prestressed concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ling; SONG Yu-pu; HONG Lei


    Based on a large number of orthogonal tests and theoretical analyses, the retarding mortar which meets the requirements of retard-bonded prestressed concrete was prepared. Initial setting time of the retarding mortar may vary from several hours to 15 d at 5℃ -35℃ due to quantities and average curing temperature. And its 28 d compressive strength is above 35 MPa. Thus the influence of quantities on setting time and 28 d compressive strength, and the relationship between setting time and average curing temperature were investiga-ted. The optimum quantities were obtained by studying the interaction of admixtures, and the retarding mecha-nism was discussed. Based on 52 retard-bonded prestressed strands by manual work from 24 retard-bonded pre-stressed concrete T-beams, static friction drag, change factor κ and friction factor μ were obtained from the testwhen retard-bonded prestressed strands were tensioned. Application of the retarding mortar will be vast in prac-tical concrete projects.

  9. These Are Not Children; A Play About Opportunities for the Mentally Retarded. (United States)

    Alden, Jerome; Johnesse, Adaline

    The play, which involves a mentally retarded youth, his parents, and a rehabilitation counselor, gives dramatic emphasis to the youth's problems in adjusting to the outside world and to the adjustment problems of the parents. The character of Joey is used to demonstrate that the retarded can be helped to lead useful and productive lives and to…

  10. Views about Planning for the Future among Parents and Siblings of Adults with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Griffiths, Diane Lynn; Unger, Donald G.


    Forty-one pairs of parents and siblings of adult family members with mental retardation completed questionnaires concerning future planning. Although almost one-half of siblings were willing to assume caregiving responsibilities in future, parents were reluctant to have them take on caregiving. Cognitive demands of mentally retarded members and…

  11. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne


    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  12. Differential Production of Positive and Negative Discriminative Stimuli by Normal and Retarded Children. (United States)

    Mulvaney, Dallas E.; And Others


    Two normal and two mentally retarded children were trained to earn pennies by pressing a key according to a multiple variable-interval extinction schedule of reinforcement. Retarded children differed from normal children by producing more positive than negative discriminative stimuli. (Author/DB)

  13. Preparing Teachers of Pupils with Mental Retardation: Changes in Course Offerings from 1970-1990. (United States)

    Brusca, Rita M.; Montemurro, Theodore J.


    Comparison of typical courses of study from 1970 to 1990 for students preparing to be teachers of pupils with mental retardation found little change in percentage of programs offering a special course on mental retardation; increased percentage of programs offering cross-categorical courses; and decreased percentage of programs requiring joint…

  14. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results.

  15. Rating Problem Behaviors in Outpatients with Mental Retardation: Use of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. (United States)

    Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.


    Parent and teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist with an outpatient sample of 110 children, adolescents, and young adults with mental retardation found that the 5-factor structure of both parent and teacher data corresponded very well with the 5 factors originally obtained from staff ratings of mentally retarded inpatients. (Author/DB)

  16. A Review of the Literature of a Dual Diagnosis: Mental Retardation and Behavioral Disorders. (United States)

    Cooley, Sandra M.


    Presents a synthesis of the literature findings on the dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavior disorders. Topics covered include: (1) behavior management techniques; (2) drug treatment; (3) family perspectives; (4) education; (5) behavioral treatment; and (6) behavior disorders and mental retardation as mild disabilities. (Author/CR)

  17. Effects of Age, Gender, and Causality on Perceptions of Persons with Mental Retardation (United States)

    Panek, Paul E.; Jungers, Melissa K.


    The present study examined the effects of age, gender, and causality on the perceptions of persons with mental retardation. Participants rated individuals with mental retardation using a semantic differential scale with three factors: activity, evaluation, and potency. Target individuals in each scenario varied on the variables of age (8, 20, 45),…

  18. A Community-Based Accommodation Program for Adults with Autism and Mental Retardation (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Holtz, Casey A.; Moist, Amie M.


    There is a paucity of treatment literature for significant and intractable behavior problems in adults with autism and mental retardation. Four adults with autism, severe to profound mental retardation, and serious, long-term behavior problems participated in an accommodation training program as an adjunct to more traditional behavioral and…

  19. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu


    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  20. Tumors in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tascedda


    Full Text Available Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathology, which can create misunderstandings in some occasions.

  1. The effectiveness of adapted web pages on the learning performance of students with severe mental retardation. (United States)

    Li, Tien-Yu; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lin, Yun-Lung; Li, Shu-Chun


    Learning to use computers and/or using computers to learn has become a part of everyday life for most students. Unfortunately, students with mental retardation in Taiwan, especially those with moderate or severe mental retardation, are often not considered capable of utilizing computers and online learning. It is common for students with moderate or severe mental retardation to have poor vocabulary, or even be illiterate. Web pages mostly displayed in text form have therefore become the major obstacle for students with mental retardation when they try to learn online. This research focused on students with severe mental retardation by integrating picture communication symbols, voices and animation into a teaching home page, and then examined its effectiveness on learning.

  2. New Flexible Flame Retardant Coatings Based on Siloxane Resin and Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Wesolek


    Full Text Available This work presents the effectiveness of a phosphorus-containing flame retardant based on siloxane resin and ethylene-vinyl chloride copolymer as a back-coating of fabrics. The possibility of improving flame retardant efficiency of this composition by introducing fumed silica, montmorillonite, carbon nanotubes, and graphite was evaluated. The effect of each additive on the efficiency of the composition was examined separately. Flammability tests of flame retardant-coated fabrics (natural and synthetic were carried out using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC, cone calorimetry, and limiting oxygen index determination. An assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture containing flame retardant fabric, resistance to washing, antifungal activity, and some of the utility properties of the final newly-developed flame-retardant coating was conducted.

  3. Determining the degree of fire retardancy of plywood with thermogravimetry, part I: Beech plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović-Grmuša Ivana


    Full Text Available The basic motive of this work is the ever more pronounced need for fire-resistant plywood. In this work, beech veneers have been impregnated with solutions of chosen fire retardants, which are diammonium phosphate monoammonium phosphate, sodium acetate, water glass, sodium tetra borate and boric acid. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG methods are used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed on a Perkin-Elmer TGS-2 thermo gravimetric equipment. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardants monoammonium phosphate and sodium tetra borate, had the same results as TG/DTG analyses, which points out the validity of TG methods in predicting success of fire retardants in future products.

  4. Importance of perceived similarity in improving children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers. (United States)

    Siperstein, G N; Chatillon, A C


    Effects of perceived similarity on fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers were examined. Children were selected from schools that contained segregated classes of retarded pupils (exposed setting) and schools that had no retarded pupils enrolled (nonexposed). Attitudes were defined in terms of children's affective feelings and behavioral intentions. Results showed that children responded more positively toward a retarded target who was depicted as similar to them than toward one who was not. Unexpectedly, the positive effects of perceived similarity were observed only among children in the exposed schools. Also, girls were more positive toward a female target than boys were to a male target, regardless of whether the target was perceived as similar. The importance of developing strategies based on theories of interpersonal attraction to improve children's attitudes toward their retarded peers was discussed.

  5. Following in the Footsteps of Ford: Mental Retardation and Capital Punishment Post-Atkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Orpen


    Full Text Available Since the United States Supreme Court held the capital sentence of mentally retarded John Paul Penry to be constitutional in Penry v. Lynaugh, the relationship between capital punishment, mental retardation and the Eighth Amendment has been widely debated. In a long awaited opinion, the Court finally held that the Eighth Amendment categorically prohibits the execution of the mentally retarded. In Atkins v. Virginia, the Court overruled its holding in Penry, and recognized that capital sentences imposed on the mentally retarded constitute cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment. Although this appears to be a victory for the mentally retarded and their advocates, the real effect of the decision will depend largely on how the states apply the Atkins holding.

