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Sample records for carnivorous catfish pelteobagrus

  1. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China

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    Yao Wei J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the migration of fish between the river and lakes and also among lakes. In this study, the gastrointestinal helminth communities were investigated in a carnivorous fish, the yellowhead catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, from two connected and five isolated lakes in the flood plain in order to detect the effect of lake fragmentation on the parasite communities. Results A total of 11 species of helminths were recorded in the stomach and intestine of P. fulvidraco from seven lakes, including two lakes connected with the Yangtze River, i.e. Poyang and Dongting lakes, and five isolated lakes, i.e. Honghu, Liangzi, Tangxun, Niushan and Baoan lakes. Mean helminth individuals and diversity of helminth communities in Honghu and Dongting lakes was lower than in the other five lakes. The nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis was the dominant species of communities in all the seven lakes. No significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index was detected between connected lakes (0.48 and isolated lakes (0.50. The similarity of helminth communities between Niushan and Baoan lakes was the highest (0.6708, and the lowest was between Tangxun and Dongting lakes (0.1807. The similarity was low between Dongting and the other lakes, and the similarity decreased with the geographic distance among these lakes. The helminth community in one connected lake, Poyang Lake was clustered with isolated lakes, but the community in Dongting Lake was separated in the tree. Conclusion The

  2. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China.

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    Li, Wen X; Nie, Pin; Wang, Gui T; Yao, Wei J

    2009-04-27

    Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the migration of fish between the river and lakes and also among lakes. In this study, the gastrointestinal helminth communities were investigated in a carnivorous fish, the yellowhead catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, from two connected and five isolated lakes in the flood plain in order to detect the effect of lake fragmentation on the parasite communities. A total of 11 species of helminths were recorded in the stomach and intestine of P. fulvidraco from seven lakes, including two lakes connected with the Yangtze River, i.e. Poyang and Dongting lakes, and five isolated lakes, i.e. Honghu, Liangzi, Tangxun, Niushan and Baoan lakes. Mean helminth individuals and diversity of helminth communities in Honghu and Dongting lakes was lower than in the other five lakes. The nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis was the dominant species of communities in all the seven lakes. No significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index was detected between connected lakes (0.48) and isolated lakes (0.50). The similarity of helminth communities between Niushan and Baoan lakes was the highest (0.6708), and the lowest was between Tangxun and Dongting lakes (0.1807). The similarity was low between Dongting and the other lakes, and the similarity decreased with the geographic distance among these lakes. The helminth community in one connected lake, Poyang Lake was clustered with isolated lakes, but the community in Dongting Lake was separated in the tree. The similarity in the helminth communities of this fish in the flood

  3. Optimization of conditions for the cryopreservation of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) sperm.

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    Yang, Sen; Han, Linqiang; Huang, Rushou; Liufu, Yongzhong; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2017-06-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is a promising aquaculture species in China with an increasing market demand. To serve the growing demand of male broodstock for artificial fertilization and the preservation of valuable strains for selective breeding, we tried to develop a species-specific cryopreservation protocol for yellow catfish sperm in this study. Important factors such as cryoprotectant, freezing height above the liquid nitrogen (LN) surface, dilution ratio, equilibration time, thawing temperature and cool storage before freezing were standardized. Among the cryoprotectants tested here, 10% Me 2 SO was the most suitable for sperm cryopreservation. Freezing at 7 cm above the LN surface for 10 min yielded the highest post-thaw motility. Further evaluation showed that dilution ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 produced higher post-thaw motility than semen diluted at 2:1, 1:1, 1:9 or 1:19. Equilibration times from 0 to 30 min did not cause significant differences in both equilibrated and post-thaw motility. Also, cool storage up to 24 h did not affect the suitability of sperm for cryopreservation. After thawing, sperm could be stored at 4 °C for 2 h without a reduction in motility parameters. With the combination of optimized freezing conditions, the fertilization and hatching rate of cryopreserved sperm were 87.1 ± 5.2% and 78.5 ± 7.4%, respectively, which were similar to those of fresh sperm (91.8 ± 3.5% and 83.7 ± 2.5%). In general, the cryopreservation protocol optimized here would facilitate breeding practice and hatchery operation in this economically important fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

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    Su, Jingzhi; Gong, Yulong; Cao, Shenping; Lu, Fei; Han, Dong; Liu, Haokun; Jin, Junyan; Yang, Yunxia; Zhu, Xiaoming; Xie, Shouqi

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets containing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) meal in partial substitution of fishmeal on growth performance and immune responses of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Four diets were formulated to contain 0 (the control diet), 9, 18 and 27 g mealworm meal per 100 g diet with 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of fishmeal replacement, respectively. Yellow catfish were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group. The fish in each group were fed with one of the four experimental diets for 5 weeks. Growth performance, plasma parameters (SOD, MDA, IgM, C3, lysozyme) and immune related genes (MHC II, IL-1, CypA, IgM, HE) of yellow catfish were determined at the end of the feeding trial, as well as 24 h post bacterial (Edwardsiella ictaluri) challenge. The present results showed that dietary inclusion of mealworm meal (MW) had no negative effects on the growth performance of the juvenile yellow catfish, compared to the control group. At the end of the feeding trial, plasma MDA contents of MW supplemented groups were significant lower than the control group. Plasma SOD activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial (pre-challenge) and 24 h post challenge with E. ictaluri. Significant increase of plasma lysozyme activity was found in MW supplemented groups compared to the control group 24 h post bacterial challenge. Plasma IgM levels increased significantly with the increasing dietary MW contents at the end of feeding trial. Compared with the control group, the immune related genes of MHC II, IL-1, IgM and HE of the fish in the MW supplemented groups significantly upregulated pre-challenge or 24 h post bacterial challenge. Finally, it was observed that the survival rate of the 27% MW group was significant higher (P < 0.05) than the control group but was not significantly differed from the 18% MW group. The present results indicated that dietary

  5. Influences of dietary lipid and temperature on growth, fat deposition and lipoprotein lipase expression in darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachellii).

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    Qiang, Jun; Tao, Yi-Fan; He, Jie; Bao, Jin-Wen; Li, Hong-Xia; Shi, Wen-Bo; Xu, Pao; Sun, Yi-Lan

    2017-10-01

    Darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachellii) is an important freshwater fish in China. Water temperature greatly influences the absorption and utilization of dietary lipid by fish. Response values (including growth, hepatic fat deposition, and gene expression) for darkbarbel catfish mediated by two factors (water temperature 20-34°C; dietary lipid level 2-17%) were the focus of this study. The relationship between the two factors and the response values was evaluated by the response surface method using the central composite design. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions and lasted for seven weeks. A total of 975 experimental fish (average weight 11.75 ± 0.17g) were selected and placed in 39 plastic tanks. The results showed that the linear effects of lipid level on feed conversion rate (FCR), hepatopancreas somatic index (HSI), hepatic triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression were significant (P < 0.05). The linear effects of water temperature on specific growth rate (SGR), HSI, TC level, and LPL mRNA expression were significant (P < 0.05). The quadratic effects of water temperature and lipid level on SGR and FCR were significant (P < 0.05). Low water temperature and low lipid diets significantly inhibited growth, increased HSI, and reduced hepatic TG and TC levels, and LPL mRNA expression. The adjusted R 2 values for the SGR, FCR, HSI, TC, TG, and LPL mRNA regression models were 0.77, 0.85, 0.62, 0.73, 0.85, and 0.91, respectively. The optimal combination of water temperature and dietary lipid level was 27.5°C and 9.2%, at which the greatest growth and FCR were 2.13%.d -1 and 1.31 respectively, with desirability of 0.904. These results indicated that water temperature may mediate the requirement and utilization of dietary lipid, and intervene in hepatic fat deposition. The results of this study can be used to help optimize the culture conditions of darkbarbel catfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Effects of insulin and its related signaling pathways on lipid metabolism in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

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    Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Wu, Kun; Fan, Yao-Fang; Zhang, Li-Han; Song, Yu-Feng

    2015-10-01

    The influence of insulin on hepatic metabolism in fish is not well understood. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of insulin on lipid metabolism, and the related signaling pathways, in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Hepatic lipid and intracellular triglyceride (TG) content, the activity and expression levels of several enzymes and the mRNA expression of transcription factors (PPARα and PPARγ) involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Troglitazone, GW6471, fenofibrate and wortmannin were used to explore the signaling pathways by which insulin influences lipid metabolism. Insulin tended to increase hepatic lipid accumulation, the activity of lipogenic enzymes (6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS) and mRNA levels of FAS, G6PD, 6PGD, CPT IA and PPARγ, but down-regulated PPARα mRNA level. The insulin-induced effect could be stimulated by the specific PPARγ activator troglitazone or reversed by the PI3 kinase/Akt inhibitor wortmannin, demonstrating that signaling pathways of PPARγ and PI3 kinase/Akt were involved in the insulin-induced alteration of lipid metabolism. The specific PPARα pathway activator fenofibrate reduced insulin-induced TG accumulation, down-regulated the mRNA levels of FAS, G6PD and 6PGD, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CPT IA, PPARα and PPARγ. The specific PPARα pathway inhibitor GW6471 reduced insulin-induced changes in the expression of all the tested genes, indicating that PPARα mediated the insulin-induced changes of lipid metabolism. The present results contribute new knowledge on the regulatory role of insulin in hepatic metabolism in fish. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

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    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan; Luo, Zhi; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  8. Monoclonal antibody based Dot-ELISA and indirect fluorescence antibody technique for detecting Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

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    Ruijun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is known as the etiological agent of Red-head disease of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and is the cause of heavy economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In this study, a Dot-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA and an Indirect Fluorescence Antibody technique (IFAT for detecting Edwardsiella ictaluri were developed by using a monoclonal antibody, 5D11. For Dot-ELISA, the working dilutions of 5D11 and the secondary antisera (enzyme-labeled goat anti-mouse Ig were 1:320 dilution and 1:3000 dilution, respectively. For IFAT, the working dilutions of 5D11 and goat-anti-mouse Ig conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate were as respectively 1:80 and 1:256. Both of the methods established were highly sensitivity (Minimum detectable concentration, 5 × 107 CFU/mL and had a high degree of accuracy (positive rate was 100% for both artificial infected fish and spontaneous diseased Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The two reliable methods developed have high potential for quick and efficient detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri in aquaculture production units.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three TLR genes in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): Responses to stimulation of Aeromonas hydrophila and TLR ligands.

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    Wang, Kai-Lun; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Shi, Ze-Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Ting; Zheng, Huan; Fan, Qi-Xue

    2017-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most extensively researched pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play an important role in the innate immune system. In this study, partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_TLR18 and Pf_TLR19 genes and complete cDNA sequence of the Pf_TLR21 gene were cloned from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The open reading frames (ORFs) of the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes were 1956 bp, 2262 bp and 2949 bp in length, encoding 651, 753 and 982 amino acids, respectively. The Pf_TLR18 and Pf_TLR19 consist of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane domain and a Toll/interleukin-I receptor domain, and the Pf_TLR21 only has LRRs and TIR domain. Homologous identity revealed that the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes have high nucleotide and protein sequence similarity with channel catfish, especially the TIR domains that exhibited the greatest conservation compared to channel catfish. Ontogenetic expression analyses indicated that the mRNA expressions of the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes could be detected from fertilized eggs to 30 day post-hatching and they exhibited different variation trends after hatching. The three TLR genes were expressed in various tissues, but they were mostly highly expressed in the spleen. The mRNA expression levels of the three genes were up-regulated in the spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver and blood after challenge of killed Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, the expressions of the three TLR genes were induced to up-regulate in isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes of yellow catfish after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C). Our findings indicate that the three TLR genes may play a potential role in the host defense against pathogenic microbes. These results will provide valuable information to better understand the function of TLR genes in the innate immune system of yellow catfish. Copyright © 2017

  10. Genetic variation of fish parasite populations in historically connected habitats: undetected habitat fragmentation effect on populations of the nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis in the catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

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    Li, Wen X; Wang, Gui T; Nie, P

    2008-06-01

    Habitat fragmentation may have some significant effects on population genetic structure because geographic distance and physical barriers may impede gene flow between populations. In this study, we investigated whether recent habitat fragmentation affected genetic structure and diversity of populations of the nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis in the yellowhead catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The nematode was collected from 12 localities in 7 floodplain lakes of the Yangtze River. Using 11 intersimple sequence repeat markers, analysis of molecular variance showed that genetic diversity occurred mainly within populations (70.26%). Expected heterozygosity (He) of P. fulvidraconis was barely different between connected (0.2105) and unconnected lakes (0.2083). Population subdivision (Fst) between connected lakes (0.2177) was higher than in unconnected lakes (0.1676). However, the connected and unconnected lakes did not cluster into 2 clades. A Mantel test revealed significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances (R = 0.5335, P < 0.01). These results suggest that habitat fragmentation did not cause genetic differentiation among populations or a reduction of diversity in isolated populations of P. fulvidraconis. At least 2 factors may increase the dispersal range of the nematode, i.e., flash flooding in summer and other species of fish that may serve as the definitive hosts. Moreover, lake fragmentation is probably a recent process; population size of the nematode in these lakes is large enough to maintain population structure.

  11. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

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    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  12. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

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    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  13. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

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    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@yahoo.com.cn; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  14. Dietary zinc addition influenced zinc and lipid deposition in the fore- and mid-intestine of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

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    Chen, Guang-Hui; Hogstrand, Christer; Luo, Zhi; Zhang, Dian-Guang; Ling, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Kun

    2017-10-01

    The present study explored the mechanisms of dietary Zn influencing Zn and lipid deposition in the fore- and mid- intestine in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and investigated whether the mechanism was intestinal-region dependent. For this purpose, yellow catfish were fed three diets containing Zn levels of 8·83, 19·20 and 146·65 mg Zn/kg, respectively. Growth performance, intestinal TAG and Zn contents as well as activities and mRNA expression of enzymes and genes involved in Zn transport and lipid metabolism in the fore- and mid-intestine were analysed. Dietary Zn increased Zn accumulation as well as activities of Cu-, Zn-superoxide dismutase and ATPase in the fore- and mid-intestine. In the fore-intestine, dietary Zn up-regulated mRNA levels of ZnT1, ZnT5, ZnT7, metallothionein (MT) and metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), but down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP4 and ZIP5. In the mid-intestine, dietary Zn up-regulated mRNA levels of ZnT1, ZnT5, ZnT7, MT and MTF-1, but down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP4 and ZIP5. Dietary Zn reduced TAG content, down-regulated activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) activities, and reduced mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS, PPARγ and sterol-regulator element-binding protein (SREBP-1), but up-regulated mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSLa), adipose TAG lipase (ATGL) and PPARα in the fore-intestine. In the mid-intestine, dietary Zn reduced TAG content, activities of G6PD, ME, isocitrate dehydrogenase and FAS, down-regulated mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase a, PPARγ and SREBP-1, but up-regulated mRNA expression of HSLa, ATGL and PPARγ. The reduction in TAG content following Zn addition was attributable to reduced lipogenesis and increased lipolysis, and similar regulatory mechanisms were observed between the fore- and mid-intestine.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, based on mitochondrial DNA control region.

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    Zhong, Liqiang; Song, Chao; Wang, Minghua; Chen, Youming; Qin, Qin; Pan, Jianlin; Chen, Xiaohui

    2013-10-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 143 specimens sampled from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China; 151 polymorphic sites defined 72 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity indices (0.903-0.953) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00378-0.00970) demonstrated low genetic diversity of the yellow catfish populations in the five lakes. The analysis of molecular variance and the fixation index (F(st) = 0.0896) revealed insignificant genetic difference between samples from different lakes. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that yellow catfish might have undergone a population expansion. Neighbor-joining tree indicated a correlation between these population genetic differences and geographic distance. This study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the yellow catfish and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification, conservation, and artificial breeding.

  16. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

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    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  17. Characterization of MMP-9 gene from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

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    Ke, Fei; Wang, Yun; Hong, Jun; Xu, Chen; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Shuai-Bang

    2015-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), one of members of the MMP family, is important for the cleaving of structural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and involved in inflammatory processes. In this study, MMP-9 cDNA was isolated and characterized from a normalized cDNA library of kidney tissue of yellow catfish (designated as YcMMP-9). The complete sequence of YcMMP-9 cDNA consisted of 2561 nucleotides. The open reading frame potentially encoded a protein of 685 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 77.182 kDa. Amino acid sequence of YcMMP-9 have typical characteristics of MMP-9 family and showed highest identity (85.3%) to channel catfish MMP-9. The YcMMP-9 genomic DNA contains 13 exons and 12 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that YcMMP-9 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues in normal fish with high expression in head kidney, trunk kidney, blood, and spleen. However, expression of YcMMP-9 mRNA was induced by Aeromonas hydrophila stimulation, especially in these four tissues mentioned above. It indicated that YcMMP-9 was involved in innate immune responses against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of an isolate of Saprolegnia ferax as the causal agent of saprolegniosis of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) eggs.

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    Cao, Haipeng; Zheng, Weidong; Xu, Jialu; Ou, Renjian; He, Shan; Yang, Xianle

    2012-12-01

    Saprolegnia species have been implicated for significant fungal infections of both living and dead fish as well as their eggs. In the present study, an oomycete water mould (strain HP) isolated from yellow catfish (Peleobagrus fulvidraco) eggs suffering from saprolegniosis was characterized both morphologically and from ITS sequence data. It was initially identified as a Saprolegnia sp. isolate based on its morphological features. The constructed phylogenetic tree using neighbour joining method indicated that the HP strain was closely related to Saprolegnia ferax strain Arg4S (GenBank accession no. GQ119935), that had previously been isolated from farming water samples in Argentina. In addition, the zoospore numbers of strain HP were markedly influenced by a variety of environmental variables including temperature, pH, formalin and dithiocyano-methane. Its zoospore formation was optimal at 20 °C and pH 7, could be well inhibited by formalin and dithiocyano-methane above 5 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the S. ferax infection in the hatching yellow catfish eggs.

  19. Effect of ammonia-N and pathogen challenge on complement component 8α and 8β expression in the darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Shao, Ting; Zhao, Daxian; Duan, Huiguo; Wen, Zhengyong; Yuan, Dengyue; Li, Huatao; Qi, Zemin

    2017-03-01

    The complement components C8α and C8β mediate the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) to resist pathogenic bacteria and play important roles in innate immunity. Full-length complement C8α (Pv-C8α) and C8β (Pv-C8β) cDNA were identified in the darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachellii, and their mRNA expression levels were analyzed after ammonia-N and pathogen treatment. The Pv-C8α gene contained 1983 bp, including a 1794-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 598 amino acids. The Pv-C8β gene contained 1952 bp, including a 1761-bp ORF encoding 587 amino acids. Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β had the highest amino acid identity with rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss C8α (62%) and Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus C8β (83%), respectively. Sequence analysis indicated that both Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β contained a thrombospondin type-1 (TSP1) domain, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLR-A) domain, a membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain and an epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) domain. In addition, Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β were mainly distributed in the liver, head kidney, spleen, and eggs. Under ammonia-N stress, the Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β mRNA levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05), with minimum levels, respectively, attained at 24 and 48 h in the liver, 48 and 24 h in the head kidney, and 24 and 24 h in the spleen. After Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, the Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β mRNA levels significantly increased (P < 0.05), with maximum levels, respectively, attained at 48 and 24 h in the liver, 24 and 48 h in the head kidney, and 48 and 48 h in the spleen. The present study indicated that Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β exhibited important immune responses to infection and that ammonia-N in water decreased the immune responses of Pv-C8α and Pv-C8β. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterizing and evaluating the expression of the type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (slc34a2) gene and its potential influence on phosphorus utilization efficiency in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei; Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang

    2016-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter gene, NaPi-IIb (slc34a2), was isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) intestine through homology cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of slc34a2 consisted of 2326 bp with an open reading frame encoding 621 amino acids, a 160-bp 5' untranslated region, and a 300-bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 79.0 and 70.9% sequence identity to Astyanax mexicanus and Pundamilia nyererei, respectively. The membrane-spanning domains based on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the deduced amino acids were predicted, and results showed that the putative protein had eight transmembrane domains, with the intracellular NH2 and COOH termini. Two functional regions including first intracellular loop and third extracellular loop as well as the six N-glycosylation sites in second extracellular loop were found. The slc34a2 mRNA in the tested tissues was examined through semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR, with the highest level found in the anterior intestine, followed by the posterior and middle intestines. The slc34a2 mRNA expression in the whole intestine under different dietary phosphorus (P) treatments was detected using qPCR. The results showed that the slc34a2 expression levels in the low-P groups (0.33 and 0.56%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than levels in the sufficient-P (0.81%) and high-P (1.15, 1.31, and 1.57%) groups. High expression of slc34a2 mRNA in low-P groups stimulated P utilization efficiency, indicating the close relationship between genotype and phenotype in yellow catfish. In contrast with conventional strategies (formula and feeding strategies), this study provided another possible approach by using molecular techniques to increase the P utilization in yellow catfish.

  1. Magnesium Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Modulates Lipogenesis and Lipolysis via PPARA, JAK-STAT, and AMPK Pathways in Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuan-Chuan; Wu, Kun; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Han; Li, Dan-Dan; Luo, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis. Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO 4 -containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C). Growth performance, cell viability, triglyceride (TG) concentrations, and expression of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism were measured. Results: Compared with fish fed low magnesium, those fed intermediate or high magnesium had lower hepatic lipids (18%, 22%) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD; 3.7%, 3.8%) and malic enzyme (ME; 35%, 48%) activities and greater mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes adipose triacylglyceride lipase ( atgl ; 82% and 1.7-fold) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( ppara ; 18% and 1.0-fold), respectively ( P magnesium were higher (24% to 3.1-fold, P magnesium. Compared with cells incubated with MgSO 4 alone, those incubated with MgSO 4 and pretreated with AG490, GW6471, or Compound C had greater TG concentrations (42%, 31%, or 56%), g6pd (98%, 59%, or 51%), 6pgd (68%, 73%, or 32%) mRNA expression, and activities of G6PD (35%, 45%, or 16%) and ME (1.5-fold, 1.3-fold, or 13%), and reduced upregulation (61%, 25%, or 45%) of the lipolytic gene, atgl ( P Magnesium reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in yellow catfish and the variation might be attributed to inhibited lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. PPARA, JAK-STAT, and AMPK pathways mediated the magnesium-induced changes in lipid deposition and metabolism. These results offer new insight into magnesium nutrition in vertebrates. © 2017

  2. Effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone and Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole on Sex Reversal, Gonadal Structure, and Growth in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Qi-Xue; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Monosex populations are in demand in many fish species with sexual dimorphism, e.g., better growth performance, higher gonad value, superior ornamental value. From the point of view of research, a monosex population is one of the best materials for investigating sex-determining mechanisms, sex differentiation, and sex-linked markers. Sex reversal of females (phenotypic reversal from XX female to XX male) is the first step in all-female production in species with an XX/XY system for sex determination. In the present study, masculinization of yellow catfish, a species with XX/XY sex determination, was investigated by oral administration of various doses of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) or an aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (LZ); effects on survival, growth performance, sex ratio, and changes in gonadal structure were evaluated. Three doses (20, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) diet) of oral MT or LZ were administered to fry from 10 days post-hatching (DPH) to 59 DPH. Oral administration of MT at all doses did not significantly change the ratio of males (45.8%, 33.3%, and 50.0% respectively) compared to the control group (37.5%), while yielding intersex fish at all doses (4.2% to 8.3%). Oral administration of LZ produced a significantly higher proportion of males in all doses (75.5%, 83.3%, and 75.0%, respectively). Additionally, the lowest dose of LZ improved the growth of treated fish compared to the control, and all doses of LZ enhanced spermatogenesis in treated males. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  3. Embryonic development of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Abbas, Khalid; Yan, Ansheng

    2006-12-01

    For production enhancement and procedure upgrade, the developmental phases of laboratory-reared eggs of catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated. Twenty mature females and 10 males were collected from Dadongmen wholesale fisheries market in Wuhan City on May 8, 2003. Zygotes were stripped from mature fish after hormone-induced ovulation, fertilized, and incubated through whole embryonic development. The fertilized eggs were stocked in density of 100 eggs/L in white square tanks of 10 L. Incubation water was dechlorinated tap water with continuous aeration. The tanks were lit directly with 60 W fluorescent bulbs with a 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 29.0±0.5°C, 6.7±0.4 mg/L and 7.4±2, respectively. The results showed that the eggs of P. fulvidraco were yellow, sticky and contained much yolk. The mean diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.03 mm. At the water temperature of 29.0±0.5°C, the ontogenesis spent about 33 h after fertilization. From fertilization to hatching, the embryonic development can be divided into 30 40 phases, which varies in the emphasis and direction of development. The detailed embryonic movement was also described.

  4. Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  5. Carnivorous heterotopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    . We argue that these spaces of consumption express nostalgia and longing for authenticity that are simultaneously articulated as progressive and emancipatory. Consequently, these sites represent middle-class masculine counter-spaces – masculine, carnivorous heterotopias where archaic, working class...... modes of doing masculinity (such as commodification of female bodies and excessive meat consumption) are appropriated, legitimized and sought transformed through irony, hipness and nostalgia...

  6. Dietary methimazole-induced hypothyroidism reduces hepatic lipid deposition by down-regulating lipogenesis and up-regulating lipolysis in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi; Shi, Xi; Wu, Kun; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Song, Yu-Feng; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hypothyroidism, induced by administration of 0.2% methimazole through the food, on lipid metabolism in the liver of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. To this end, yellow catfish were fed diets containing either 0 or 2g methimazole per kg of diet for 8weeks, respectively. The results showed that fish fed diet containing methimazole had a significant reduction in growth performance, plasma THs levels and hepatic lipid content. Meanwhile, methimazole treatment inhibited the activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase) and the mRNA levels of genes involved in lipogenesis (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 and liver X receptor), but increased lipolytic enzyme (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) activity and the expression of genes involved in lipolysis (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, hormone-sensitive lipase and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α). Thus, our study indicated that dietary methimazole-induced hypothyroidism could disturb the normal processes of lipid metabolism at the enzymatic and molecular levels in yellow catfish, and the reduced hepatic lipid content by hypothyroidism was attributable to the down-regulation of lipogenesis and up-regulation of lipolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carnivores of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.

  8. Global large carnivore conservation and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2015-01-01

    International cooperation, including through international legal instruments, appears important for the conservation of large carnivores worldwide. This is due to, inter alia, the worrying conservation status and population trends of many large carnivore species; the importance of large carnivores

  9. Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Allen, Lee R.; Andrén, Henrik; Ballard, Guy; Boitani, Luigi; Engeman, Richard M.; Fleming, Peter J.S.; Haswell, Peter M.; Ford, Adam T.; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Mech, L. David; Linnell, John D.C.; Parker, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Large carnivores are depicted to shape entire ecosystems through top-down processes. Studies describing these processes are often used to support interventionist wildlife management practices, including carnivore reintroduction or lethal control programs. Unfortunately, there is an increasing tendency to ignore, disregard or devalue fundamental principles of the scientific method when communicating the reliability of current evidence for the ecological roles that large carnivores may play, eroding public confidence in large carnivore science and scientists. Here, we discuss six interrelated issues that currently undermine the reliability of the available literature on the ecological roles of large carnivores: (1) the overall paucity of available data, (2) reliability of carnivore population sampling techniques, (3) general disregard for alternative hypotheses to top-down forcing, (4) lack of applied science studies, (5) frequent use of logical fallacies, and (6) generalisation of results from relatively pristine systems to those substantially altered by humans. We first describe how widespread these issues are, and given this, show, for example, that evidence for the roles of wolves (Canis lupus) and dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) in initiating trophic cascades is not as strong as is often claimed. Managers and policy makers should exercise caution when relying on this literature to inform wildlife management decisions. We emphasise the value of manipulative experiments and discuss the role of scientific knowledge in the decision-making process. We hope that the issues we raise here prompt deeper consideration of actual evidence, leading towards an improvement in both the rigour and communication of large carnivore science.

  10. The effect of calcium hardness on hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal level of calcium hardness in hatching waters to incubate channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish I. furcatus ' hybrid catfish eggs. Hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs was higher (p<0.05) at 75 mg L-1 of calcium hardness (C...

  11. Hybridization between Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization between Indian catfish, ♀Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus ♂ (Linn.) N Jothilakshmanan, K Karal Marx. Abstract. Success has been achieved in intergeneric hybridization between two air breathing catfishes by crossing Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and ...

  12. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs.

  13. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhilong; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min; Liu, Jie; Tong, Ting; Li, Jia; Huang, Yu; Wen, Bo; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs. PMID:27089325

  14. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  15. The Carnivore Connection Hypothesis: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Carnivore Connection” hypothesizes that, during human evolution, a scarcity of dietary carbohydrate in diets with low plant : animal subsistence ratios led to insulin resistance providing a survival and reproductive advantage with selection of genes for insulin resistance. The selection pressure was relaxed at the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution when large quantities of cereals first entered human diets. The “Carnivore Connection” explains the high prevalence of intrinsic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in populations that transition rapidly from traditional diets with a low-glycemic load, to high-carbohydrate, high-glycemic index diets that characterize modern diets. Selection pressure has been relaxed longest in European populations, explaining a lower prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, despite recent exposure to famine and food scarcity. Increasing obesity and habitual consumption of high-glycemic-load diets worsens insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in all populations.

  16. Comparative analysis of the liver transcriptome of Pelteobagrus vachellii with an alternative feeding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Gong, Quan; Wen, Zhengyong; Zou, Yuanchao; Yuan, Dengyue; Shao, Ting; Li, Huatao

    2017-06-01

    Pelteobagrus vachellii, an important freshwater fish in China, shows predominantly nocturnal behavior. To better understand the growth and molecular mechanisms underlying altered feeding times in this species, we studied the growth and liver transcriptome of P. vachellii with shifted feeding times. In this study, a 9-week growth trial was conducted on male P. vachellii (mean weight±S.E.=1.05±0.36g) with commercial feed. Two triplicate groups of fish were fed either at 0800 (day group, control) or at 2000 (night group) with the same amount of feed. After nine weeks, a significant increase in growth was observed in the night group, demonstrated by the specific growth rate (SGR). Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 70,793,844 and 67,930,610 paired-end clean reads were obtained from six cDNA libraries of P. vachellii liver, and 60,069 unigenes were assembled. Gene expression comparison revealed that 122 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in the night group. Gene pathway and GO enrichment analyses revealed metabolic responses of genes and gene networks related to protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and rhythms. This study indicates that an alternative feeding time can improve growth and create metabolic alterations in the liver of P. vachellii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards the ictalurid catfish transcriptome: generation and analysis of 31,215 catfish ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunham Rex

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline information about highly expressed genes in various catfish organs to provide a guide for the production of normalized and subtracted cDNA libraries for large-scale transcriptome analysis in catfish. Results A total of 17 cDNA libraries were constructed including 12 from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and 5 from blue catfish (I. furcatus. A total of 31,215 ESTs, with average length of 778 bp, were generated including 20,451 from the channel catfish and 10,764 from blue catfish. Cluster analysis indicated that 73% of channel catfish and 67% of blue catfish ESTs were unique within the project. Over 53% and 50% of the channel catfish and blue catfish ESTs, respectively, had significant similarities to known genes. All ESTs have been deposited in GenBank. Evaluation of the catfish EST resources demonstrated their potential for molecular marker development, comparative genome analysis, and evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications. Subtraction of abundantly expressed genes in a variety of catfish tissues, identified here, will allow the production of low-redundancy libraries for in-depth sequencing. Conclusion The sequencing of 31,215 ESTs from channel catfish and blue catfish has significantly increased the EST resources in catfish. The EST resources should provide the potential for microarray development, polymorphic marker identification, mapping, and comparative genome analysis.

  18. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  19. Nutrient limitation and stoichiometry of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A M

    2006-11-01

    The cost-benefit model for the evolution of carnivorous plants posits a trade-off between photosynthetic costs associated with carnivorous structures and photosynthetic benefits accrued through additional nutrient acquisition. The model predicts that carnivory is expected to evolve if its marginal benefits exceed its marginal costs. Further, the model predicts that when nutrients are scarce but neither light nor water is limiting, carnivorous plants should have an energetic advantage in competition with non-carnivorous plants. Since the publication of the cost-benefit model over 20 years ago, marginal photosynthetic costs of carnivory have been demonstrated but marginal photosynthetic benefits have not. A review of published data and results of ongoing research show that nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium often (co-)limit growth of carnivorous plants and that photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency is 20 - 50 % of that of non-carnivorous plants. Assessments of stoichiometric relationships among limiting nutrients, scaling of leaf mass with photosynthesis and nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency all suggest that carnivorous plants are at an energetic disadvantage relative to non-carnivorous plants in similar habitats. Overall, current data support some of the predictions of the cost-benefit model, fail to support others, and still others remain untested and merit future research. Rather than being an optimal solution to an adaptive problem, botanical carnivory may represent a set of limited responses constrained by both phylogenetic history and environmental stress.

  20. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  1. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries.

  2. Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1981) this usually leads to retaliatory reactions against the perceived problem carnivore (Messmer and. Berryman 2009). This study through hair analysis from carnivore scats showed the problem carnivore(s) causing livestock losses through depredation. The information thus provided would find application in future conflict.

  3. The influence of ovarian fluid ph of stripped unfertilized channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs on the hatching success of channel catfish x blue catfish I. furcatus hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ovarian fluid pH of stripped unfertilized channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs on fertilization and hatch rate of channel catfish ' x blue catfish (I. furcatus) ' hybrid catfish eggs. A significant correlation was established between ovarian...

  4. Normal glucose metabolism of healthy carnivores mimics diabetes pathology of non-carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchermerhorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivores, such as the dolphin and the domestic cat, have numerous adaptations that befit consumption of diets with high protein and fat content, with little carbohydrate content. Consequently, nutrient metabolism in carnivorous species differs substantially from that of non-carnivores. Important metabolic pathways known to differ between carnivores and non-carnivores are implicated in the development of diabetes and insulin resistance in non-carnivores: 1. the hepatic glucokinase (GCK pathway is absent in healthy carnivores yet GCK deficiency may result in diabetes in rodents and humans, 2. healthy dolphins and cats are prone to periods of fasting hyperglycemia and exhibit insulin resistance, both of which are risk factors for diabetes in non-carnivores. Similarly, carnivores develop naturally-occurring diseases such as hemachromatosis, fatty liver, obesity and diabetes that have strong parallels with the same disorders in humans. Understanding how evolution, environment, diet and domestication may play a role with nutrient metabolism in the dolphin and cat may also be relevant to human diabetes.