  6. Benign ear cyst or tumor (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  7. Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Forward Osmosis Membranes: Materials and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May-Britt Hägg


    Full Text Available In the past four decades, membrane development has occurred based on the demand in pressure driven processes. However, in the last decade, the interest in osmotically driven processes, such as forward osmosis (FO and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO, has increased. The preparation of customized membranes is essential for the development of these technologies. Recently, several very promising membrane preparation methods for FO/PRO applications have emerged. Preparation of thin film composite (TFC membranes with a customized polysulfone (PSf support, electorspun support, TFC membranes on hydrophilic support and hollow fiber membranes have been reported for FO/PRO applications. These novel methods allow the use of other materials than the traditional asymmetric cellulose acetate (CA membranes and TFC polyamide/polysulfone membranes. This review provides an outline of the membrane requirements for FO/PRO and the new methods and materials in membrane preparation.

  8. Retardation of Bulk Water Dynamics by Disaccharide Osmolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Nimesh; Chen, Lee; Chergui, Majed; Othon, Christina M


    The bioprotective nature of disaccharides is hypothesized to derive from the modification of the hydrogen bonding network of water which protects biomolecules through lowered water activity at the protein interface. Using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy we measured the relaxation of bulk water dynamics around the induced dipole moment of two fluorescent probes (Lucifer Yellow Ethylenediamine and Tryptophan). Our results indicate a reduction in bulk water reorganization rate of approximately of 30%. We observe this retardation in the low concentration regime measured at 0.1M and 0.25 M, far below the onset of glassy dynamics. This reduction in water activity could be significant in crowded biological systems, contributing to global change in protein energy landscape, resulting in a significant enhancement of protein stability under environmental stress. We observed similar dynamic reduction for two disaccharide osmolytes, sucrose and trehalose, with trehalose being the more effective dynamic reducer.

  9. Bilateral progressive visual loss in an epileptic, mentally retarded boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero


    Full Text Available Leber′s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited, monosymptomatic disorder, characterized by severe central vision loss and optic atrophy that most frequently affects young men. The classic LHON phenotype is associated to three mitochondrial DNA mutations, mostly homoplasmic, in the Mt-ND4, Mt-ND6, and Mt-ND1 genes, encoding for complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Rare cases have been described in the literature in association with variable central nervous system involvement in a syndromic form called LHON ′plus.′ In the present study, we report the case of a 16-year-old boy with the 3460/ND1 mutation who presented with epilepsy, migraine, and mental retardation as non-ophthalmic features. We also investigated his relatives who all had the 3460/ND1 mutation.

  10. Assessing personality traits of individuals with mental retardation. (United States)

    Zigler, Edward; Bennett-Gates, Dianne; Hodapp, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C


    Psychometric properties for a new instrument, the EZ-Personality Questionnaire designed to assess the functioning of students with cultural-familial mental retardation, are presented. The analysis of data from 661 participants yielded a 37-item, seven-scale instrument that confirmed the five hypothesized factors of Positive Reaction Tendency, Negative Reaction Tendency, Effectance Motivation, Expectancy of Success, and Outerdirectedness and identified two additional factors of Curiosity/Creativity and Obedience. Separate studies were conducted to establish the concurrent and construct validity of the instrument. Reliability was examined through split-half and test-retest analyses. All psychometric indices were within acceptable levels, resulting in an instrument with potential applications in research, education, and clinical settings.

  11. Characteristics of epilepsy in severely mentally retarded individuals. (United States)

    Amano, K; Takamatsu, J; Ogata, A; Miyazaki, C; Kaneyama, H; Katsuragi, S; Deshimaru, M; Sumiyoshi, S; Miyakawa, T


    In order to clarify the characteristics of epilepsy in patients with severe mentally retarded (SMR) subjects, we analyzed 52 SMR subjects with epilepsy from the institute for SMR subjects at Kikuchi National Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan. A total of 61.5% patients had uncontrolled seizures which were resistant to treatment. The most common combinations of seizure types in those not responding to conventional anticonvulsants were generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) with tonic seizure and GTCS with atypical absence. Their clinical features were characterized by spastic paralysis associated with a slower background electroencephalogram and abnormal computed tomography scans of the head, suggesting the involvement of cortical damage. These findings suggest that a large proportion of epilepsy in SMR subjects does not respond to treatment and that the severity of organic brain damage may therefore affect the natural course of epilepsy in such patients.

  12. Retarded versus time-nonlocal quantum kinetic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawetz, K. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Spicka, V.; Lipavsky, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Praha (Czech Republic)


    The finite duration of the collisions in Fermionic systems as expressed by the retardation time in the non-Markovian Levinson equation is discussed in the quasiclassical limit. The separate individual contributions included in the memory effect resulting in (i) off-shell tails of the Wigner distribution, (ii) renormalization of scattering rates and (iii) of the single-particle energy, (iv) collision delay and (v) related non-local corrections to the scattering integral. In this way we transform the Levison equation into the Landau-Silin equation extended by the non-local corrections known from the theory of dense gases. The derived kinetic equation unifies the Landau theory of quasiparticle transport with the classical kinetic theory of dense gases. The space-time symmetry is discussed versus particle-hole symmetry and a solution is proposed which transforms these two exclusive pictures into each other. (authors)

  13. Primary function analysis of human mental retardation related gene CRBN. (United States)

    Xin, Wang; Xiaohua, Ni; Peilin, Chen; Xin, Chen; Yaqiong, Sun; Qihan, Wu


    The mutation of human cereblon gene (CRBN) is revealed to be related with mild mental retardation. Since the molecular characteristics of CRBN have not been well presented, we investigated the general properties of CRBN. We analyzed its gene structure and protein homologues. The CRBN protein might belong to a family of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent Lon protease. We also found that CRBN was widely expressed in different tissues, and the expression level in testis is significantly higher than other tissues. This may suggested it could play some important roles in several other tissues besides brain. Transient transfection experiment in AD 293 cell lines suggested that both CRBN and CRBN mutant (nucleotide position 1,274(C > T)) are located in the whole cells. This may suggest new functions of CRBN in cell nucleolus besides its mitochondria protease activity in cytoplasm.

  14. Flame Retardant and Pyrolytic Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-guo; OU Yu-xiang; WU Jun-hao


    Na+-montmorillonite(Na+-MMT) was converted to organic montmorillonite(OMMT) using modifier which was synthesized at authors' laboratory. PA6/OMMT nanocomposite was prepared via in situ intercalative polymerization. The limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL 94V flame retardancy and thermal stability of PA6/OMMT using thermal gravity analysis (TGA) were measured. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique was used to analyze the pyrolytic residuum and the cone calorimeter (CONE) was applied to determine a number of combustion parameters which were closely related to fire safety, including heat release rate, mass loss rate, effective combustion heat, total heat release, specific extinction area and the time of ignition. In addition, the elemental composition of the surface pyrolytic residuum and the corresponding X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data were obtained, and the morphology of the residuum from CONE measurement was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  15. Intradentate colchicine retards the development of amygdala kindling. (United States)

    Dasheiff, R M; McNamara, J O


    The mechanisms underlying the kindling model of epilepsy are unknown. Presumably, an altered network of neural circuits underlie amygdala kindling. Biochemical and radiohistochemical studies have pointed to the dentate granule cells (DGC) of the hippocampal formation as a member of this altered circuit. To test the role of these cells, colchicine, a neurotoxin of DGC, was directly injected into the dentate gyrus. Prior destruction of DGC retarded the development of amygdala kindling. Destruction of DGC after kindling was completed did not reverse the kindling effect. We conclude that DGC play a key role in the development, but not the permanence, of amygdala kindling. We propose a model whereby the greater the input to the hippocampal formation, the faster limbic kindling will proceed.

  16. Radiation pressure in SFA theory: retardation and recoil corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Krajewska, K


    Radiation pressure effects in ionization by short linearly-polarized laser pulses are investigated in the framework of strong-field approximation, in both nonrelativistic and relativistic formulations. Differences between both approaches are discussed, and retardation and recoil corrections are defined. It is demonstrated how these corrections can be incorporated into the nonrelativistic approach, leading to the so-called quasi-relativistic formulation. These three approaches are further applied to the analysis of signatures of radiation pressure in energy-angular distributions of photoelectrons. It is demonstrated that, for Ti:Sapphire laser pulses of intensities up to $10^{16}\\mathrm{W/cm}^2$, predictions of the quasi-relativistic formulation agree well with those of the full relativistic one, and that the recoil corrections contribute predominantly to the radiation pressure effects.

  17. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation. (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi


    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  18. Alzheimer neuropathology in non-Down's syndrome mentally retarded adults. (United States)

    Popovitch, E R; Wisniewski, H M; Barcikowska, M; Silverman, W; Bancher, C; Sersen, E; Wen, G Y


    We examined the brains of 385 mentally retarded adults aged 23-90 years without Down's syndrome (DS), metabolic disorder, or hydrocephalus to extend our knowledge about the occurrence of Alzheimer-type neuropathology in this population. Relevant measures of neuropathology also were related to selected information available from clinical records. The presence of one or more neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and/or neuritic plaques (NP) was observed in 63.4% of all cases and varied with age. The prevalence of positive cases was higher when mental retardation was due to head trauma, congenital malformation, or familial factors and when a history of seizures was reported. Comprehensive morphometric analyses of neocortical, hippocampal and parahippocampal areas indicated that recommended age-specific quantitative criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease [Khachaturian ZS (1985) Arch Neurol 42:1097-1105] were met in 9.5% of cases less than 50 years of age, 54.2% between 50 and 65, 70% between 66 and 75, and 87% of the cases greater than 75 years of age. However, a limited immunohistochemical study revealed that in most cases the NP did not have a neuritic component containing paired helical filaments and in this respect most of the plaques observed in this population may differ from those most strongly associated with Alzheimer disease. In addition, substantial numbers of NFT were seen in frontal cortex, contrasting with results reported in the literature for nonretarded populations. The number of NP per mm2 consistently increased with age for all areas examined, while the relationship between NFT density and age varied across areas, and was clearly not monotonic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Genital soft tissue tumors. (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J


    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  20. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P


    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs...

  1. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha


    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  2. Exact closed probability-free kinetic equation for system of classical particles with retarded interactions: towards microscopic foundation of kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, A Yu


    The exact closed equation of motion for microscopic distribution function of classical many-body system with account of interactions retardation between particles is derived. It is shown that interactions retardation leads to irreversible behaviour of many-body systems.

  3. Screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in 210 patients with unexplained mental retardation using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, D.A.; Nillesen, W.M.; Versteeg, M.H.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Kets, M.; Vermeer, S.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Kovel, C.G.F. de; Brunner, H.G.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Sistermans, E.A.


    BACKGROUND: Subtelomeric rearrangements contribute to idiopathic mental retardation and human malformations, sometimes as distinct mental retardation syndromes. However, for most subtelomeric defects a characteristic clinical phenotype remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To screen for submicroscopi

  4. Study on the Flame Retarding of HDPE by Synergetic Flame Retardance between EG and Triazine Macromolecular Intumescent Flame Retardant%EG协同三嗪系大分子膨胀型阻燃剂阻燃HDPE研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆敏; 高帅; 李斌; 王玉峰


    The flame retarding of HDPE by synergetic flame retardance between EG and triazine macromolecular expansion flame retardant was studied. By means of the limiting oxygen index (LOI), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests, etc, the analysis was carried out. The research results showed that the LOI of flame-retardant HDPE with EG and APP/CFA/SiO2 was better than the LOI that the two kinds of flame retardants used alone. The SEM test indicated that there was a compact protective layer formed on the surface after combustion when EG and APP/CFA/SiO2 were used synergistically, which prevented further combustion of the polymer.%研究了EG协同三嗪系大分子膨胀型阻燃剂阻燃HDPE,通过极限氧指数(LOI)、热重分析(TGA)、扫描电镜(SEM)等测试手段进行了分析。结果表明当EG与APP/CFA/SiO2共同使用阻燃HDPE的氧指数比单独加入两种阻燃剂的氧指数都有所提高,SEM测试表明EG与APP/CFA/SiO2共同使用燃烧后表面形成一层致密的保护层,阻止了聚合物的进一步燃烧。

  5. Global Consumption of Flame Retardants and Related Environmental Concerns: A Study on Possible Mechanical Recycling of Flame Retardant Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Yasin


    Full Text Available Flame retardants (FRs have been around us for decades to increase the chances of survival against fire or flame by limiting its propagation. The FR textiles, irrespective of their atmospheric presence are used in baby clothing, pushchairs, car seats, etc. The overall FR market in Asia, Europe, and the United States in 2007 was around 1.8 million metric tonnes. It is estimated that the worldwide consumption of FRs will reach 2.8 million tonnes in 2018. Unfortunately, a sustainable approach for textile waste, especially in the case of FR textiles, is absent. Incineration and landfill of FR textiles are hindered by various toxic outcomes. To address the need for sustainable methods of discarding FR textiles, the mechanical recycling of cotton curtains was evaluated.

  6. Intra-hippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide inhibits kindled seizures and retards kindling rate in adult rats. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amin; Sayyah, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh-Sima, Baharak; Choopani, Samira; Kazemi, Jafar; Sadegh, Mehdi; Moradpour, Farshad; Nahrevanian, Hossein


    Neuroinflammation facilitates seizure acquisition and epileptogenesis in developing brain. Yet, the studies on impact of neuroinflammation on mature brain epileptogenesis have led to inconsistent results. Hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to damage caused by ischemia, hypoxia and trauma, and the consequent neuroinflammation, which can lead in turn to epilepsy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is extensively used in experimental studies to induce neuroinflammation. In this study, effect of acute and chronic intra-CA1 infusion of LPS on amygdala-kindled seizures and epileptogenesis was examined in mature rats. LPS (5 μg/rat) inhibited evoked amygdala afterdischarges and behavioral seizures. Anticonvulsant effect of LPS was observed 0.5 h after administration and continued up to 24 h. This effect was accompanied by intra-hippocampal elevation of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin1-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and was prevented by microglia inhibitor, naloxone, NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, and interleukin1-β receptor antagonist, interleukin1-ra. Moreover, daily intra-hippocampal injection of LPS significantly retarded kindling rate. In order to further elucidate the effect of LPS on synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity, changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes were measured in stratum radiatum and stratum pyramidale of LPS-treated kindled rats. LPS impaired baseline synaptic transmission in hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse and reduced the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation. Our results suggest that direct suppression of presynaptic mechanisms in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, as well as the inflammatory mediators released by LPS in the hippocampus, is involved in antiepileptic effect of LPS.

  7. The influence to flame retardance characteristics of flame retardant painting by microencapsulation flame retardant%微胶囊化阻燃剂对防火涂料的性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓宁; 丁璐; 胡源; 姜利


    针对普通水性膨胀型防火涂料在使用过程中耐水性差的问题,应用在阻燃剂领域的微胶囊技术,自制水性膨胀型防火涂料.将含密胺包裹聚磷酸铵或普通聚磷酸铵的两种防火涂料进行试验,对比两种涂料的防火性能、热稳定性和耐水性能.结果表明:密胺包裹APP的热分解温度比普通APP的热分解温度提高了约100~150℃.采用微胶囊技术包裹APP可使膨胀型防火涂料的耐水性得到很大改善,受火后炭层内部较添加普通型APP的涂料致密,能起到持久有效的防火作用.%A waterborne intumescent fire-retardant painting was synthesized with the microencapsulation technology aiming at the bad water resisting property of normal waterborne intumes cent fire-retardant painting. The thermal stability, fire retarding performance, and water-resistant property of flame retardant painting with microencapsulation APP( MAPP) or general APP were studied. The results showed that: The pyrolysis temperature of MAPP is 100~150 'C higher than APP. MAPP enhances the water-resistant property of flame retardant painting obviously. The intumescent fire-retardant painting with MAPP has compacter carbon layer than the painting with APP after fire, and can resist fire longer.