  5. Normal Glucose Metabolism in Carnivores Overlaps with Diabetes Pathology in Non-Carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Carnivores, such as the dolphin and the domestic cat, have numerous adaptations that befit consumption of diets with high protein and fat content, with little carbohydrate content. Consequently, nutrient metabolism in carnivorous species differs substantially from that of non-carnivores. Important metabolic pathways known to differ between carnivores and non-carnivores are implicated in the development of diabetes and insulin resistance in non-carnivores: (1) the hepatic glucokinase (GCK) pathway is absent in healthy carnivores yet GCK deficiency may result in diabetes in rodents and humans, (2) healthy dolphins and cats are prone to periods of fasting hyperglycemia and exhibit insulin resistance, both of which are risk factors for diabetes in non-carnivores. Similarly, carnivores develop naturally occurring diseases such as hemochromatosis, fatty liver, obesity, and diabetes that have strong parallels with the same disorders in humans. Understanding how evolution, environment, diet, and domestication may play a role with nutrient metabolism in the dolphin and cat may also be relevant to human diabetes. PMID:24348462

  6. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. "Sweet but dangerous": nectaries in carnivorous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz J. Płachno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In carnivorous plants, two types of nectaries occur: extra-floral nectaries, generally associated with prey luring, and floral ones associated with pollination. Nectar produced by extra-floral nectaries not only attracts prey but may also be involved in trapping prey and plays a role in myrmecophily. The diversity of nectary structure in carnivorous plants reflects complicated evolutionary routes in this unique ecological group.

  8. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are

  9. Are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems.

  10. Pollinator-prey conflict in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Andreas; Sciligo, Amber; Witt, Taina; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Suckling, D Max

    2012-08-01

    Most carnivorous plants utilize insects in two ways: the flowers attract insects as pollen vectors for sexual reproduction, and the leaves trap insects for nutrients. Feeding on insects has been explained as an adaptation to nutrient-poor soil, and carnivorous plants have been shown to benefit from insect capture through increased growth, earlier flowering and increased seed production. Most carnivorous plant species seem to benefit from insect pollination, although many species autonomously self-pollinate and some propagate vegetatively. However, assuming that outcross pollen is advantageous and is a more important determinant of reproductive success than the nutrients gained from prey, there should be a selective pressure on carnivorous plants not to feed on their potential pollen vectors. Therefore, it has been suggested that carnivorous plants are subject to a conflict, often called the pollinator-prey conflict (PPC). The conflict results from a trade-off of the benefits from feeding on potentially pollinating insects versus the need to use them as pollen vectors for sexual reproduction. In this review we analyze the conditions under which a PPC may occur, review the evidence for the existence of PPCs in carnivorous plants, and explore the mechanisms that may be in place to prevent or alleviate a PPC. With respect to the latter, we discuss how plant signals such as olfactory and visual cues may play a role in separating the functions of pollinator attraction and prey capture. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  12. Nursery management system of stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and walking catfish, Clarias batrachus in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, N.; Uddin, K.M.A.; Ahasan, C.T.; Hussain, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    A total of four experiments were conducted to develop nursery management system for the two important native catfishes viz. stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and walking catfish, Clarias batrachus during 2003 and 2004. Two experiments were conducted in on-station condition to determine stocking density efficacy in hapa and in earthen mini ponds for H. fossilis. This was followed by on-farm trial on stocking density in earthen mini ponds. In hapa, the highest survival rate was 60% for ...

  13. The catfish genome database cBARBEL: an informatic platform for genome biology of ictalurid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shaolin; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    The catfish genome database, cBARBEL (abbreviated from catfish Breeder And Researcher Bioinformatics Entry Location) is an online open-access database for genome biology of ictalurid catfish (Ictalurus spp.). It serves as a comprehensive, integrative platform for all aspects of catfish genetics, genomics and related data resources. cBARBEL provides BLAST-based, fuzzy and specific search functions, visualization of catfish linkage, physical and integrated maps, a catfish EST contig viewer with SNP information overlay, and GBrowse-based organization of catfish genomic data based on sequence similarity with zebrafish chromosomes. Subsections of the database are tightly related, allowing a user with a sequence or search string of interest to navigate seamlessly from one area to another. As catfish genome sequencing proceeds and ongoing quantitative trait loci (QTL) projects bear fruit, cBARBEL will allow rapid data integration and dissemination within the catfish research community and to interested stakeholders. cBARBEL can be accessed at http://catfishgenome.org.

  14. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max

    2014-01-01

    in filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014....... Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly...

  15. Organoleptic Characteristics and Chemicals Ilabulo Catfish Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marsuci Harmain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of traditional food ilabulo made from raw catfish (Pangasius sp. has the potential to be developed in Gorontalo province to substitute chicken viscera. The research aimed to make ilabulo substitute the raw material of chicken viscera with the catfish fortified Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed and catfish bone meal and to determine the organoleptic and chemical characteristics of ilabulo catfish fortification. Fortified treatment is K. alvarezii  and catfish bone (5 dan 10% ,  B (10 and 15% and  C (15 dan 20%. The organoleptic analysis used a hedonic scale of favorite criteria on the appearance, texture, color, flavor, and taste. The results of organoleptic analysis continued with Bayes test. The chemical analysis used the Association of Official Analytical Chemist method. The result of the hedonic characteristic of ilabulo catfish fortification was on the appearance  neutral criteria – like (5.53–7.03, texture neutral criteria – rather like (5.8–7.1, aroma rather like (6.3–6.73, color neutral – like (6.1–7.03 and taste (6.07–6.53 neutral criteria – rather like. The result of Bayes test obtained by a texture of importance value 5, appearance importance value 5, aroma of importance value 4, color of interest value 3 and taste of importance value 2. Characteristic of ilabulo culture of selected fortified catfish that was the fortification of K. alvarezii seaweed 15% and catfish  bone flour (20% (fortification C obtained by water content 56.46%, ash 11.54%, protein 7.78%, fat 8.91%, coarse fiber 0.61%, carbohydrate 22.07% and calcium 0.315 %.

  16. Vertical transmission of channel catfish virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J A; Harrell, S F; Busch, R L; Boyle, J A

    1988-09-01

    Channel catfish broodfish were examined nondestructively for the presence of channel catfish virus (CCV), using a nucleic acid-probing technique. A dot blot assay was tested and shown to be accurate and rapid in the diagnosis of CCV. Two CCV-positive fish were successfully mated, and fertilized eggs were collected. Offspring that hatched were tested and were shown to have CCV. This result indicated vertical transmission of CCV, a herpesvirus.

  17. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  18. Profitability analysis of catfish farming in Suleja local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of profitability and scale of production of catfish has not been properly addressed. This study was conducted in Suleja Local Government Area of Niger State to assess the profitability of catfish production. Forty (40) catfish farmers were selected from the study area using simple random sampling techniques.

  19. Socio-economics of catfish production in Port Harcourt, Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appraisal of profitability of catfish production in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria was carried out by identifying socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers, cost and returns of catfish farming and the basic problems hindering effective catfish production. Thirty catfish farmers were randomly selected; administered a ...

  20. Physiological responses to short-term fasting among herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan D; Tibbetts, Ian R; Secor, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    We explored the integrated role of dietary specialization and feeding periodicity on the response of the gastrointestinal tract of teleosts fishes to short-term (7-10 days) fasting and refeeding. Fasted and fed herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), omnivorous channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were compared for digestive organ masses, intestinal morphology, gastrointestinal pH, and the specific activities and total intestinal capacities of the intestinal hydrolases aminopeptidase (APN) and maltase and intestinal nutrient transporters. All three species experience intestinal hypertrophy with feeding as noted by significant increases in enterocyte dimensions. Of the three, only I. punctatus experienced a postprandial increase in intestinal length, and only C. idella experienced significant modulation of intestinal microvillus length. Feeding resulted in acidification of the stomachs of I. punctatus and M. salmoides. Predicted to exhibit a relatively modest set of postprandial responses because of their more frequent feeding habits, C. idella only experienced increases in APN and maltase activity with feeding and no significant regulation of nutrient uptake. Significant regulation of hydrolase activities and nutrient uptake were exhibited by I. punctatus and M. salmoides, with I. punctatus experiencing the most comprehensive set of responses. As predicted by food habits, there was an interspecific gradient in intestinal length and glucose uptake extending from longer intestines and greater glucose uptake for the herbivorous C. idella, intermediate lengths and glucose uptake for the omnivorous I. punctatus, and shorter intestines and reduced glucose uptake for the carnivorous M. salmoides. Among teleosts fishes, short episodes of fasting lead to significant alterations in intestinal form and function that are rapidly restored with feeding.

  1. [Helminths of carnivores relevant to veterinary practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasslinger, M A

    1986-01-01

    Especially in an urban environment man and carnivores live closely together, whereby one has to pay attention not only to animal parasites, but also to human pathogenic connections regarding these parasites. Because of the infection risk the animal owner has to be competently informed by his veterinarian. While some cestodes make great demands on hygiene, with others the cycle can be interrupted by consequent diet restrictions. Of all nematodes the stomach worm of the cat is of greater importance as it is easily overlooked because of its small size, is difficult to diagnose and is occurring in our regions with an infestation rate of about 40%. "Larva migrans visceralis" and "Larva migrans cutanea" caused by ascaride and hookworm larvae are important in human medicine and demand therapeutic measures. The contamination of parks, playgrounds and beaches with these parasites caused by carnivores requires a critical evaluation of the human pathogen interests.

  2. Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Andreas; Heubl, Günther

    2009-01-01

    We tested previously published protocols for DNA isolation from plants with high contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides for several taxa of carnivorous plants. However, we did not get satisfying results with fresh or silica dried leaf tissue obtained from field collected or greenhouse grown plants, nor from herbarium specimens. Therefore, we have developed a simple modified protocol of the commercially available Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit for rapid, effective and reproducible ...

  3. Phthiraptera from some wild carnivores in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Jesús M.; Soler, María Desamparados; Benítez, Rocio; Ruiz-Martínez, Isidoro; Palomares, Francisco; Delibes, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1987 and the first months of 1988, several carnivores were surveyed for ecological studies by means of radio-tracking techniques and in order to identify the ischnoceran species parasitising these animals. The hosts belonged to the following species: Felis pardina, Felis silvestris, Herpestes ichneumon, Genetta genetta, Vulpes vulpes and Metes meles. While no lice were found on the two first species, the remaining ones were parasitised by Felicola (Felicola) inaequalis, Lorisicol...

  4. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plagu...

  5. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerum, F

    2013-06-07

    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance.

  6. Interpreting carnivore scent-station surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, G.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    The scent-station survey method has been widely used to estimate trends in carnivore abundance. However, statistical properties of scent-station data are poorly understood, and the relation between scent-station indices and carnivore abundance has not been adequately evaluated. We assessed properties of scent-station indices by analyzing data collected in Minnesota during 1986-03. Visits to stations separated by intractable statistical distribution. Dichotomizing results for lines of 10 stations (0 or 21 visits) produced binomially distributed data that were robust to multiple visits by individuals. We abandoned 2-way comparisons among years in favor of tests for population trend, which are less susceptible to bias, and analyzed results separately for biogeographic sections of Minnesota because trends differed among sections. Before drawing inferences about carnivore population trends, we reevaluated published validation experiments. Results implicated low statistical power and confounding as possible explanations for equivocal or conflicting results of validation efforts. Long-term trends in visitation rates probably reflect real changes in populations, but poor spatial and temporal resolution, susceptibility to confounding, and low statistical power limit the usefulness of this survey method.

  7. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B

    2013-05-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm.

  9. Effect of water temperature on sex ratio and growth rate of juvenile Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, P. vachelli and hybrids [P. fulvidraco (♀ × P. vachelli (♂

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the effect of water temperature on sex ratio and growth rate, we reared the juveniles of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Pelteobagrus vachelli and the hybrids from P. fulvidraco (♀ × P. vachelli (♂ at 6 different water temperature conditions (20, 23, 26, 29, 32 and 34 °C in this study. The results showed the population of male and female fish at the ratio of 1:1 when the fish from three groups was cultured at water temperatures of 26, 29, 32 and 34 °C for 45 days. The analysis for the ratio between male and female reared at various temperatures suggests that the sex differentiation in P. fulvidraco, P. vachelli and the hybrids was not temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD. Based on the mathematical relationship between weight gain (WG and water temperature, the maximum growth rate of P. fulvidraco, P. vachelli and the hybrids was achieved at 27.53, 28.36 and 28.40 °C, respectively. There is only very negligible difference between temperatures for the highest weight gain determined through mathematical modeling. However, weight gain determination shows comparatively higher growth rate at all test temperature. We initially deduced that the hybrids from P. fulvidraco (♀ × P. vachelli (♂ have heterosis. Our results indicated that the hybrids were very suitable for commercial aquaculture.

  10. Comparative iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Pelteobagrus vachelli Liver under Acute Hypoxia: Implications in Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guosong; Zhang, Jiajia; Wen, Xin; Zhao, Cheng; Zhang, Hongye; Li, Xinru; Yin, Shaowu

    2017-09-01

    More and more frequently these days, aquatic ecosystems are being stressed by nutrient enrichment, pollutants, and global warming, leading to a serious depletion in oxygen concentrations. Although a sudden, significant lack of oxygen will result in mortality, fishes can have an acute behavior (e.g., an increase in breathing rate, reduction in swimming frequency) and physiology responses (e.g., increase in oxygen delivery, and reduction in oxygen consumption) to hypoxia, which allows them to maintain normal physical activity. Therefore, in order to shed further light on the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia adaptation in fishes, the authors conduct comparative quantitative proteomics on Pelteobagrus vachelli livers using iTRAQ. The research identifies 511 acute hypoxia-responsive proteins in P. vachelli. Furthermore, comparison of several of the diverse key pathways studied (e.g., peroxisome pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, lipid metabolism, glycolysis/gluco-neogenesis, and amino acid metabolism) help to articulate the different mechanisms involved in the hypoxia response of P. vachelli. Data from proteome analysis shows that P. vachelli can have an acute reaction to hypoxia, including detoxification of metabolic by-products and oxidative stress in light of continued metabolic activity (e.g., peroxisomes), an activation in the capacity of catabolism to get more energy (e.g., lipolysis and amino acid catabolism), a depression in the capacity of biosynthesis to reduce energy consumption (e.g., biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids), and a shift in the aerobic and anaerobic contributions to total metabolism. The observed hypoxia-related changes in the liver proteome of the fish can help to understand or can be related to the hypoxia-related response that takes place in similar conditions in the liver or other proteomes of mammals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  12. Project Lifescape – Freshwater Fishes: Catfishes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Project Lifescape – Freshwater Fishes: Catfishes. R J Ranjit Daniels. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 97-107. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0097-0107 ...

  13. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  14. Prevalence of echinococcosis in dogs and wild carnivores in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence study on echinococcosis in dogs and wild carnivores was conducted in northen Tanzania. Copro-antigen ELISA was used to screen 442 dog faecal samples from Magu, Bariadi and Ngorongoro districts, together with 88 wild carnivore samples from Serengeti National Park. Overall prevalence of E. granulosus ...

  15. Non specific immune response in the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non specific immune response in the African catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis fed diets fortified with ethanolic extracts of selected traditional medicinal plants and disease resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  16. Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced spawning, survival and growth of an African catfish hybrid (female Clarias gariepinus and male Clarias anguillaris ) fingerlings relative to their parental species in the mount Cameroon region.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramoon, Kovit; Amsiri, Jarurat

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D 10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10 3 . 2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  18. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in...

  19. The evolution of intelligence in mammalian carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Benson-Amram, Sarah

    2017-06-06

    Although intelligence should theoretically evolve to help animals solve specific types of problems posed by the environment, it is unclear which environmental challenges favour enhanced cognition, or how general intelligence evolves along with domain-specific cognitive abilities. The social intelligence hypothesis posits that big brains and great intelligence have evolved to cope with the labile behaviour of group mates. We have exploited the remarkable convergence in social complexity between cercopithecine primates and spotted hyaenas to test predictions of the social intelligence hypothesis in regard to both cognition and brain size. Behavioural data indicate that there has been considerable convergence between primates and hyaenas with respect to their social cognitive abilities. Moreover, compared with other hyaena species, spotted hyaenas have larger brains and expanded frontal cortex, as predicted by the social intelligence hypothesis. However, broader comparative study suggests that domain-general intelligence in carnivores probably did not evolve in response to selection pressures imposed specifically in the social domain. The cognitive buffer hypothesis, which suggests that general intelligence evolves to help animals cope with novel or changing environments, appears to offer a more robust explanation for general intelligence in carnivores than any hypothesis invoking selection pressures imposed strictly by sociality or foraging demands.

  20. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:29140289

  1. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-11-15

    The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat's health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Oxygen requirements of separated hybrid catfish female Ictalurus punctatus male I. furcatus eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg masses require ambient water with over 95% air saturation to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatch. Since hybrid catfish eggs (channel catfish ' X blue catfish I. furcatus ') are often kept separated after fertilization by the addition of full...

  4. Catfish science: Status and trends in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Porath, Mark T.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    Catfish science, the study of the fish order Siluriformes, is a diverse and expanding field in terms of advances and breadth of topics. We compiled literature from primary fisheries journals as an index of interest and advances in catfish science to examine temporal trends in the field. The number of catfish scientific publications varied over the past century with strong peaks during 1975–1979 and 2005–2010, which may be the result of interactive scientific and societal influences. Catfish biology was the predominant publication topic until the late 1990s, when ecology, techniques, and management publications became more prevalent. Articles on catfish ecology were most numerous in both the first and second international catfish symposia, but publications on techniques and conservation were more numerous in the second catfish symposium than the first. We summarize the state of knowledge, recent advances, and areas for future attention among topics in catfish science, including sampling and aging techniques, population dynamics, ecology, fisheries management, species diversity, nonnative catfish, and human dimensions, with an emphasis on the gains in this second symposium. Areas that we expect to be pursued in the future are development of new techniques and validation of existing methods; expansion of research to less-studied catfish species; broadening temporal, spatial, and organizational scales; interdisciplinary approaches; and research on societal views and constituent demands. Meeting these challenges will require scientists to span beyond their professional comfort zones to effectively reach higher standards. We look forward to the coming decade and the many advances in the conservation, ecology, and management of catfish that will be shared.

  5. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  6. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  7. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  8. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aims to evaluate the impact of potassium dichromate in armored catfishes' (Hypostomus plecotomus) erythropoiesis, using piscine micronucleus test. Armored catfishes (n = 30) were subjected to 12 mg/L of potassium dichromate, with an equal control group (n = 30). For each 2,000 red blood cells of ...

  9. Growth and Survival of Catfish ( Clarias anguillaris ) Juveniles Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilapia diet was the most expensive (N 9.50/g wt.gain). The reason for the superior performance of Diet IV was not obvious from this experiment, but the combination of maggot with artificial feed might have formed a better balanced diet for the juvenile catfish. The use of live maggot to supplement artificial feed in catfish ...

  10. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spotted catfish is a benthic species that can be found abundantly off the coast of Yunlin in southwestern Taiwan. Its biological parameters are little known. In this study, life history parameters of this species were estimated using samples caught by bottom trawling. The spotted catfish was the major bycatch species which ...

  11. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  12. The safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs and is widely used by the industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs when treated at the therapeutic rate (10 mg/L), and also...

  13. Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.; Roques, J.; Heul, van der J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing

  14. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue State of Nigeria using a stochastic profit frontier approach. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 143 catfish farmers through a well structured questionnaire. The study used a Cobb-Douglas stochastic profit frontier function to ...

  15. Catapulting Tentacles in a Sticky Carnivorous Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed ‘active’ have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin’s early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory. PMID:23049849

  16. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory.

  17. The carnivorous syndrome in Nepenthes pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charles M

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthes is the largest genus of pitcher plants, with its center of diversity in SE Asia. The plants grow in substrates that are deficient in N and offset this deficiency by trapping animal prey, primarily arthropods. Recent research has provided new insights into the function of the pitchers, particularly with regard to prey tapping and retention. Species examined to date use combinations of wettable peristomes, wax layers and viscoelastic fluid to trap and retain prey. In many respects, this has redefined our understanding of the functioning of Nepenthes pitchers. In addition, recent research has shown that several Nepenthes species target specific groups of prey animals, or are even evolving away from a strictly carnivorous mode of operation. Future research into nutrient sequestration strategies and mechanisms of prey attraction would no doubt further enhance our knowledge of the ecology of this remarkable genus. PMID:21135573

  18. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory.

  19. Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested previously published protocols for DNA isolation from plants with high contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides for several taxa of carnivorous plants. However, we did not get satisfying results with fresh or silica dried leaf tissue obtained from field collected or greenhouse grown plants, nor from herbarium specimens. Therefore, we have developed a simple modified protocol of the commercially available Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit for rapid, effective and reproducible isolation of high quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR reactions. DNA extraction can be conducted from both fresh and dried leaf tissue of various carnivorous plant taxa, irrespective of high contents of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds and other secondary plant metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation and amplification.

    Probamos algunos protocolos publicados previamente para el aislamiento del ADN de plantas con alto contenido de polifenoles y polisacáridos para varios táxones de plantas carnívoras. Sin embargo, no conseguimos muy buenos resultados ni con tejidos de hojas frescas, ni con tejidos de hojas secadas en gel de sílice obtenidas de plantas colectadas en el campo o cultivadas en los invernaderos, ni de especímenes de herbario. Por lo tanto, hemos desarrollado un protocolo sencillo, modificado del Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit disponible en el mercado para el aislamiento rápido, eficaz y reproducible de ADN genómico de alta calidad conveniente para la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La extracción del ADN se puede realizar en tejidos de hojas frescas o secas de varios táxones de plantas carnívoras, sin importar el grado de contenido de polisacáridos, compuestos fenólicos u otros metabolitos secundarios que interfieren con el aislamiento y la amplificación del ADN.

  20. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R B Miller

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people's perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners' perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk. Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1 improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2 working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

  1. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  2. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  3. Diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and origins of venomous catfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Jeremy J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of venomous fishes is in a state of relative infancy when compared to that of other groups of venomous organisms. Catfishes (Order Siluriformes are a diverse group of bony fishes that have long been known to include venomous taxa, but the extent and phylogenetic distribution of this venomous species diversity has never been documented, while the nature of the venoms themselves also remains poorly understood. In this study, I used histological preparations from over 100 catfish genera, basic biochemical and toxicological analyses of fin spine extracts from several species, and previous systematic studies of catfishes to examine the distribution of venom glands in this group. These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. Results Histological examinations of 158 catfish species indicate that approximately 1250-1625+ catfish species should be presumed to be venomous, when viewed in conjunction with several hypotheses of siluriform phylogeny. Maximum parsimony character optimization analyses indicate two to three independent derivations of venom glands within the Siluriformes. A number of putative toxic peptides were identified in the venoms of catfish species from many of the families determined to contain venomous representatives. These peptides elicit a wide array of physiological effects in other fishes, though any one species examined produced no more than three distinct putative toxins in its venom. The molecular weights and effects produced by these putative toxic peptides show strong similarities to previously characterized toxins found in catfish epidermal secretions. Conclusion Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes (Order Siluriformes, and venomous catfishes may outnumber the combined diversity of all other venomous vertebrates. The toxic peptides found in catfish venoms may be derived from epidermal secretions that have been

  4. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, M.; Świątek, P.; Kamińska, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 6 (2014), s. 1449-1454 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * winter buds * storage functions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2014

  5. Trends in the extinction of carnivores in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartagena–Matos, B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of top predators, such as mammalian carnivores can lead to dramatic changes in foodweb structure and ecosystem dynamics. Since all native Malagasy terrestrial mammalian carnivores are endemic, their extinction implies a significant loss of biodiversity in Madagascar. Here we review the literature on Madagascar’s mammalian carnivores, aiming to determine which species are most likely to become extinct in the near future in view of the factors threatening their survival. We scored each factor according to its impact on the species. According to our results, the giant–striped mongoose, Galidictis grandidieri, is the most likely species to next become extinct. This is no surprise because this species is considered one of the rarest carnivores in the world, inhabiting only a small, threatened forest ecosystem. Our results emphasize the need for robust data about each species to help and support decision–makers implement conservation measures.

  6. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien

    2014-07-01

    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  7. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges...

  8. Carnivorous syndrome in Asian pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Andrej; Masarovicová, Elena; Hudák, Ján

    2007-09-01

    Pitcher plants Nepenthes alata and N. mirabilis are carnivorous species with leaves composed of a photosynthetic part (lamina) and a pitcher trap. This characteristic permitted direct physiological and anatomical comparison between these two distinct parts of the leaves to determine those features involved in the 'carnivorous syndrome', which include low net photosynthetic assimilation rate (A(N)) and low photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). Photosynthetic rate (A(N)) and respiration rate (R(d)) were measured gasometrically, chlorophyll concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and nitrogen concentration was determined using a CHN elemental analyser in lamina and trap separately. Anatomy of N. alata was observed using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. A(N), foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration were also compared with values for other carnivorous plant species (genera Sarracenia, Drosera) that combine both autotrophic and carnivorous functions into the same physical organ. It was found that the A(N) in Nepenthes lamina was low and PNUE was only slightly higher or similar in comparison with other carnivorous plants. It was not observed that the pitcher had a higher R(d) than the lamina, but A(N) in the pitcher was significantly lower than in the lamina. Nepenthes possesses a cluster of characters that could result in reduced photosynthesis in the pitcher and be responsible for carnivorous function of the leaf: replacement of chlorophyll-containing cells with digestive glands, low chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, compact mesophyll with a small portion of intercellular spaces, absence of palisade parenchyma and low stomatal density. Low photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen efficiency, chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration of Nepenthes pitchers was found, together with a set of features that characterized the carnivorous syndrome. Dual use of leaves for photosynthesis and nutrient gain can decrease photosynthetic

  9. Evaluation of the finnish national policy on large carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Pohja-Mykrä, Mari; Kurki, Sami

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation of the Finnish national policy on large carnivores focuses on the success in accomplishing ecological, economic and social sustainability in population management during the period from 2007 to 2012, through objectives and actions in the implemented population management plans. The conclusions drawn in the evaluation are based on a logical framework which must in practice be seen as the logic behind the policy on large carnivores and associated development actions. Based on th...

  10. Efficacy of Florfenicol for Control of Mortality Associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri in Three Species of Catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Patricia S; Chatakondi, Nagaraj; Gao, Dana; Endris, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Edwardsiella icatluri was studied in fingerlings of Channel Catfish Ictalurus puntatus (Delta strain), Blue Catfish I. furcatus (D&B strain), and a hybrid catfish (Delta strain Channel Catfish × D&B strain Blue Catfish). On day 0, fish were immersion challenged in 65-L aquaria. For each of the three species of catfish, 10 aquaria were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, either treated with florfenicol at 0 mg/kg of body weight (unmedicated feed) or at 10 mg/kg (medicated feed). Fish were treated for 10 consecutive days, monitored for mortality during this treatment period, and observed for 14 d afterwards. Post observation, all survivors were humanely euthanized in tricaine methanesulfonate, cultured for E. ictaluri, and examined for gross pathology. The mean cumulative percent mortality from enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) challenge among the three genotypes of catfish did not differ between Blue Catfish, hybrid, and Channel Catfish in treated or control groups. However, the florfenicol-treated fish had a significantly lower mean cumulative mortality (6%) than the controls (78%). All genotypes of catfish tested were responsive to treatment with florfenicol-medicated feed for control of mortality associated with ESC. There were no significant differences in mortality associated with hybrid catfish, blue catfish, and Channel Catfish (Delta strain).

  11. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, Marcos Mendes de Barros; Yamashita, Seizo; Sardenberg, Trajano; Fávero, Edson Luiz; Ribeiro, Felipe Augusto Horácio; Haddad, William Teixeira; Haddad, Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast) in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds.

  12. A Study on Packaging Selais (Cryptoperus Bicirchis) Catfish Savory Chips

    OpenAIRE

    kurniawan, Herry; ', Suparmi; ', Sumarto

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Technology ofProcessing and Chemical Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine SciencesUniversity of Riau, May 2013. The purpose of the research was to study the typeof packed that can protect the quality of the selais catfish savory chips packed inHDPE and LDPE plastic bags during storage. Selais catfish savory chips weremade by mixture of 2 kg of selais catfish meat (67.8 %), rice flour (25 %), garlic(2 %), pepper (1.5 %), coriander (1 %) , ...

  13. Diagnostic imaging of injuries caused by venomous and traumatogenic catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mendes de Barros Negreiros

    Full Text Available Abstract: Injuries caused by fish are common in marine and freshwater environments. Catfish of the Ariidae and Pimelodidae families cause about 80% of those injuries. One of the complications of injuries caused by fish is the retention of fragments of the stinger in the wounds. Here we report five cases (of a total of 127 injuries caused by catfish in the Brazilian coast in which the retained fragments were detected by radiological examination. Retained fragments should be considered in patients stung by catfish. A simple X-ray is sufficient to detect fragments of stingers in the wounds.

  14. Marine catfish sting causing fatal heart perforation in a fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; de Souza, Reinaldo Alves; Auerbach, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Many marine catfish have serrated bony stings ("spines"), which are used in defense against predators, on the dorsal and pectoral fins. While catfish-induced injuries are generally characterized by the pain associated with envenomation, the stings in some species are sufficiently long and sharp to cause severe penetrating trauma. Most injuries are to the hands of victims, commonly fishermen. We report the death of a fisherman caused by myocardial perforation from a catfish sting. To our knowledge, this is the first such description in the medical literature.

  15. Carnivore hotspots in Peninsular Malaysia and their landscape attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; van Manen, Frank T.; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mohd Kulaimi, Noor Azleen; Sharp, Stuart P.

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution. We georeferenced 375 observations of 28 species of carnivore from 89 unique geographic locations using records spanning 1948 to 2014. Using the Getis-Ord Gi*statistic and weighted survey records by IUCN Red List status, we identified hotspots of species that were of conservation concern and built regression models to identify environmental and anthropogenic landscape factors associated with Getis-Ord Gi* z scores. Our analyses identified two carnivore hotspots that were spatially concordant with two of the peninsula’s largest and most contiguous forest complexes, associated with Taman Negara National Park and Royal Belum State Park. A cold spot overlapped with the southwestern region of the Peninsula, reflecting the disappearance of carnivores with higher conservation rankings from increasingly fragmented natural habitats. Getis-Ord Gi* z scores were negatively associated with elevation, and positively associated with the proportion of natural land cover and distance from the capital city. Malaysia contains some of the world’s most diverse carnivore assemblages, but recent rates of forest loss are some of the highest in the world. Reducing poaching and maintaining large, contiguous tracts of lowland forests will be crucial, not only for the persistence of threatened carnivores, but for many mammalian species in general.

  16. Carnivore hotspots in Peninsular Malaysia and their landscape attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores play a vital role in ecosystem functioning. However, they are prone to extinction because of low population densities and growth rates, and high levels of persecution or exploitation. In tropical biodiversity hotspots such as Peninsular Malaysia, rapid conversion of natural habitats threatens the persistence of this vulnerable group of animals. Here, we carried out the first comprehensive literature review on 31 carnivore species reported to occur in Peninsular Malaysia and updated their probable distribution. We georeferenced 375 observations of 28 species of carnivore from 89 unique geographic locations using records spanning 1948 to 2014. Using the Getis-Ord Gi*statistic and weighted survey records by IUCN Red List status, we identified hotspots of species that were of conservation concern and built regression models to identify environmental and anthropogenic landscape factors associated with Getis-Ord Gi* z scores. Our analyses identified two carnivore hotspots that were spatially concordant with two of the peninsula’s largest and most contiguous forest complexes, associated with Taman Negara National Park and Royal Belum State Park. A cold spot overlapped with the southwestern region of the Peninsula, reflecting the disappearance of carnivores with higher conservation rankings from increasingly fragmented natural habitats. Getis-Ord Gi* z scores were negatively associated with elevation, and positively associated with the proportion of natural land cover and distance from the capital city. Malaysia contains some of the world’s most diverse carnivore assemblages, but recent rates of forest loss are some of the highest in the world. Reducing poaching and maintaining large, contiguous tracts of lowland forests will be crucial, not only for the persistence of threatened carnivores, but for many mammalian species in general. PMID:29617402

  17. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable.

  18. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  19. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  20. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to graded concentrations of cassava waste water. Chinweike Norman ASOGWA, Francis O EZENWAJIAKU, Chidinma Adanna, OKOLO, Felicia Nkechi EKEH, Daniel Don NWIBO, Christian Onyeka CHUKWUKA ...

  1. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; He, Chongbo; Liu, Xueguang; Su, Hao; Gao, Xianggang; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish. PMID:23203058

  2. Immunoglobulin in the eggs of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, J R; Lobb, C J

    1993-01-01

    Egg yolk proteins obtained from 2-3-day-old fertilized channel catfish eggs were analyzed to determine if immunoglobulin (Ig) was present. Using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to catfish Ig, egg Ig was isolated and structurally characterized. The egg Ig when analyzed in SDS-gels under nonreducing conditions dissociated into eight distinct subpopulations with relative mobilities identical to that previously described for the serum Ig of the channel catfish. In addition, the component heavy (H) and light (L) chains of the egg Ig had similar relative mobilities as the H and L chains identified in serum Ig. Immunocytological studies using both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-catfish Ig showed that Ig was dispersed throughout the yolk of the egg. In addition these analyses indicated that Ig was localized within the external membranes (eggshell) of the egg.

  3. Socio-economic analysis of catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic characteristics of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three (3) Local Government Areas (Yenagoa, Ogbia and Kolokuma-Opokuma) purposively based ...

  4. Prey depletion as a threat to the world's large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J

    2016-08-01

    Large terrestrial carnivores are an ecologically important, charismatic and highly endangered group of species. Here, we assess the importance of prey depletion as a driver of large carnivore endangerment globally using lists of prey species for each large carnivore compiled from the literature. We consider spatial variation in prey endangerment, changes in endangerment over time and the causes of prey depletion, finding considerable evidence that loss of prey base is a major and wide-ranging threat among large carnivore species. In particular, the clouded leopard ( Neofelis nebulosa ), Sunda clouded leopard ( Neofelis diardi ), tiger ( Panthera tigris ), dhole ( Cuon alpinus ) and Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis ) all have at least 40% of their prey classified as threatened on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and, along with the leopard ( Panethra pardus ), all of these species except the Ethiopian wolf have at least 50% of their prey classified as declining. Of the 494 prey species in our analysis, an average of just 6.9% of their ranges overlap protected areas. Together these results show the importance of a holistic approach to conservation that involves protecting both large carnivores directly and the prey upon which they depend.