  8. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Hu, Wei-Zhao; Wang, Bi-Bo; Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)


    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy.

  9. Uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor. (United States)

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Seifirad, Soroush; Abbasi Dezfouli, Golbahar; Abbasi, Neda; Zare Mehrjardi, Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are fairly rare in uterus. A case of uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a 32-year-old Iranian woman is presented. The patient was admitted with abdominal pain and fever and underwent emergency exploratory surgery with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection. Posterior wall of the uterus was necrotic and ruptured and a huge tumor disrupted the uterine body. The tumor was strongly positive for CD99, NSE, and chromogranin; No reaction was seen for CD10, CD45 and myogenin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an uterine body primitive neuroectodermal tumor and the second report of uterine primitive neuroectodermal tumor from Iran.

  10. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan


    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  11. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhaniya Shikha


    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT is a rare tumorous form of calcifying odontogenic cyst and only a small number of cases have been described. It is a locally invasive neoplasm that is characterized by ameloblastoma-like epithelial islands, ghost cells and dentinoid. The present report describes a case of a 21-year-old male with a tumor in the posterior region of the mandible, showing features of DGCT.

  12. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippili Kaushal


    Full Text Available Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are found in the olfactory bulb and olfactory nasal mucosa. They resemble Schwann cells on light and electron microscopy, however, immunohistochemical staining can distinguish between the two. There are less than 30 cases of olfactory groove schwannomas reported in the literature while there is only one reported case of OEC tumor. We report an OEC tumor in a 42-year-old male and discuss the pathology and origin of this rare tumor.

  13. Preparation of Intumescent Flame Retardant Polypropylene composite through Solid State Mechanochemical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-hong; WANG Qi


    Polypropylene (PP), with characteristics of good mechanical properties, good resistance to water and low cost, has been widely used in many fields such as building, transport, furniture and electrical industries. However, a fateful drawback of polypropylene is its high flammability,restricting its wider applications. Addition of flame retardants is an effective way to improve its flame retardancy. An effective halogen-free flame retardant system used is the mixture of melamine, ammounium phosphate and pentaerythritol (intumescent flame retardant). But how to enhance the dispersion of this mixture in polypropylene matrix is a big problem. A self-made mechanochemical reactor, pan type milling equipment, can exert strong shear and squeeze forces,and has good mixing function. As a result, a uniform dispersion of flame retardants in the polymer matrix can be expectably obtained by using this equipment.In this paper, flame-retarded Polypropylene (PP) composites with intumescent flame retardant (IFR) were prepared via solid state mechanochemical method (pan-mill) and conventional method (twin-roll masticator) respectively. Particle diameter analysis, melt flow index (MFI), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize these composites, and the mechanical properties and flame retardancy were also determined. The experimental results showed that the blend of PP and IFR were effectively pulverized from 3~4 mm to less than 300i m under the strong shear forces of pan-mill. With increasing the milling cycles, the MFI value of IFR/PP blend decreased first and then increased. The mechanical properties and flame retardancy of IFR/PP blends prepared by solid state mechanochemical method were proved to be better than those prepared by conventional method because of the dispersing function of pan-mill.Also it was found that IFRs were the nucleating agent for PP and the crystallinity of PP increased first and then

  14. Canine mammary gland tumors. (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin


    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  15. Tumor cell metabolism (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores


    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267



    Tapia M.,Mauricio; Orellana H.,Ricardo; Cisterna C,Patricio; Gazitúa P,Raimundo; Sepúlveda A.,Rodrigo


    Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de tumores anexiales en el embarazo, la histología tumoral y los resultados perinatales. Pacientes y método: Análisis retrospectivo de 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor anexial y embarazo atendidas en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital San Juan de Dios entre febrero de 2001 a julio de 2004. Resultados: La asociación tumor anexial y embarazo fue 1 en 424 embarazos. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el cistoadenoma seroso (19,2%). La cirugía no alter...

  17. Diabetic nephropathy : pathology, genetics and carnosine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Antien Leonora


    My thesis concerns different aspects of diabetic nephropathy. A pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy is developed, a meta-analyis of genes in diabetic nephropathy is developed and the other chapters are about the CNDP1 gene in relation to kidney disease, mainly diabetic nephropathy.

  18. The 'Ice Hill': An example of 'retarded deglaciation' in siberia (United States)

    Astakhov, Valery I.; Isayeva, Lia L.

    The geological structure of one of the southernmost sites of thick ice beds in the Yenisei valley near the Arctic Circle is discussed. The erosion contacts of the foliated and contorted ice, abundance of glacial debris and the position between the basal till and ablation cover indicate a glacial origin for the ice layer. The ice occurs in the cores of arcuate accretion ridges built of ablation materials. The overlying sequence consists of a series of diamicton flows alternating with lacustrine and outwash sediments. Laterally the ice-rock complex changes into thick lacustrine rhythmites underlain by basal tills. The ice-containing hummocky terrain is often lower than the adjacent lacustrine plain. Therefore inversion of ice-controlled topography is suggested. Several stages of glaciokarst development are supposed to have occurred after an eastward moving ice lobe stagnated more than 50 ka BP. The main depositional events are associated with the Middle Weichselian draining of ice-dammed Lake Igarka, and with Early Holocene topographic inversion. The Holocene warming apparently caused diapiric deformation of the buried ice probably because of the density and thickness differences between the ice and the overburden. The long history of burial and preservation of the remnants of basal glacier ice was controlled by Pleistocene permafrost. Landscape evolution in Northern Siberia is governed by such 'retarded deglaciation', in contrast with Atlantic environments. The thick ablation sequence may be described in terms of a Spitsbergen model, but the Siberian basal tills, because of their position within the permafrost, must be regarded as exfoliated layers of debris-rich ice according to Shantzer-Lavrushin's model. The occurrence of buried glacier ice and the mode of distribution of the permafrost shows the relict nature of the latter. In areas of modern and former retarded deglaciation intermittent diamicton flows are supposed to mark episodes of climatic amelioration like

  19. Possible use of psyllium husk as a release retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Angira


    Full Text Available Various hydrophilic polymers from synthetic origin such as methylcellulose, PEGs, HPMC as well as those from natural world such as guar gum, tragacanth, xanthan gum have been used to formulate oral sustained release formulations. Psyllium husk has the ability to swell 10-14 times of its original volume and form a hydrogel. It is biocompatible, inexpensive, inert, non-absorbable, environment friendly and easily available. However, its use as a release retardant has not been fully explored. Owing to large dose, high sensitivity to light, moisture and heat and also very short half-life of 1-2 h; formulation of sustained release dosage form of amoxicillin trihydrate is a challenge. Hence the present study has been undertaken to develop sustained release granules as well as matrix tablets of amoxicillin trihydrate using psyllium husk as a primary release retardant. The drug release of these formulations was compared with those containing HPMC K4M.The results showed insignificant difference in t80% value for drug release as assessed by student′s t-test at 5% level of significance. Selected formulations were kept at controlled conditions of 40o/75% RH and 30o/65% RH for a period of 3 mo. Microbiological assay was used as a stability indicating method of assay. Sustained release granules and tablet formulations containing HPMC alone were found to be more stable than the similar formulations containing husk with percent drug content at the end of 3 mo at 40o/ 75% RH being 92.66%, 93.81%, 86.74%, 88.31% and the rate of degradation being 8.46x10-4 d-1, 7.1x10-4 d-1, 1.58x10-3 d-1 and 1.38x10-3 d-1, respectively. Thus it was concluded that psyllium husk can be effectively used as a hydrogel polymer in sustained release formulations. However, there is a need to keep moisture level under control during and after formulation.

  20. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables (United States)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo


    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a viable but still not diffused form of renewable energy (see Maisonneuve et al., 2015 for a recent literature review). In PRO, water from a low salinity feed solution permeates through a membrane into a pressurized, high salinity draw solution, giving rise to a positive pressure drop; then energy is obtained by depressurizing the permeate through a hydro-turbine and brackish water is discharged. Many technological, environmental and economical aspects are obstacles in the diffusion of PRO, like the vulnerability of the membranes to fouling, the impact of the brackish water on the local marine environment, the high cost of membranes, etc. We are interested in the use of PRO as a combined form of energy with other renewable energy source like solar, wind or mini hydro in water supply networks (WSN). For the wide diffusion of renewables one of the major concerns of commercial power companies is to obtain very stable form of energy to comply with prescriptions of electricity grid operators and with the instant energy demand curve. Renewables are generally very variable form of energy, for the influence of climatic conditions on available power, and of the fluctuation in water demand in WSN. PRO is a very flexible technology where with appropriate turbines and control system power can be varied continuously to compensate for variation of other source of energy. Therefore, PRO is suitable to be used as a balancing system for commercial power system. We will present a simulation of the performance of a PRO used in combination with three different renewables. In the first two scenarios PRO compensate the difference between energy demand and energy production of a solar power plant and hydro power plant in a WSN. In the third scenario PRO is used to compensate daily variation of energy production in a wind power plant. Standard curves of energy production and energy demand for southern Italy are used. In order to control PRO production an

  1. Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits. (United States)

    Fernandes, Luís A; Grenier, Jason R; Herman, Peter R; Aitchison, J Stewart; Marques, Paulo V S


    Femtosecond laser (300 fs, 500 kHz, 522 nm) fabrication of optical waveguides in bulk silica glass is extended to waveguide retarders. We study the merits of nanograting orientation (perpendicular or parallel to the waveguide) for generating high and low birefringence waveguides. This is used together with other exposure condition to control the waveguide birefringence between 10⁻⁵ and 10⁻⁴ permitting for the simultaneous fabrication of the waveguides and the tuning of the retardance demonstrating quarter and half-wave retarders in the 1200 nm to 1700 nm spectrum. The wavelength dependence of the birefringence is also characterized over a range of exposure conditions.

  2. Averaged Stokes polarimetry applied to evaluate retardance and flicker in PA-LCoS devices. (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco J; Márquez, Andrés; Gallego, Sergi; Ortuño, Manuel; Francés, Jorge; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada


    Recently we proposed a novel polarimetric method, based on Stokes polarimetry, enabling the characterization of the linear retardance and its flicker amplitude in electro-optic devices behaving as variable linear retarders. In this work we apply extensively the technique to parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon devices (PA-LCoS) under the most typical working conditions. As a previous step we provide some experimental analysis to delimitate the robustness of the technique dealing with its repeatability and its reproducibility. Then we analyze the dependencies of retardance and flicker for different digital sequence formats and for a wide variety of working geometries.

  3. Retard function and ship motions with forward speed in time-domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐恺; 朱仁传; 缪国平; 洪亮


    The time-domain calculations of retard function and ship motions in waves by the direct time-domain method (DTM) and the frequency to time-domain transformation method (FTTM) are compared and analyzed. A Wigley-hull-form ship and an S60 ship moving in waves are examined, and the corresponding retard functions are in good agreement with those given by DTM and FTTM. The comparison of retard functions in different forward speeds by the two methods is observed, and the results of ship motions in forward speed are also compared with the experimental data. On this basis, the advantage and disadvantage of them are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of Fluorocyclotriphosphazene Derivatives and Their Fire-Retardant Finishing on Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhanxiong


    Full Text Available A series of novel fire-retardant agents, fluorocyclotriphosphazene derivatives with the substitution groups of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy groups were synthesized using hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl alcohol as starting materials. The synthesized fire-retardant agent was emulsified and applied on the cotton fabric finishing to reduce the flammability and afford water/oil repellency simultaneously. The optimum finishing process was achieved according to the test of cotton finishing with fluorocyclotriphosphazene. The treated cotton showed not only excellent fire-retardant performance, but also water and oil repellency with little change in strength and whiteness.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Quan; Ming-shah Yang; Qing Yah


    The preparation technology of flame-retardant PC/ABS alloys was studied in this paper. Using a high-efficiency flame retardant system and by means of multiple-ingredient compatibilizing, PC/ABS alloys with excellent impact strength and flame retardant property were prepared. The experimental results showed that by using PS-g-MAH and SMA as synergistic compatibilizers, the notched Izod impact strength and flammability of PC/ABS alloy obtained in the present work can be up to 175 J/m and UL-94 V0, respectively.

  6. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products. (United States)

    Stapleton, Heather M; Klosterhaus, Susan; Keller, Alex; Ferguson, P Lee; van Bergen, Saskia; Cooper, Ellen; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene


    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  7. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wu; Bao-jun Qu


    The synergistic effects of silicotungstic acid (SiW12) as a catalyst in the phosphorus-nitrogen compounds AM-based intumescent flame-retardant (IFR) polypropylene (PP) were studied using the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), real time Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS). TheLOI data show that SiW12 added to PP/IFR systems has a synergistic FR effect with an IFR additive named AM. The TGAdata show that SiW12 apparently increases the thermal stability of the PP/IFR systems at high temperature (T > 500 ℃). TheFTIR results provide the positive evidence that IFR can improve the thermal stability of PP and SiW12 can induce a higherrate of formation of phosphoric acid and its derivatives. The LRS measurements provide useful information on thecarbonaceous microstructures. In short, a suitable amount of SiW12 (1.5 wt%) exertssynergistic effects with the IFR byincreasing the LOI value and the thermal stability at high temperature and promoting the formation of charred structures onthe burning PP surface.

  9. Flame Retardant Effect of Aerogel and Nanosilica on Engineered Polymers (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.; Roberson, Luke B.; Yang, Feng; Nelson, Gordon L.


    Aerogels are typically manufactured vIa high temperature and pressure-critical-point drying of a colloidal metal oxide gel filled with solvents. Aerogel materials derived from silica materials represent a structural morphology (amorphous, open-celled nanofoams) rather than a particular chemical constituency. Aerogel is not like conventional foams in that it is a porous material with extreme microporosity and composed of individual features only a few nanometers in length with a highly porous dendriticlike structure. This unique substance has unusual properties such as low thermal conductivity, refractive index and sound suppression; in addition to its exceptional ability to capture fast moving dust. The highly porous nature of the aerogel's structure provides large amounts of surface area per unit weight. For instance, a silica aerogel material with a density of 100 kilograms per cubic meters can have surface areas of around 800 to 1500 square meters per gram depending on the precursors and process utilized to produce it. To take advantage of the unique properties of silica aerogels, especially the ultra light weight and low thermal conductivity, their composites with various engineering polymers were prepared and their flammability was investigated by Cone Calorimetry. The flammability of various polystyrene/silica aerogel nanocomposites were measured. The combination of these nanocomposites with a NASA patented flame retardant SINK were also studied. The results were compared with the base polymer to show the differences between composites with different forms of silica.