  5. CARNIVORE: A Disruption-Tolerant System for Studying Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams TerrieM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present CARNIVORE, a system for in situ, unobtrusive monitoring of cryptic, difficult-to-catch/observe wildlife in their natural habitat. CARNIVORE is a network of mobile and static nodes with sensing, processing, storage, and wireless communication capabilities. CARNIVORE's compact, low-power, mobile animal-borne nodes collect sensor data and transmit it to static nodes, which then relay it to the Internet. Depending on the wildlife being studied, the network can be quite sparse and therefore disconnected frequently for arbitrarily long periods of time. To support "disconnected operation", CARNIVORE uses an "opportunistic routing" approach taking advantage of every encounter between nodes (mobile-to-mobile and mobile-to-static to propagate data. With a lifespan of 50–100 days, a CARNIVORE mobile node, outfitted on a collar, collects and transmits 1 GB of data compared to 450 kB of data from comparable commercially available wildlife collars. Each collar records 3-axis accelerometer and GPS data to infer animal behavior and energy consumption.Testing in both laboratory and free-range settings with domestic dogs shows that galloping and trotting behavior can be identified. Data collected from first deployments on mountain lions (Puma concolor near Santa Cruz, CA, USA show that the system is a viable and useful tool for wildlife research.

  6. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Sarvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%, Toxocara spp. (18.81%, Taenia hydatigena (15.28%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, and Toxascaris leonina (8.69% were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores' populations.

  7. Profitability analysis of catfish production in Kaduna state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gross farm income was N 1,172,000 per annum while the net farm income was N559, 950 per annum with a return on investment of 0.915 (91.5%). The result indicates that catfish production was profitable in the study are. This also indicates that there is enough employment opportunities in catfish farm in the area, thus ...

  8. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  9. Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Protein Concentrat Fortification in Brownies Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati, Wirda; Buchari, Dewita; Loekman, Suardi

    2014-01-01

    This research was intended to evaluate consumer acceptance of brownies cakefortified with catfish (Pangasius hipophthalmus) protein concentrat. Four brownies cake weremade from a mixture of 12% wheat flour, 36% eggs, 10% chocolate ,24% sugar, 15%margarine, 0,1% vanila dan 0,06% salt. Each cake then was fortified with catfish proteinconcentrat at a level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of wheat flour. Brownies cakes wereecaluated for consumer acceptance and proximate composition (moisture, protein and ...

  10. The Growth of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) with Aquaponic System

    OpenAIRE

    Ridho, Ari; Tang, Usman M; Putra, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted in May 2013 at the Fish Hatchery and Breeding Laboratory Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty, Riau University. The aim of the research to know the productivity of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with aquaponic system. The experimental methode with two treatments was applied in the research namely aquaponic and non-aquaponic. The result indicated that aquaponic have differential on growth of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The best result was achieved by non-aquaponic. T...

  11. DNA barcoding of catfish: species authentication and phylogenetic assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Wong

    Full Text Available As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene from individuals of 9 species (and an Ictalurid hybrid of domestic and imported catfish in accordance with standard DNA barcoding protocols. These included domestic Ictalurid catfish, and representative imported species from the families of Clariidae and Pangasiidae. Alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (98% similarity on average. These alignments allowed the development and analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species and comparison with limited sequences in public databases (GenBank and Barcode of Life Data Systems. Validation tests carried out in blinded studies and with commercially purchased catfish samples (both frozen and fresh revealed the reliability of DNA barcoding for differentiating between these catfish species. The developed protocols and consensus barcodes are valuable resources as increasing market and governmental scrutiny is placed on catfish and other fisheries and aquaculture products labeling in the United States.

  12. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  13. Verification of otolith identity used by fisheries scientists for aging channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Stewart, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Previously published studies of the age estimation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus based on otoliths have reported using the sagittae, whereas it is likely they were actually using the lapilli. This confusion may have resulted because in catfishes (ostariophyseans) the lapilli are the largest of the three otoliths, whereas in nonostariophysean fish the sagittae are the largest. Based on (1) scanning electron microscope microphotographs of channel catfish otoliths, (2) X-ray computed tomography scans of a channel catfish head, (3) descriptions of techniques used to removed otoliths from channel catfish reported in the literature, and (4) a sample of channel catfish otoliths received from fisheries biologists from around the country, it is clear that lapilli are most often used for channel catfish aging studies, not sagittae, as has been previously reported. Fisheries scientists who obtain otoliths from channel catfish can use the information in this paper to correctly identify otolith age.

  14. Forest carnivore conservation and management in the interior Columbia basin: issues and environmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Witmer; Sandra K. Martin; Rodney D. Sayler

    1998-01-01

    Forest carnivores in the Pacific Northwest include 11 medium to large-sized mammalian species of canids, felids, mustelids, and ursids. These carnivores have widely differing status in the region, with some harvested in regulated furbearer seasons, some taken for depredations, and some protected because of rarity. Most large carnivores have declined in numbers or range...

  15. Analysis of the catfish (clarias sp.) value chain and its problems in Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Bulkini; Arif Satria; Heti Mulyati

    2018-01-01

    Catfish is one of the leading freshwater commodities stipulated by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP) of the Republic of Indonesia. The annual production target of catfish continues to increase every year. This study aims to analyze the actors and the value chain map of catfish, problems in the value chain of catfish, and the strategies to improve the value chain. This research was conducted by survey method using questionnaire instrument. The survey was done by using purposiv...

  16. Host Age Affects the Development of Southern Catfish Gut Bacterial Community Divergent From That in the Food and Rearing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Dapeng; Refaey, Mohamed M.; Xu, Weitong; Tang, Rong; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    Host development influences gut microbial assemblies that may be confounded partly by dietary shifts and the changing environmental microbiota during ontogenesis. However, little is known about microbial colonization by excluding dietary effects and compositional differences in microbiota between the gut and environment at different ontogenetic stages. Herein, a developmental gut microbial experiment under controlled laboratory conditions was conducted with carnivorous southern catfish Silurus meridionalis fed on an identical prey with commensal and abundant microbiota. In this study, we provided a long-term analysis of gut microbiota associated with host age at 8, 18, 35, 65, and 125 day post-fertilization (dpf) and explored microbial relationships among host, food and water environment at 8, 35, and 125 dpf. The results showed that gut microbial diversity in southern catfish tended to increase linearly as host aged. Gut microbiota underwent significant temporal shifts despite similar microbial communities in food and rearing water during the host development and dramatically differed from the environmental microbiota. At the compositional abundance, Tenericutes and Fusobacteria were enriched in the gut and markedly varied with host age, whereas Spirochaetes and Bacteroidetes detected were persistently the most abundant phyla in food and water, respectively. In addition to alterations in individual microbial taxa, the individual differences in gut microbiota were at a lower level at the early stages than at the late stages and in which gut microbiota reached a stable status, suggesting the course of microbial successions. These results indicate that host development fundamentally shapes a key transition in microbial community structure, which is independent of dietary effects. In addition, the dominant taxa residing in the gut do not share their niche habitats with the abundant microbiota in the surrounding environment. It's inferred that complex gut microbiota

  17. Simplified large African carnivore density estimators from track indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan W. Winterbach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The range, population size and trend of large carnivores are important parameters to assess their status globally and to plan conservation strategies. One can use linear models to assess population size and trends of large carnivores from track-based surveys on suitable substrates. The conventional approach of a linear model with intercept may not intercept at zero, but may fit the data better than linear model through the origin. We assess whether a linear regression through the origin is more appropriate than a linear regression with intercept to model large African carnivore densities and track indices. Methods We did simple linear regression with intercept analysis and simple linear regression through the origin and used the confidence interval for ß in the linear model y = αx + ß, Standard Error of Estimate, Mean Squares Residual and Akaike Information Criteria to evaluate the models. Results The Lion on Clay and Low Density on Sand models with intercept were not significant (P > 0.05. The other four models with intercept and the six models thorough origin were all significant (P < 0.05. The models using linear regression with intercept all included zero in the confidence interval for ß and the null hypothesis that ß = 0 could not be rejected. All models showed that the linear model through the origin provided a better fit than the linear model with intercept, as indicated by the Standard Error of Estimate and Mean Square Residuals. Akaike Information Criteria showed that linear models through the origin were better and that none of the linear models with intercept had substantial support. Discussion Our results showed that linear regression through the origin is justified over the more typical linear regression with intercept for all models we tested. A general model can be used to estimate large carnivore densities from track densities across species and study areas. The formula observed track density = 3.26 × carnivore

  18. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Thomassen Hestetun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism (BAP, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ13C and δ15N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰ compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5-10.5‰. We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ13C and δ15N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non

  19. The Microbiome and Occurrence of Methanotrophy in Carnivorous Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon T; Dahle, Håkon; Jørgensen, Steffen L; Olsen, Bernt R; Rapp, Hans T

    2016-01-01

    As shown by recent studies, filter-feeding sponges are known to host a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the microbial community of the non-filtering carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) has been the subject of less scrutiny. Here, we present the results from a comparative study of the methanotrophic carnivorous sponge Cladorhiza methanophila from a mud volcano-rich area at the Barbados Accretionary Prism, and five carnivorous species from the Jan Mayen Vent Field (JMVF) at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Results from 16S rRNA microbiome data indicate the presence of a diverse assemblage of associated microorganisms in carnivorous sponges mainly from the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, and Thaumarchaeota. While the abundance of particular groups varied throughout the dataset, we found interesting similarities to previous microbiome results from non-carnivorous deep sea sponges, suggesting that the carnivorous sponges share characteristics of a previously hypothesized putative deep-sea sponge microbial community. Chemolithoautotrophic symbiosis was confirmed for C. methanophila through a microbial community with a high abundance of Methylococcales and very light isotopic δ 13 C and δ 15 N ratios (-60 to -66‰/3.5 to 5.2‰) compared to the other cladorhizid species (-22 to -24‰/8.5 to 10.5‰). We provide evidence for the presence of putative sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria in the arctic cladorhizids; however, δ 13 C and δ 15 N signatures did not provide evidence for significant chemoautotrophic symbiosis in this case, and the slightly higher abundance of cladorhizids at the JMVF site compared to the nearby deep sea likely stem from an increased abundance of prey rather than a more direct vent association. The phylogenetic position of C. methanophila in relation to other carnivorous sponges was established using a three-gene phylogenetic analysis, and it was found to be closely related to other non-methanotrophic Cladorhiza

  20. Troublemaking carnivores: conflicts with humans in a diverse assemblage of large carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. Morehouse

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global conservation and management challenge. Multipredator systems present added complexity to the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts because mitigation strategies often are species-specific. Documenting the type and distribution of such conflicts is an important first step toward ensuring that subsequent management and mitigation efforts are appropriately targeted. We reviewed 16 years of records of complaints about two species of strict carnivores, wolves (Canis lupus and cougars (Puma concolor, and two species of omnivores, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos and black bears (Ursus americanus in southwestern Alberta and evaluated the temporal and spatial distribution of these complaints. Conflicts were most frequently associated with bears (68.7% of complaint records, reflecting a diversity of conflict types attributable to their omnivorous diets. Although grizzly bears killed and injured livestock, the majority of conflicts with bears were attributable to attractants (grain and dead livestock for grizzly bears, garbage for black bears. In contrast, wolf and cougar incidents were almost exclusively related to killing or injury of livestock. Complaints for both bear species have increased over the past 16 years while cougar and wolf complaints have remained relatively constant. Grizzly bear and cougar conflicts have been expanding into private lands used for agriculture. Although community driven, targeted mitigation measures have helped reduce conflicts with grizzly bears at the site level, conflicts at the broader scale have continued to increase and continued work is necessary. Long-term human-carnivore coexistence clearly is possible, facilitated by continued monitoring and local efforts to mitigate conflicts.

  1. Postponed feeding does not substantially reduce production expense during pond rearing of hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production variables of hybrid catfish (ChannelCatfish Ictalurus punctatus×BlueCatfish I. furcatus) reared in nursery ponds and then stocked were compared between fish fed immediately after stocking (standard industry practice) and fish forwhich feedingwas postponed after stocking. Ponds (0.04 ha) w...

  2. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are exclusively produced by strip spawning of channel catfish females, fertilizing stripped eggs with blue catfish sperm, and hatching the fertilized eggs. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on ...

  3. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  4. Using copper sulfate to control fungus on eggs in catfish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used by the catfish industry for controlling parasites and as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. Several studies were designed at SNARC to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit o...

  5. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  6. Effects of Season, Strain and Body Weight on Testes Development and Quality in Three Strains of Blue Catfish, Ictalurus furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) female x blue catfish (I. furcatus) male hybrids has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the last 10 years. Hybrid fry production requires fertilization of channel catfish eggs with blue catfish sperm obtained by surgical removal ...

  7. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  8. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  9. Effect of type and concentration of water hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue F1 hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consistent and improved performance of channel x blue F1 hybrid catfish fingerlings in production ponds in the US farm raised catfish industry has prompted an increase in demand of hybrid catfish fingerlings even at higher prices compared to commonly raised channel catfish. Hybrid catfish fry are e...

  10. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Long; Therese Donovan; Paula MacKay; William Zielinski; Jeffrey. Buzas

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers...

  11. Functional characteristics of traps of aquatic carnivorous Utricularia species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), 226-233 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * trap thickness measurements * water pumping Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.516, year: 2011

  12. Small carnivores of Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first ever detailed study on the small carnivores of the Parambikulam Tiger Reserve (PkTR in the southern Western Ghats, using camera trap techniques, reported 11 species.  A total of 1,350 camera-trap nights were used for the study.  This was supplemented with 242km of day transects and 344km of night transects using spot-lights.  The small carnivores reported were the Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni, Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii, Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii, Jungle Cat Felis chaus and Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis.  About 90% of the small carnivores captured in the camera traps in PKTR were members of the Viverridae family such as the Small Indian Civet (31.67%, Common Palm Civet (30% and Brown Palm Civet (28.33%.  The study recorded all the four species of mongoose known from the Western Ghats from PkTR.  Two out of the 11 small carnivores belong to the ‘Vulnerable’ category on the IUCN Red List. 

  13. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnavalli N. Kumara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  14. Relative brain size in the mammalian carnivores of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 species of mammalian carnivores from the Cape Province of South Mrica. These species fall into five families: Canidae,. Mustelidae, Viverridae, Felidae and Hyaeoidae. In this paper, the behavioural and ecological aspects that may be associated with variations in EQ are e.wnined and discussed. Materials and Methods.

  15. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  16. Large carnivores in the Carpathian Mountains: status and conservation problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okarma, H.; Dovchanych, Y.; Findo, S.; Ionescu, O.; Koubek, Petr; Szemethy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 33-39 ISSN 0078-3250 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : carnivores * conservation * Carpathians Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Carnivore activity in the Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site is the largest accumulation of human remains from the Middle Pleistocene known to date. Studies in the last two decades have proposed different hypotheses to explain carnivore activity in the SH human sample. This study provides new data in order to test these different interpretations, and therefore to understand the role of the carnivores in site formation at SH. Carnivores are usually not the origin of large accumulations of hominin fossils in the Eurasian record. The results show that marks of carnivore activity in the SH sample appear very infrequently, which we interpret as indicating that carnivore activity was very sporadic at the site. This is in stark contrast with previous studies. The comparison of bone modification patterns at SH to actualistic carnivore data allows us to suggest that bears were likely to have been the carnivore responsible for the modification observed on both human and bear fossils.

  18. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Ababii, Jana; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Sándor, Attila D; Enache, Dorin Valter; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-07-13

    Filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. In Europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. In Romania, infections with Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. Despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the host range, prevalence and distribution of filarioid infections in wild carnivores present in Romania. Between May 2014 and February 2016, 432 spleen samples originating from 14 species of wild carnivores have been tested for the presence of DNA of three species of filarioids (D. immitis, D. repens and A. reconditum). Overall 14 samples (3.24%) were molecularly positive. The most prevalent species was D. immitis (1.62%), accounting for 50% (n = 7) of the positive animals. The prevalence of D. repens was 1.39%, while that of A. reconditum was 0.23%. No co-infections were detected. Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in five golden jackals, Canis aureus (7.58%), one red fox, Vulpes vulpes (0.33%), and one wildcat, Felis silvestris (10%). The presence of D. repens DNA was detected in two red foxes (0.66%), two golden jackals (3.03%), one grey wolf (7.14%), and one least weasel, Mustela nivalis (33.33%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum DNA was found only in one red fox (0.33%). The present study provides molecular evidence of filarial infections in wild carnivore species in Romania, suggesting their potential epidemiological role and reports a new host species for D. repens.

  20. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Function of E-protein dimers expressed in catfish lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikima, Jun-ichi; Lennard Richard, Mara L.; Wilson, Melanie R.; Miller, Norman W.; Warr, Gregory W.

    2007-01-01

    E-proteins are essential class I bHLH transcription factors that play a role in lymphocyte development. In catfish lymphocytes the predominant E-proteins expressed are CFEB (a homologue of HEB) and E2A1, which both strongly drive transcription. In this study the role of homodimerization versus heterodimerization in the function of these catfish E-proteins was addressed through the use of expression constructs encoding forced dimers. Constructs expressing homo- and heterodimers were transfected into catfish B cells and shown to drive transcription from the catfish IGH enhancer. Expression from an artificial promoter containing a trimer of μE5 motifs clearly demonstrated that the homodimer of E2A1 drove transcription more strongly (by a factor of 10–25) than the CFEB homodimer in catfish B and T cells, while the heterodimer showed intermediate levels of transcriptional activation. Both CFEB1 and E2A1 proteins dimerized in vitro, and the heterodimer CFEB1-E2A1 was shown to bind the canonical μE5 motif. PMID:17870169

  2. THE ADDED VALUE OF SHREDDED LELE AND PATIN CATFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristina Siti Sundari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish is not only perishable product but also has segmented market. Consumption market such wants the fresh fish and certainty size. The problem is when the size of fish is too big for consumption, so that product is not wanted by consumer anymore. This research aimed at knowing the added value of shredded Lele and Patin catfish agribusiness and increasing prosperity of humanitarian society throughout processing the shredded catfishes. The data of this research was analyzed by Added Value Analysis of Hayami. The result showed that the shredded product of Lele catfish gave the added value IDR 14.295,00 per kilograms with the added value ratio was 25,53 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. Whereas, the shredded product of Patin catfish gave the added value IDR 18.295,00 per kilogram with the added value ratio was 29,04 percent and Conversion value was 0,35. The agribusiness toward processing and marketing of shredded Lele and Patin catfish was innovative agribusiness that could develop business opportunity so that it could move on the economical wheel and increasing humanitarian society prosperity actively. The market demand was still very wide either in town or out of town. The partnership among various not only government but also non government associations would be a good matter toward this agribusiness is running well.

  3. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, G.K.; Dutta, J.; Ghosh, S.

    1982-01-01

    The fate of [1(- 14 C] linoleic acid and [1( 14 C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14 C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  4. Pathogenic role of gastric Helicobacter sp in domestic carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoindre, P; Chevallier, M; Peyrol, S; Boude, M; Ferrero, R L; Labigne, A

    1997-01-01

    As a result of phylogenic studies using new molecular biology techniques and fundamental experimental studies, we now know more about helicobacteria in domestic carnivores, their morphologic characteristics, their taxonomia and more important we know more about their ecological niche. Few clinical studies have been carried out, but the ones that have been undertaken are interesting in that they confirm the extensive prevalence of Helicobacter infections in domestic carnivores and underline their role in the genesis of the inflammatory gastropathies observed in these species. Finally, recent observations have demonstrated the ubiquitous character of these helicobacteria by showing their presence in the stomach of man, dog and cat. This ubiquitous character has led some scientists to consider the potential zoonotic risk of the human infection by Helicobacter heilmannii, felis or pylori.

  5. A simple visual estimation of food consumption in carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R Potgieter

    Full Text Available Belly-size ratings or belly scores are frequently used in carnivore research as a method of rating whether and how much an animal has eaten. This method provides only a rough ordinal measure of fullness and does not quantify the amount of food an animal has consumed. Here we present a method for estimating the amount of meat consumed by individual African wild dogs Lycaon pictus. We fed 0.5 kg pieces of meat to wild dogs being temporarily held in enclosures and measured the corresponding change in belly size using lateral side photographs taken perpendicular to the animal. The ratio of belly depth to body length was positively related to the mass of meat consumed and provided a useful estimate of the consumption. Similar relationships could be calculated to determine amounts consumed by other carnivores, thus providing a useful tool in the study of feeding behaviour.

  6. Designing Customer Education Activities to Change People’s Perception of Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus Pratama Suwito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most people see catfish as an unhygienic fish, so less people want to consume it. In fact, catfish has better nutrition compared to Gourami. Therefore, catfish producers need to educate people. The purpose of this research is to design customer education activities to change people’s perception towards catfish using marketing communication mix. This research is a qualitative research and it uses in-depth interview method in gathering the required data. Based on the preliminary survey conducted to 50 people in Surabaya, it is known that Surabaya people are considered novice customers. As such, catfish producers can conduct customer education activities until people want to taste the catfish. The company can add picture, video, and oral information about the benefits in consuming catfish or the nutrition and the certificate of hygienic cultivation system. The producers can provide tester for the catfish and show the customers the comparison between good and bad quality catfish. The producers can also add two more marketing communication activities i.e. events and experiences as well as public relations and publicity. The producers need to use reliable sources in informing the catfish’s nutrition facts such as the certificate of catfish breeder, and certification from BPOM.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Wild Carnivores in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Mónica; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Carmena, David; Mateo, Marta; Balseiro, Ana; Barral, Marta; Lima Barbero, José Francisco; Habela, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-12

    Microsporidia comprises a diverse group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of invertebrates and vertebrates. Among Microsporidia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently detected species in humans and animals worldwide bringing into question the possible role of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen. Although E. bieneusi is an emerging zoonotic pathogen able to infect many domestic and wild mammals that could act as reservoir of infection for humans and other animals, only few studies have documented its occurrence in wild carnivores. To determine the occurrence of E. bieneusi in wild carnivores, we examined 190 wild carnivores collected from different locations in Spain. Twenty-five fecal samples (13.2%) from three host species (European badger, beech marten, and red fox) were E. bieneusi-positive by PCR. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region revealed a high degree of genetic diversity with a total of eight distinct genotypes including four known (PtEbIX, S5, S9, and WildBoar3) and four novel (EbCar1-EbCar4) genotypes identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four novel genotypes (EbCar1-EbCar4), S5, S9, and WildBoar3 clustered within the previously designated zoonotic Group 1. Our results demonstrate that human-pathogenic genotypes are present in wild carnivores, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  9. Isotopic tracking of large carnivore palaeoecology in the mammoth steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-06-01

    Isotopic tracking of carnivore palaeoecology is a relatively new approach that yielded important results for the study of the non-analogue mammoth steppe biome. After describing the prerequisite to apply this approach and the possible complications, the main achievements will be described for extinct carnivore species such as scimitar-tooth cat Homotherium serum, cave lion Panthera spelaea, giant short-faced bear Arctodus simus, cave bear Ursus spelaeus s.l., as well as for ancient representatives of extant species such as brown bear Ursus arctos and wolf Canis lupus. Isotopic tracking showed that scimitar-tooth cats in Alaska were not specialist proboscidean predators but rather generalist consumers of other large herbivores. The majority of cave lions analysed so far were focused on reindeer, some individuals were specialized on cave bears, especially in contexts of competition with cave hyenas. Giant short-faced bears in Alaska were not pure herbivores and consumed meat from reindeer, muskoxen and possibly other predators, but may have still incorporated plant resources in their menu. In contrast, all cave bear populations studied so far for which a clear dietary reconstruction could be done were virtually pure herbivores, only a few cases are still unclear. Interestingly, brown bears used the opposite extreme of the dietary spectrum when competing with other large bears such as cave bears and giant short-faced bears, i.e. were more carnivorous in Europe and more herbivorous in Alaska. Finally wolves seem to have been outcompeted by hyenas but became dominant predators during the Lateglacial in Europe to the expense of the last cave lions. The results obtained through this approach are also relevant for improving conservation strategies of endangered extant large carnivores.

  10. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges, a greater proportion of habitat within their range, greater habitat connectivity and a lower risk of extinction. Species with higher connectivity (i.e. less habitat isolation) also had a greater proportion of high-quality habitat, but had smaller, not larger, ranges, probably reflecting shorter distances between habitat patches for species with restricted distributions; such species were also more threatened, as would be expected given the negative relationship between range size and extinction risk. Fragmentation and connectivity did not differ among Carnivora families, and body mass was associated with connectivity but not fragmentation. On average, only 54.3 per cent of a species' geographical range comprised high-quality habitat, and more troubling, only 5.2 per cent of the range comprised such habitat within protected areas. Identification of global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity will help guide strategic priorities for carnivore conservation. PMID:21844043

  11. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Kevin R; Burdett, Christopher L; Theobald, David M; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-09-27

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges, a greater proportion of habitat within their range, greater habitat connectivity and a lower risk of extinction. Species with higher connectivity (i.e. less habitat isolation) also had a greater proportion of high-quality habitat, but had smaller, not larger, ranges, probably reflecting shorter distances between habitat patches for species with restricted distributions; such species were also more threatened, as would be expected given the negative relationship between range size and extinction risk. Fragmentation and connectivity did not differ among Carnivora families, and body mass was associated with connectivity but not fragmentation. On average, only 54.3 per cent of a species' geographical range comprised high-quality habitat, and more troubling, only 5.2 per cent of the range comprised such habitat within protected areas. Identification of global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity will help guide strategic priorities for carnivore conservation.

  12. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  13. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  14. Modelling disjunct carnivore distributions: the case of the wolf (Canis lupus) in the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, A.M.; Puerto, M.A.; Figueiredo, D.; Real, R.

    2012-01-01

    Book Description: In this book, the authors present current research in the conservation, species and management of carnivores. Topics discussed include the adaptation, impact and management of the raccoon dog in Europe; human perceptions of cougars in Canada and El Salvador; the impact on wildlife conservation of emerging protozoal tick-borne diseases of canids; mitigating conflict between humans and large carnivores in carnivore conservation; the management and conservation of wolves in the...

  15. Energetics and the evolution of carnivorous plants - Darwin's "most wonderful plants in the world"

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Aaron; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    Carnivory has evolved independently at least six times in five angiosperm orders. In spite of these independent origins, there is a remarkable morphological convergence of carnivorous plant traps and physiological convergence of mechanisms for digesting and assimilating prey. These convergent traits have made carnivorous plants model systems for addressing questions in plant molecular genetics, physiology, and evolutionary ecology. New data show that carnivorous plant genera with morpholog...

  16. Locating human-wildlife interactions: landscape constructions andresponses to large carnivore conservation in India and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Sunetro; Skogen, Ketil; Krishnan, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    - People’s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landsc...

  17. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  18. Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between heavy metals in the catfish, Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus , water column and sediments of taylor creek, southern Nigeria. ... Limits, based on an adult body weight of 70 kg and 16 Fish Meals/Month, indicating that consumers of C. nigrodigitatus from the creek may be exposed to neurotoxins. Keywords: ...

  19. Formulation, production and evaluation of floating catfish feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was carried out to compare the performance of catfish fed with four experimental diets; a reference foreign diet (Multifeed) and three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic locally formulated diets with different palm oil contents (1, 2 and 3 liters) coded as Feed 1, Feed 2, Feed 3 and Feed 4 respectively. The growth trial ...

  20. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish,

  1. Food and feeding habits of the catfish, Bagrus docmak (Forsskal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural food of the catfish Bagrus docmak was studied from February 1995 to February 1996 in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia. The stomach contents of a total of 534 fish samples, ranging in size from 33—99 cm fork length (LF) and 500—17400 g in total weight (WT) were investigated. The diet of B. docmak was composed of ...

  2. Growth Rates of Two African Catfishes Osteichthys: ( Clariidae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yields of two African catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) and Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes) in polyculture with Sarotherodon nilotica (Artedi) as trash fish were investigated over a 10 month period. The growth rate of H. longifilis was siginificantly higher (P < 0.05) than of C. gariepinus under identical culture ...

  3. Comparative studies on the growth and survival of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on the growth and survival of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles reared in cages suspended in concrete tank and earthen pond in Umudike, Abia State. E E Oti, C D Nwani. Abstract. No Abstract. Bio-Research Vol. 5 (1) 2007: pp. 210-215. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  4. Catfish Farmers Perception of Training Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    scale with response options; highly satisfied = 2, satisfied = 1 and not satisfied = 0. .... Marketing. 73.8. Preservation. 71.4. Record keeping. 64.3. Respondents' Level of Satisfaction on the Training Conducted. Farmers were satisfied in the following ..... African catfish Clarias gariepinus in sub-Saharan Africa – A handbook.

  5. Performance of Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of boiled mango seed kernel (MSK) as substitute for maize in diets of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings was investigated using four diets were formulated such that T2 , T3 and T4 contained boiled MSK as replacement for maize at 20%, 40% and 60% inclusion levels respectively, while T1 (control) contained ...

  6. Catfish Farmers Perception of Training Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' perception of the effectiveness of University of Nigeria Nsukka-West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme (UNNWAAPP) training on catfish production around the University of Nigeria catchment area in Enugu State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 42 respondents across ...

  7. Dissolved oxygen and aeration in ictalurid catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed-based production of ictalurid catfish in ponds is the largest aquaculture sector in the United States. The feed biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD) typically is 1.1-1.2 kg O2/kg feed. Feed also results in a substantial increase of carbon dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphate to ponds, and this ...

  8. Effect of Rearing Periods on the Production of Hybrid Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerling production of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobanchus longifilis) was investigated over three rearing periods of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks in fertilized earthen ponds during the rainy season. At harvest, fingerling mean weight was directly related to length of rearing period, while survival rate and ...

  9. Occurrence and vulnerability of a giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and some biological characteristics of commercially important giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell, 1837) were studied in Mafia Island from October 2010 to October 2011. Samples were collected from artisanal fishing gear, mainly longlines, sharknets and ringnets, which yielded a total of 2,723 kg ...

  10. Monitoring quantity and quality of striped catfish pond effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Poelman, M.; Bosma, R.H.; Long, N.; Son, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The production of striped catfish and other fish species in ponds has several possible impacts on the environment, one of which is caused by the discharge of pond waste water (effluent), which is enriched with nitrogen and phosphorous compounds as result of feeding and fish faeces. To restrict the

  11. Breeding seasonality and population dynamics of the catfish Schilbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve consecutive months length frequency data (N = 6999) and FiSAT software were used in the study of the dynamics of exploited population the catfish Schilbe mystus in the Cross River Nigeria. Variation in monthly mean gonadosmtic index showed two peaks, March and September and this indicates that the species ...

  12. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  13. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish ( Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic histopathology recorded in livers from feral populations of the brackish water catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from locations on the Lagos lagoon complex with significant anthropogenic inputs from denizen populations and industries are presented. Liver sections from sixty specimens from two locations on the ...

  14. Lip histology of the adult farmed African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip histology of the adult farmed African catfish was investigated to fill the knowledge gap in available literature especially those from commercial concrete tanks. ... The lip epidermis was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing PAS and AB positive mucous cells, and occasional eosinophilic club cells.

  15. Bioaccumulation Of Heavy Metals In The Catfish Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of liquid effluents either untreated or with only primary treatment into Etelebou Creek, a tributary of Taylor Creek has led to the extensive contamination of Taylor Creek by heavy metals. The catfish species, C. nigrodigitatus and other environmental segments were collected from five sites along Taylor Creek, ...

  16. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  17. Survival And Growth Responses Of Frys Of The African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival And Growth Responses Of Frys Of The African Catfish Hybrid ( Clarias gariepinus X Heterobranchus bidorsalis ) To Soluble Dietary Supplements Of ... The dietary treatments were fed to 4-weeks old hybrid of Clarias gariepinus × Heterobranchus bidorsalis (mean weight, 2.10 ± 0.14 g) at 5% body weight per day for ...

  18. Development of microsatellite markers for use in breeding catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 12 loci microsatellite (including di- and tetranucleotides) has been sequenced, using Sanger's method, to obtain complete sequences for fragments between 140 and 200 pb and are currently being used to study the genetic diversity of catfish populations. The populations showed genetic variation with average ...

  19. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    M 2005 Expression of endogenous and exogenous growth hormone (GH) messenger (m) RNA in a GH-transgenic tilapia. (Oreochromis niloticus); Trans. Res. 14 95–104. Christensen J M and Tiersch T R 1997 Cryopreservation of channel catfish spermatozoa: effect of cryoprotectant, straw size, and formulation of extender ...

  20. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, CD81 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD81, also known as the target of an antiproliferative antibody (TAPA) is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immune functions. In this communication, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channen catfish CD81 transcript. The comp...

  1. Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish (Bagrus bayad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    The regression coefficient (b) and correlation ... Malami &Magawata; Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish (Bagrus bayad, Macropterus (Daget) in River Rima ..... Note: The frequency of occurrence and percentages are not equal to number of sample analyzed and 100 respectively, due to multiple occurrences.

  2. Hepatic pathologies in the brackish water catfish (Chrysicthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Several toxicological studies into the effects of aquatic pollutants on the liver of teleost fish exist in literature. The focus on the ... Hepatic histopathology recorded in livers from feral populations of the brackish water catfish. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from locations on the Lagos lagoon complex with significant anthropogenic ...

  3. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and

  4. Cost Characteristics of the African Catfish Culture in Recirculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recirculating fish production technology re-‐uses water more than once by passing it through treatment processes thereby utilizing less water and space required by conventional ponds to produce similar yields of fish. Economic performance of the African catfish in three recirculating fish production facilities in Ibadan ...

  5. Nasal cavity of the farmed african catfish Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nasal cavity microanatomy of farmed fingerlings of African catfish, Clarias gariepunus was investigated to fill existing knowledge gap on its histology from available literatures. This becomes very important as no gustatory cell was reported from previous researches on the fingerling digestive tract. A slice of nasal cavity of ...

  6. 76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...Rulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the online instructions at that site for... for catfish under provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Act (7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624) and regulations... of the order Siluriformes or to limit the definition to members of the family Ictaluridae. II...

  7. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  8. Comperative Study of Woods Type to the Smoked Catfish (Pangasius Hypopthalmus) Flavour

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliandri, Ade; ', Syahrul; ', Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the quality of smoked catfish smoked withdifferent types of woods. The fish weighing 250-300gr each were smoked with hot andliquid smoking method using rambutan wood (Nephelium lappacium) and medang wood(Dcinamouns spp). The smoked catfishes were evaluated for sensory quality, moisture, fenolvalue, acid value and pH. The smoked catfishes which were smoked with rambutan woodwere compared to that smoked with medang wood. The results showed that the smokedcatf...

  9. Consumer Acceptance of Seaweed Ball (Eucheuma Cottonii) Fortified with Catfish Protein Concentrate (Pangasius Hypophthalmus)

    OpenAIRE

    Naibaho, Marianche F; ', Dewita; ', Edison

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate consumer acceptance of seaweed ball fortified with catfish protein concentrate . About 5 kg seaweed was taken from a fish market in Pekanbaru. Three types of seaweed balls were prepared from seaweed flour which was fortificated respectively with 5%, 10%, and 15% catfish protein concentrate. The seaweed balls were evaluated for consumer acceptance and chemical composition. The results indicate that the seaweed balls added with 15% catfish protein concentrate...