  10. Seroepidemiological Survey of Toxoplasma Infections of Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Gharavi


    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a widespread infection in the world. Although the infection by Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals, the disease is uncommon and most of the acquired infections are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. In the present descriptive study, a total of 353 samples from mentally retarded children and adolescents in rehabilitation centers in Tehran, were examined from 2001 to 2002. In order to determine the Toxoplasma antibodies, the samples were tested using an IFA technique and in some cases ELISA technique was applied as well. Fourteen percent of the examined samples were positive. In this research Toxoplasma antibody titer in 36 cases were reported as 1:100 and it was found to be 1:200, 1:400 and 1:800 in 9,1 and 3 cases, respectively. In three cases for which the titer was reported 1:800, samples were tested applying Ig-M ELISA technique in order to determine if there was an acute infection but all tests were negative. In the current study, we did not find any significant differences in the prevalence rate between the genders, but the prevalence significantly increases with age. We used standard questionnaires for causative relation in congenital toxoplasmosis within sero-positive children and 3 cases of infection were documented during the mother's pregnancy period.

  11. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)


    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  12. Identification of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane in the environment. (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Björklund, Jonas; Fridén, Ulrika


    The brominated flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane, DeBDethane, is marketed as an alternative to decabromodiphenyl ether, BDE209. There are currently no data available about the presence of DeBDethane in the environment. In this study, DeBDethane was positively identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and quantified by low-resolution mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization in sewage sludge, sediment, and indoor air. It was found in 25 of the 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants investigated, with estimated levels up to about 100 ng/g dry weight. The concentration of DeBDethane in sediment from Western Scheldt in The Netherlands was 24 ng/g dry weight, and in an air sample from a Swedish electronics dismantling facility it was 0.6 ng/m3. DeBDethane was also found together with nonabromodiphenyl ethanes in water piping insulation. All samples contained BDE209 in higher concentrations as compared to DeBDethane (DeBDethane/BDE209 ratios ranging from 0.02 to 0.7), probably reflecting the higher and longer usage of BDE209. There is an ongoing risk assessment within the European Union regarding BDE209. Since DeBDethane has similar applications, it is important to investigate its environmental behavior before using it to replace BDE209.

  13. Fragile-X mental retardation: molecular diagnosis in Argentine patients. (United States)

    Florencia, Giliberto; Irene, Szijan; Veronica, Ferreiro


    Fragile-X-syndrome (FXS) is the most common type of inherited cognitive impairment. The underlying molecular alteration consists of a CGG-repeat amplification within the FMR-1 gene. The phenotype is only apparent once a threshold in the number of repeats has been exceeded (full mutation). The aim of this study was to characterize the FMR-1 CGG-repeat status in Argentine patients exhibiting mental retardation. A total of 330 blood samples from patients were analyzed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Initially, DNA from 78 affected individuals were studied by PCR. Since this method is unable to detect high molecular weight alleles, however, we undertook a second approach using the Southern blotting technique to analyze the CGG repeat number and methylation status. Southern blot analysis showed an altered pattern in 14 out of 240 (6%) unrelated patients, with half of them presenting a mosaic pattern. Eight out of 17 families (47%) showed a (suggest deleting highlight). The characteristic FXS pattern was identified in 8/17 families (47%), and in 4 of these families 25% of the individuals presented with a mosaic model. The expansion from pre-mutation to full mutation was shown to occur both at the pre and post zygotic levels. The detection of FXS mutations has allowed us to offer more informed genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and reliable patient follow-up.

  14. Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores. (United States)

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele


    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes.

  15. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal


    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  16. [Prognosis in tumor diagnosis]. (United States)

    Bruns, G


    This essay on prognosis in tumor diagnosis pathology resp. tumor etiology, cancerogenesis and molecular oncology is the authors personal opinion. Generally tumor diagnosis improves with progress in histo- and cytological methods for example in tumors of the APUD-system and precancerous lesions especially of the breast. Fundamental principle of developed tumor diagnosis is the knowledge of malignant transformation. Its profits favours the etiology in cancerogenesis and e.g. non Hodgkin lymphomas (Burkitt lymphoma, adult T-cell lymphoma) and to result from new methods in molecular biology and viral genetics (DNS-hybridizing, -recombination and gene technology). With the beginning century a stepwise fitted diagnosis of malignant lymphomas is evident up to monoclonal dedifferentiated lymphoid cells and their multifarious phenotypical markers. This concept may be of general significance in tumor diagnosis already indicated in prelymphomas. Finally the present prognosis of tumor diagnosis is evaluated by contents, tasks and strategies of its corresponding research lines in clinical and experimental tumor pathology resp. its organization.

  17. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)


    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  18. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P;


    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  19. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar


    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  20. Fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant performance of an intumescent waterborne amino-resin fire-retardant coating for wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengqiang WANG; Zhijun ZHANG; Qingwen WANG; Jiayin TANG


    An intumescent waterborne amino-resin fire-retardant coating for wood (C) was synthesized and its fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant properties were investigated. The main film-builder of C was urea-form-aldehyde resin blended with polyvinyl acetate resin. The intumescent fire-retardant system of C consisted of guany-lurea phosphate (GUP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). Specimens of plywood painted, respectively, with a commercial intumes-cent fire-retardant coating (A), a synthesized coating (C), and the main film-builder of coating C (B), as well as an unpainted plywood (S-JHB), were analyzed by cone calori-metry (CONE). The results show a marked decrease in the heat release rate (HRR) and the total heat release (THR), an increased mass of residual char (Mass), a marked post-ponement in time to ignition (TTI) and a reduced carbon monoxide production rate (P). The smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) of the ply-wood painted with coating C were observed with the CONE test. The overall fire-retardant and smoke-suppres-sant performance of the synthesized coating C was much better than that of the commercial coating A. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results of coating C and its film-builder B indicated that the thermal degradation process of B was slowed down by the addition of the intumescent fire-retardant system; the increase in the amount of charring of coating C was considerable.

  1. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors]. (United States)

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R


    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  2. Familial pituitary tumor syndromes. (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; McDonald, Kerrie L; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Robinson, Bruce G


    The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

  3. Merkel cell tumor. (United States)

    Kitazawa, M; Watanabe, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohnishi, Y; Shitara, A; Nitto, H


    A Merkel cell tumor appeared on the left cheek of an 83-year-old female was reported. The tumor was located mainly in the dermis and infiltrated to the subcutaneous adipose tissue with an involvement of the blood vessels and lymphatics at the periphery. Electron-microscopically, few of the dense-cored granules and the single globular aggregates of intermediate filaments at the nuclear indentations were observed. Electron-microscopic uranaffin reaction proved positive reaction on the dense-cored granules. Half of the cytoplasmic border was smooth, while the rest had short projections. Desmosomes or junctional complexes were not detected among the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of tumor cell showed positive reaction to both neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and keratin. The single globular positive spots of the latter were localized in accordance with the aggregates of intermediate filaments. These findings suggested a neurogenic origin with double differentiation, epithelial and neuroendocrine, of the Merkel cell tumor.

  4. Development of Non-Halogen Flame Retardant Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazunori; Tanaka; Kaoru; Okuno; Tomoyuki; Hattori; Kiyoaki; Moriuchi; Hiroshi; Hayami; Wataru; Katsurashima; Yoshikyo; Tamekuni


    A non-halogen highly flame-retardant 0.9mm optical fiber and 2.0mm simplex optical cord, which are harmonized with the ecosystem, have been developed. The characteristics of them are presented in this paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  6. Potent competitive interactions of some brominated flame retardants and related compounds with human transthyretin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerts, I.A.T.M.; Zanden, van J.J.; Luijks, E.A.C.; Leeuwen-Bol, van I.; Marsh, G.; Jakobsson, E.; Bergman, A.; Brouwer, A.


    Brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pentabromophenol (PBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are produced in large quantities for use in electronic equipment, plastics, and building materials. Because these compounds have some structural resemblance to the th

  7. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde;


    application of the H3PO4 modified SBS as a fire retardant additive for bitumen material, in combination with synergetic melamine species, offered 25% better self-extinguishing properties of such formulation already at a low loading level of the fire retardant components (3.5 wt.%).......An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... of the Psingle bondH containing fire retardants to a double bonds of poly(butadiene) block of SBS were found, affording varied degree of the modification (0.2–21 mol%). Alternatively, a two-step procedure based on an epoxidation step followed by hydrolysis of the epoxides with phosphoric acid was developed...

  8. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame Retardants and Related Chemicals in Zebrafish (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the ne...

  9. Acute Neurobehavorial Toxicity of Flame Retardant Replacement Compounds in Zebrafish Larvae (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are phased out, numerous compounds areemerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronicproducts. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of thesereplacements. This study evaluated t...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue Zhu; Yonghui Cao; Jiankang Chen


    Under dynamic loading, the constitutive relation of the cement mortar will be signif-icantly affected by the transversal inertial effect of specimens with large diameters. In this paper,one-dimensional theoretical analysis is carried out to determine the transversal inertial effect on the relaxation/retardation time of the cement mortar under the harmonic wave. Relaxation time or retardation time is obtained by means of the wave velocity, attenuation coefficient and the frequency of the harmonic wave. Thus, the transversal inertial effect on the relaxation time from Maxwell model, as well as on retardation time from Voigt model is analyzed. The results show that the transversal inertial effect may lead to the increase of the relaxation time, but induce the decrease of the retardation time. Those should be taken into account when eliminating the transversal inertial effect in applications.

  11. Synthesis and Application of a Novel Polyamide Charring Agent for Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu


    Full Text Available A novel charring agent, poly(p-ethylene terephthalamide (PETA, for halogen-free flame retardant polypropylene was synthesized by using p-phthaloyl chloride (TPC and ethylenediamine through solution polycondensation at low temperature, and the effects of PETA on flame retardance of polypropylene (PP/IFR systems were studied. The experimental results showed that PETA could considerably enhance the fire retardant performance as proved by evidence of the increase of limiting oxygen index (LOI values, the results of UL-94 tests, and cone calorimeter tests (CCT. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM demonstrated that an appropriate amount of PETA could react with PP/IFR system to form cross-link network; a more compact char layer could be formed which was responsible for the improved thermal and flame retardant properties of PP/IFR systems. However, the superfluous amount of PETA would play the negative role.

  12. Key Role of Reinforcing Structures in the Flame Retardant Performance of Self-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bocz


    Full Text Available The flame retardant synergism between highly stretched polymer fibres and intumescent flame retardant systems was investigated in self-reinforced polypropylene composites. It was found that the structure of reinforcement, such as degree of molecular orientation, fibre alignment and weave type, has a particular effect on the fire performance of the intumescent system. As little as 7.2 wt % additive content, one third of the amount needed in non-reinforced polypropylene matrix, was sufficient to reach a UL-94 V-0 rating. The best result was found in self-reinforced polypropylene composites reinforced with unidirectional fibres. In addition to the fire retardant performance, the mechanical properties were also evaluated. The maximum was found at optimal consolidation temperature, while the flame retardant additive in the matrix did not influence the mechanical performance up to the investigated 13 wt % concentration.

  13. Thermal and mechanical behavior of flame retardant epoxy-polyesterurethane blends (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Hirani, A. V.; Kachhia, P. H.


    Polyesterurethanes are used in different applications due to their unique combination of the properties like toughness, flexibility, solvent resistance, etc. Nowadays flame retardant properties of polymers are of commercial interest because of their potential use in high performance applications. In the present study attempts have been taken to improve the flame retardant properties of conventional epoxy resin by incorporating phosphorus based polyesterurethane. Polyesterurethane has been synthesized in the laboratory and characterized by chemical and instrumental analysis techniques. Thermal stability and char value of the blends have been determined using thermogravimetric analysis technique. Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) and UL-94 test methods have been used to determine the flame retardant properties of neat polymer and their blends in film form. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation and impact resistance of the blends have been found out. Polyblend of epoxy resin with phosphorus based polyesterurethane has improved flame retardant properties compare to neat epoxy resin.

  14. A consanguineous family with Hirschsprung disease, microcephaly, and mental retardation (Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, AS; Breuning, MH; Osinga, J; Van der Smagt, JJ; Catsman, CE; Buys, CHCM; Meijers, C; Hofstra, RMW


    Hirschsprung disease, mental retardation, microcephaly, and specific craniofacial dysmorphism were observed in three children from a large, consanguineous, Moroccan family. A fourth child showed similar clinical features, with the exception of Hirschsprung disease. The association of these abnormali

  15. [Habilitation of Mentally Retarded Persons: Wyatt vs. Hardin and Related Cases--Collected Comments. (United States)

    Mental Retardation, 1981


    Four articles address the 1978 Wyatt v. Hardin proceedings which debated the issues of the training/habilitation potential of institutionalized mentally retarded persons and the feasibility of placing these persons in community-based living facilities. (SB)

  16. Outdated Language: Use of "Mental Retardation" in Medicaid HCBS Waivers Post-Rosa's Law. (United States)

    Friedman, Carli


    Rosa's Law, which changed references of "mental retardation" to "intellectual disability" within federal legislation, marked recognition by the federal government that the term "mental retardation" is outdated and pejorative. However, Rosa's Law did not apply to many notable federal programs related to disability, such as Medicaid. This article explores if and how the term "mental retardation" was used within Medicaid Home and Community Based Services 1915(c) waivers, as they are the most prevalent provider of long-term services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Waivers provide some of the most advanced community services and the language used in them should reflect this. Although an overwhelming majority of waivers used "mental retardation," we found that the term was used less for later benchmark dates.

  17. Retinal Locus and the Identification of Tachistoscopically Presented Letters by Retarded and Nonretarded Individuals (United States)

    Mosley, James L.


    Two-letter stimulus displays, differing in the magnitude of the horizontal spatial separation between the letters, were presented tachistoscopically to 10 retarded and 1 nonretarded adults. (Author/CL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan JOVEV


    Full Text Available Working in the way of "a collective as a doctor" in which the personnel, the mentally retarded persons and their parents live together during their weekend meetings, 3-7 days, in a calm and warm atmosphere, it was possible to find out a great number of neuropsychiatric diseases, imitating mental retardation, while their intelligence was normal. The importance of the early detection of the syndrome of pseudo-retardation is in the use of adequate therapy and of course far better prognosis for a great number of patients.Though this form of work, it is possible to educate the parents of the mentally retarded persons, so that they can easier recognize their children's symptoms and take part in their further therapy.The author's opinion is that the adequate recognizing of these syndromes may reduce the number of wrong diagnosed and categorized persons and make their prognosis better.

  19. A Thermogravimetric Study of Cotton Fabric Flame-Retardancy by Means of Impregnation with Red Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The effect of red phosphorus was found to be effective for flame-retardancy of a pure cotton fabric.The laundered bone-dried weighed samples were impregnated with red phosphorus at suitable concentrations.Vertical flame spread test was accomplished.The optimum add-on value to impart flame-retardancy onto cotton fabric was determined around 3.95 g of red phosphorus per 100 g of fabric.TG/DTG curves of treated samples showed a well-timed weight loss occurred with regard to untreated specimens.This illustrates the sufficiency of impregnation and support its catalytic action on flame-retardancy,which is compliance with data obtained via flammability test.The resuits are in favor of "Chemical Action Theory","Gas Theory" and "Condensed Phase Retardation".

  20. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P.; Brouwer, A.


    DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY vitro screening the endocrine disrupting potency brominated flame retardants and their metabolites Timo Hamers Jorke Kamstra Edwin Sonneveld Albertinka Murk Bart Zegers Jan Boon Abraham Brouwer Institute for Environmental Studies IVM Amsterdam BioDetection Sys

  1. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, 35 E. 12th Street, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); DeYoung, Paul A. [Department of Physics, Hope College, 27 Graves Place, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); Blum, Arlene [Green Science Policy Institute, Box 5455, Berkeley, CA 94705 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, LSRC Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Peaslee, Graham F., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, 35 E. 12th Street, Holland, MI 49423 (United States)


    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC–MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  2. Proactive Interference and Its Release in Short-Term Memory of Mildly Retarded Adolescents (United States)

    Cody, William J.; Borkowski, John G.