  10. Analysis of the catfish (clarias sp. value chain and its problems in Bogor, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Bulkini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the leading freshwater commodities stipulated by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP of the Republic of Indonesia. The annual production target of catfish continues to increase every year. This study aims to analyze the actors and the value chain map of catfish, problems in the value chain of catfish, and the strategies to improve the value chain. This research was conducted by survey method using questionnaire instrument. The survey was done by using purposive sampling technique to 23 catfish farmers, 7 catfish wholesalers, 5 catfish retailers, and 5 catfish processors in Bogor Regency. In this study, there are 4 channels of the value chain of catfish from the production to the consumer. The four actors who are involved in the value chain, namely farmer, wholesaler, retailer, and processor. The constraints along the value chain consist of three aspects: pre-production, production, and post-harvest.  Pre-production problems include thequality of seeds, high price of feed, and lack of capital. Problems on production are the weather, fish mortality, and social security. Problems facing post-production cover price instability and  lack of bargaining power of farmers. Proposed up-grading strategies to improve the competitiveness are strengthening partnership among farmers, strengthening partnerships between farmers and  other strategic partners (traders, and feed companies.

  11. Anaplasmataceae in wild ungulates and carnivores in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, A L; Oporto, B; Espí, A; del Cerro, A; Barral, M; Povedano, I; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A

    2016-03-01

    Wild vertebrates are essential hosts for tick-borne diseases but data on the prevalence and diversity of Anaplasma spp. in wildlife are scarce. In this study, we used real-time PCR to investigate the distribution of Anaplasma species in spleen samples collected from 625 wild animals (137 cervids, 227 wild boar, and 261 carnivores) in two regions in northern Spain. A first generic real-time PCR assay was used to screen for the presence of Anaplasma spp. followed by a second species-specific multiplex real-time PCR or partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for species identification. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was highly prevalent in cervids (64.2%), but it was absent from wild boar and carnivores. Interestingly, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis were not detected in cervids, but Anaplasma centrale was identified in 1 roe deer and 1 red deer, A. bovis in 4 roe deer, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. in one badger. These findings were highly associated with the tick burden identified in the different hosts. Thus, Ixodes ricinus, the recognized vector of A. phagocytophilum in Europe, was the main tick species parasitizing cervids (93.5%, 1674/1791), whereas Dermacentor reticulatus was the most abundant in wild boar (76.1%, 35/46) and Ixodes hexagonus in carnivores (58.4%, 265/454). More investigations are needed to assess the impact of the different Anaplasma species in wildlife and the risk of transmission to domestic animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. S-like ribonuclease gene expression in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Emi; Kawahara, Minako; Kodaira, Reina; Kume, Marina; Arai, Naoki; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Functions of S-like ribonucleases (RNases) differ considerably from those of S-RNases that function in self-incompatibility. Expression of S-like RNases is usually induced by low nutrition, vermin damage or senescence. However, interestingly, an Australian carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (a sundew), which traps prey with a sticky digestive liquid, abundantly secretes an S-like RNase DA-I in the digestive liquid even in ordinary states. Here, using D. adelae, Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) and Cephalotus follicularis (Australian pitcher plant), we show that carnivorous plants use S-like RNases for carnivory: the gene da-I encoding DA-I and its ortholog cf-I of C. follicularis are highly expressed and constitutively active in each trap/digestion organ, while the ortholog dm-I of D. muscipula becomes highly active after trapping insects. The da-I promoter is unmethylated only in its trap/digestion organ, glandular tentacles (which comprise a small percentage of the weight of the whole plant), but methylated in other organs, which explains the glandular tentacles-specific expression of the gene and indicates a very rare gene regulation system. In contrast, the promoters of dm-I, which shows induced expression, and cf-I, which has constitutive expression, were not methylated in any organs examined. Thus, it seems that the regulatory mechanisms of the da-I, dm-I and cf-I genes differ from each other and do not correlate with the phylogenetic relationship. The current study suggests that under environmental pressure in specific habitats carnivorous plants have managed to evolve their S-like RNase genes to function in carnivory.

  13. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penezic, Aleksandra; Selakovic, Sanja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413334600; Pavlovic, Ivan; Cirovic, Dusko

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the

  14. Historical and contemporary distributions of carnivores in forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J Zielinski; Richard L Truex; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Lori A. Campbell; Carlos Caroll

    2005-01-01

    Malammalian carnivores are considered particularly sensitive indicators of environmental change. Information on the distribution of carnivores from the early 1900s provides a unique opportunity to evaluate changes in their distributions over a 75-year period during which the influence of human uses of forest resources in California greatly increased. We present...

  15. Energetics and the evolution of carnivorous plants--Darwin's 'most wonderful plants in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Carnivory has evolved independently at least six times in five angiosperm orders. In spite of these independent origins, there is a remarkable morphological convergence of carnivorous plant traps and physiological convergence of mechanisms for digesting and assimilating prey. These convergent traits have made carnivorous plants model systems for addressing questions in plant molecular genetics, physiology, and evolutionary ecology. New data show that carnivorous plant genera with morphologically complex traps have higher relative rates of gene substitutions than do those with simple sticky traps. This observation suggests two alternative mechanisms for the evolution and diversification of carnivorous plant lineages. The 'energetics hypothesis' posits rapid morphological evolution resulting from a few changes in regulatory genes responsible for meeting the high energetic demands of active traps. The 'predictable prey capture hypothesis' further posits that complex traps yield more predictable and frequent prey captures. To evaluate these hypotheses, available data on the tempo and mode of carnivorous plant evolution were reviewed; patterns of prey capture by carnivorous plants were analysed; and the energetic costs and benefits of botanical carnivory were re-evaluated. Collectively, the data are more supportive of the energetics hypothesis than the predictable prey capture hypothesis. The energetics hypothesis is consistent with a phenomenological cost-benefit model for the evolution of botanical carnivory, and also accounts for data suggesting that carnivorous plants have leaf construction costs and scaling relationships among leaf traits that are substantially different from those of non-carnivorous plants.

  16. The ultrafast valve of an aquatic carnivorous plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmottant, Philippe; Vincent, Olivier; Joyeux, Marc; Quilliet, Catherine; Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Aquatic carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) are plants that catch prey animals with suction traps. Here we present an experimental study with high speed video analyses of the extremely fast trapping movements, and show that suction is performed in less than a millisecond, much faster than previously thought. We reveal how the convex door morphology is optimized for a fast opening and closure, which we confirm by numerical simulations: the trapdoor is an elastic valve that buckles inside (entailing rapid opening) and then unbuckles (entailing rapid closure). These precise and reproducible motions are coupled with a strong suction swirl causing accelerations of up to 600 g, and leaving little escape chances for prey animals.

  17. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  18. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2008-07-01

    We study the rheology of the digestive fluid secreted by the carnivorous pitcher plants Nepenthes rafflesiana and its role in the mechanism of insects trapping. Using a combination of physical measurements (surface tension, wetting properties, extensional and shear rheometry), insects bioessays and high-speed video, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is a highly viscoelastic fluid and that this property is crucial for the retention of insect in its trap. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements (large Deborah numbers).

  19. Effects of egg quality and method of incubation on the hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg quality of stripped eggs from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and method of incubation of fertilized hybrid catfish eggs on hatching success. Stripped eggs from 17 channel catfish females were evaluated in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  20. Relative effectiveness of carp pituitary extract, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog LHRHa injections and LHRHa implants for producing hybrid catfish fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of the hybrid catfish (channel catfish, Ictalruus punctatus, female x blue catfish, I. furcatus, male) is increasing in the catfish industry. The most effective way to produce fry is hormone induced spawning of females coupled with hand stripping and in vitro fertilization. The success of...

  1. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  2. Carnivore repatriation and holarctic prey: narrowing the deficit in ecological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2007-08-01

    The continuing global decline of large carnivores has catalyzed great interest in reintroduction to restore populations and to reestablish ecologically functional relationships. I used variation in the distribution of four Holarctic prey species and their behavior as proxies to investigate the pace and intensity by which responses are lost or reinvigorated by carnivore repatriation. By simulating the presence of wolves (Canis lupus), tigers (Panthera tigris), and brown bears (Ursus arctos) at 19 transcontinental sites, I assayed three metrics of prey performance in areas with no large terrestrial carnivores (the polar islands of Greenland and Svalbard), extant native carnivores (Eastern Siberian Shield, boreal Canada, and Alaska); and repatriated carnivores (the Yellowstone region and Rocky Mountains). The loss and reestablishment of large carnivores changed the ecological effectiveness of systems by (1) dampening immediate group benefits, diminishing awareness, and diminishing flight reaction in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) where predation was eliminated and (2) reinstituting sensitivity to carnivores by elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) in the Yellowstone region to levels observed in Asian elk when sympatric with Siberian tigers and wolves or in Alaskan moose sympatric with wolves. Behavioral compensation to reintroduced carnivores occurred within a single generation, but only the vigilance reaction of bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone exceeded that of their wolf-exposed conspecifics from boreal Canada. Beyond these overt responses by prey, snow depth and distance to suitably vegetated habitat was related to heightened vigilance in moose and elk, respectively, but only at sites with carnivores. These findings are insufficient to determine whether similar patterns might apply to other species or in areas with alien predators, and they suggest that the presumed excessive vulnerability of naïve prey to repatriated carnivores may be ill-founded. Although

  3. Channel catfish response to ultraviolet-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, M.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Kocan, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus exposed to simulated ultraviolet-B radiation at an average daily dose of 2.9 J/cm2 were quite sensitive to the radiation. After a 24-h exposure, thinning of the most dorsal epidermis frequently was accompanied by edema. Compared with epidermis of unexposed fish, mucous cells in exposed fish were less superficial and club cells were less numerous both dorsally and high on the lateral surface of the body. Sunburn cells with pyknotic nuclei were evident in the epidermis of exposed fish. Among fish exposed for 48 h, focal necrosis and sloughing of the outer epidermal layer were widespread. A methanol-extractable skin substance that is associated with resistance to sunburn in other fish species was not detected in channel catfish.

  4. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  5. Bacteriocin production by indigenous marine catfish associated Vibrio spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Arsalan Saeed; Ahmad, Samia; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2009-04-01

    Fifty strains of genus Vibrio were isolated (identified) from healthy and diseased marine catfish(es). The isolates were screened for bacteriocin (vibriocin) production. About 32% isolates were found bacteriocin producers. The best producer was identified as Vibrio anguillarum AVP10. The maximum production of vibriocin AVP10 was manifested at 29 degrees C at pH 7, after 18-20 h of incubation. Vibriocin activity was enhanced in the presence of citrate-phosphate buffer. The vibriocin AVP10 withstands autoclaving temperature and showed activity even after prolonged chloroform treatment. Proteolytic enzymes inhibited its activity, while lipolytic enzyme had no effect. It was found bioactive only against intrageneric bacterial strains. Mode of action of vibriocin AVP10 varies with the indicator (sensitive) culture used i.e. bactericidal effects was exerted against V. anguillarum AVS9 while bacteriostatic effect was shown against entero-toxigenic E. coli.

  6. [Helicobacter infections of man and of domestic carnivores: comparative data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoindre, P; Chevalier, M; Peyrol, S; Boude, M; Labigne, A; Lamouliatte, H; Pilet, C

    1997-03-18

    The role of Helicobacter pylori in generating of the chronic gastritis and in the maintaining of the gastroduodenal ulcerous disease, has been a major medical discovery of these past years in human gastroenterology. More recently in Man, studies have showed that the gastric tumours (adenocarcinoma, lymphoma) are epidemiologically associated with the H. pylori infection. Although the H. pylori infection is the one of the most frequent in the word, the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects of this infections are still not very well known. Thanks to phylogenic studies using the new molecular biology techniques and to fundamental experimental studies, we know more about helicobacteria in domestic carnivores as well as their morphologic characteristic, their taxonomia and more importantly details concerning their ecological niche. Few clinical studies have been made to this day, but the ones that have been undertaken are interesting in confirming the extensive prevalence of Helicobacter infections in domestic carnivores and in underlining their role in the genesis of the inflammatory gastropathies observed in these species. Recent observations have demonstrated the ubiquitous character of these helicobacteria by showing their presence in the stomach of man, dogs and cats. This ubiquitous character has led some scientists to consider the potential zoonotic risk of the human infection by Helicobacter heilmannii, felis or pylori. Finally, the Helicobacter infection of animals seems to be an interesting model not only in the study of the affections caused by these bacteria, but also in the elaboration of a future vaccine against the H. pylori infection in man.

  7. Predicting carnivore occurrence with noninvasive surveys and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, Therese M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial carnivores typically have large home ranges and exist at low population densities, thus presenting challenges to wildlife researchers. We employed multiple, noninvasive survey methods—scat detection dogs, remote cameras, and hair snares—to collect detection–nondetection data for elusive American black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus) throughout the rugged Vermont landscape. We analyzed these data using occupancy modeling that explicitly incorporated detectability as well as habitat and landscape variables. For black bears, percentage of forested land within 5 km of survey sites was an important positive predictor of occupancy, and percentage of human developed land within 5 km was a negative predictor. Although the relationship was less clear for bobcats, occupancy appeared positively related to the percentage of both mixed forest and forested wetland habitat within 1 km of survey sites. The relationship between specific covariates and fisher occupancy was unclear, with no specific habitat or landscape variables directly related to occupancy. For all species, we used model averaging to predict occurrence across the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of our black bear and fisher models suggested that occupancy modeling efforts with data from noninvasive surveys could be useful for carnivore conservation and management, as they provide insights into habitat use at the regional and landscape scale without requiring capture or direct observation of study species.

  8. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  9. Reproductive ecology of the carnivorous plant Pinguicula moranensis (Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, S G; Alcalá, R E

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of plants with pollinators can be a determinant of their reproductive fitness. However, information about the pollination biology of carnivorous plants is scarce. To increase knowledge of reproductive ecology of carnivorous plants we focused on Pinguicula moranensis. Specifically, based on the presence of large, zygomorphic and spurred flowers, we predicted higher reproductive fitness in cross-pollinated than in self-pollinated flowers. Within a plot of 51 m 2 we characterised the reproductive phenology, including flower lifespan and stigmatic receptivity. We identified pollinators and their movement patterns within the plot. Breeding system was experimentally evaluated using hand-pollination (i.e. autonomous, self- and cross-pollination). Flowers of P. moranensis were visited by long-tongued pollinators, mainly members of the Lepidoptera. Hand-pollination experiments confirmed our prediction and suggest that flower traits might favour cross-pollination. We mainly discuss the implications of the patchy distribution of plants and behaviour of pollinators on gene movement in this plant species, as pollination between genetically related individuals could be occurring. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Carnivorous pitcher plants: insights in an old topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-09-01

    Plant insect interactions are usually recognized as a scenario where herbivorous insects feed on a host plant. However, also the opposite situation is known, where plants feed on insects. Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes as well as other pitcher plants obtain many nutrients from caught insect prey. Special features of the pitcher traps' surface are responsible for attraction and trapping insects. Once caught, the prey is digested in the fluid of the pitchers to release nutrients and make them available for the plant. Nutrients are taken up by special glands localized on the inner surface of the pitchers. These glands also secrete the hydrolyzing enzymes into the digestion fluid. Although this is known for more than 100 years, our knowledge of the pitcher fluid composition is still limited. Only in recent years some enzymes have been purified from the pitcher fluid and their corresponding genes could be identified. Among them, many pathogenesis-related proteins have been identified, most of which exhibiting hydrolytic activities. The role of these proteins as well as the role of secondary metabolites, which have been identified in the pitcher fluid, is discussed in general and in the context of further studies on carnivorous plants that might give answers to basic questions in plant biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coprophagous features in carnivorous Nepenthes plants: a task for ureases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Zhu, Anting; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Bartram, Stefan; Witte, Claus-Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Hasabe, Mitsuyasu; Schöner, Caroline R; Schöner, Michael G; Kerth, Gerald; Carlini, Célia R; Mithöfer, Axel

    2017-09-14

    Most terrestrial carnivorous plants are specialized on insect prey digestion to obtain additional nutrients. Few species of the genus Nepenthes developed mutualistic relationships with mammals for nitrogen supplementation. Whether dietary changes require certain enzymatic composition to utilize new sources of nutrients has rarely been tested. Here, we investigated the role of urease for Nepenthes hemsleyana that gains nitrogen from the bat Kerivoula hardwickii while it roosts inside the pitchers. We hypothesized that N. hemsleyana is able to use urea from the bats' excrements. In fact, we demonstrate that 15 N-enriched urea provided to Nepenthes pitchers is metabolized and its nitrogen is distributed within the plant. As ureases are necessary to degrade urea, these hydrolytic enzymes should be involved. We proved the presence and enzymatic activity of a urease for Nepenthes plant tissues. The corresponding urease cDNA from N. hemsleyana was isolated and functionally expressed. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for eukaryotic ureases, including Nepenthes and five other carnivorous plants' taxa, identified them as canonical ureases and reflects the plant phylogeny. Hence, this study reveals ureases as an emblematic example for an efficient, low-cost but high adaptive plasticity in plants while developing a further specialized lifestyle from carnivory to coprophagy.

  12. Histopathological changes in the Brain Tissue of Africa Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty normal post juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) of both sexes with a mean weight of 135.44±1.99 g and mean length of 28.32±0.844 cm were purchased from Osayi farm. They were kept in 60 l aquaria at 27.5±0.4 ◦C, pH 7.3, with 12:12 h photoperiod, well aerated, provided with external filtration ...

  13. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Wilson, M.D.; Hammond, R.A.; Uribe, R.; Mizner, A.A.

    1985-02-01

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  14. Characterization of anti-channel catfish MHC class II monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterizes four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) developed against the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II beta chain of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Immunoprecipitations using catfish clonal B cells revealed that each of these mAbs immunoselected proteins of appro...

  15. Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out over a period of 10 weeks to investigate the influence of culture water draw-‐off on growth and feed utilization of the African catfish. Two similar fish culture tanks (designated A and B) were stocked with juveniles of African catfish at 43 fish per m3. The fish were fed twice daily at 3 % body ...

  16. cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in aba south local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. ... within active working age of 37 years. About 72% of the marketers were married, and 93.3% of them had formal education. The marketing of catfish was found to ... Efficiency in marketing system is essential for.

  17. EFFECT OF CATFISH PRODUCTION ON WELFARE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Olanike Alawode

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of catfish production on smallholder farmers’ welfare in Osun State, Nigeria using the Odo-Otin Local Government Area of Osun State as a case study. A purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 109 farmers and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and a multiple regression model were used to analyse data. Results show that the majority (67.9% of the catfish farmers were male, married (64.2%, with s mean age of 44 years (±13.1, and more than three-quarters (78.9% had tertiary education. The majority of the catfish farmers (85.3% raised fish to table size (grow-out and 55.0% used static renewal technology. The average gross margin of ₦172,246 ($545 per production season (5–6 months and BCR of 1.66 indicate that catfish farming is profitable and feasible. Regression results indicate that cost of feed and quantity of catfish harvested significantly increase the quantity of catfish sold, and quantities of catfish harvested and sold significantly increase food expenditure by farmers. Therefore, farm inputs (especially feed should be subsidised by governments to encourage effective use of inputs to increase catfish production and subsequently, the welfare of farmers. Also, effort should be intensified at building the capacity of the farmers through education so as to enhance the adoption of technology which would invariably translate to better yields and income.

  18. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  19. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  20. Diseases, Pathology and Recent Developments in US Farm-Raised Catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and now hybrid catfish (I. punctatus x I. furcatus) have been the most economically important aquaculture species in the United States for many years. As such, they continue to be of considerable research interest. The focus of this presentation concerns some re...

  1. The use of copper sulfate in catfish hatcheries: safety and effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is cheap, safe to the applicator and effective for controlling fungus on catfish eggs. Several studies were designed to determine the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit of an FDA approval. In an effectiveness study for the FDA, we found that ...

  2. Egg quality in fish: pH of stripped eggs can predict catfish hatching success

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of measuring the pH of stripped unfertilized channel catfish eggs to predict the hatching success of channel x blue hybrid catfish eggs. A significant correlation was established between the ovarian fluid pH of stripped eggs and subsequent hatch...

  3. The use of copper sulfate in channel catfish hatcheries: Safety and effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs and is widely used by the industry. Several studies were designed to determine the effectiveness and safety of CuSO4 to channel catfish eggs in pursuit of an FDA-approval. Effectiveness:...

  4. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1882) fry were cultured at three different stocking densities in net hapas (submerged volume 0.75 m3) suspended in an outdoor concrete tank of the Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Catfish fry (mean weight 0.12 ± 0.10 g) were ...

  5. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  6. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  7. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After 15 days, both crayfish and ...

  8. Effects of age and stocking density on the welfare of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Olwo, J.; Khong, S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Information on the effects of stocking density, especially on later life stages of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the influence of density on the welfare of juvenile African catfish in a growth stage of 100–1500 g.

  9. The effect of bleeding on the quality of farmed African catfish in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most local fish consumers dislike African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) because of its redflesh colouration in spite of the decliningper capita fish consumption. The present study tested the bleeding effect and keeping quality of catfish. Farmed catfish, 60 in number were divided into four batches, consisting of 15 fish each.

  10. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  11. Pectoral sound generation in the blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Yasha; Ghahramani, Zachary; Fine, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Catfishes produce pectoral stridulatory sounds by "jerk" movements that rub ridges on the dorsal process against the cleithrum. We recorded sound synchronized with high-speed video to investigate the hypothesis that blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus produce sounds by a slip-stick mechanism, previously described only in invertebrates. Blue catfish produce a variably paced series of sound pulses during abduction sweeps (pulsers) although some individuals (sliders) form longer duration sound units (slides) interspersed with pulses. Typical pulser sounds are evoked by short 1-2 ms movements with a rotation of 2°-3°. Jerks excite sounds that increase in amplitude after motion stops, suggesting constructive interference, which decays before the next jerk. Longer contact of the ridges produces a more steady-state sound in slides. Pulse pattern during stridulation is determined by pauses without movement: the spine moves during about 14 % of the abduction sweep in pulsers (~45 % in sliders) although movement appears continuous to the human eye. Spine rotation parameters do not predict pulse amplitude, but amplitude correlates with pause duration suggesting that force between the dorsal process and cleithrum increases with longer pauses. Sound production, stimulated by a series of rapid movements that set the pectoral girdle into resonance, is caused by a slip-stick mechanism.

  12. Remote camera-trap methods and analyses reveal impacts of rangeland management on Namibian carnivore communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, M.J.; Sanjayan, M.; Lowenstein, J.; Nelson, A.; Jeo, R.M.; Crooks, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the abundance and distribution of mammalian carnivores is vital for understanding their ecology and providing for their long-term conservation. Because of the difficulty of trapping and handling carnivores many studies have relied on abundance indices that may not accurately reflect real abundance and distribution patterns. We developed statistical analyses that detect spatial correlation in visitation data from combined scent station and camera-trap surveys, and we illustrate how to use such data to make inferences about changes in carnivore assemblages. As a case study we compared the carnivore communities of adjacent communal and freehold rangelands in central Namibia. We used an index of overdispersion to test for repeat visits to individual camera-trap scent stations and a bootstrap simulation to test for correlations in visits to camera neighbourhoods. After distilling our presence-absence data to the most defensible spatial scale, we assessed overall carnivore visitation using logistic regression. Our analyses confirmed the expected pattern of a depauparate fauna on the communal rangelands compared to the freehold rangelands. Additionally, the species that were not detected on communal sites were the larger-bodied carnivores. By modelling these rare visits as a Poisson process we illustrate a method of inferring whether or not such patterns are because of local extinction of species or are simply a result of low sample effort. Our Namibian case study indicates that these field methods and analyses can detect meaningful differences in the carnivore communities brought about by anthropogenic influences. ?? 2007 FFI.

  13. Evaluating the adaptive evolutionary convergence of carnivorous plant taxa through functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Gregory L; Carstens, Bryan C

    2018-01-01

    Carnivorous plants are striking examples of evolutionary convergence, displaying complex and often highly similar adaptations despite lack of shared ancestry. Using available carnivorous plant genomes along with non-carnivorous reference taxa, this study examines the convergence of functional overrepresentation of genes previously implicated in plant carnivory. Gene Ontology (GO) coding was used to quantitatively score functional representation in these taxa, in terms of proportion of carnivory-associated functions relative to all functional sequence. Statistical analysis revealed that, in carnivorous plants as a group, only two of the 24 functions tested showed a signal of substantial overrepresentation. However, when the four carnivorous taxa were analyzed individually, 11 functions were found to be significant in at least one taxon. Though carnivorous plants collectively may show overrepresentation in functions from the predicted set, the specific functions that are overrepresented vary substantially from taxon to taxon. While it is possible that some functions serve a similar practical purpose such that one taxon does not need to utilize both to achieve the same result, it appears that there are multiple approaches for the evolution of carnivorous function in plant genomes. Our approach could be applied to tests of functional convergence in other systems provided on the availability of genomes and annotation data for a group.

  14. Evaluating the adaptive evolutionary convergence of carnivorous plant taxa through functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Wheeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants are striking examples of evolutionary convergence, displaying complex and often highly similar adaptations despite lack of shared ancestry. Using available carnivorous plant genomes along with non-carnivorous reference taxa, this study examines the convergence of functional overrepresentation of genes previously implicated in plant carnivory. Gene Ontology (GO coding was used to quantitatively score functional representation in these taxa, in terms of proportion of carnivory-associated functions relative to all functional sequence. Statistical analysis revealed that, in carnivorous plants as a group, only two of the 24 functions tested showed a signal of substantial overrepresentation. However, when the four carnivorous taxa were analyzed individually, 11 functions were found to be significant in at least one taxon. Though carnivorous plants collectively may show overrepresentation in functions from the predicted set, the specific functions that are overrepresented vary substantially from taxon to taxon. While it is possible that some functions serve a similar practical purpose such that one taxon does not need to utilize both to achieve the same result, it appears that there are multiple approaches for the evolution of carnivorous function in plant genomes. Our approach could be applied to tests of functional convergence in other systems provided on the availability of genomes and annotation data for a group.

  15. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mark Elbroch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Methods Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf, two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx. We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. Results We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5% of their 22,735,268 km2 range across North and South America. Discussion Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands

  16. Are pumas subordinate carnivores, and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Kusler, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management. Pumas are a widespread solitary felid heavily regulated through hunting to reduce conflicts with livestock and people. Across their range, pumas overlap with six apex predators (gray wolf, grizzly bear, American black bear, jaguar, coyote, maned wolf), two of which (gray wolf, grizzly bear) are currently expanding in North America following recovery efforts. We conducted a literature search to assess whether pumas were subordinate or dominant with sympatric apex predators, as well as with three felid mesocarnivores with similar ecology (ocelot, bobcat, Canada lynx). We also conducted an analysis of the spatial distributions of pumas and their dominant sympatric competitors to estimate in what part of their range, pumas are dominant versus subordinate. We used 64 sources to assess dominance among pumas and other apex predators, and 13 sources to assess their relationships with felid mesocarnivores. Evidence suggested that wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and jaguars are dominant over pumas, but that pumas are dominant over coyotes and maned wolves. Evidence suggested that pumas are also dominant over all three felid mesocarnivores with which they share range. More broadly, pumas are subordinate to at least one other apex carnivore in 10,799,252 (47.5%) of their 22,735,268 km 2 range across North and South America. Subordinate pumas change their habitat use, suffer displacement at food sources, likely experience increased energetic demands from harassment, exhibit increased starvation, and

  17. Total Mercury in Carnivorous Fish from Brazilian Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M S; Marques, A N; Ribeiro, R O R; Conte, C A; Carneiro, C S; Santelli, R E; Freire, A S; São Clemente, S C; Mársico, E T

    2015-07-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of two commercially important species of carnivorous fishes croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) caught in Itaipu estuary, Rio de Janeiro. In this study, whitemouth croaker presented more mercury than Atlantic cutlassfish. Bioaccumulation differences can be explained by the biological behavior of juveniles whitemouth croaker, that remain in the estuary up to maturity, which makes them good indicators of local environmental impacts (0.110 mg Kg(-1) HgT). It also can be explained by differences in nutritional requirements between the different life stages of two species. The analysis showed the presence of low levels of the metal. However, our results suggest a possible risk to human health, depending on the level of fish consumption.

  18. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Oki Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  19. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  20. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.

  1. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K Ullas; Nichols, James D; Kumar, N Samba; Link, William A; Hines, James E

    2004-04-06

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Ellison

    Full Text Available The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44-53 million years ago (Mya (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya. By 25-44 (HPD = 35 Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America. This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14-32 (HPD = 23 Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2-7, HPD = 4 Mya; the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation

  3. European catfish (Silurus glanis) as a freshwater apex predator drives ecosystem via its diet adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Vejříková, Ivana; Blabolil, Petr; Eloranta, Antti P; Kočvara, Luboš; Peterka, Jiří; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Chung, Son Hoang The; Šmejkal, Marek; Kiljunen, Mikko; Čech, Martin

    2017-11-21

    Apex predators play a key role in ecosystem stability across environments but their numbers in general are decreasing. By contrast, European catfish (Silurus glanis), the European freshwater apex predator, is on the increase. However, studies concerning apex predators in freshwaters are scarce in comparison to those in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The present study combines stomach content and stable isotope analyses with diet preferences of catfish to reveal its impact on the ecosystem since stocking. Catfish niche width is extremely wide in comparison to the typical model predator, Northern pike (Esox lucius). Catfish and pike have different individual dietary specialization that results in different functional roles in coupling or compartmentalizing distinct food webs. The role of both species in the ecosystem is irreplaceable due to multiple predator effects. The impact of catfish is apparent across the entire aquatic ecosystem, but herbivores are the most affected ecological group. The key feature of catfish, and probably a common feature of apex predators in general, is utilization of several dietary strategies by individuals within a population: long-term generalism or specialization and also short-term specialization. Catfish, similar to other large-bodied apex predators, have two typical features: enormous generalism and adaptability to new prey sources.

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Kazeto, Yukinori; Trant, John M

    2009-05-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors (TSHRs) are primarily expressed in the thyroid of vertebrates, however recently, transcripts encoding TSHR have been found abundantly in the gonads in a variety of fish species. The purpose of this study is to characterize the channel catfish TSHR and to examine whether the transcript are translated into protein in the gonad or store the transcript as maternal RNA for later use. The cDNA encoding the TSHR was isolated from the channel catfish thyroid but the transcript was determined to be expressed in a number of tissues, including the gonads. In fact, the ovarian expression of TSHR changed significantly during the reproductive season and peaked after the vitellogenic growth phase. Furthermore, the TSHR transcript was also detected in unfertilized eggs but not in fertilized egg of catfish. LM-PAT analysis demonstrated that catfish TSHR transcripts were fully polyadenylated in thyroidal follicles, gonads and unfertilized eggs suggesting that they were translated into protein opposed to being "stored mRNA". Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against the catfish TSHR verified this assumption by visualizing immunoreactive protein in the thyroid, testis, and the post-vitellogenic ovary in abundance. A functional assay clearly showed that the recombinant catfish TSHR was specifically activated by bovine TSH but not by recombinant catfish follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). As in other species, the heterologous gonadotropin, hCG, partially activated the receptor. These results suggested that TSHR plays important roles for gametogenesis rather than embryogenesis.

  5. Large-scale evaluation of carnivore road mortality: the effect of landscape and local scale characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, J.; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.; Šálek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 233-243 ISSN 2199-2401 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Landscape characteristics * Linear structures * Local characteristics * Road mortality * Temporal pattern Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard

  7. Feeding on prey increases photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlovič, A.; Krausko, M.; Libiaková, M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 69-78 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carnivorous plants * fruit flies * digestive enzymes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  8. Production of viable homozygous, doubled haploid channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Bosworth, Brian G; Quiniou, Sylvie M A

    2010-08-01

    Production of doubled haploids via mitotic gynogenesis is a useful tool for the creation of completely inbred fish. In order to produce viable doubled haploid channel catfish, we utilized hydrostatic pressure or thermal treatments on eggs fertilized with sperm that had been exposed to ultraviolet light. At 1.5 h post-fertilization, the embryos were exposed to either 590 kg/cm(2) hydrostatic pressure for 3 min, 37 degrees C for 5 min, or 41 degrees C for 3 min. In the pressure-treated group, only 21 offspring hatched from five spawns with family sizes of one, two, two, four, and 12 offspring each. Eight embryos from the 37 degrees C treatment and 32 embryos from the 41 degrees C treatment survived to hatch. Genotype analysis using microsatellite loci demonstrated all 21 offspring resulting from pressure treatment were homozygous at the 64 loci tested, and none contained alleles unique to the donor male. Eleven of 32 offspring from the 41 degrees C treatment were homozygous at the 18 loci tested, while 21 offspring were heterozygous at six to 12 of these loci. Again, no offspring contained alleles unique to the donor male. However, all eight offspring from the 37 degrees C treatment were heterozygous at multiple loci, and one contained unambiguous paternal alleles. These experiments demonstrated our ability to produce viable homozygous, doubled haploid channel catfish. Doubled haploid catfish can be used to create completely inbred populations for genetic analyses, and homozygous genomic templates will be useful in gene identification and genome characterization.