    Release from proactive interference in mildly retarded adolescents due to taxonomic shifts and rest periods prior to the final, critical-word triad was investigated with 40 educable mentally handicapped persons 18 years old. (Author/MH)

  3. A new retardant for tomatoes N,N-dimethylmorpholinium chloride (preparate RW3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski


    Full Text Available The preparate RW3 produced in Poland, is a stronger growth retardant for young tomato plants than chlormequat. It shows no additive effect with chlormequat when given simultaneously with it.

  4. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays (United States)

    Barker, L. K.


    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Two sisters are described with a disorder characterised by mental retardation, congenital cataract, progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and signs of peripheral neuropathy. Progressive hearing loss, ataxia, and polyneuropathy became evident in the third decade. The differentia

  6. Effects of Sociaization Games on Proximity and Prosocial Behavior of Aggressive Mentally Retarded Institutionalized Women. (United States)

    Edmonson, Barbara; Han, Sung Soon


    Rates of friendly behavior were significantly greater after six moderately/severely retarded aggressive institutionalized adults participated in socialization games. The games also significantly decreased interpersonal distance. Unfriendly behavior and inactivity were higher after placebo sessions (simple craft projects). (CL)

  7. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  8. Migration of Organophorus Flame Retardants From Closed cell form to Settled Dust (United States)

    Many industrial and consumer products, such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building materials are manufactured with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). OPFRs can leach or diffuse out of the products and are released to the surround...

  9. Migration of Organophosphate Flame Retardants from Closed Cell Foam to Settled Dust (United States)

    Many industrial and consumer products, such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building materials are manufactured with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). OPFRs can leach or diffuse out of the products and are released to the surround...

  10. Transmitted cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with mental retardation: pathogenic or normal variants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Kirchhoff, Maria; Nielsen, Jens Erik;


    Knowing the origin of cytogenetic abnormalities detected in individuals with mental retardation and dysmorphic features is essential to genetic counselling of affected families. To illustrate this, we report on six families with transmitted cytogenetic abnormalities and discuss the genotype...

  11. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human. (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.


    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  12. Approximation of solutions to retarded differential equations with applications to population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bahuguna


    Full Text Available We consider a retarded differential equation with applications to population dynamics. We establish the convergence of a finite-dimensional approximations of a unique solution, the existence and uniqueness of which are also proved in the process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova


    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  14. Flame Retardant Effects of Nano-Clinoptilolite on AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS Nano-Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati


    Full Text Available In recent years, intumescent technology has found a place in polymer science as a method of providing flame retardance to polymeric materials. On heating, fire-retardant intumescent material restricts the action of the heat flux or flame. The proposed mechanism is based on charred layer acting as physical barrier, which slows down heat and mass transfer between the gas and the condensed phases. In this paper, the flammability of intumescent fire-retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS matrix composites consisting of hydromagnesite (HMg as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Kansar Shargh as a synergistic agent were examined. The flammability of composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement and horizontal burning tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with HMg and PER.

  15. Teaching Academic Skills to Trainable Mentally Retarded Children: A Study in Tautology. (United States)

    Burton, Thomas A.; Hirshoren, Alfred


    The efficacy of teaching higher level cognitive skills to the trainable mentally retarded is questioned as research has yet to show that the skills learned can be generalized by this population to the classroom or other settings. (Author/PHR)

  16. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors Tumores carcinoides digestivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas Lorenzo


    Full Text Available Objective: carcinoid tumors (CTs represent the commonest neuroendocrine tumors. Those in the gastrointestinal tract are diagnosed in surgical specimens, clinically, and using imaging techniques (endoscopy, echoendoscopy, CT, Octreoscan, etc.. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a personal series of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, and to compare it to those in the literature. Patients and methods: the medical records of 40 Caucasian patients with over 50 gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors (including multiple cases who were seen for a period of 16 years (1994-2009 were reviewed. Results: mean age at presentation was 52 years, 50% were females, and mean tumor size was 9.9 mm. Most were gastroduodenal (42.5% or rectal (30%, and were treated endoscopically. Metastases and carcinoid syndrome (CS were seen in 5% of patients. Survival at study endpoint was 85%. Conclusions: age and gender were consistent with the literature. There was an increase in gastroduodenal (multifocal and rectal carcinoids, likely because the series was essentially endoscopical in nature (bias. There was a lower rate of CS and higher survival, likely due to earlier diagnosis and treatment.Objetivo: los tumores carcinoides (TC son los tumores neuroendocrinos más frecuentes. Los digestivos se diagnostican en las piezas quirúrgicas, en la clínica, y mediante los métodos de imagen (endoscopia, ecoendoscopia, TAC y Octreoscan, etc.. El objetivo de este trabajo retrospectivo fue revisar una serie personal de tumores carcinoides digestivos y compararla con la literatura. Pacientes y métodos: se revisaron las historias clínicas de 40 pacientes de raza blanca con más de 50 tumores carcinoides digestivos, algunos múltiples, observados durante 16 años (1994-2009. Resultados: la edad media de presentación fue 52 años, 50% mujeres, con un tamaño medio del tumor de 9,9 mm. La mayoría eran gastroduodenales (42,5% y rectales (30% y fueron tratados por vía endosc

  17. Complete regression of a guinea pig hepatocarcinoma by immunotherapy with "tumor-immune" RNA or antibody to fibrin fragment E. (United States)

    Schlager, S I; Dray, S


    Two novel immunotherapeutic regimens were developed for a uniformly lethal, intradermally growing transplantable ascites variant (line 10) of a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatoma in strain 2 guinea pigs. In an apparently tumor-specific immunotherapy model, 32 guinea pigs were cured by the injection into the tumor area, five or seven days after tumor challenge, of syngeneic or xenogeneic RNA extracts obtained from lymphoid tissues of line 10-immune strain 2 guinea pigs or rhesus monkeys, as part of a total regimen which included syngeneic nonsensitive peritoneal exudate cells injected prior to, and tumor-specific antigen injected after, the RNA. In another immunotherapy model, not tumor-specific, 18 strain 2 guinea pigs were cured by the injection into the tumor area, 6 and 16 days after tumor challenge, of antibody specific for fibrin fragment E (FFE), an essential component in the formation of a fibrin matrix considered to be important in tumor development. When therapy was delayed to 12 days in the RNA test system, or to 16 days in the anti-FFE test system, complete abrogation of the tumors did not occur. The long-term survival of the 50 successfully treated animals and their immunity to further tumor challenge indicated that both immunotherapeutic procedures had systemic effects. To test this further, line 10 cells were injected intradermally simultaneously at two sites and only one site was treated. When the one tumor location was treated with anti-FFE, complete regression of the treated tumor and a 30% retardation in the development of the untreated tumor were observed. When this tumor location was treated with the RNA regimen, complete regression of the tumors occurred at both the treated and the untreated sites. Optimal conditions for both immunotherapeutic models and their combination have yet to be establshed. Nonetheless, both immunotherapeutic regimens were more effective than any other immunotherapy thus far reported for this tumor, including the use

  18. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai


    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  19. Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Developmentally Regulates Activity-Dependent Axon Pruning


    Tessier, Charles R.; Broadie, Kendal


    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity ...

  20. Temporal Requirements of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Modulating Circadian Clock Circuit Synaptic Architecture


    Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal


    Loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders, characterized by attention disorder, hyperactivity and disruption of circadian activity cycles. Pursuit of effective intervention strategies requires determining when the FMR1 product (FMRP) is required in the regulation of neuronal circuitry controlling these behaviors. In the well-characterized Drosophila disease model, loss of the highly conser...