  9. Chromosomal rearrangements and karyotype evolution in carnivores revealed by chromosome painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, W; Wang, J; Su, W; Wang, D; Tanomtong, A; Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Yang, F

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal evolution in carnivores has been revisited extensively using cross-species chromosome painting. Painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of the domestic dog, which has one of the most rearranged karyotypes in mammals and the highest dipoid number (2n=78) in carnivores, are a powerful tool in detecting both evolutionary intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. However, only a few comparative maps have been established between dog and other non-Canidae species. Here, we extended cross-species painting with dog probes to seven more species representing six carnivore families: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the stone marten (Martes foina), the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica), the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites), Javan mongoose (Hepestes javanicas), the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The numbers and positions of intra-chromosomal rearrangements were found to differ among these carnivore species. A comparative map between human and stone marten, and a map among the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), stone marten and human were also established to facilitate outgroup comparison and to integrate comparative maps between stone marten and other carnivores with such maps between human and other species. These comparative maps give further insight into genome evolution and karyotype phylogenetic relationships among carnivores, and will facilitate the transfer of gene mapping data from human, domestic dog and cat to other species. PMID:22086079

  10. Spatio-temporal interactions facilitate large carnivore sympatry across a resource gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K. Ullas; Srivathsa, Arjun; Puri, Mahi; Parameshwaran, Ravishankar; Kumar, N. Samba

    2017-01-01

    Species within a guild vary their use of time, space and resources, thereby enabling sympatry. As intra-guild competition intensifies, such behavioural adaptations may become prominent. We assessed mechanisms of facilitating sympatry among dhole (Cuon alpinus), leopard (Panthera pardus) and tiger (Panthera tigris) in tropical forests of India using camera-trap surveys. We examined population-level temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal segregation among them across four reserves representing a gradient of carnivore and prey densities. Temporal and spatial overlaps were higher at lower prey densities. Combined spatio-temporal overlap was minimal, possibly due to chance. We found fine-scale avoidance behaviours at one high-density reserve. Our results suggest that: (i) patterns of spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal segregation in sympatric carnivores do not necessarily mirror each other; (ii) carnivores are likely to adopt temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal segregation as alternative mechanisms to facilitate sympatry; and (iii) carnivores show adaptability across a gradient of resource availability, a driver of inter-species competition. We discuss behavioural mechanisms that permit carnivores to co-occupy rather than dominate functional niches, and adaptations to varying intensities of competition that are likely to shape structure and dynamics of carnivore guilds. PMID:28179511

  11. Road Killed Carnivores Illustrate the Status of Zoonotic Helminthes in Caspian Sea Littoral of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida VAFAE ESLAHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran.Methods: Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs (Canis familiaris, 11 golden jackals (Canis aureus and 12 stray cats (Felis catus were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation.Results: About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66% were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonine, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophyma renale, Dipylidum caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Mesocestoides spp., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera, Joyuxiella spp., Spirometra spp. are reported herein.Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, E. granulosus, D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province.

  12. Spatio-temporal interactions facilitate large carnivore sympatry across a resource gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K Ullas; Srivathsa, Arjun; Vasudev, Divya; Puri, Mahi; Parameshwaran, Ravishankar; Kumar, N Samba

    2017-02-08

    Species within a guild vary their use of time, space and resources, thereby enabling sympatry. As intra-guild competition intensifies, such behavioural adaptations may become prominent. We assessed mechanisms of facilitating sympatry among dhole ( Cuon alpinus ), leopard ( Panthera pardus ) and tiger ( Panthera tigris ) in tropical forests of India using camera-trap surveys. We examined population-level temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal segregation among them across four reserves representing a gradient of carnivore and prey densities. Temporal and spatial overlaps were higher at lower prey densities. Combined spatio-temporal overlap was minimal, possibly due to chance. We found fine-scale avoidance behaviours at one high-density reserve. Our results suggest that: (i) patterns of spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal segregation in sympatric carnivores do not necessarily mirror each other; (ii) carnivores are likely to adopt temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal segregation as alternative mechanisms to facilitate sympatry; and (iii) carnivores show adaptability across a gradient of resource availability, a driver of inter-species competition. We discuss behavioural mechanisms that permit carnivores to co-occupy rather than dominate functional niches, and adaptations to varying intensities of competition that are likely to shape structure and dynamics of carnivore guilds. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Locomotor adaptations in Plio-Pleistocene large carnivores from the Italian Peninsula: Palaeoecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo MELORO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian carnivores are rarely considered for environmental reconstructions because they are extremely adaptable and their geographic range is usually large. However, the functional morphology of carnivore long bones can be indicative of locomotor behaviour as well as adaptation to specific kind of habitats. Here, different long bone ratios belonging to a subsample of extant large carnivores are used to infer palaeoecology of a comparative sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossils belonging to Italian paleo-communities. A multivariate long bone shape space reveals similarities between extant and fossil carnivores and multiple logistic regression models suggest that specific indices (the brachial and the Mt/F can be applied to predict adaptations to grassland and tropical biomes. These functional indices exhibit also a phylogenetic signal to different degree. The brachial index is a significant predictor of adaptations to tropical biomes when phylogeny is taken into account, while Mt/F is not correlated anymore to habitat adaptations. However, the proportion of grassland-adapted carnivores in Italian paleo-communities exhibits a negative relationship with mean oxygen isotopic values, which are indicative of past climatic oscillations. As climate became more unstable during the Ice Ages, large carnivore guilds from the Italian peninsula were invaded by tropical/closed-adapted species. These species take advantage of the temperate forest cover that was more spread after 1.0 Ma than in the initial phase of the Quaternary (2.0 Ma when the climate was more arid [Current Zoology 57 (3: 269–283, 2011].

  14. Construction costs, payback times, and the leaf economics of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D; Ellison, Aaron M

    2009-09-01

    Understanding how different plant species and functional types "invest" carbon and nutrients is a major goal of plant ecologists. Two measures of such investments are "construction costs" (carbon needed to produce each gram of tissue) and associated "payback times" for photosynthesis to recover construction costs. These measurements integrate among traits used to assess leaf-trait scaling relationships. Carnivorous plants are model systems for examining mechanisms of leaf-trait coordination, but no studies have measured simultaneously construction costs of carnivorous traps and their photosynthetic rates to determine payback times of traps. We measured mass-based construction costs (CC(mass)) and photosynthesis (A(mass)) for traps, leaves, roots, and rhizomes of 15 carnivorous plant species grown under greenhouse conditions. There were highly significant differences among species in CC(mass) for each structure. Mean CC(mass) of carnivorous traps (1.14 ± 0.24 g glucose/g dry mass) was significantly lower than CC(mass) of leaves of 267 noncarnivorous plant species (1.47 ± 0.17), but all carnivorous plants examined had very low A(mass) and thus, long payback times (495-1551 h). Our results provide the first clear estimates of the marginal benefits of botanical carnivory and place carnivorous plants at the "slow and tough" end of the universal spectrum of leaf traits.

  15. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  16. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brainstem acoustic areas in the marine catfish, Arius felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C A

    2001-03-01

    The marine catfish Arius felis produces low frequency sounds for communication and obstacle detection. It was hypothesized that the utriculus of the inner ear might play an important role in these behaviors. In the current study, brainstem acoustic areas were studied to reveal possible neuroanatomical specializations in utricular processing areas. The first-order octaval nuclei in Arius were identical in number, anatomical characteristics, and organization of saccular, lagenar, and utricular inputs to previous reports of these features in Ictalurus, a closely related species of catfish that does not exhibit the specialized acoustic behaviors present in Arius. Similarly, injections of neural tracer in the acoustic midbrain (nucleus centralis) of Arius revealed afferent and retrograde pathways almost identical to those previously reported in Ictalurus. It is suggested that areas within the primary and higher-order octaval nuclei that utilize utricular input in acoustic processing are likely identical in Arius and Ictalurus. Two sets of higher-order connections in Arius differ from those in Ictalurus. First, Arius apparently lacks the direct input from the anterior octaval nucleus to nucleus centralis reported in Ictalurus. Second, in Arius nucleus centralis projects bilaterally to a strip of neurons positioned ventral to the ventral boundary of the torus semicircularis. This projection is apparently absent in Ictalurus and in the related species Carassius (goldfish), but has been previously reported in Porichthyes, a sound-producing species belonging to a different teleost taxon. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Immunization with viral antigens: viral diseases of carp and catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P

    1997-01-01

    The viral diseases of carp and catfish for which vaccines have been produced are spring viraemia of carp (SVC), grass carp haemorrhage disease (GCHD) and channel catfish virus disease (CCVD). Field trials of a commercially produced injectable vaccine conducted over several years have shown that carp can be protected against SVC. However the supporting data were predominantly qualitative rather than quantitative. Large-scale field trials of an experimental oral attenuated vaccine against SVC virus over a five year period were successful, and no reversion to virulence of the vaccine was recorded. Injectable inactivated and attenuated vaccines against GCHD have predominantly been tested under laboratory conditions, although a small number of field trials have been reported. In such trials of bath and injectable vaccines, survival rates of 50-90% were achieved. In China, commercially available vaccines are being used against GCHD. Only laboratory trials of vaccines against CCVD have been reported. Bath vaccination of eggs of fry with a subunit vaccine and bath immunisation of fingerlings with an attenuated virus vaccine have been successful. Problems with current approaches and areas for research are discussed.

  19. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

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    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  20. Improving sustainability of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam through recirculation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to document improvements in sustainability indicators of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) production through the application of recirculation and waste treatment techniques. To be able to document improvements in sustainability, in each system

  1. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  2. Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Extraction Yield and Quality of Catfish Oil in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimsook Thitiphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave pretreatment of catfish processing waste on oil recovery and quality was investigated. Fish oil was extracted using the enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase enzyme after the microwave pretreatment. The effect of microwave power and microwave pretreatment times was evaluated. The results revealed that a highest yield of 9.25% when catfish waste was treated at 110 W for 60 s. This condition was found as the most appropriate condition of microwave pretreatment since it decreased the extraction time from 150 min to up to 30 min. Analysis of oil quality indices (e.g. acid value, p-anisidine value, peroxide value extracted by microwave pretreatment and non-pretreatment indicated that catfish oil from both processes has comparatively similar fatty acids composition. In addition, catfish oil was extracted by microwave pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis had lower lipid oxidation compared to several standards.

  3. Draft genome sequences of three Aeromonas hybrophila isolates from catfish and tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacteria that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates....

  4. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronje, Errol I; Barry, Kevin P; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A; Barros, Nélio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis) were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins, facilitating

  5. Analysis Of Masamo Catfish Marketing By Analytical Approach At Farmer Group “Sumber Lancar”, Blimbing, Malang City

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Zainal; Handayani, Wahyu; Fattah, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Masamo as new variety of catfish cultivated by the farmer group "Sumber Lancar" in Blimbing, Malang currently has a lot of demand due to increasing consumers who like to eat fish to meet the need for protein for the body. Increasing of Masamo catfish demand followed by production and marketing efforts. This study wants to know whether the marketing efficient. Therefore, this study uses analytical approach approach in order to identify institutional and channel of Masamo Catfish marketing perf...

  6. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol I Ronje

    Full Text Available Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821 and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815. Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish. A review was conducted of bottlenose dolphin visual survey data and dorsal fin photographs from sightings where severed catfish heads were observed. Recovered severed catfish heads were preserved and studied, whole marine catfish were collected and examined, and stranding network pathology reports were reviewed for references to injuries related to fish spines. Photographic identification analysis confirms eight dolphins associated with severed catfish heads were present in three such sightings across an approximately 350 km expanse of coast between the Mississippi Sound and Saint Joseph Bay, FL. An examination of the severed catfish heads indicated interaction with dolphins, and fresh-caught whole hardhead catfish (A. felis were examined to estimate the presumed total length of the catfish before decapitation. Thirty-eight instances of significant trauma or death in dolphins attributed to ingesting whole marine catfish were documented in stranding records collected from the southeastern United States of America. Bottlenose dolphins typically adhere to a ram-feeding strategy for prey capture followed by whole prey ingestion; however, marine catfish skull morphology may pose a consumption hazard due to rigid spines that can puncture and migrate through soft tissue, prompting a prey handling technique for certain dolphins

  7. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Packer

    Full Text Available Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities.

  8. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hotti

    Full Text Available Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.

  9. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  10. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  12. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication.

  13. Evidence for competition between carnivorous plants and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2010-10-07

    Several studies have demonstrated that competition between disparate taxa can be important in determining community structure, yet surprisingly, to our knowledge, no quantitative studies have been conducted on competition between carnivorous plants and animals. To examine potential competition between these taxa, we studied dietary and microhabitat overlap between pink sundews (Drosera capillaris) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) in the field, and conducted a laboratory experiment examining the effects of wolf spiders on sundew fitness. In the field, we found that sundews and spiders had a high dietary overlap with each other and with the available arthropod prey. Associations between sundews and spiders depended on spatial scale: both sundews and spiders were found more frequently in quadrats with more abundant prey, but within quadrats, spiders constructed larger webs and located them further away from sundews as the total sundew trapping area increased, presumably to reduce competition. Spiders also constructed larger webs when fewer prey were available. In the laboratory, our experiment revealed that spiders can significantly reduce sundew fitness. Our findings suggest that members of the plant and animal kingdoms can and do compete.

  14. Trap diversity and character evolution in carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeier, Anna Sofia; Fleischmann, Andreas; Müller, Kai; Schäferhoff, Bastian; Rubach, Carmen; Speck, Thomas; Poppinga, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) constitute the largest genus of carnivorous plants but only aquatic species (about one fifth of the genus) have so far been thoroughly studied as to their suction trap functioning. In this study, we comparatively investigated trap biomechanics in 19 Utricularia species to examine correlations between life-forms, trapping mechanisms, and functional-morphological traits. Our investigations show the existence of two functional trap principles (passive trap in U. multifida vs. active suction traps), and - in active suction traps - three main trapdoor movement types (with several subtypes). The trapdoor movement types and their corresponding functional-morphological features most presumably represent adaptations to the respective habitat. We furthermore give insights into fluid dynamics during suction in three representatives of the main types of trapdoor movement. The results on functional morphology and trapdoor movement were mapped onto a new phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus, derived from the rapidly evolving chloroplast regions trnK, rps16 and trnQ-rps16 and a sampling of 105 Utricularia species in total. We discuss potential scenarios of trap character evolution and species radiation, highlighting possible key innovations that enable such a unique carnivorous lifestyle in different habitats.

  15. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotti, Hannu; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Rischer, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.

  16. Prevalence and contamination patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in catfish processing environment and fresh fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Pyla, Rajkumar; Kim, Tae-Jo; Silva, Juan L; Jung, Yean-Sung

    2010-08-01

    Catfish skins, intestines, fresh fillets, processing surfaces at different production stages, chiller water and non-food contact surfaces were sampled for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Among 315 samples, prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and a group of Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii was 21.6, 13.0 and 29.5%, respectively. No Listeria grayi was detected in this survey. While no L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from catfish skins and intestines, the strains were found with a frequency of 76.7% in chilled fresh catfish fillets and 43.3% in unchilled fillets. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were also detected in fish contact surfaces such as deheading machine, trimming board, chiller water, conveyor belts at different stages, and fillet weighing table. Among L. monocytogenes, 1/2b (47.0%), 3b (16.0%) and 4c (14%) were the predominant serotypes isolated, whereas 4b, 4e, 1/2c and 1/2a were detected at much lower frequencies. Genotype analyses of L. monocytogenes isolates using serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR revealed that chiller water represented an important contamination source of L. monocytogenes in the chilled catfish fillets of two processing facilities, whereas fillet weighing table significantly contributed to the catfish fillet contamination of the third facility. This study suggests that L. monocytogenes contamination in the processed catfish fillets originates from the processing environment, rather than directly from catfish. Results from this study can aid the catfish industry to develop a plant-specific proper cleaning and sanitation procedure for equipment and the processing environment designed to specifically target L. monocytogenes contamination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics Of Smoked Catfish (Hemibagrus Nemurus) Prepared Frompond Culture, Cage And Wild Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Maskilin, Jippo; Hasan, Bustari; Leksono, Tjipto

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of smoked catfish prepared from pond, cage culture and wild fish. Catfish samples 300-350 grams in weight wastaken respectualy from wild (Kampar river), pond and cage culture in Sungai Paku, Kampar. The fish was smoked using hot smoking method, and the smoked fish was evaluated for smoking yield, sensory quality, proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile.The smoking...

  18. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie E K Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. Mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. We used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in Botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (Panthera leo, leopard (Panthera pardus, spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. The habitat suitability for large carnivores depends primarily on prey availability, interspecific competition, and conflict with humans. Prey availability is most likely the strongest natural determinant. We used the distribution of biomass of typical wild ungulate species occurring in Botswana which is preyed upon by the six large carnivores to evaluate the potential suitability of the different management zones in the country to sustain large carnivore populations. In areas where a high biomass of large prey species occurred, we assumed interspecific competition between dominant and subordinated competitors to be high. This reduced the suitability of these areas for conservation of subordinate competitors, and vice versa. We used the percentage of prey biomass of the total prey and livestock biomass to identify areas with potentially high levels of conflict in agricultural areas. High to medium biomass of large prey was mostly confined to conservation zones, while small prey biomass was more evenly spread across large parts of the country. This necessitates different conservation strategies for carnivores with a preference for large prey, and those that can persist in the agricultural areas. To ensure connectivity between populations inside Botswana and also with its neighbours, a number of critical areas for priority management actions exist

  19. The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual T. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carnivores are decreasing in number due to growing pressure from an expanding human population. It is increasingly recognised that state-protected conservation areas are unlikely to be sufficient to protect viable populations of large carnivores, and that private land will be central to conservation efforts. In 2000, a fast-track land reform programme (FTLRP was initiated in Zimbabwe, ostensibly to redress the racial imbalance in land ownership, but which also had the potential to break up large areas of carnivore habitat on private land. To date, research has focused on the impact of the FTLRP process on the different human communities, while impacts on wildlife have been overlooked. Here we provide the first systematic assessment of the impact of the FTLRP on the status of large carnivores. Spoor counts were conducted across private, resettled and communal land use types in order to estimate the abundance of large carnivores, and to determine how this had been affected by land reform. The density of carnivore spoor differed significantly between land use types, and was lower on resettlement land than on private land, suggesting that the resettlement process has resulted in a substantial decline in carnivore abundance. Habitat loss and high levels of poaching in and around resettlement areas are the most likely causes. The FTLRP resulted in the large-scale conversion of land that was used sustainably and productively for wildlife into unsustainable, unproductive agricultural land uses. We recommended that models of land reform should consider the type of land available, that existing expertise in land management should be retained where possible, and that resettlement programmes should be carefully planned in order to minimise the impacts on wildlife and on people.

  20. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores.

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    Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Somers, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. Mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. We used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in Botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). The habitat suitability for large carnivores depends primarily on prey availability, interspecific competition, and conflict with humans. Prey availability is most likely the strongest natural determinant. We used the distribution of biomass of typical wild ungulate species occurring in Botswana which is preyed upon by the six large carnivores to evaluate the potential suitability of the different management zones in the country to sustain large carnivore populations. In areas where a high biomass of large prey species occurred, we assumed interspecific competition between dominant and subordinated competitors to be high. This reduced the suitability of these areas for conservation of subordinate competitors, and vice versa. We used the percentage of prey biomass of the total prey and livestock biomass to identify areas with potentially high levels of conflict in agricultural areas. High to medium biomass of large prey was mostly confined to conservation zones, while small prey biomass was more evenly spread across large parts of the country. This necessitates different conservation strategies for carnivores with a preference for large prey, and those that can persist in the agricultural areas. To ensure connectivity between populations inside Botswana and also with its neighbours, a number of critical areas for priority management actions exist in the

  1. Structural and functional characteristics of S-like ribonucleases from carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Emi; Jumyo, Shinya; Arai, Naoki; Kanna, Kensuke; Kume, Marina; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Tanase, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although the S-like ribonucleases (RNases) share sequence homology with the S-RNases involved in the self-incompatibility mechanism in plants, they are not associated with this mechanism. They usually function in stress responses in non-carnivorous plants and in carnivory in carnivorous plants. In this study, we clarified the structures of the S-like RNases of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Nepenthes bicalcarata and Sarracenia leucophylla, and compared them with those of other plants. At ten positions, amino acid residues are conserved or almost conserved only for carnivorous plants (six in total). In contrast, two positions are specific to non-carnivorous plants. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S-like RNases of the carnivorous plants form a group beyond the phylogenetic relationships of the plants. We also prepared and characterized recombinant S-like RNases of Dionaea muscipula, Cephalotus follicularis, A. vesiculosa, N. bicalcarata and S. leucophylla, and RNS1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. The recombinant carnivorous plant enzymes showed optimum activities at about pH 4.0. Generally, poly(C) was digested less efficiently than poly(A), poly(I) and poly(U). The kinetic parameters of the recombinant D. muscipula enzyme (DM-I) and A. thaliana enzyme RNS1 were similar. The k cat/K m of recombinant RNS1 was the highest among the enzymes, followed closely by that of recombinant DM-I. On the other hand, the k cat/K m of the recombinant S. leucophylla enzyme was the lowest, and was ~1/30 of that for recombinant RNS1. The magnitudes of the k cat/K m values or k cat values for carnivorous plant S-like RNases seem to correlate negatively with the dependency on symbionts for prey digestion.

  2. Diversity, threats and conservation of catfish fauna of the Krishna River, Sangli District, Maharashtra, India

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    S.M. Kumbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of freshwater catfish species of the Krishna River, Sangli District was studied from June 2009 to July 2012. The study area covered 105km from Karad City where the Koyna tributary joins the Krishna River up to Mhaishal, the state border of Maharashtra. It was divided into three streams for convenience, i.e., the upper stream starts from Karad and goes up to Takari, the middle stream from Takari to Bhilawadi and downstream from Bhilawadi to Mhaishal. A total of 13 species of catfish belonging to five families and 10 genera were recorded. The Bagridae family was dominant with six species, whereas Siluridae, Schilbidae and Clariidae had two species each and Sisoridae with one species. We have provided range extension for an endemic and threatened sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis. The occurrence and distribution of catfishes was more or less equal in number along the study area. The maximum number of species recorded was nine from the upper stream, whereas the middle and down streams had eight and seven species respectively. The distribution of catfish along the Krishna River system may be due to the slow and steady state water movement and its width that ensure the continuous availability of nutrition. It is suggested that the Krishna River would be a suitable habitat for the conservation of freshwater catfish if the threats are minimized.

  3. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

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    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  4. Structure-function studies of five natural, including catfish and dogfish, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and eight analogs on reproduction in Thai catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamvongchon, S; Rivier, J E; Sherwood, N M

    1992-11-20

    Five distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their analogs, six of which are newly designed, were used to study reproduction in Thai catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Determination was made for the percentage of fish that ovulated within 16-18 h; the percentage of eggs fertilized; and the percentage of larva that hatched and survived for 7 days. The results show, firstly, that natural chicken GnRH-II, which is identical with catfish GnRH-II, was significantly more effective at a dose of 300 micrograms/kg than the control injection for the induction of ovulation. Dogfish GnRH at the same dose was also significantly more effective than the control, but was not significantly different from chicken (catfish) GnRH-II for ovulation induction. The novel catfish GnRH-I, mammalian GnRH and salmon GnRH were not effective at 100, 150 or 300 micrograms/kg in Thai catfish. Secondly, 5 of 8 analogs of GnRH at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in a significantly higher percentage of ovulating fish compared with the control fish. Among these five analogs, the most effective were the two analog forms of chicken GnRH-II (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt and D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt), followed by the salmon GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt), a dogfish GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt) and the mammalian GnRH analog (D-Ala6,Pro9 NEt). Not significantly different from the controls were the two catfish GnRH-I analogs and one of the dogfish (D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt) analogs. The six new analogs had not been previously tested in any animal. Thirdly, the number of fish ovulating was the same whether GnRH was administered in one or two injections.

  5. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

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    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Effects of management of domestic dogs and recreation on carnivores in protected areas in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah E; Merenlender, Adina M

    2011-06-01

    In developed countries dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are permitted to accompany human visitors to many protected areas (e.g., >96% of protected lands in California, U.S.A.), and protected-area management often focuses on regulating dogs due to concerns about predation, competition, or transmission of disease and conflicts with human visitors. In 2004 and 2005, we investigated whether carnivore species richness and abundance were associated with management of domestic dogs and recreational visitation in protected areas in northern California. We surveyed for mammalian carnivores and human visitors in 21 recreation areas in which dogs were allowed offleash or onleash or were excluded, and we compared our observations in the recreation areas with observations in seven reference sites that were not open to the public. Carnivore abundance and species richness did not differ among the three types of recreation areas, but native carnivore species richness was 1.7 times greater (p recreational effects on carnivores appear to be the presence and number of human visitors to protected areas. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. The comparative effects of large carnivores on the acquisition of carrion by scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2015-06-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor) and black bears (Ursus americanus) are large carnivores that may influence scavenger population dynamics. We used motion-triggered video cameras deployed at deer carcasses to determine how pumas and black bears affected three aspects of carrion acquisition by scavengers: presence, total feeding time, and mean feeding-bout duration. We found that pumas were unable to limit acquisition of carrion by large carnivores but did limit aspects of carrion acquisition by both birds and mesocarnivores. Through their suppression of mesocarnivores and birds, pumas apparently initiated a cascading pattern and increased carrion acquisition by small carnivores. In contrast, black bears monopolized carrion resources and generally had larger limiting effects on carrion acquisition by all scavengers. Black bears also limited puma feeding behaviors at puma kills, which may require pumas to compensate for energetic losses through increasing their kill rates of ungulates. Our results suggest that pumas provide carrion and selectively influence species acquiring carrion, while black bears limit carrion availability to all other scavengers. These results suggest that the effects of large carnivores on scavengers depend on attributes of both carnivores and scavengers (including size) and that competition for carcasses may result in intraguild predation as well as mesocarnivore release.

  8. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

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    Angela M Darnell

    Full Text Available Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and dominant lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta. Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  9. Does litter size variation affect models of terrestrial carnivore extinction risk and management?

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    Eleanor S Devenish-Nelson

    Full Text Available Individual variation in both survival and reproduction has the potential to influence extinction risk. Especially for rare or threatened species, reliable population models should adequately incorporate demographic uncertainty. Here, we focus on an important form of demographic stochasticity: variation in litter sizes. We use terrestrial carnivores as an example taxon, as they are frequently threatened or of economic importance. Since data on intraspecific litter size variation are often sparse, it is unclear what probability distribution should be used to describe the pattern of litter size variation for multiparous carnivores.We used litter size data on 32 terrestrial carnivore species to test the fit of 12 probability distributions. The influence of these distributions on quasi-extinction probabilities and the probability of successful disease control was then examined for three canid species - the island fox Urocyon littoralis, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Best fitting probability distributions differed among the carnivores examined. However, the discretised normal distribution provided the best fit for the majority of species, because variation among litter-sizes was often small. Importantly, however, the outcomes of demographic models were generally robust to the distribution used.These results provide reassurance for those using demographic modelling for the management of less studied carnivores in which litter size variation is estimated using data from species with similar reproductive attributes.

  10. Complex inter-Kingdom interactions: carnivorous plants affect growth of an aquatic vertebrate.

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    Davenport, Jon M; Riley, Alex W

    2017-05-01

    Coexistence of organisms in nature is more likely when phenotypic similarities of individuals are reduced. Despite the lack of similarity, distantly related taxa still compete intensely for shared resources. No larger difference between organisms that share a common prey could exist than between carnivorous plants and animals. However, few studies have considered inter-Kingdom competition among carnivorous plants and animals. In order to evaluate interactions between a carnivorous plant (greater bladderwort, Utricularia vulgaris) and a vertebrate (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus) on a shared prey (zooplankton), we conducted a mesocosm experiment. We deployed two levels of bladderwort presence (functional and crushed) and measured bluegill responses (survival and growth). Zooplankton abundance was reduced the greatest in bluegill and functional bladderwort treatments. Bluegill survival did not differ among treatments, but growth was greatest with crushed bladderwort. Thus, bluegill growth was facilitated by reducing interference competition in the presence of crushed bladderwort. The facilitating effect was dampened, however, when functional bladderwort removed a shared prey. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to experimentally demonstrate interactions between a carnivorous plant and a fish. Our data suggest that carnivorous plants may actively promote or reduce animal co-occurrence from some ecosystems via facilitation or competition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  11. Fluorescence labelling of phosphatase activity in digestive glands of carnivorous plants.

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    Płachno, B J; Adamec, L; Lichtscheidl, I K; Peroutka, M; Adlassnig, W; Vrba, J

    2006-11-01

    A new ELF (enzyme labelled fluorescence) assay was applied to detect phosphatase activity in glandular structures of 47 carnivorous plant species, especially Lentibulariaceae, in order to understand their digestive activities. We address the following questions: (1) Are phosphatases produced by the plants and/or by inhabitants of the traps? (2) Which type of hairs/glands is involved in the production of phosphatases? (3) Is this phosphatase production a common feature among carnivorous plants or is it restricted to evolutionarily advanced species? Our results showed activity of the phosphatases in glandular structures of the majority of the plants tested, both from the greenhouse and from sterile culture. In addition, extracellular phosphatases can also be produced by trap inhabitants. In Utricularia, activity of phosphatase was detected in internal glands of 27 species from both primitive and advanced sections and different ecological groups. Further positive reactions were found in Genlisea, Pinguicula, Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Nepenthes, and Cephalotus. In Utricularia and Genlisea, enzymatic secretion was independent of stimulation by prey. Byblis and Roridula are usually considered as "proto-carnivores", lacking digestive enzymes. However, we found high activity of phosphatases in both species. Thus, they should be classified as true carnivores. We suggest that the inflorescence of Byblis and some Pinguicula species might also be an additional "carnivorous organ", which can trap a prey, digest it, and finally absorb available nutrients.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-03-18

    The phylogenetic relationships of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitising catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Neotropical region were investigated for the first time. Partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of 40 specimens representing 25 dactylogyrid species were analysed together with sequences from GenBank using Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood and Parsimony methods. Monophyly of dactylogyrids infecting catfishes and the Ancyrocephalinae was evaluated using the Approximately Unbiased test. The Ancyrocephalinae is a paraphyletic group of species clustering in three main clades as follows: (i) clade A comprising freshwater dactylogyrids from the Holarctic parasitising perciforms clustering together with species (Ameloblastella, Unibarra and Vancleaveus) parasitising Neotropical catfishes; (ii) clade B including species of Dactylogyrus (Dactylogyrinae) and Pseudodactylogyrus (Pseudodactylogyrinae) along with Ancyrocephalus mogurndae, and marine dactylogyrids with cosmopolitan distribution, parasites of scorpaeniforms and perciforms, along with the freshwater Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus (infecting African cichlids [Cichlidae]) and (iii) clade C containing exclusively dactylogyrids of siluriforms, freshwater and marine, with Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical distributions; species of Aphanoblastella and Dactylogyridae gen. sp. 4 from the Neotropical region clustering together with species allocated in the Ancylodiscoidinae, along with species of Cosmetocleithrum, Demidospermus and Dactylogyridae gen. spp. The position of the Ancylodiscoidinae within a larger clade of dactylogyrids (ancyrocephalines) indicates that this subfamily does not represent a natural group. Instead, species allocated to this clade (dactylogyrids of siluriforms along with species of the Ancylodiscoidinae) should be considered as a separate subfamily within the Dactylogyridae. The erection of this taxon requires the search for morphological diagnostic characters

  13. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

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    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  14. Discrepancy between molecular structure and ligand selectivity of a testicular follicle-stimulating hormone receptor of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, J.; Blomenröhr, M.; Andersson, E.; van der Putten, H.; Tensen, C.P.; Vischer, H F; Granneman, Joke C M; Janssen-Dommerholt, C; Goos, H.J.; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    A putative FSH receptor (FSH-R) cDNA was cloned from African catfish testis. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with other (putative) glycoprotein hormone receptors and analysis of the African catfish gene indicated that the cloned receptor belonged to the FSH receptor subfamily. Catfish

  15. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

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    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  16. Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuis, Femke; Cozzi, Gabriele; Valeix, Marion; McNutt, John W; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    1. Risks of predation or interference competition are major factors shaping the distribution of species. An animal's response to risk can either be reactive, to an immediate risk, or predictive, based on preceding risk or past experiences. The manner in which animals respond to risk is key in understanding avoidance, and hence coexistence, between interacting species. 2. We investigated whether cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), known to be affected by predation and competition by lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), respond reactively or predictively to the risks posed by these larger carnivores. 3. We used simultaneous spatial data from Global Positioning System (GPS) radiocollars deployed on all known social groups of cheetahs, lions and spotted hyaenas within a 2700 km(2) study area on the periphery of the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana. The response to risk of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas was explored on three levels: short-term or immediate risk, calculated as the distance to the nearest (contemporaneous) lion or spotted hyaena, long-term risk, calculated as the likelihood of encountering lions and spotted hyaenas based on their cumulative distributions over a 6-month period and habitat-associated risk, quantified by the habitat used by each of the three species. 4. We showed that space and habitat use by cheetahs was similar to that of lions and, to a lesser extent, spotted hyaenas. However, cheetahs avoided immediate risks by positioning themselves further from lions and spotted hyaenas than predicted by a random distribution. 5. Our results suggest that cheetah spatial distribution is a hierarchical process, first driven by resource acquisition and thereafter fine-tuned by predator avoidance; thus suggesting a reactive, rather than a predictive, response to risk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  17. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

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    Smits Peter D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion, which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Results Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Conclusions Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration.

  18. Reproductive biology and pollination of the carnivorous Genlisea violacea (Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, Y; Płachno, B J; Stpiczyńska, M; Miranda, V F O

    2018-05-01

    Genlisea violacea is a Brazilian endemic carnivorous plant species distributed in the cerrado biome, mainly in humid environments, on sandy and oligotrophic soil or wet rocks. Studies on reproductive biology or pollination in the Lentibulariaceae are notably scarce; regarding the genus Genlisea, the current study is the first to show systematic and standardised research on reproductive biology from field studies to describe the foraging of visiting insects and determine the effective pollinators of Genlisea. We studied two populations of G. violacea through the observation of flower visitors for 4 months of the rainy and dry seasons. Stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, and breeding system were evaluated together with histochemistry and morphological analyses of flowers. The flowers showed stigmatic receptivity of 100% in open buds and mature flowers, reducing to 80% for senescent flowers. Nearly 80% of pollen grains are viable, decreasing to 40-45% after 48 h. Nectar is produced by glandular trichomes inside the spur. Two bee species are effective pollinators: one of the genus Lasioglossum (subgenus Dialictus: Halictidae) and the other of the genus Ceratina (subgenus Ceratinula: family Apidae). Moreover, bee-like flies of the Syrphidae family may also be additional pollinators. Genlisea violacea is an allogamous and self-compatible species. The differences in flower-visiting fauna for both populations can be attributed to factors such as climate, anthropogenic effect, seasonal factors related to insects and plants, as well as the morphological variation of flowers in both populations. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Bats Are Acoustically Attracted to Mutualistic Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Michael G; Schöner, Caroline R; Simon, Ralph; Grafe, T Ulmar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ji, Liaw Lin; Kerth, Gerald

    2015-07-20

    Mutualisms between plants and animals shape the world's ecosystems. In such interactions, achieving contact with the partner species is imperative. Plants regularly advertise themselves with signals that specifically appeal to the partner's perceptual preferences. For example, many plants have acquired traits such as brightly colored, fragrant flowers that attract pollinators with visual, olfactory, or--in the case of a few bat-pollinated flowers--even acoustic stimuli in the form of echo-reflecting structures. However, acoustic attraction in plants is rare compared to other advertisements and has never been found outside the pollination context and only in the Neotropics. We hypothesized that this phenomenon is more widespread and more diverse as plant-bat interactions also occur in the Paleotropics. In Borneo, mutualistic bats fertilize a carnivorous pitcher plant while roosting in its pitchers. The pitcher's orifice features a prolonged concave structure, which we predicted to distinctively reflect the bats' echolocation calls for a wide range of angles. This structure should facilitate the location and identification of pitchers even within highly cluttered surroundings. Pitchers lacking this structure should be less attractive for the bats. Ensonifications of the pitchers around their orifice revealed that this structure indeed acts as a multidirectional ultrasound reflector. In behavioral experiments where bats were confronted with differently modified pitchers, the reflector's presence clearly facilitated the finding and identification of pitchers. These results suggest that plants have convergently acquired reflectors in the Paleotropics and the Neotropics to acoustically attract bats, albeit for completely different ecological reasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Gaume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  1. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): Establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, E; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2011-02-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in the laboratory and tested for feasibility in a commercial dairy bull cryopreservation facility. However, an approach for commercially relevant production of cryopreserved blue catfish sperm is still needed. The goal of this study was to develop practical approaches for commercial-scale sperm cryopreservation of blue catfish by use of an automated high-throughput system (MAPI, CryoBioSystem Co.). The objectives were to: (1) refine cooling rate and cryoprotectant concentration, and evaluate their interactions; (2) evaluate the effect of sperm concentration on cryopreservation; (3) refine cryoprotectant concentration based on the highest effective sperm concentration; (4) compare the effect of thawing samples at 20 or 40°C; (5) evaluate the fertility of thawed sperm at a research scale by fertilizing with channel catfish eggs; (6) test the post-thaw motility and fertility of sperm from individual males in a commercial setting, and (7) test for correlation of cryopreservation results with biological indices used for male evaluation. The optimal cooling rate was 5°C/min (Micro Digitcool, IMV) for high-throughput cryopreservation using CBS high-biosecurity 0.5-ml straws with 10% methanol, and a concentration of 1×10(9)sperm/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility when samples were thawed at 20°C for 40s or 40°C for 20s. After fertilization, the percentage of neurulation (Stage V embryos) was 80±21%, and percentage of embryonic mobility (Stage VI embryo) was 51±22

  2. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  3. Characterization of a western North American carnivore community using PCR-RFLP of cytochrome b obtained from fecal samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bidlack, Allison L.; Reed, Sarah E.; Palsboll, Per J.; Getz, Wayne M.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a simple and reliable method to identify carnivore scats to species using PCR and RFLP of a portion of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene, which works for seven of the most common carnivores in western North America. We identified a short (196 bp) polymorphic region of cytochrome b which would

  4. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  5. Fatal attraction: carnivorous plants roll out the red carpet to lure insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2008-04-23

    We provide the first experimental test of the hypothesis that the coloration of carnivorous plants can act as a signal to lure insects and thus enhance capture rates. An experimental approach was needed to separate effects of the visual appearance of plants from those of traits that may correlate with appearance and also affect capture rates. We compared insect capture rates of pitcher plants with artificially coloured red and green pitchers in a paired design, and found that plants with red pitchers captured significantly more flying insects. Thus, we present the first experimental evidence of visual signalling in carnivorous plants. Further, it has previously been suggested that carnivorous plants use contrasting stripes or UV marks on their pitchers to lure insects; our results emphasize that insect traps do not need to sport contrasting colours to be attractive; it might be sufficient to be different from the background.

  6. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  7. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  8. Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. in catfish mucus extract under industrial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhowlaghar, Nitin; De Abrew Abeysundara, Piumi; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Mark W; Chang, Sam; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Sharma, Chander S

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of strain and temperature on the growth and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. in high and low concentrations of catfish mucus extract on different food-contact surfaces at 22 °C and 10 °C. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of disinfectants at recommended concentrations and contact times for removing Salmonella biofilms cells on a stainless steel surface containing catfish mucus extract. Growth and biofilm formation of all Salmonella strains increased with higher concentrations of catfish mucus extract at both 10 °C and 22 °C. In 15 μg/ml of catfish mucus extract inoculated with 3 log CFU/ml, the biofilm levels of Salmonella on stainless steel surface reached to 3.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 10 °C or 5.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 22 °C in 7 days. In 375 μg/ml of catfish mucus extract inoculated with 3 log CFU/ml, the biofilm levels of Salmonella on the stainless steel surface reached 4.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 10 °C and 6.5 log CFU/cm 2 at 22 °C in 7 days. No differences were observed between Salmonella strains tested for biofilm formation in catfish mucus extract on the stainless steel surface. The biofilm formation by Salmonella Blockley (7175) in catfish mucus extract was less (P Salmonella biofilm cells were not detectable on the stainless steel surface after treatment with a mixture of disinfectants but were still present when single compound disinfectants were used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  10. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Nawa; Somerville, Andrew D; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29).

  11. Herders’ ecological knowledge and carnivore predation on livestock investigations in Makgadikgadi and Nxai national parks, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas P. Rutina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Botswana is one of the countries in Southern Africa that pay compensation for human properties damaged by wildlife. Before compensation is paid, a thorough investigation on determining wildlife species that have caused the damage is mandatory. Because of insufficient resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, the initial investigation is carried out by herders. Three basic indicators are used to determine carnivore predation; sighting the carnivore at the kill, tracks of the predator and examining the carcasses. In this study, we tested herders’ knowledge on the above three indicators. The study was conducted in a communal area around Makgadikgadi and Nxai national parks, Botswana, where the main activities practiced by the local communities is pastoral farming. In general, there was a significant association between reported and perceived incidents of predation for all carnivores at all distances from protected areas. Herders were able to identify the large carnivores visually. But they had difficulties in identifying carnivore tracks and kill characteristics. The results demonstrate the importance of involvement of local communities in human–wildlife conflict management. However, more education regarding identification of carnivore tracks and kill behaviour is needed for herders in the study area. Conservation implications: Based on the results of this study, this calls for a change in the management of human–wildlife conflict (HWC and administration of the compensation scheme. Decentralising HWC to local communities using existing government structures that exist at local level will not only supplement the inadequate resources by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP to effectively mitigate the problem, but also empower local communities’ participation in wildlife management.

  12. Within-population isotopic niche variability in savanna mammals: disparity between carnivores and herbivores

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    Daryl eCodron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Large mammal ecosystems have relatively simple food webs, usually comprising three – and sometimes only two – trophic links. Since many syntopic species from the same trophic level therefore share resources, dietary niche partitioning features prominently within these systems. In African and other subtropical savannas, stable carbon isotopes readily distinguish between herbivore species for which foliage and other parts of dicot plants (13C-depleted C3 vegetation are the primary resource (browsers and those for which grasses (13C-enriched C4 vegetation are staples (grazers. Similarly, carbon isotopes distinguish between carnivore diets that may be richer in either browser, grazer, or intermediate-feeding prey. Here, we investigate levels of carbon and nitrogen isotopic niche variation and niche partitioning within populations (or species of carnivores and herbivores from South African savannas. We emphasize predictable differences in within-population trends across trophic levels: we expect that herbivore populations, which require more foraging effort due to higher intake requirements, are far less likely to display within-population resource partitioning than carnivore populations. Our results reveal generally narrower isotopic niche breadths in herbivore than carnivore populations, but more importantly we find lower levels of isotopic differentiation across individuals within herbivore species. While these results offer some support for our general hypothesis, the current paucity of isotopic data for African carnivores limits our ability to test the complete set of predictions arising from our hypothesis. Nevertheless, given the different ecological and ecophysiological constraints to foraging behaviour within each trophic level, comparisons across carnivores and herbivores, which are possible within such simplified foodwebs, make these systems ideal for developing a process-based understanding of conditions underlying the evolution of

  13. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Sugiyama

    Full Text Available From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550, one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24 and felids (n = 29.

  14. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Nawa; Somerville, Andrew D.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1–550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma’s zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29). PMID:26332042

  15. Locating Human-Wildlife Interactions: Landscape Constructions and Responses to Large Carnivore Conservation in India and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunetro Ghosal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People′s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landscapes as a key concept to explore responses to large carnivores in the context of ecological, economic, social, and cultural changes in these areas. Based on this comparison, we argue that the process of change is complex, with a plurality of responses from the groups affected by it. The response to large carnivore presence is influenced by many different factors, of which the interpretation of change-particularly landscape change-plays a significant role.

  16. A leukocyte immune-type receptor (LITR) subset is a marker of antiviral cytotoxic cells in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type-receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. Here we demonstrate the utility of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish an...

  17. [FINDING OF PARALECITHODENDRIUM CHILOSTOMUM (TREMATODA: LECITHODENDRIIDAE) IN A ROUNDLEAF BAT AND IN THE AFRICAN SHARPTOOTH CATFISH FROM ETHIOPIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, D A; Zhokhov, A E

    2016-01-01

    Adult trematodes Paralecithodendrium chilostomum (Mehlis, 1831) were detected in the roundleaf bat Hipposideros sp. and in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from Tana Lake, Ethiopia. The catfish is an accidental host for P. chilostomum. This is the first record of P. chilostomum from Ethiopia. The description and figures of P. chilostomum from both host species, Hipposideros sp. and Clarias gariepinus are given.

  18. The safety and effectiveness of CuSO4 to control fungus on egg masses in catfish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies for the proposed indication ‘to control egg mortality associated with Saprolegniasis inf...

  19. The safety and effectiveness of CuSO4 to control fungus on intact egg masses in channel catfish hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies for the proposed indication ‘to control egg mortality associated with Saprolegniasis inf...

  20. The “See-Saw”: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the ...

  1. The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the hatch rate and Saprolegnia spp. infestation of channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestations of fungi or water molds on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower egg survival requiring the producer to spawn more catfish or risk fingerling shortages. Hydrogen peroxide treatments were evaluated to determine their effect on egg survival and efficacy against naturally occ...

  2. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1991 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during ...

  3. Chicken-type lysozyme in channel catfish: expression analysis, lysozyme activity, and efficacy as immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-09-01

    To understand whether chicken-type lysozyme (Lys-c) in channel catfish was induced by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the transcriptional levels of Lys-c in skin, gut, liver, spleen, posterior kidney, and blood cells in healthy channel catfish was compared to that in channel catfish infected with A. hydrophila by bath immersion. Quantitative PCR revealed that the transcription levels of Lys-c in infected catfish were significantly (P lysozyme-c (pcDNA-Lys-c) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-c offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with QCDCR adjuvant formulated pcDNA-Lys-c and challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain AL-09-71 at 1-, 2-, 14-, and 28-days post treatment, pcDNA-Lys-c offered 75%, 100%, 60%, and 77% protection to channel catfish, respectively. Macrophages of fish treated with pcDNA-Lys-c produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish treated with pcDNA vector alone. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-c could be used as a novel immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as biological control agents for Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After

  5. Influence of fertilizing water pH on the hatching success of stripped channel catfish eggs on channel x blue hybrid catfish embryo production in hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable egg quality is one of the most important constrains to the development of aquaculture. The quality of eggs that are manually stripped from channel catfish are affected by variation in parental genetics, maturity, type and dose of hormone, age and pre-spawning stress of female fish. Furthe...

  6. Seasonal food habits of introduced blue catfish in Lake Oconee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Cecil A.; Mitchell, Geoffrey E.; Nelson, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are native to the Coosa River drainage in northwest Georgia but have been widely introduced outside of this range including Lake Oconee, a 7677-ha impoundment on the Oconee River in central Georgia. Blue catfish abundance and growth rates have increased dramatically since their introduction in Lake Oconee, but their food habits are unknown. Therefore, food habits of blue catfish in this impoundment were determined by examining the stomachs of 808 specimens in the reservoir’s upper and lower regions across all seasons from summer 2012 to summer 2013. Diet was summarized using the Relative Importance of specific prey by weight. In the upper region of the reservoir, Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were the dominant prey item during the summer (75.7%), fall (66.4%), and winter (37.6%); whereas crappie (Pomoxis spp.) was the dominant prey item in the spring (38.7%). Asian clams also were the dominant prey items in the lower region during the fall (68.4%), winter (33.9%), and spring (36.4%). Blue catfish seemed to feed opportunistically on seasonally abundant prey items in both the upper riverine and lower lacustrine portions of the reservoir. Of the many sportfishes in the reservoir, only crappie was an important prey item, and then only in the upper region during the spring. Our results do not support concerns that blue catfish are an apex predator that would decimate the sportfish assemblage in this recently colonized reservoir.

  7. Taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sen; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Li, Ning; Li, Qi; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2017-03-01

    Taste sensation plays a pivotal role in nutrient identification and acquisition. This is particularly true for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) that live in turbid waters with limited visibility. This biological process is mainly mediated by taste receptors expressed in taste buds that are distributed in several organs and tissues, including the barbels and skin. In the present study, we identified a complete repertoire of taste receptor and gustatory associated G protein genes in the channel catfish genome. A total of eight taste receptor genes were identified, including five type I and three type II taste receptor genes. Their genomic locations, phylogenetic relations, orthologies and expression were determined. Phylogenetic and collinear analyses provided understanding of the evolution dynamics of this gene family. Furthermore, the motif and dN/dS analyses indicated that selection pressures of different degrees were imposed on these receptors. Additionally, four genes of gustatory associated G proteins were also identified. It was indicated that expression patterns of catfish taste receptors and gustatory associated G proteins across organs mirror the distribution of taste buds across organs. Finally, the expression comparison between catfish and zebrafish organs provided evidence of potential roles of catfish skin and gill involved in taste sensation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age, growth and fall diet of channel catfish in Cheat Lake, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilling, Corbin D.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Smith, Dustin M.

    2016-01-01

    Acidification has historically impaired Cheat Lake's fish community, but recent mitigation efforts within the Cheat River watershed have improved water quality and species richness. Presently, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus are abundant and attain desirable sizes for anglers. We evaluated the age, growth, and fall diet of the population. We collected a sample of 155 channel catfish from Cheat Lake from 5 August to 4 December 2014, a subset of which we aged (n = 148) using lapillus otoliths. We fit four growth models (von Bertalanffy, logistic, Gompertz, and power) to length-at-age data and compared models using an information theoretic approach. We collected fall diets from 55 fish sampled from 13 October to 4 December 2014. Total lengths of individuals in the sample ranged from 154 to 721 mm and ages ranged from 2 to 19 y. We AICc-selected the von Bertalanffy growth model as the best approximating model, and the power and Gompertz models also had considerable support. Diets were numerically dominated by Diptera larvae, specifically Chironomidae and Chaoboridae, while 39% of stomachs contained terrestrial food items. This study provides baseline data for management of Cheat Lake's channel catfish population. Further, this study fills a knowledge gap in the scientific literature on channel catfish, because few previously published studies have examined the population ecology of channel catfish in the Central Appalachian region.

  9. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  10. Factors influencing participation in homestead catfish production in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odjuvwuederhie Emmanuel INONI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic fish production in Nigeria has been growing for the past decade, yet a widening demand-supply gap has persisted leading to a substantial loss in Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings due to fish imports. In order to boost household food fish supply many individuals have converted available land space within their homestead for catfish production. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of socio-economic variables on the participation in homestead catfish production in the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Using data from 137 respondents engaged in catfish farming, the findings showed a mean age of 44 years for catfish farmers and an average land size of 104.35 m2 for pond construction. The probit model had a good fit with a Psuedo-R2 of 0.62, 90.5 % of cases correctly predicted, and a significant likelihood ratio (LR test (p < 0.01. Results of the probit analysis indicated that pond location, age, land area, adults per household, years of education, disposable income, and access to credit exerted a positive and significant effect on homestead catfish production participation decision.

  11. Diet and population metrics of the introduced blue catfish population in the Altamaha, River, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvechio, Timothy F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2011-01-01

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) were first detected in the Altamaha River, Georgia, during an access creel survey in 2005 and subsequently in 2006 during annual ictalurid sampling. Introduction of this species in the Altamaha River is believed to have occurred via escape from normal upstream reservoir releases from Lake Sinclair and Lake Oconee. Relative abundance, as indexed by electrofishing catch rate (fish per hour), has increased from 2.9±1.0 SE in 2006 to 38.8±8.2 SE in 2011. The size of blue catfish captured ranged from 56 to 820 mm total length and 0.001 to 7.7 kg. Using otoliths obtained in 2010 (n=214), age of fish ranged from 0 to 6 yrs, which indicated a relatively young population. The catch-curve analysis resulted in an instantaneous mortality rate (Z) of 0.75. Despite concerns of blue catfish predation on native fishes and mussels, a diet analysis of blue catfish (n=257) obtained in 2010 revealed that diets of fish in all size groups were dominated by the introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea). This study describes a recently introduced blue catfish population in an Atlantic coastal plain river and provides insight on possible ecological effects during the early phases of establishment. These results offer an early status assessment of the invasion dynamics before the system has had time to reach a new equilibrium state.

  12. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  13. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains, deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.

  15. Chemical and Microbiology Characteristic of Smoked and Seasoned African Catfish Fillet Affected by Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kalingga Murda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus many cultivated by the farmers, however if not treated quicklydamaged. One treatment that can maintain quality product african catfish is by smoked and canning. Theaim of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiological characteristics of smoked Africancatfish fillet with seasoning packaged cans during storage. Preparation of research carried out by soakingthe African catfish fillet into seasonings and liquid smoke concentration of 10% by immersion for 1minute, and then next process of curing and drying. Products that are ripe weighed 110 g and signedinto cans sized Ø 301x205. Added medium brine concentration 5% and vegetable oil as much as 100ml, a process exhausting and seaming. The last stage is performed a sterilization process (126oC for 20minutes, cooling and incubation (24oC for 2 weeks. Observations deterioration of product quality ofsmoked African catfish fillet with seasoning performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Tests conducted includechemical test which includes test TVB, pH and peroxide value and microbiological testing in the formof TPC. The results showed that the combined treatment of the fumigation and the addition of medium(saline 5% and solution of vegetable oil combined with treatment canning able to maintain productquality of smoked African catfish fillet with seasoning, based TVB, pH, peroxide value and TPC duringstorage.

  16. Species-Specific Responses of Carnivores to Human-Induced Landscape Changes in Central Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Caruso

    Full Text Available The role that mammalian carnivores play in ecosystems can be deeply altered by human-driven habitat disturbance. While most carnivore species are negatively affected, the impact of habitat changes is expected to depend on their ecological flexibility. We aimed to identify key factors affecting the habitat use by four sympatric carnivore species in landscapes of central Argentina. Camera trapping surveys were carried out at 49 sites from 2011 to 2013. Each site was characterized by 12 habitat attributes, including human disturbance and fragmentation. Four landscape gradients were created from Principal Component Analysis and their influence on species-specific habitat use was studied using Generalized Linear Models. We recorded 74 events of Conepatus chinga, 546 of Pseudalopex gymnocercus, 193 of Leopardus geoffroyi and 45 of Puma concolor. We found that the gradient describing sites away from urban settlements and with low levels of disturbance had the strongest influence. L. geoffroyi was the only species responding significantly to the four gradients and showing a positive response to modified habitats, which could be favored by the low level of persecution by humans. P. concolor made stronger use of most preserved sites with low proportion of cropland, even though the species also used sites with an intermediate level of fragmentation. A more flexible use of space was found for C. chinga and P. gymnocercus. Our results demonstrate that the impact of human activities spans across this guild of carnivores and that species-specific responses appear to be mediated by ecological and behavioral attributes.

  17. Species-Specific Responses of Carnivores to Human-Induced Landscape Changes in Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Nicolás; Lucherini, Mauro; Fortin, Daniel; Casanave, Emma B.

    2016-01-01

    The role that mammalian carnivores play in ecosystems can be deeply altered by human-driven habitat disturbance. While most carnivore species are negatively affected, the impact of habitat changes is expected to depend on their ecological flexibility. We aimed to identify key factors affecting the habitat use by four sympatric carnivore species in landscapes of central Argentina. Camera trapping surveys were carried out at 49 sites from 2011 to 2013. Each site was characterized by 12 habitat attributes, including human disturbance and fragmentation. Four landscape gradients were created from Principal Component Analysis and their influence on species-specific habitat use was studied using Generalized Linear Models. We recorded 74 events of Conepatus chinga, 546 of Pseudalopex gymnocercus, 193 of Leopardus geoffroyi and 45 of Puma concolor. We found that the gradient describing sites away from urban settlements and with low levels of disturbance had the strongest influence. L. geoffroyi was the only species responding significantly to the four gradients and showing a positive response to modified habitats, which could be favored by the low level of persecution by humans. P. concolor made stronger use of most preserved sites with low proportion of cropland, even though the species also used sites with an intermediate level of fragmentation. A more flexible use of space was found for C. chinga and P. gymnocercus. Our results demonstrate that the impact of human activities spans across this guild of carnivores and that species-specific responses appear to be mediated by ecological and behavioral attributes. PMID:26950300

  18. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, F. (Franziska); W.E. Kaman (Wendy); F.J. Bikker (Floris); Yilamujiang, A. (Ayufu); Mithöfer, A. (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCarnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the

  19. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, F.; Kaman, W.E.; Bikker, F.J.; Yilamujiang, A.; Mithöfer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants

  20. Fluorescence Labelling of Phosphatase Activity in Digestive Glands of Carnivorous Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Lichtscheidl, I.K.; Peroutka, M.; Adlassnig, W.; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 813-820 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : carnivorous plants * digestion * digestive glands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2006

  1. Ecophysiological characterization of carnivorous plant roots: oxygen fluxes, respiration, and water exudation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 247-255 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plants * soil anoxia * Genlisea traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  2. Shoot branching of the aquatic carnivorous plant Utricularia australis as the key process of plant growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2011), 133-148 ISSN 0079-2047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plant * branching characteristics * mathematical model Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2011

  3. Jasmonic acid and herbivory differentially induce carnivore-attracting plant volatiles in Lima bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Gols, R.; Ludeking, D.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Lima bean plants respond to feeding damage of two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with the emission of a complex blend of volatiles that are products of several different biosynthetic pathways. These volatiles attract the carnivorous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of

  4. Usability of large carnivore as a keystone species in Eastern Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the keystone species property of Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Wolf (Canis lupus) and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). The main selecting criteria for keystone species can be summarized as top predator or large carnivore important prey species or provide key resources and species having ...

  5. Differentiating percussion pits and carnivore tooth pits using 3D reconstructions and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Aramendi, Julia; Maté-González, Miguel Ángel; Austin Courtenay, Lloyd; González-Aguilera, Diego

    2018-01-01

    During the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century the discussion on early human behavioral patterns revolved around the hunting versus scavenging debate. The correct identification of bone modifications, including percussion, cut and tooth marks, is a key issue within this debate. While many authors have shown that carnivore and human modifications can be easily distinguished, it is true that sometimes percussion marks without associated microstriations and tooth pits overlap morphologically, causing confusion, especially when unmodified hammerstones are used. In order to solve this equifinality problem, many investigations have focused their efforts on other pieces of evidence such as the identification of notches, fragmentation patterns and frequencies, among others. These studies, however, cannot be considered as fully conclusive. Within this paper we address the problem of equifinality when identifying percussion marks produced with unmodified hammerstones and tooth pits created by carnivores using new methodologies based on the 3D reconstruction of marks and their statistical multivariate analysis. For the purpose of this study a total of 128 marks- 39 percussion marks produced with an unmodified quartzite hammerstone, and 89 pits generated by different carnivores-were virtually modelled with the aid of a DAVID structured-light scanner SLS-2 and later analyzed by means of geometric morphometrics. Our results show that percussion marks not associated with striae fields and the pits generated by the carnivores studied here can be successfully distinguished.

  6. A new carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia robertballardi sp. nov. (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) from two Northeast Atlantic seamounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobo, J.; Rios, P.; Pomponi, S.A.; Xavier, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges (Porifera: Cladorhizidae) are a particularly interesting group of species typically occurring in deep-sea habitats. In this study a new species, Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) robertballardi sp. nov., is described from specimens collected on two large north-east Atlantic seamounts

  7. Quite a few reasons for calling carnivores 'the most wonderful plants in the world'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Król, E.; Plancho, B. J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Stolarz, M.; Dziubińska, H.; Trebacz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2012), s. 47-64 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carnivorous plants * gland functioning * plant excitability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  8. Ecophysiological traits of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants: are the costs and benefits the same?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellison, A. M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2011), 1721-1731 ISSN 0030-1299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants * photosynthesis * mineral nutrition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.061, year: 2011

  9. Notes on some smaller carnivores from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes on relative densities, habitat choice, food and foraging, social organisation and anti-predatory behaviour of certain small and medium-sized carnivores are presented. Possible mechanisms of niche separation and the evolution of different anti- predatory behaviours are briefly discussed.

  10. Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 155, - (2002), s. 89-100 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plant s * utilization of prey * mineral nutrient re-utilization * leaf nutrient supply Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.945, year: 2002

  11. Quite a few reasons for calling carnivores ‘the most wonderful plants in the world’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Elżbieta; Płachno, Bartosz J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Stolarz, Maria; Dziubińska, Halina; Trębacz, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Background A plant is considered carnivorous if it receives any noticeable benefit from catching small animals. The morphological and physiological adaptations to carnivorous existence is most complex in plants, thanks to which carnivorous plants have been cited by Darwin as ‘the most wonderful plants in the world’. When considering the range of these adaptations, one realizes that the carnivory is a result of a multitude of different features. Scope This review discusses a selection of relevant articles, culled from a wide array of research topics on plant carnivory, and focuses in particular on physiological processes associated with active trapping and digestion of prey. Carnivory offers the plants special advantages in habitats where nutrient supply is scarce. Counterbalancing costs are the investments in synthesis and the maintenance of trapping organs and hydrolysing enzymes. With the progress in genetic, molecular and microscopic techniques, we are well on the way to a full appreciation of various aspects of plant carnivory. Conclusions Sufficiently complex to be of scientific interest and finite enough to allow conclusive appraisal, carnivorous plants can be viewed as unique models for the examination of rapid organ movements, plant excitability, enzyme secretion, nutrient absorption, food-web relationships, phylogenetic and intergeneric relationships or structural and mineral investment in carnivory. PMID:21937485

  12. Insecticides reduce survival and the expression of traits associated with carnivory of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Congelosi, Alexandra M; Rohr, Jason R

    2012-03-01

    While agrochemical pollution is thought to be an important conservation threat to carnivorous plants, the effects of insecticides on these taxa have not been quantified previously. Using a combination of lab- and field-based experiments, we tested the effects of commercial and technical grades of three widely used insecticides (carbaryl, lambda-cyhalothrin, and malathion) on survival and the expression of traits associated with carnivory of pink sundews (Drosera capillaris) and Venus flytraps (Dionaea muscipula). Commercial grades were generally more harmful than technical grades under lab and field conditions, but all three insecticides were capable of reducing both survival and the expression of traits associated with carnivory within recommended application rates. However, pink sundews appeared to be more susceptible to insecticides than Venus flytraps, perhaps because of larger numbers of digestive glands on the leaf surfaces. We make several recommendations for future research directions, such as examining the long-term effects of insecticides on carnivorous plant populations, for example in terms of growth rates and fitness. Additionally, future research should include representative species from a wider-range of carnivorous plant growth forms, and explore the mechanism by which insecticides are harming the plants. Given the effects we observed in the present study, we suggest that the use of insecticides should be carefully managed in areas containing vulnerable carnivorous plant species.

  13. Pollinator-prey conflicts in carnivorous plants: When flower and trap properties mean life or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Byers, John A; Suckling, David M

    2016-02-18

    Insect-pollinated carnivorous plants are expected to have higher fitness if they resolve pollinator-prey conflicts by sparing insects pollinating their flowers while trapping prey insects. We examined whether separation between flowers and traps of the carnivorous sundew species or pollinator preferences for colours of flowers enable these plants to spare pollinators. In addition, we collected odours from flowers and traps of each carnivorous species in order to identify volatile chemicals that are attractive or repellent to pollinators and prey insects. In Drosera spatulata and D. arcturi, no volatiles were detected from either their flowers or traps that could serve as kairomone attractants for insects. However, behavioural experiments indicated white colour and spatial separation between flowers and traps aid in reducing pollinator entrapment while capturing prey. In contrast, D. auriculata have flowers that are adjacent to their traps. In this species we identified chemical signals emanating from flowers that comprised an eight-component blend, while the plant's traps emitted a unique four-component blend. The floral odour attracted both pollinator and prey insects, while trap odour only attracted prey. This is the first scientific report to demonstrate that carnivorous plants utilize visual, spatial, and chemical signals to spare flower visitors while trapping prey insects.

  14. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  15. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  16. Diet Shift and Prey Selection of the Native European Catfish, Silurus glanis, in a Turkish Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet and prey selection of European catfish were studied in Menzelet Reservoir in Turkey. Diet of European catfish composed of 6 prey fish species, 1 crab (Potamon sp. and 1 leech (Hirudo sp.. Diet composition was dominated by fish, including Alburnus kotsychyi, Capoeta angorae, Capoeta erhani, Luciobarbus pectoralis, Silurus glanis and the most important prey item was A. kotsychyi. The diet of European catfish was constituted solely by fish in winter and autumn while crab and leech contributed to a small part of the diet in spring and summer. Therefore, feeding was more heterogeneous in spring and summer than winter and autumn. The values of X2 and G statistics indicated a significant difference (P0.05.

  17. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Văn Quân

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engine in area will reduce the HC, CO, SOx and NOx emission to the environment. Therefore, with a study on applying the catfish biofuel, it will reduce the climate change by the increasing of sea water level and save energy by using green energy to replace petrol oil.

  18. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  19. Comparison of carnivore, omnivore, and herbivore mammalian genomes with a new leopard assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonok; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Chung, Oksung; Kim, Hyunho; Jho, Sungwoong; Seomun, Hong; Kim, Jeongho; Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Changmu; An, Junghwa; Bae, Chang Hwan; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Sungwon; Yoon, Hyejun; Kim, Yumi; Jun, JeHoon; Lee, HyeJin; Cho, Suan; Uphyrkina, Olga; Kostyria, Aleksey; Goodrich, John; Miquelle, Dale; Roelke, Melody; Lewis, John; Yurchenko, Andrey; Bankevich, Anton; Cho, Juok; Lee, Semin; Edwards, Jeremy S; Weber, Jessica A; Cook, Jo; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Hang; Manica, Andrea; Lee, Ilbeum; O'Brien, Stephen J; Bhak, Jong; Yeo, Joo-Hong

    2016-10-11

    There are three main dietary groups in mammals: carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores. Currently, there is limited comparative genomics insight into the evolution of dietary specializations in mammals. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, we were able to perform in-depth whole genome analyses of representatives of these three dietary groups. We investigated the evolution of carnivory by comparing 18 representative genomes from across Mammalia with carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous dietary specializations, focusing on Felidae (domestic cat, tiger, lion, cheetah, and leopard), Hominidae, and Bovidae genomes. We generated a new high-quality leopard genome assembly, as well as two wild Amur leopard whole genomes. In addition to a clear contraction in gene families for starch and sucrose metabolism, the carnivore genomes showed evidence of shared evolutionary adaptations in genes associated with diet, muscle strength, agility, and other traits responsible for successful hunting and meat consumption. Additionally, an analysis of highly conserved regions at the family level revealed molecular signatures of dietary adaptation in each of Felidae, Hominidae, and Bovidae. However, unlike carnivores, omnivores and herbivores showed fewer shared adaptive signatures, indicating that carnivores are under strong selective pressure related to diet. Finally, felids showed recent reductions in genetic diversity associated with decreased population sizes, which may be due to the inflexible nature of their strict diet, highlighting their vulnerability and critical conservation status. Our study provides a large-scale family level comparative genomic analysis to address genomic changes associated with dietary specialization. Our genomic analyses also provide useful resources for diet-related genetic and health research.

  20. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Gompper

    Full Text Available Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York's Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus and fisher (Martes pennanti distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor. Martens (Martes americana were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp. occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild.

  1. Landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California, USA, as assessed through carnivore habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2003-01-01

    Although the fragmentation of the natural landscape of coastal southern California, USA, is accelerating, large-scale assessments of regional connectivity are lacking. Because of their large area requirements and long dispersal movements, mammalian carnivores can be effective focal species to use when evaluating landscape-level connectivity. Our goal was to make an initial assessment of the extent of landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California using mountain lions (Felis concolor [Linnaeus]) and bobcats (Felis rufus [Shreber]) as focal species. We first characterized habitat preferences for mountain lions and bobcats from previously derived habitat relationship models for these species; the resulting maps provided a coarse view of habitat preferences for use at regional scales. We then constructed GIS models to evaluate the disturbance impact of roadways and development, major determinants of carnivore distribution and abundance in the south coast region. Finally, we combined the habitat relationship models with the disturbance impact models to characterize habitat connectivity for mountain lions and bobcats in the ecoregion. Habitat connectivity in the ecoregion appeared higher for bobcats than for mountain lions due in part to higher habitat suitability for bobcats in coastal lowland areas. Our models suggest that much of the key carnivore habitat in the coastal southern California is at risk; over 80% of high suitability habitat and over 90% of medium suitability habitat for carnivores is found in the least protected land management classes. Overall, these models allow for (1) identification of core habitat blocks for carnivores and key landscape connections between core areas, (2) evaluation of the level of protection of these areas, and (3) a regional framework within which to develop and coordinate local management and conservation plans.

  2. An advanced method to assess the diet of free-ranging large carnivores based on scats.

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    Bettina Wachter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diet of free-ranging carnivores is an important part of their ecology. It is often determined from prey remains in scats. In many cases, scat analyses are the most efficient method but they require correction for potential biases. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed mass of each prey species, the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat needs to be determined and corrected for prey body mass because the proportion of digestible to indigestible matter increases with prey body mass. Prey body mass can be corrected for by conducting feeding experiments using prey of various body masses and fitting a regression between consumed prey mass to excrete one scat and prey body mass (correction factor 1. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed individuals of each prey species and includes prey animals not completely consumed, the actual mass of each prey consumed by the carnivore needs to be controlled for (correction factor 2. No previous study controlled for this second bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use an extended series of feeding experiments on a large carnivore, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, to establish both correction factors. In contrast to previous studies which fitted a linear regression for correction factor 1, we fitted a biologically more meaningful exponential regression model where the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat reaches an asymptote at large prey sizes. Using our protocol, we also derive correction factor 1 and 2 for other carnivore species and apply them to published studies. We show that the new method increases the number and proportion of consumed individuals in the diet for large prey animals compared to the conventional method. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for the interpretation of scat-based studies in feeding ecology and the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts for the conservation of large carnivores.

  3. Poor construction, not time, takes its toll on subsidised fences designed to deter large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frank

    Full Text Available Large carnivore conservation may be considered as successful in Sweden, as wolf (Canis lupus, lynx (Lynx lynx, brown bear (Ursus arctos, golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, and wolverine (Gulo gulo populations have recovered from extinction or near extinction to viable populations during the last three decades. Particularly the wolf and lynx populations have returned at the cost of an increasing number of carnivore attacks on domestic livestock. To support coexistence between carnivores and livestock production, the Swedish authorities subsidise interventions to prevent or reduce the number of carnivore attacks. The most commonly used intervention is carnivore deterring fencing, and all livestock owners can apply for subsidies to build a fence. To receive reimbursement the fence must be approved by the authorities according to predefined criteria. An important part of any management aiming to be adaptive is evaluating interventions. In this paper we evaluate to what extent previously subsidised fences still meet the criteria 1-15 years after their approval. Of 296 fences that had received subsidies in the county of Värmland, 100 randomly selected fences were revisited in 2016. From this subsample 14% of the fences still met the initial criteria for subsidies. None of the fences that still fulfilled the criteria were more than 8 years old, whereas fences with identified failures occurred in all age groups. Of the 86 fences that failed to meet the criteria, construction failures were the most commonly occurring problem. Maintenance failures, wear and tear, only explain a minor part of the failures. To improve the quality of fencing, as well as the quality and longevity of the subsidies programme, there is a need for improved communication between authorities, and improved communication and support from the authorities to livestock producers before and during construction of fences, as well as more rigorous inspection when the fences are built.

  4. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, J.; Foot, G.W.; Svensson, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  5. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J., E-mail: j.millett@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Foot, G.W. [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Svensson, B.M. [Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  6. Widespread paleopolyploidy, gene tree conflict, and recalcitrant relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph F; Yang, Ya; Moore, Michael J; Mikenas, Jessica; Timoneda, Alfonso; Brockington, Samuel F; Smith, Stephen A

    2017-06-01

    The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. To explore the utility of phylogenomic data sets for resolving relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales, we sequenced 10 transcriptomes, including all the carnivorous genera except those in the rare West African liana family Dioncophyllaceae. We used a variety of methods to infer the species tree, examine gene tree conflict, and infer paleopolyploidy events. Phylogenomic analyses supported the monophyly of the carnivorous Caryophyllales, with a crown age of 68-83 million years. In contrast to previous analyses, we recovered the remaining noncore Caryophyllales as nonmonophyletic, although the node supporting this relationship contained a significant amount of gene tree discordance. We present evidence that the clade contains at least seven independent paleopolyploidy events, previously unresolved nodes from the literature have high levels of gene tree conflict, and taxon sampling influences topology even in a phylogenomic data set, regardless of the use of coalescent or supermatrix methods. Our data demonstrate the importance of carefully considering gene tree conflict and taxon sampling in phylogenomic analyses. Moreover, they provide a remarkable example of the propensity for paleopolyploidy in angiosperms, with at least seven such events in a clade of less than 2500 species. © 2017 Walker et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).

  7. Evolution of genome size and genomic GC content in carnivorous holokinetics (Droseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleba, Adam; Šmarda, Petr; Zedek, František; Horová, Lucie; Šmerda, Jakub; Bureš, Petr

    2017-02-01

    Studies in the carnivorous family Lentibulariaceae in the last years resulted in the discovery of the smallest plant genomes and an unusual pattern of genomic GC content evolution. However, scarcity of genomic data in other carnivorous clades still prevents a generalization of the observed patterns. Here the aim was to fill this gap by mapping genome evolution in the second largest carnivorous family, Droseraceae, where this evolution may be affected by chromosomal holokinetism in Drosera METHODS: The genome size and genomic GC content of 71 Droseraceae species were measured by flow cytometry. A dated phylogeny was constructed, and the evolution of both genomic parameters and their relationship to species climatic niches were tested using phylogeny-based statistics. The 2C genome size of Droseraceae varied between 488 and 10 927 Mbp, and the GC content ranged between 37·1 and 44·7 %. The genome sizes and genomic GC content of carnivorous and holocentric species did not differ from those of their non-carnivorous and monocentric relatives. The genomic GC content positively correlated with genome size and annual temperature fluctuations. The genome size and chromosome numbers were inversely correlated in the Australian clade of Drosera CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that neither carnivory (nutrient scarcity) nor the holokinetism have a prominent effect on size and DNA base composition of Droseraceae genomes. However, the holokinetic drive seems to affect karyotype evolution in one of the major clades of Drosera Our survey confirmed that the evolution of GC content is tightly connected with the evolution of genome size and also with environmental conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sound production and pectoral spine locking in a Neotropical catfish (Iheringichthys labrosus, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. Tellechea

    Full Text Available Catfishes may have two sonic organs: pectoral spines for stridulation and swimbladder drumming muscles. The aim of this study was to characterize the sound production of the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus. The I. labrosus male and female emits two different types of sounds: stridulatory sounds (655.8 + 230 Hz consisting of a train of pulses, and drumming sounds (220 + 46 Hz, which are composed of single-pulse harmonic signals. Stridulatory sounds are emitted during abduction of the pectoral spine. At the base of the spine there is a dorsal process that bears a series of ridges on its latero-ventral surface, and by pressing the ridges against the groove (with an unspecialized rough surface during a fin sweep, the animal produce a series of short pulses. Drumming sound is produced by an extrinsic sonic muscle, originated on a flat tendon of the transverse process of the fourth vertebra and inserted on the rostral and ventral surface of the swimbladder. The sounds emitted by both mechanisms are emitted in distress situation. Distress was induced by manipulating fish in a laboratory tank while sounds were recorded. Our results indicate that the catfish initially emits a stridulatory sound, which is followed by a drumming sound. Simultaneous production of stridulatory and drumming sounds was also observed. The catfish drumming sounds were lower in dominant frequency than stridulatory sounds, and also exhibited a small degree of dominant frequency modulation. Another behaviour observed in this catfish was the pectoral spine locking. This reaction was always observed before the distress sound production. Like other authors outline, our results suggest that in the catfish I. labrosus stridulatory and drumming sounds may function primarily as a distress call.

  9. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Văn Quân; Ho Trung Phuoc

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engin...

  10. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  11. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Adam R.; Steinworth, Bailey M.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  12. [Catfish (Silurus asotus) lectin enhances the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Shigeki; Sasaki, Satoko; Ogawa, Yukiko; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectins are widely found in fish eggs. However, their biologic effects on cultured cells are still unknown. Since catfish (Silurus asotus) egg lectin (SAL) bound to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) expressed on the surface of cells, we analyzed the relationship between Gb3 expression and SAL binding in tumor cell lines using Raji, Daudi, ACHN, P388, and K562 cells. Gb3 was highly expressed on Raji cells but not on K562 cells. SAL bound abundantly to Raji cells but not to K562 cells, and SAL binding depended on the amount of Gb3 on the cell surface. SAL caused a reduction in cell size and increased annexin-V binding to and propidium iodide (PI) incorporation into Raji cells. Although this effect on Raji cells might represent damage at the late apoptosis or necrosis stage, SAL-treated Raji cells remained alive. Thus SAL enhanced PI incorporation into Raji cells without induction of cell death. We examined whether the effects of chemotherapeutic agent(s) are influenced by SAL. SAL increased the incorporation of doxorubicin (Dox) into Raji cells and consequently enhanced the cytotoxic effects of Dox. These results indicate that SAL may induce cell permeability without cytotoxity.

  13. Ovarian follicle growth in the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Padilha, G E V; Bomcompagni-Júnior, O; Santos, G B; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2006-10-01

    The morphofunctional organisation of the female reproductive system, the oocyte growth and the follicular envelope ultrastructure were studied by the first time in the catfish Iheringichthys labrosus from Upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil, in order to contribute to the knowledge of the reproductive behaviour strategies of this species. As in other Neotropical freshwater siluriforms, the ovaries are of the cystovarian type, the oocytes develop in an asynchronous pattern and mature oocytes are released in clusters in the ovarian lumen, being transported through the oviduct to the urogenital papilla. During the primary growth, nuclear material is transported to the ooplasm, forming the yolk nucleus, where proliferate membranous organelles. The onset of the zona radiata formation occurs during the late perionucleolar stage with the deposition of the outer layer. At the vitellogenic stage, this envelope reaches 6.35+/-0.84microm of thickness, being constituted by three distinct layers crossed by pore-canals containing oocyte and follicular cells processes. Cytochemical analyses evidence neutral glycoproteins in cortical alveoli, yolk globules and zona radiata. Follicular cells with squamous shape during the primary growth acquire synthetic activity at the secondary growth, reaching 37.82+/-4.72mum in height at the mature vitellogenic follicles. These cells accumulate sulphated polysaccharides in large electron-lucent vesicles during the vitellogenic stage which are possibly secreted to form a mucous coat at the egg surface. These evidences suggest that I. labrosus may have adhesive eggs as also detected in other Neotropical freshwater Siluriformes.

  14. Population structure of the Southeast Asian river catfish Mystus nemurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, S; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Yusoff, K

    2003-12-01

    A total of 143 microsatellites were isolated from Mystus nemurus using a 5' anchored polymerase chain reaction technique or the random amplified hybridization microsatellite method, the first set of microsatellite markers developed for the Southeast Asian river catfish. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci were used as markers for population characterization of M. nemurus from six different geographical locations in Malaysia (Perak, Kedah, Johor, UPM, Sarawak and Terengganu). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 with 6.3 as the average number of alleles per locus. Characterization of the populations showed relatively high levels of genetic variation compared with previous studies using allozyme markers. The highest genetic similarity was found between Perak and Kedah, while the highest genetic distance was found between Terengganu and Kedah. The majority of clustering was in accordance with geographical locations and the histories of the populations. Microsatellite analysis indicated that the Sarawak population might be genetically closer to the Peninsular Malaysian populations than has been previously shown by other molecular marker studies.

  15. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  16. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, J K; Archer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991 the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service's Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during the 2008-2010 PDPs. A subset of 202 samples was analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). The average pattern of the individual PCDD/F congener concentrations in the catfish was rather unique in that it had almost no measurable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), but all PCDDs were present. This pattern was more dominant in the domestically produced catfish products than in the imported products (China/Taiwan). Comparison of the pattern to known sources of PCDD/Fs showed strong similarities to the pattern of PCDD/Fs found in kaolin clays which have often been used as anti-caking agents in animal feeds. To investigate whether catfish feeds may be the source of the PCDD/Fs found in the catfish, archived catfish feed data from a US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) database were examined. In 61 out of 112 feed samples, the PCDD concentrations were 50 times higher than the PCDF concentrations and resembled the pattern found in the catfish products and in clays mined in the south-eastern United States. Although the source of PCDD/Fs in domestically marketed catfish products cannot be definitively established, mined clay products used in feeds should be considered a likely source and, given the wide concentration range of PCDD/Fs that has been found in clays, a critical control point for PCDD/Fs entrance to the food supply.

  17. Large carnivores, moose, and humans: A changing paradigm of predator management in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Swenson, J.E.; Miller, Sterling D.

    2003-01-01

    We compare and contrast the evolution of human attitudes toward large carnivores between Europe and North America. In general, persecution of large carnivores began much earlier in Europe than North America. Likewise, conservation programs directed at restoration and recovery appeared in European history well before they did in North America. Together, the pattern suggests there has been an evolution in how humans perceive large predators. Our early ancestors were physically vulnerable to large carnivores and developed corresponding attitudes of respect, avoidance, and acceptance. As civilization evolved and man developed weapons, the balance shifted. Early civilizations, in particular those with pastoral ways, attempted to eliminate large carnivores as threats to life and property. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) were consequently extirpated from much of their range in Europe and in North America south of Canada. Efforts to protect brown bears began in the late 1880s in some European countries and population reintroductions and augmentations are ongoing. They are less controversial than in North America. On the other hand, there are no wolf introductions, as has occurred in North America, and Europeans have a more negative attitude towards wolves. Control of predators to enhance ungulate harvest varies. In Western Europe, landowners own the hunting rights to ungulates. In the formerly communistic Eastern European countries and North America, hunting rights are held in common, although this is changing in some Eastern European countries. Wolf control to increase harvests of moose (Alces alces) occurs in parts of North America and Russia; bear control for similar reasons only occurs in parts of North America. Surprisingly, bears and wolves are not controlled to increase ungulates where private landowners have the hunting rights in Europe, although wolves were originally exterminated from these areas. Both the inability of scientific research to

  18. Resting electrical network activity in traps of the aquatic carnivorous plants of the genera Aldrovanda and Utricularia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masi, E.; Ciszak, M.; Colzi, I.; Adamec, Lubomír; Mancuso, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, e24989 (2016), s. 1-11 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : electrophysiology * multielectrode array * aquatic carnivorous plants Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. Population ecology of the endangered aquatic carnivorous macrophyte Aldrovanda vesiculosa at a naturalised site in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cross, A. T.; Skates, L. M.; Adamec, Lubomír; Hammond, C. M.; Sheridan, P. M.; Dixon, K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 9 (2015), s. 1772-1783 ISSN 0046-5070 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plant * competition * population ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.933, year: 2015

  20. Fear of the dark or dinner by moonlight? Reduced temporal partitioning among Africa’s large carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Gabriele; Broekhuis, Femke; McNutt, John W; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Macdonald, David W; Schmid, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Africa is home to the last intact guild of large carnivores and thus provides the only opportunity to investigate mechanisms of coexistence among large predator species. Strong asymmetric dominance hierarchies typically characterize guilds of large carnivores; but despite this asymmetry, subdominant species may persist alongside their stronger counterparts through temporal partitioning of habitat and resources. In the African guild, the subdominant African wild dogs and cheetahs are rou...

  1. Single intravenous and oral dose pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma distribution and elimination of florfenicol in channel catfish were investigated after a single dose (10mg/kg) of intravenous i.v.) or oral administration in freshwater at a mean water temperature of 25.4°C. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography...

  2. Multidose pharmacokineetecs of orally administered florfenicol in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma disposition of florfenicol in channel catfish was investigated after an oral dose (10mg/kg for 10 days) administered in freshwater at water temperatures ranging from 24.7 to 25.9°C. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with MS/MS detection. Af...

  3. IncA/C Plasmid-Mediated Florfenicol Resistance in the Catfish Pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florfenicol has recently been approved for the treatment of enteric septicemia of catfish caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri. Here we report the identification of florfenicol resistance in a clinical isolate of E. ictaluri. Resistance in this isolate is associated with a mobile IncA/C plasmid conferrin...

  4. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the cost and returns of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. Specifically, the study ascertained the socioeconomic profile of respondents, ascertained costs, returns and net returns of the marketers, determined the marketing margin, marketing efficiency and market share of ...

  5. Clearance of yellow pigments lutein and zeathanxin in channel catfish reared at different water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine clearance time of yellow pigments lutein and zeaxanthin in channel catfish at various temperatures. Fish of initial weight of 13.4 g were stocked into flow-through aquaria and fed once daily with a yellow pigment enhanced diet for 11 weeks when the yellow color be...

  6. Stress Effects in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fry on Pond Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from previous studies suggested that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry that were housed in very high traffic areas from hatch until reaching 9 g in size were able to survive experimental challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri better than siblings who were hatched and raised in very low...

  7. Improving sustainability of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam through recirculation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to document improvements in sustainability indicators of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) production through the application of recirculation and waste treatment techniques. To be able to document improvements in sustainability, in each

  8. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  9. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  10. The use of trilene- as anesthesia and triquilizer for catfish Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus is developing fast that more easier way of handling bigger fish is required both in the transportation and hypophysation/breeding. Such inputs like tranquilizer/anesthesia would help to reduce handling stress thereby reduce injury and death after operation. Trilene ...

  11. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species as it app...

  12. PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in catfish from U.S. Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for the safety of meat, poultry, egg products, and farm-raised catfish marketed in the United States. As such the USDA conducts statistical surveys to determine chemical residue concentrations in these domestic products. Little background data...

  13. Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in catfish from U.S. commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that "catfish, as defined by the Secretary," is an amenable species and therefore subject to continuous inspection by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. Since few background data are ...

  14. Immunization with recombinant aerolysin and hemolysin protected channel catfish against virulent Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is emerging as one of the major concerns in catfish aquaculture in the Southeastern United States due to recent outbreaks of motile aeromonad septicemia (MAS) caused by virulent clonal isolates. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of MAS. In this...

  15. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  16. Maternal Transfer of Vitamin C in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Effects Reproduction and Progeny Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two routes of maternal transfer of vitamin C in channel catfish female broodfish prior to spawning were explored as a strategy to incorporate the vitamin to determine its effect on reproduction and subsequent performance of the progeny. Accumulation of vitamin C was higher (p<0.05) in ovarian tissu...

  17. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  18. Size distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) affects feeding behaviour but not growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Aanyu, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of size distribution on growth performance and feeding behaviour in juveniles of African catfish. Two thousand sibling fish were grown for 8 weeks until the start of the experiment. Afterwards fish were individually weighed, manually selected and

  19. Quantifying sustainability indicators in striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus downstream and upstream ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhut, N.; Hao, N.V.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.V.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Eding, E.H.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the potential for improving sustainability and efficiency in an important Vietnamese finfish culture, we quantified sustainability indicators for 2 downstream and 2 upstream 3 to 4 m deep ponds for striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) production along the Mekong

  20. Annual correlative changes in gonads and pituitary gonadotropes of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Peute, J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of male and female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can be divided into a breeding period (May–August), a resting period (September–February) and a period of full gametogenesis (March–April). The pituitary gonadotropin (GTH) content and the ultrastructure of the

  1. Effect of Par Frying on Composition and Texture of Breaded and Battered Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish is often consumed as a breaded and battered fried product; however, baking is considered a healthier alternative to frying. One method of improving the texture properties of baked products is to par fried prior to baking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of par frying ...

  2. Earthy and musty off-flavor episodes in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) by the southeastern U.S. catfish farming industry continues to grow. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to improve management of dissolved oxygen levels and fish waste products (e.g., ammonia) compared to conv...

  3. In vivo near real time imaging of oxygen partial pressures in the glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    of the transparent glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris), it is possible to measure near realtime oxygen partial pressure in vivo. We used a commercially-available digital single-lens reflex camera mounted with an optical long pass filter (II = 490 nm) and excited the phosphorescent dye in the microspheres inside...

  4. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  5. The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus using cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of 0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of ...

  6. Microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 Protein into Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Embryos for Gene Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaswad, Ahmed; Khalil, Karim; Cline, David; Page-McCaw, Patrick; Chen, Wenbiao; Michel, Maximilian; Cone, Roger; Dunham, Rex

    2018-01-20

    The complete genome of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, has been sequenced, leading to greater opportunities for studying channel catfish gene function. Gene knockout has been used to study these gene functions in vivo. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a powerful tool used to edit genomic DNA sequences to alter gene function. While the traditional approach has been to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 mRNA into the single cell embryos through microinjection, this can be a slow and inefficient process in catfish. Here, a detailed protocol for microinjection of channel catfish embryos with CRISPR/Cas9 protein is described. Briefly, eggs and sperm were collected and then artificial fertilization performed. Fertilized eggs were transferred to a Petri dish containing Holtfreter's solution. Injection volume was calibrated and then guide RNAs/Cas9 targeting the toll/interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adapter molecule (TICAM 1) gene and rhamnose binding lectin (RBL) gene were microinjected into the yolk of one-cell embryos. The gene knockout was successful as indels were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The predicted protein sequence alterations due to these mutations included frameshift and truncated protein due to premature stop codons.

  7. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control saprolegniasis on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Valentine, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Crawford, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs was evaluated at the Lost Valley State Fish Hatchery (Warsaw, MO). Two efficacy trials were conducted. In Trial 1, channel catfish eggs in their natural gelatinous matrix were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0, 500, and 750 mg l(-1). Channel catfish eggs in Trial 2 had the gelatinous matrix removed before treatment with hydrogen peroxide at 0 and 500 mg l(-1). Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate and each egg jar contained similar to 17,400 eggs. Hydrogen peroxide was administered as a 15-min flow-through treatment applied once daily for a total of six applications. Control jars were similarly treated with culture water. Samples of exposure water were collected during each treatment and analyzed to verify actual treatment concentrations. Hydrogen peroxide treatment efficacy was assessed by comparing the percent egg hatch in the treatment group to the untreated control group in each trial. Mean percent hatch in Trial I was 44% (control), 54% (500 mg l(-1)), and 69% (750 mg l(-1)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment at either 500 or 750 mg l(-1) significantly (Pegg hatch (67%) relative to the untreated controls (57%). Hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced egg mortality and increased the percent hatch of channel catfish eggs regardless of whether eggs were incubated in the gelatinous matrix or without the matrix in comparison to the untreated control. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of two hormone preparations on the reproductive performance of air breathing catfish Clarias batrachus (Lin.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, S.U.; Ahmed, K.; Ali, M.S.; Hoque, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Two hormone preparations viz. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and pituitary gland (PG) suspension were compared for their comparative efficacy on the breeding performance of a air breathing catfish Clarias batrachus. It was found that HCG induced fish gave better ovulation response than PG. Both fertilization and hatching of eggs were significantly (p

  9. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  10. Three new South American mailed catfishes of the genera Rineloricaria and Loricariichthys (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Three new species belonging to two different genera of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related species are added. Rineloricaria formosa n. sp. is described from the Río Inírida/Río Orinoco drainage in

  11. The effects of brood stock size on the economy of catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty nine ripe female brooders of the catfish, Clarias anguillaris (Body weight. range: 150 1,200 g) were induced to spawn by hormone (Ovaprim®) induced natural spawning technique over a period of 10 weeks. Matching ripe males were used for pairing the females at the ratio of two males to a female. Six ranges of ...

  12. Evaluation of Peanut Meal as an Alternative Dietary Protein Source for Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of peanut meal as an alternative protein source in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in a 9-week study under controlled laboratory conditions. Five practical diets (28% crude protein and 6% crude lipid) were formulated to contain 0, 10, 15, 20, and 25% peanut meal as a ...

  13. Efficiency of resource-use and elasticity of production among catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... optimally efficient in their use of production inputs). Also, production elasticity estimates indicated that the farmers were in stage 2 of the production process, with a return to scale of 0.664. These estimates indicate the existence of intervention points for relevant stakeholders in the bourgeoning catfish business in Kaduna.

  14. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  15. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  16. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The

  17. Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...

  18. Zinc effects on the embryos and larvae of the sharptooth catfish, Claias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of early life stages of Sharp tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), to determine which stage to use during effluent assessment. The target water quality of zinc was used ranging from 0...

  19. Effect Of Different Dietary Items On The Growth Of African Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the growth response of the developmental stages of hybrid catish resulting rom the crossing of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (male) and Clarias gariepinus (female), fed with different feed rations. Hatchlings of the hybrid catfish were cultured in plastic aquaria set up at thefish hatchery complex, Nnamdi ...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 STRAINS INTRODUCED TO INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 has become a great important species in Indonesian aquaculture. Several strains of the African catfish have been introduced to Indonesia for aquaculture purposes, initiated by Dumbo strain from Taiwan in 1985, followed by Paiton strain from Thailand in 1998, then Egypt strain from Egypt in 2007, Masamo strain from Thailand in 2010 and later Kenya strain from Kenya in 2011. Since its introductions, there were no reports yet on their characterization studies. The present study was conducted to morphologically characterize the strains of African catfish introduced to Indonesia, i.e. Dumbo, Paiton, Egypt, Masamo, and Kenya strains. Morphometric and meristic data obtained were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis. Results of the morphometric characterization in the present study revealed that Dumbo, Paiton, Masamo, and Kenya strains were indistinguishable, while morphometric characteristic of Egypt strain was more or less different from those of the other strains. On the other hand, results of the meristic characterization suggested that meristic characteristics of all strains of the introduced African catfish were not different from each other. Therefore, to keep the genetic purity of those introduced strains, they should be properly maintained in isolated places.

  1. Acute toxicity of cassava mill effluent to the African catfish fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioassay test was performed on the toxic effect of Cassava Mill Effluent to the African Catfish - Heteroclarias Hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) and Clarias gariepinus (Female). The 96-h LC50 was determined as 50. 12 mgl -1. Exposed fish became darker in colour and showed signs of respiratory distress, ...

  2. Chemical alarm cues in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell: A potential stressor in aquaculture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.; Zhao, H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of stocking density on the behaviour of African catfish have shown that at low densities, especially directly after restocking of tanks, increased aggression might occur. This aggression may directly affect the welfare of the fish. In addition, the resulting skin

  3. The seminal vesicle as source of sex attracting substances in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, J.W.; Hurk, R. van den; Groeninx van Zoelen, R.F.O.; Huisman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Attraction tests were performed with female African catfish placed in a U-shaped two-choice maze. A conspecific was placed in both ends of the aquarium behind a perforated partion. An unovulated female fish allowed to choose between water containing a male and water containing a female conspecific

  4. Biomarker assessment of the effects of strip mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.K. Jr.; Black, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A suite of biomarkers were used to evaluate acute (1 day) to semi-chronic (3 month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, hematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were utilized to evaluate the importance of exposure routes; one allowing exclusive contact with the water column and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed in both regimes, but DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. Transient increases in hemoglobin, ALAD, and hematocrit levels were observed at 1 month for both exposure regimes, followed by a return to control levels for the duration of the study. Environmental conditions (i.e., changes in water quality and temperature) may have contributed to the variable plasma chloride and glucose levels observed in all catfish exposed to strip mine wastes. Further analysis of the data with non-metric clustering techniques and correlations with tissue metal residues may yield more insights into causal relationships

  5. Effects of sperm concentration and egg number on fertilization efficiency with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs and blue catfish (I. furcatus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, A N; Dunham, R A

    1996-02-01

    The mean sperm concentration of 10 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus ) was 1.03 x 10(10) per gram of testis. Testis weighed 3.9 and 17.2 g, with a mean of 6.6 g per fish. Fertilization rate of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus ) eggs fertilized with 5.00 x 10(4) to 1.20 x 10(7) blue catfish spermatozoa per egg was 17 to 87%, with an overall mean of 65%. Sperm concentrations of 5.0 x 10(4)/egg exhibited a lower, 16.6% (P egg). Batches of 450, 2,000, 5,000, 8,000 and 11,000 eggs were similarly fertilized with various sperm concentrations. Mean fertility rate ranged from 25 to 67%, with an overall mean of 53%. The largest egg mass produced the lowest (P eggs per batch and 5.0 x 10(5) to 1.20 x (8) sperm per egg produced the highest rate of fertilization (67 to 87%).

  6. DISTRIBUTION AND EXPRESSION OF STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophtalmus GROWTH HORMONE GENE (PhGH IN THE ORGAN OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIC FOUNDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faster growing African catfish can be produced by transgenesis. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and expression of growth hormone gene (PhGH in various organs of the transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus founder (F0. Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, caudal fin, gill and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, -actin gene used as internal controls. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish founder. The high level of PhGH expression was found in the liver, pituitary, intestine and brain; smaller amounts were detectable in muscle, spleen, kidneys, heart, and stomach, caudal fin, gill and eyes, range from 0.02-0.75 PhGH/-actin mRNA. The expression levels of PhGH had positive correlation with tissue and body size (P<0.05.

  7. FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ORGANS OF AIRBREATHING CATFISH (CLARIIDAE IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pirog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Airbreathing catfish (CLARIIDAE - is one of the most promising specie of artificial breeding. However, for the reproduction of this specie it is required to conduct appropriate studies. In particular, it is necessary to review the features of morphogenesis during early ontogeny of this type of fish. We investigated prelarvae of airbreathing catfish (CLARIIBAE in 2,3 and 4 days of life. In the embryos, the spinal cord was formed on the 2nd day of life. At this stage, organs of vision were sufficiently developed. On the 4th day, we found hyaline cartilage at the base of the gill arch, arcs were covered with gill filaments; we also discovered fully formed mesonephros, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and intratubular liquid in the kidneys. The heart of the embryo consisted of atrium and voluminous ventricle.Methods. The research of development of airbreathing catfish in early ontogenesis has been carried out on the basis of "RENTOP Agro-5" Ltd. under the conditions of RAS in the Krasnodar region in the spring – summer period of years 2013-14. For morphological analysis we used serial histological sections on prelarvae of 40 airbreathing catfish at age 2, 3 and 4 days developing normally and atypically. The research combines some complex biological methods: ichthyologic, histological, physiological. Materials for the research were handled with the methods of classical histology. Viewing and imaging of the sections were made using Mikmed 6 microscope with a digital camera for imaging and computer analysis.Results. The finding of the study has been the analysis of the morphological structure of airbreathing catfish during early ontogeny, which can contribute to improving the biotechnology of breeding of airbreathing catfish under RAS.Main conclusions. First, in the early ontogenesis of airbreathing catfish we have discovered heterochrony in the development of basic systems: rapidly developing central nervous system and the digestive system

  8. Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu D. Enyidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1 to feed 4 (F4. The treatment diets were included 25% (F1, 15% (F2, 5% (F3 and 0% (F4 green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02 for 25% algal meal diet (F1 and highest (2.98 ± 0.01 for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22 and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09. The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01 and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59. Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets.

  9. Growth Performance of Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822) Cultured in High Density on the Biofloc System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Fajar; Yuniarti, Tristiana; Harwanto, Dicky; Susilowati, Titik

    2018-02-01

    Start your The fish farmers and researchers have made efforts to increase catfish production through high levels of dispersal and application of biofloc systems. This system, in addition to increase production, can also predict when the harvest is done, control the quality of water causing death so that the Survival Rate (SR) is high. The purpose of this study is to determine the growth performance and predict the harvest weight and catfish survival rate (SR) that are cultured with different high density on the biofloc system. The research method used is experimental with test fish in the form of catfish seeds weighing of 8 ± 0.2 gram/fish with each density as treatment: P1. Density of 1,100 fish/m3; P2. Density of 1,200 fish/m3 and P3. Density of 1,300 fish/m3. Pond: The pond used is made of 3m in diameter of tarpaulin, equipped with a 6mm diameter of iron frame. Total volume of water in each pond is 3 m3. Catfish seeds have been adapted and put into the pond at random with the length of cultivation period is 4 weeks. Growth performance analysis uses the SPSS regression statistic series 20. The research results showed that the growth performance for 4 weeks showed that P1 generates the regression equation Y1 = 6.46 +7.81 X with r2 = 0.971 means that if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of catfish has reached 100 grams; P2 generates the regression equation Y2 = 6.53 + 6.0 X den r2 = 0.969 means if the harvest is done at week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 78.53 grams and P3 generates the regression equation Y3 = 6.71 + 5.94 X with r2 = 0.976 means if harvest is done on week 12th then the weight of new catfish has reached 77.99 grams. Survival rate at P1 = 97.73%; P2 = 95.91% and P3 = 94.55% while the oxygenated water quality is more than 3.5 ppm; pH ranged from 6.7-7 and ammonia content at week 3 is P1 = 0.04 mg/l; P2 = 0.13 mg/l and P3 = 0.27 mg/l.

  10. The evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in carnivores and ungulates (Ferungulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    in Ferungulata, a clade comprising carnivores, pangolins, and even- and odd-toed ungulates. Their early ontogeny shows several conserved traits such as superficial attachment of the blastocyst, amnion formation by folding, a large allantoic sac and a temporary yolk sac placenta. In contrast, several characters...... of the chorioallantoic placenta are derived, including the diffuse and cotyledonary placental types in ungulates and zonary placenta in carnivores, specializations of the interhaemal barrier, the presence of areolae or haemophagous regions and lack of stromal decidual cells. Ungulates produce large amounts of placental...... proteins including placental lactogens and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Evolutionary innovations of the placental system may contribute to the high diversity of lifestyles within Ferungulata and be linked to the evolution of highly precocial offspring in ungulates....

  11. Feed based on vegetable materials changes the muscle proteome of the carnivore rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune; Bach Mikkelsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Feed production for aquaculture of carnivore fish species relies heavily on protein and lipid from the limited resources of wild fish and other sea living organisms. Thus the development of alternative feeds replacing fish meal and oil with components of vegetable origin is important for a sustai......Feed production for aquaculture of carnivore fish species relies heavily on protein and lipid from the limited resources of wild fish and other sea living organisms. Thus the development of alternative feeds replacing fish meal and oil with components of vegetable origin is important...... trout fed two different diets identical in protein and oil content, but with diet C based on fish meal and oil and diet V based on rapeseed oil and vegetable proteins. In addition to the proteomic investigation the textural properties of the fish were analysed by sensory profiling. Protein expression...

  12. Faster than their prey: new insights into the rapid movements of active carnivorous plants traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Plants move in very different ways and for different reasons, but some active carnivorous plants perform extraordinary motion: Their snap-, catapult- and suction traps perform very fast and spectacular motions to catch their prey after receiving mechanical stimuli. Numerous investigations have led to deeper insights into the physiology and biomechanics of these trapping devices, but they are far from being fully understood. We review concisely how plant movements are classified and how they follow principles that bring together speed, actuation and architecture of the moving organ. In particular, we describe and discuss how carnivorous plants manage to execute fast motion. We address open questions and assess the prospects for future studies investigating potential universal mechanisms that could be the basis of key characteristic features in plant movement such as stimulus transduction, post-stimulatory mechanical answers, and organ formation. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of predation on early stages of the armoured catfish Hoplosternum thoracatum (Siluriformes-Callichthyidae) and implications for the syntopic occurrence with other related catfishes in a neotropical multi-predator swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jan H

    1996-08-01

    This study investigated the role of predators in preventing competitive exclusion among three closely related armoured catfishes (Callichthys callichthys, Hoplosternum littorale and H. thoracatum) that occur synthopically in multi-predator freshwater swamps of Suriname, South America. The potential impact of predation on armoured catfish was determined by combining laboratory measurements of predation rates on five early developmental stages of the armoured catfish H. thoracatum for 24 aquatic predators with field studies of the density of the predators in the swamps. The contribution of a particular predator to the total predation pressure on its prey was determined to a large extent by the density of the predator in the swamp. Seemingly innocuous predators with low or moderate predation rates in the laboratory may be extremely important in the swamps due to their high abundance. Small-sized omnivorous fishes and aquatic invertebrates were major predators of early developmental stages of armoured catfish. Both qualitative and quantitative ontogenetic changes in the predation pressure on armoured catfish were observed. Major predation on eggs, larvae and juveniles of H. thoracatum resulted from a different set of predators in each developmental stage of the prey. In all developmental stages of H. thoracatum the predation pressure involved several predator species and not a single, dominant predator. The potential predation pressure of the 24 predators taken together and the number of predators that were able to prey on H. thoracatum decreased sharply with increasing age (size) of the prey. Even if egg (nest) predation is prevented by the guarding male, the potential impact of the 24 predators on the populations of armoured catfish is large. Predation may account for the high mortality of H. thoracatum observed in the swamps. The high predation pressure on callichthyid catfishes may help to explain the coexistence of three closely related and morphologically quite

  14. Herbivore diet breadth mediates the cascading effects of carnivores in food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Michael S.; Lichter-Marck, Isaac H.; Farkas, Timothy E.; Aaron, Eric; Whitney, Kenneth D.; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the impact of carnivores on plants has challenged community and food web ecologists for decades. At the same time, the role of predators in the evolution of herbivore dietary specialization has been an unresolved issue in evolutionary ecology. Here, we integrate these perspectives by testing the role of herbivore diet breadth as a predictor of top-down effects of avian predators on herbivores and plants in a forest food web. Using experimental bird exclosures to study a complex co...

  15. Dinitrogen fixation associated with shoots of aquatic carnivorous plants: is it ecologically important?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirová, D.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Adamec, Lubomír; Bárta, J.; Borovec, Jakub; Pech, J.; Owens, S.M.; Šantrůčková, H.; Schaeufele, R.; Štorchová, Helena; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-133 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aldrovanda vesiculosa * aquatic carnivorous plants * Utricularia vulgaris * nitrogen fixation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EF - Botanics (BU-J); EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  16. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Nawa; Somerville, Andrew D.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches ...

  17. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Naves, Javier; Ordiz, Andrés; Quevedo, Mario; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  18. PCR detection of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in brains of wild carnivores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková, L.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 137, 1/2 (2006), s. 150-154 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) FRVŠ 1494/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neospora * Encephalitozoon * carnivores Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2006

  19. Book review: Large carnivore conservation: Integrating science and policy in the North American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A. J.; Cox, M. M.; Ernst, E. E.; Haley, H. J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Loney, D. A.; Mackert, M. M.; McCombs, A. L.; Piatscheck, F.; Pocius, V. M.; Stein, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Klaver reviewed Large Carnivore Conservation as part of a graduate seminar and seminar participants represented the full range of readers who might be interested in the book: natural resource managers, citizen advocates, researchers, and students. Although we encountered a variety of opinions based on our different backgrounds and orientations, we discovered a surprising amount of consensus both about what the book does well and where it falls short of our expectations.

  20. Locomotion and the Cost of Hunting in Large, Stealthy Marine Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Fuiman, Lee A; Davis, Randall W

    2015-10-01

    Foraging by large (>25 kg), mammalian carnivores often entails cryptic tactics to surreptitiously locate and overcome highly mobile prey. Many forms of intermittent locomotion from stroke-and-glide maneuvers by marine mammals to sneak-and-pounce behaviors by terrestrial canids, ursids, and felids are involved. While affording proximity to vigilant prey, these tactics are also associated with unique energetic costs and benefits to the predator. We examined the energetic consequences of intermittent locomotion in mammalian carnivores and assessed the role of these behaviors in overall foraging efficiency. Behaviorally-linked, three-axis accelerometers were calibrated to provide instantaneous locomotor behaviors and associated energetic costs for wild adult Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) diving beneath the Antarctic ice. The results were compared with previously published values for other marine and terrestrial carnivores. We found that intermittent locomotion in the form of extended glides, burst-and-glide swimming, and rollercoaster maneuvers while hunting silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) resulted in a marked energetic savings for the diving seals relative to continuously stroking. The cost of a foraging dive by the seals decreased by 9.2-59.6%, depending on the proportion of time gliding. These energetic savings translated into exceptionally low transport costs during hunting (COTHUNT) for diving mammals. COTHUNT for Weddell seals was nearly six times lower than predicted for large terrestrial carnivores, and demonstrates the importance of turning off the propulsive machinery to facilitate cost-efficient foraging in highly active, air-breathing marine predators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Triggering a false alarm: Wounding mimics prey capture in the carnivorous venus flytrap (dionaea muscipula)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlovič, A.; Jakšová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 3 (2017), s. 927-938 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Action potential * Carnivorous plant * Defence * Digestive enzyme * Electrical signal * Jasmonic acid (JA) * Systemic response * Venus flytrap Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  2. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Gil

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  3. Enzymatic activities in traps of four aquatic species of the carnivorous genus Utricularia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirová, D.; Adamec, Lubomír; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 159, - (2003), s. 669-675 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6017202; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912; CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * extracellular enzymatic activity * trap fluid pH Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.118, year: 2003

  4. Periodontal disease diagnosis in a group of captive native carnivores at Jaime Duque Zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vásquez C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A diagnose of periodontal diseases was performed in 12 species of carnivores at Jaime Duque Zoo. 23 animals were sampled under different general anesthesia protocols. A protocol of the oral cavity examination was designed and implemented, making emphasis in the periodontal anomalies. 16 of the 23 individuals presented periodontal disease. A microbiological culture was performed from the oral cavity of 9 individuals, this results indicated mostly normal bacterial flora.

  5. Top carnivores increase their kill rates on prey as a response to human-induced fear

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Justine A.; Wang, Yiwei; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The fear induced by predators on their prey is well known to cause behavioural adjustments by prey that can ripple through food webs. Little is known, however, about the analogous impacts of humans as perceived top predators on the foraging behaviour of carnivores. Here, we investigate the influence of human-induced fear on puma foraging behaviour using location and prey consumption data from 30 tagged individuals living along a gradient of human development. We observed strong behavioural re...

  6. The carnivorous feeding behavior of early Homo at HWK EE, Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pante, Michael C; Njau, Jackson K; Hensley-Marschand, Blaire; Keevil, Trevor L; Martín-Ramos, Carmen; Peters, Renata Franco; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2017-08-07

    The regular consumption of large mammal carcasses, as evidenced by butchery marks on fossils recovered from Early Stone Age archaeological sites, roughly coincides with the appearance of Homo habilis. However, the significance of this niche expansion cannot be appreciated without an understanding of hominin feeding behavior and their ecological interactions with mammalian carnivores. The Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) has recovered a large and well-preserved fossil assemblage from the HWK EE site, which was deposited just prior to the first appearance of Acheulean technology at Olduvai Gorge and likely represents one of the last H. habilis sites at Olduvai. This taphonomic analysis of the larger mammal fossil assemblage excavated from HWK EE shows evidence of multiple occupations over a long period of time, suggesting the site offered resources that were attractive to hominins. There was a water source indicated by the presence of fish, crocodiles, and hippos, and there was possible tree cover in an otherwise open habitat. The site preserves several stratigraphic intervals with large fossil and artifact assemblages within two of these intervals. Feeding traces on bone surfaces suggest hominins at the site obtained substantial amounts of flesh and marrow, particularly from smaller size group 1-2 carcasses, and exploited a wide range of taxa, including megafauna. A strong carnivore signal suggests hominins scavenged much of their animal foods during the two main stratigraphic intervals. In the later interval, lower carnivore tooth mark and hammerstone percussion mark frequencies, in addition to high epiphyseal to shaft fragment ratios, suggest hominins and carnivores did not fully exploit bone marrow and grease, which may have been acquired from nutritionally-stressed animals that died during a dry period at Olduvai. The diversity of fauna that preserve evidence of butchery suggests that the HWK EE hominins were opportunistic in their

  7. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in Carnivores in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Using Mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Mobedi, Iraj; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Motevalian, Abbas; Razmjou, Elham

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal...

  8. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Castellano, A; Paniw, M; Casimiro-Soriguer, R; Ojeda, F

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyteDrosophyllum lusitanicum(Drosophyllaceae), which has been described as an autogamous selfing species but produces large, yellow flowers. Using a flower removal and a pollination experiment, we assessed, respectively, whether large flowers in this species may serve as an attracting device to prey insects or whether previously reported high selfing rates for this species in peripheral populations may be lower in more central, less isolated populations. We found no differences between flower-removed plants and intact, flowering plants in numbers of prey insects trapped. We also found no indication of reduced potential for autogamous reproduction, in terms of either seed set or seed size. However, our results showed significant increases in seed set of bagged, hand-pollinated flowers and unbagged flowers exposed to insect visitation compared with bagged, non-manipulated flowers that could only self-pollinate autonomously. Considering that the key life-history strategy of this pyrophytic species is to maintain a viable seed bank, any increase in seed set through insect pollinator activity would increase plant fitness. This in turn would explain the maintenance of large, conspicuous flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  9. Development and performance evaluation of air fine bubbles on water quality of thai catfish rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Ujang; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Mulhadi, Muhammad Fakhri; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency and productivity of aquaculture strongly depends on the development of advanced technology for water quality management system. The most important factor for the success of intensive aquaculture system is controlling the water quality of fish rearing media. This paper reports the design of fine bubbles (FBs) generator and performance evaluation of the system to improve water quality in thai catfish media (10 g/ind) with density (16.66 ind./L). The FBs generator was designed to control the size distribution of bubble by controlling its air flow rate entry to the mixing chamber of the generator. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the produced debit, dissolved oxygen rate and ammonia content in the catfish medium. The size distribution was observed by using a high speed camera image followed by processing using ImageJ. freeware application. The results show that air flow rate 0.05 L/min and 0.1 L/min received average bubble size of 29 µm and 31 µm respectively. The generator produced bubbles with capacity of 6 L/min and dissolved oxygen rate 0.2 ppm/min/L. The obtained DO growth was 0.455 ppm/second/L while the average decay rate was 0.20 ppm/second/L. (0.011/0.005 fold). In contrast, the recieved DO growth rate is faster compared to the DO consumption rate of the Thai catfish. This results indicated that the potential application of FBs enhanced the density of thai catfish seed rearing. In addition, ammonia can be reduced at 0.0358 ppm/hour/L and it is also observed that the inhibition of bacterial growth of air FBs is postive to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria compared to the negative control. It is concluded that as-developed FBs system can be potentially applied for intensive thai catfish culture and expected to improve the feeding efficiency rate.

  10. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Vibrio cholerae isolated from catfish (Pangasius hypothalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshafawati, R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, cholera has cycle the world seven times through the seven pandemic cycles that has affected tens of millions of people. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and density as well as the antibiotic resistance profile of Vibrio cholerae isolated from catfish (Pangasius hypohthalamus. From the combination of the Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction-plating on TCBS agar methods, V. cholerae was detected in 32 samples and V. cholerae O139 was detected in 7 samples, with a density ranging between <3.0 to 75.0 MPN/g and <3.0 to 9.3 MPN/g respectively. The results obtained in this study indicate that V. cholerae will continue to be a major healthcare burden, as the pathogen can be transferred from the aquatic environment to the catfish and the consumption of catfish by humans will present a route of exposure to V. cholerae. Proliferation of antibiotic and multiantibiotic resistant bacteria is a public health threat worldwide. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility investigation of V. cholerae isolates collected from catfish reported in this study will establish an important baseline data. All the V. cholerae isolates were multiantibiotic resistant towards the ten antibiotics tested, including 6 isolates that were resistant to all ten antibiotics and 38 antibiotic resistance patterns. The MAR index values of 0.2 to 1.0 indicate that the isolates were exposed to high risk sources in the environment. Taken together, the information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae indicate that catfish consumption presents a potential risk to human health and highlight the need for ongoing epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

  11. 6-Desaturase-Like Encoding Gene Introduction in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Hary Ayu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus is one of the economically valuable aquaculture fish species in Indonesia. This research was aimed to produce F0 transgenic catfish carrying masou salmon Δ6-desaturase-like (OmΔ6FAD gene. The Δ6-desaturase enzyme is involved in highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Transgenic catfish was produced by sperm-mediated gene transfer using electroporation method. In this study, as the first step, sperms were electroporated with three different OmΔ6FAD concentration (25, 50, and 100 µg mL-1 to have the highest sperm viability after electroporation (125 V/cm, pulse frequency 5 times, pulse length 30 millisecond, pulse interval 0.1 second. The highest sperm viability and sperm carrying OmΔ6FAD were obtain at 100 µg mL-1. This concentration was then used to produce F0 transgenic catfish in the second step. Sperm motility, sperm viability, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and larval survival at 14 days after hatching were the same as the controls (p>0.05. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin and then used as template to identify transgenic F0 by PCR method using specific primer for OmΔ6FAD gene. The PCR result showed that 53.84% of F0 carried OmΔ6FAD gene. The result of fatty acid analysis showed that EPA and DHA contents of F0 transgenic fish and non-transgenic fish were similar.   Keywords: catfish, Δ6-desaturase-like gene, fatty acids, electroporation

  12. Validation of daily ring deposition in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaris, P.C.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We developed and validated methods for estimating the daily age of age-0 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Two clutches of channel catfish eggs were hatched in the laboratory; subsequently, one was stocked in a 186-m2 earthen nursery pond and the other in a 757-L outdoor circular tank. Before stocking, subsamples of fish were collected at swim-up and 3 d after swim-up to evaluate early ring formation. Fish were sampled from the pond and tank on eight occasions ranging from 30 to 119 d posthatch. Distinct differences in early ring formation were found between yolk sac and free-swimming larval stages. Mean ring count and known age were closely related for tank- and pond-raised fish, indicating that daily ring deposition occurred in the otoliths of age-0 channel catfish up to 119 d posthatch. The accuracy of daily age estimation was similar between tank and pond samples, and daily ring counts were considerably accurate up to 60 d posthatch. Pond-raised fish were more difficult to age than tank-raised fish, which we attributed to ring compression resulting from slower growth among pond-raised fish after 30 d. The total length of tank- and pond-raised fish was positively related to otolith size; however, the slopes of the relationships between fish length and otolith radius were different between treatments. Therefore, we could not confirm that the relationship between fish length and otolith size was directly proportional for age-0 channel catfish. We encourage researchers to use this aging technique to determine how abiotic and biotic factors influence early life history characteristics and ultimately the population dynamics of catfishes (Ictaluridae). ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  13. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, ghrelin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brian C; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Kaiya, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration on target tissue mRNA expression. Analysis of sequence similarities indicated two genes putatively encoding GHS-R1 and GHS-R2, respectively, which have been known to be present in zebrafish. Organization and tissue expression of the GHS-R1 gene was similar to that reported for other species, and likewise yielded two detectable mRNA products as a result of alternative splicing. Expression of both full-length, GHS-R1a, and splice variant, GHS-R1b, mRNA was highest in the pituitary. Gene organization of GHS-R2 was similar to GHS-R1, but no splice variant was identified. Expression of GHS-R2a mRNA was highest in the Brockmann bodies. GHS-R1a mRNA was detected in unfertilized eggs and throughout embryogenesis, whereas GHR-R2a mRNA was not expressed in unfertilized eggs or early developing embryos and was the highest at the time of hatching. Catfish intraperitoneally injected with catfish ghrelin-Gly had greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in pituitaries at 2 h and Brockmann bodies at 4 h, and of GHS-R2a in Brockmann bodies at 6 h post injection. Amidated catfish ghrelin (ghrelin-amide) had no observable effect on expression of either pituitary receptor; however, GHS-R1a and GHS-R2a mRNA expression levels were increased 4 h post injection of ghrelin-amide in Brockmann bodies. This is the first characterization of GHS-R2a and suggests regulatory and functional differences between the two catfish receptors.

  14. Spermatogenesis of male catfish Clarias sp. fed diet supplemeted with purwoceng extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Dea Bertha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purwoceng Pimpinella alpina Molk has been a commercial medicinal plant that their root could be used as aphrodisiac, diuretic, and body fit enhancer. This research was performed to evaluated the effect of purwoceng on spermatogenesis of the male catfish Clarias sp. consisted of testis weight, gonado somatic index (GSI, and spermatocrite levels. The treatment comprised administering purwoceng extract through the feed at a dose of 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5 g/kg of feed. Experimental fish used were male catfish Clarias sp. with initial body weight of 200–300 g at the density of 10 fish/tank. Male catfish were maintained in tank sized 2×1,5×1 m3, filled with water at 60–70 cm deep. The result showed that purwoceng extract at a dose of 5 g/kg mixed in the feed increased testis weight, GSI values, and spermatocrite levels in adult male catfish. Keywords: purwoceng extract, spermatogenesis, catfish  ABSTRAK Purwoceng Pimpinella alpina Molk merupakan tanaman herbal komersial yang akarnya dilaporkan berkhasiat sebagai obat afrodisiak, diuretik, dan tonik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh ekstrak purwoceng terhadap perkembangan testis ikan lele Clarias sp. yang meliputi peningkatan bobot testis, nilai GSI, serta nilai spermatokrit. Perlakuan terdiri atas pemberian ekstrak purwoceng melalui pakan dengan dosis 0; 2,5; 5 dan 7,5 g/kg pakan. Adapun ikan yang diujicobakan pada penelitian adalah ikan lele jantan dengan bobot awal 200–300 g dan padat tebar 10 ekor/bak. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan pada bak berukuran 2×1,5×1 m3 yang diisi air dengan ketinggian  60–70 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak purwoceng dengan dosis 5 g/kg yang dicampur dalam pakan meningkatkan nilai bobot testis, nilai GSI dan kadar spermatokrit  pada lele jantan dewasa. Kata kunci: ekstrak purwoceng, spermatogenesis, ikan lele

  15. Parasites of South African freshwater fish. I. Some nematodes of the catfish [Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)] from the Hartbeespoort Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J

    1982-03-01

    A seasonal study of the parasites of fish in the Hartbeespoort Dam was undertaken in 1979. This paper deals with 4 nematode species recovered from catfish, namely, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx (Baylis, 1923), Procamallanus laeviconchus (Wedl, 1862), Contracaecum sp. and Skrjabinocara sp. Total numbers of parasites recovered are tabulated and their seasonal variation illustrated diagrammatically. Paracamallanus cyathopharynx was recovered from 23 out of 43 catfish examined and Procamallanus laeviconchus from 13, while Contracaecum sp. larvae were present in all the catfish. Skrjabinocara sp. was recovered from 1 catfish only, but it is not regarded as being parasitic in fish, as it was also recovered from 1 out of 4 cormorant examined. Paracamallanus cyathopharynx and Procamallanus laeviconchus are illustrated and the measurements of the Hartbeespoort Dam material compared with those given by various authors who recovered the same parasites from other fish species elsewhere in Africa.

  16. Corydoras ornatus, a new species of callichthyid catfish from the Rio Tapajós Drainage, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A new species of the neotropical callichthyid catfish genus Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. ornatus, is described and figured. It is compared with Corydoras pulcher Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1973, a closely related species.

  17. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  18. High prevalence of Trichinella spp. in sylvatic carnivore mammals of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksne, Gunita; Segliņa, Zanda; Jahundoviča, Inese; Esīte, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Bagrade, Guna; Keidāne, Dace; Interisano, Marilena; Marucci, Gianluca; Tonanzi, Daniele; Pozio, Edoardo; Kirjušina, Muza

    2016-11-15

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. Carnivore mammals are important reservoir hosts of these nematodes. The aims of this work were to establish the prevalence of Trichinella spp. and infection intensity in sylvatic carnivore mammals of Latvia, to identify the etiological agents at the species level and their circulation in the Latvian regions. From 2010 to 2014, muscle samples were collected from 1286 hunted animals (2 European badgers, 137 pine martens, 24 stone martens, 4 golden jackals, 394 raccoon dogs, 668 red foxes, 23 grey wolves, and 34 Eurasian lynxes). Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated by muscle digestion. Overall, 633 animals (49.2%; 95% CI 46.5%-52.0%) belonging to all the eight investigated species, tested positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella britovi was the most common species (94.0%; 95% CI 91.7%-95.7%). Trichinella nativa was detected in 30 animals as single (6, 1.1%; 95% CI 0.4%-2.3%) or mixed infection (24, 4.4%; 95% CI 2.9%-6.4%) with T. britovi. Trichinella spiralis was detected in only three animals as mixed infection with T. britovi. The high prevalence of Trichinella spp. infection in sylvatic carnivore mammals suggests that they are good indicators for the risk assessment of Trichinella spp. in Latvia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Freya A V; Keane, Aidan M; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Jones, Lauren; Yarnell, Richard W; Jones, Julia P G

    2012-02-22

    Managing natural resources often depends on influencing people's behaviour, however effectively targeting interventions to discourage environmentally harmful behaviours is challenging because those involved may be unwilling to identify themselves. Non-sensitive indicators of sensitive behaviours are therefore needed. Previous studies have investigated people's attitudes, assuming attitudes reflect behaviour. There has also been interest in using people's estimates of the proportion of their peers involved in sensitive behaviours to identify those involved, since people tend to assume that others behave like themselves. However, there has been little attempt to test the potential of such indicators. We use the randomized response technique (RRT), designed for investigating sensitive behaviours, to estimate the proportion of farmers in north-eastern South Africa killing carnivores, and use a modified logistic regression model to explore relationships between our best estimates of true behaviour (from RRT) and our proposed non-sensitive indicators (including farmers' attitudes, and estimates of peer-behaviour). Farmers' attitudes towards carnivores, question sensitivity and estimates of peers' behaviour, predict the likelihood of farmers killing carnivores. Attitude and estimates of peer-behaviour are useful indicators of involvement in illicit behaviours and may be used to identify groups of people to engage in interventions aimed at changing behaviour.

  20. Development of new stem cell-based technologies for carnivore reproduction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, A J; Kim, Y; Meyers-Wallen, V

    2009-07-01

    New reproductive technologies based on stem cells offer several potential benefits to carnivore species. For example, development of lines of embryonic stem cells in cats and dogs would allow for the generation of transgenic animal models, which could be used to advance both veterinary and human health. Techniques such as spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) and testis xenografting offer new approaches to propagate genetically valuable individual males, even if they should die before producing sperm. These techniques might therefore have application to the conservation of endangered species of carnivores, as well as to biomedical research. Recently, our laboratory has successfully performed SSCT in the dog, with a recipient dog producing sperm of donor genetic origin. Testis xenografting has been used to produce sperm from pre-pubertal testis tissue from both cats and ferrets. These early steps reinforce the need not only for research on stem cell technologies, but also for additional research into complementary technologies of assisted reproduction in carnivores, so that the widest array of research and clinical benefits can be realized.

  1. The carnivore remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, N; Arsuaga, J L; Torres, T

    1997-01-01

    Remains of carnivores from the Sima de los Huesos site representing at least 158 adult individuals of a primitive (i.e., not very speleoid) form of Ursus deningeri Von Reichenau 1906, have been recovered through the 1995 field season. These new finds extend our knowledge of this group in the Sierra de Atapuerca Middle Pleistocene. Material previously classified as Cuoninae indet, is now assigned to Canis lupus and a third metatarsal assigned in 1987 to Panthera of gombaszoegensis, is in our opinion only attributable to Panthera sp. The family Mustelidae is added to the faunal list and includes Martes sp. and a smaller species. The presence of Panthera leo cf. fossilis, Lynx pardina spelaea and Felis silvestris, is confirmed. The presence of a not very speloid Ursus deningeri, together with the rest of the carnivore assemblage, points to a not very late Middle Pleistocene age, i.e., oxygen isotope stage 7 or older. Relative frequencies of skeletal elements for the bear and fox samples are without major biases. The age structure of the bear sample, based on dental wear stages, does not follow the typical hibernation mortality profile and resembles a catastrophic profile. The site was not a natal or refuge den. The hypothesis that the site was a natural trap is the most plausible. If the Sima de los Huesos functioned as a natural trap (without an egress out), the human accumulation cannot be attributed to carnivore: activities and must be explained differently.

  2. Correlates between calcaneal morphology and locomotion in extant and extinct carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciroli, Elsa; Janis, Christine; Stockdale, Maximilian; Martín-Serra, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Locomotor mode is an important component of an animal's ecology, relating to both habitat and substrate choice (e.g., arboreal versus terrestrial) and in the case of carnivores, to mode of predation (e.g., ambush versus pursuit). Here, we examine how the morphology of the calcaneum, the 'heel bone' in the tarsus, correlates with locomotion in extant carnivores. Other studies have confirmed the correlation of calcaneal morphology with locomotion behaviour and habitat. The robust nature of the calcaneum means that it is frequently preserved in the fossil record. Here, we employ linear measurements and 2D-geometric morphometrics on a sample of calcanea from eighty-seven extant carnivorans and demonstrate a signal of correlation between calcaneal morphology and locomotor mode that overrides phylogeny. We used this correlation to determine the locomotor mode, and hence aspects of the palaeobiology of, 47 extinct carnivorous mammal taxa, including both Carnivora and Creodonta. We found ursids (bears), clustered together, separate from the other carnivorans. Our results support greater locomotor diversity for nimravids (the extinct 'false sabertooths', usually considered to be more arboreal), than previously expected. However, there are limitations to interpretation of extinct taxa because their robust morphology is not fully captured in the range of modern carnivoran morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter; Zintl, Annetta; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Hawkins, Conall; Lawton, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT. According to PCR analysis of DNA extracted from brain tissue, 3% of the mink, 4% of the otters and 6% of the foxes examined were infected with N. caninum. All fecal samples tested negative for N. caninum DNA (n = 311), suggesting that the species that tested positive were intermediate not definitive hosts. This is the first time that tissues from mustelids have tested positive for N. caninum. The need to test 2 relatively large (~200 mg) targeted parts of the brain to avoid false negatives was also identified. The relatively low prevalence of N. caninum in Irish carnivores suggests that the local ecology of a species has an important influence on its epidemiological role.

  4. A carnivorous sundew plant prefers protein over chitin as a source of nitrogen from its traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Krausko, Miroslav; Adamec, Lubomír

    2016-07-01

    Carnivorous plants have evolved in nutrient-poor wetland habitats. They capture arthropod prey, which is an additional source of plant growth limiting nutrients. One of them is nitrogen, which occurs in the form of chitin and proteins in prey carcasses. In this study, the nutritional value of chitin and protein and their digestion traits in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis L. were estimated using stable nitrogen isotope abundance. Plants fed on chitin derived 49% of the leaf nitrogen from chitin, while those fed on the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) derived 70% of its leaf nitrogen from this. Moreover, leaf nitrogen content doubled in protein-fed in comparison to chitin-fed plants indicating that the proteins were digested more effectively in comparison to chitin and resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll contents. The surplus chlorophyll and absorbed nitrogen from the protein digestion were incorporated into photosynthetic proteins - the light harvesting antennae of photosystem II. The incorporation of insect nitrogen into the plant photosynthetic apparatus may explain the increased rate of photosynthesis and plant growth after feeding. This general response in many genera of carnivorous plants has been reported in many previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective prey attraction in the rare Drosophyllum lusitanicum, a flypaper-trap carnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Nils; Paniw, Maria; Ojeda, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Carnivorous plants have unusually modified leaves to trap insects as an adaptation to low-nutrient environments. Disparate mechanisms have been suggested as luring traits to attract prey insects into their deadly leaves, ranging from very elaborate to none at all. Drosophyllum lusitanicum is a rare carnivorous plant with a common flypaper-trap mechanism. Here we tested whether Drosophyllum plants lure prey insects into their leaves or they act just as passive traps. We compared prey capture between live, potted plants and Drosophyllum-shaped artificial mimics coated with odorless glue. Since this species is insect-pollinated, we also explored the possible existence of a pollinator-prey conflict by quantifying the similarity between the pollination and prey guilds in a natural population. All experiments were done in southern Spain. The sticky leaves of Drosophyllum captured significantly more prey than mimics, particularly small dipterans. Prey attraction, likely exerted by scent or visual cues, seems to be unrelated to pollinator attraction by flowers, as inferred from the low similarity between pollinator and prey insect faunas found in this species. Our results illustrate the effectiveness of this carnivorous species at attracting insects to their flypaper-trap leaves. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. A common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prey handling technique for marine catfish (Ariidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ronje, Errol I.; Barry, Kevin P.; Sinclair, Carrie; Grace, Mark A.; Barros, N?lio; Allen, Jason; Balmer, Brian; Panike, Anna; Toms, Christina; Mullin, Keith D.; Wells, Randall S.

    2017-01-01

    Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. Thes...

  7. The impact of elevated water ammonia concentration on physiology, growth and feed intake of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Vries, de P.; Bierman, S.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The threshold concentration for NH3 in rearing water of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed. African catfish with an initial mean (SD) weight of 141.0 (24) g were exposed to five different Tamm [sum of NH3 and NH4+] concentrations: 0.37 (Control), 1.06, 2.12, 5.16 and 19.7 mM, which

  8. Comparison of extracellular DNase- and protease-producing spoilage bacteria isolated from Delaware pond-sourced and retail channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Michael E; Accumanno, Gina M; McIntosh, Dennis M; Blank, Grant S; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2015-03-30

    Spoilage of fishery products begins immediately following filleting due to microbial growth that degrades fish tissue quality prior to consumption. Extensive research has been conducted to identify such bacterial populations. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in fish spoilage is necessary as a novel remedy for microbial spoilage inhibition has yet to be established for fish tissue. The present study identified, for the first time, bacterial populations that produce extracellular DNase and protease from Delaware and local retail distributed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. A clear trend was identified between bacteria derived from catfish filleted under aseptic conditions where Pseudomonas was the dominant genus. Bacteria isolated from retail catfish contained high quantities of DNase-producing isolates, in contrast to aseptic-filleted catfish tissue which had none. Both types of catfish sample maintained high populations of protease-producing bacterial colonies throughout the duration of the study. Most bacteria isolated from catfish intestines exhibited DNase production with no protease production. Specific spoilage organism populations were significantly higher on retail-derived catfish in comparison to lab-filleted Delaware cultured catfish tissue. It is suggested that DNase production and protease production contribute to the spoilage of fish tissue as a result of mishandling and septic filleting being the major cause of rapid catfish tissue spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that

  11. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  12. Signal transmission in the catfish retina. V. Sensitivity and circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H M; Naka, K

    1987-12-01

    components in the bipolar cells and nonlinear components in the amacrine cells are encoded into spike trains in the ganglion cells. Thus, under our simple stimulus regimen, the ganglion cells transformed the results of the preganglionic signal processing into a spike train without much modification. 5. We propose a tentative diagram of the signal flow in the cone-driven catfish retinal neurons based on this and previous studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Evaluation of integrated sludge worm and catfish farming with biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Pardiansyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCurrently, supply of sludge worm (Tubifex sp. merely came from wild, so that it could not meet demand for fish hatchery. Additionally, harvest from the wild did not have a quality assurance, due to the possibility of sludge worm becoming an agent of disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the production of sludge worm culture by utilizing catfish culture waste (Clarias sp. in bioflok system. In this system, water from catfish culture media flowed into sludge worm culture media using recirculation systems. This study used a completely randomized design with four treatments and two replications, in which treatment A (addition of catfish culture waste from intensive system, treatment B (addition of catfish culture waste from biofloc system, treatment C (the addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment as negative control, and treatment D (addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment and then every five days as positive control. The results showed that the highest production was obtained by treatment B at biomass growth of 0.97 kg/m2 and sludge worm density of 388.000 individu/m2. Keywords: sludge worm, biofloc, chicken manure, catfish, catfish culture waste  ABSTRAK Saat ini pasokan cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. hanya berasal dari alam, sehingga belum mencukupi permintaan untuk kegiatan pembenihan ikan. Selain itu, hasil tangkapan dari alam tidak memiliki jaminan kualitas, karena cacing sutra dapat menjadi agen penyakit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi hasil produksi budidaya cacing sutra dengan memanfaatkan limbah budidaya ikan lele (Clarias sp. sistem bioflok. Pada sistem ini, air dari media budidaya ikan lele dialirkan ke media pemeliharaan cacing sutra menggunakan sistem resirkulasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan dua ulangan, yaitu perlakuan A (pemberian limbah ikan lele sistem intensif, perlakuan B (pemberian limbah ikan lele

  14. Direct evidence of megamammal-carnivore interaction decoded from bone marks in historical fossil collections from the Pampean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Vanesa Chichkoyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene South American megafauna has traditionally attracted the interest of scientists and the popular media alike. However, ecological interactions between the species that inhabited these ecosystems, such as predator-prey relationships or interspecific competition, are poorly known. To this regard, carnivore marks imprinted on the fossil bones of megamammal remains are very useful for deciphering biological activity and, hence, potential interspecific relationships among taxa. In this article, we study historical fossil collections housed in different European and Argentinean museums that were excavated during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Pampean region, Argentina, in order to detect carnivore marks on bones of megamammals and provide crucial information on the ecological relationships between South American taxa during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that the long bones of megafauna from the Pampean region (e.g., the Mylodontidae and Toxodontidae families exhibit carnivore marks. Furthermore, long bones of medium-sized species and indeterminate bones also present punctures, pits, scores and fractures. Members of the large-carnivore guild, such as ursids, canids and even felids, are recognised as the main agents that inflicted the marks. We hypothesize that the analysed carnivore marks represent the last stages of megaherbivore carcass exploitation, suggesting full consumption of these animals by the same or multiple taxa in a hunting and/or scavenging scenario. Moreover, our observations provide novel insights that help further our understanding of the palaeoecological relationships of these unique communities of megamammals.

  15. Direct evidence of megamammal-carnivore interaction decoded from bone marks in historical fossil collections from the Pampean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichkoyan, Karina Vanesa; Figueirido, Borja; Belinchón, Margarita; Lanata, José Luis; Moigne, Anne-Marie; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2017-01-01

    Pleistocene South American megafauna has traditionally attracted the interest of scientists and the popular media alike. However, ecological interactions between the species that inhabited these ecosystems, such as predator-prey relationships or interspecific competition, are poorly known. To this regard, carnivore marks imprinted on the fossil bones of megamammal remains are very useful for deciphering biological activity and, hence, potential interspecific relationships among taxa. In this article, we study historical fossil collections housed in different European and Argentinean museums that were excavated during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Pampean region, Argentina, in order to detect carnivore marks on bones of megamammals and provide crucial information on the ecological relationships between South American taxa during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that the long bones of megafauna from the Pampean region (e.g., the Mylodontidae and Toxodontidae families) exhibit carnivore marks. Furthermore, long bones of medium-sized species and indeterminate bones also present punctures, pits, scores and fractures. Members of the large-carnivore guild, such as ursids, canids and even felids, are recognised as the main agents that inflicted the marks. We hypothesize that the analysed carnivore marks represent the last stages of megaherbivore carcass exploitation, suggesting full consumption of these animals by the same or multiple taxa in a hunting and/or scavenging scenario. Moreover, our observations provide novel insights that help further our understanding of the palaeoecological relationships of these unique communities of megamammals.

  16. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife.

  17. Thermally processed diet greatly affects profiles of amino acids rather than fatty acids in the muscle of carnivorous Silurus meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Xu, Weitong; Tang, Rong; Li, Li; Refaey, Mohamed M; Li, Dapeng

    2018-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of thermally processed diet (TD) on the muscle nutritional values of southern catfish in two experiments (named E1 and E2). Compared to non-thermally processed diet (ND), TD did not significantly affect proximate composition of southern catfish, but increased moisture content and decreased protein content in E1. Meanwhile, it had no effect on overall fatty acid profiles of the catfish rich in PUFA. Southern catfish had high proportions of indispensable amino acids (IAA, 44.6-46.4% of total fatty acids), with the highest contents of lysine (1551-1808 mg/100 g wet weight muscle). However, TD altered profiles of the IAA, particularly decreased 68.5% and 68.4% of methionine, and 9.5% and 10.7% of lysine in E1 and E2, respectively. Conversely, it increased 45.4% and 83.4% of dispensable fatty acid proline. These results suggest TD could affect the nutritional quality of protein rather than fat in farmed fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  19. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P 90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed. PMID:24287526

  20. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin.