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Sample records for carnivorous catfish pelteobagrus

  1. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China

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    Yao Wei J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the migration of fish between the river and lakes and also among lakes. In this study, the gastrointestinal helminth communities were investigated in a carnivorous fish, the yellowhead catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, from two connected and five isolated lakes in the flood plain in order to detect the effect of lake fragmentation on the parasite communities. Results A total of 11 species of helminths were recorded in the stomach and intestine of P. fulvidraco from seven lakes, including two lakes connected with the Yangtze River, i.e. Poyang and Dongting lakes, and five isolated lakes, i.e. Honghu, Liangzi, Tangxun, Niushan and Baoan lakes. Mean helminth individuals and diversity of helminth communities in Honghu and Dongting lakes was lower than in the other five lakes. The nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis was the dominant species of communities in all the seven lakes. No significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index was detected between connected lakes (0.48 and isolated lakes (0.50. The similarity of helminth communities between Niushan and Baoan lakes was the highest (0.6708, and the lowest was between Tangxun and Dongting lakes (0.1807. The similarity was low between Dongting and the other lakes, and the similarity decreased with the geographic distance among these lakes. The helminth community in one connected lake, Poyang Lake was clustered with isolated lakes, but the community in Dongting Lake was separated in the tree. Conclusion The

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon): structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

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    Wang, R-Q; Wang, D-Z; Li, C-T; Yang, X-R

    2016-01-01

    The complete 16,532-nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon) was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method, and compared with the mitochondrial genome sequences of 49 other catfish species belonging to the order Siluriformes. The locations of protein-coding genes and ribosomal ribonucleic acids (RNAs) were identified by comparison with known sequences of other catfishes, including P. fulvidraco and P. nitidus. The P. eupogon mitochondrial genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order was identical to that of other Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets were carried out to further clarify the relative phylogenetic position of P. eupogon, and identify phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) 8.0.X were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of P. eupogon with Amblycipitidae than Siluridae. We therefore concluded that this species appears to be closely related to the Amblycipitidae. In the phylogenetic tree, the Amblycipitidae appeared as the most basal extant lineage within the Siluriformes, while the Bagridae appeared as the sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The mitochondrial genome sequence of P. eupogon has been deposited in GenBank (accession No. KJ001784). PMID:27323031

  3. Observation and hydrodynamic analysis of fast-start of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

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    JING Jun; YIN Xiezhen; LU Xiyun

    2005-01-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of the escape response of yellow catfish ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco ) is investigated.It is observed from digital high-speed camera that all the escape response of yellow catfish is a C-type fast-start, which is characterized by the C-shape of the fish body at the end of the first contraction of the lateral musculature. Based on the analysis of the mass center movement and the performance of the caudal fin, the fast-start process can be divided into two stages: in stage one the fish body rotates rapidly around its mass center and in stage two the fish begins moving straightly. Theoretically, the Weihs' model is employed to obtain the forces, moments and turning angular accelerations acting on the fish during the escape response. The results are in good agreement with the experimental observation. Furthermore, muscle strain at different locations along the body is calculated. At last, the dynamical performance of the escape response is explained.

  4. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

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    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish. PMID:26704851

  5. Effects of astaxanthin and emodin on the growth, stress resistance and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

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    Liu, Fei; Shi, Hong-zhuan; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Yu, Ye-bing; Wang, Ai-ming; Lv, Fu; Shen, Wen-biao

    2016-04-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) has become a commercially important fish species in China and eastern Asia. High-density aquaculture has led to congestion and excessive stress and contributed to bacterial infection outbreaks that have caused high mortality. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and emodin alone and in combination on the growth and stress resistance of yellow catfish. After 60 days of feeding, each group of fish (control, astaxanthin, emodin, and astaxanthin plus emodin (combination) groups) was exposed to acute crowding stress for 24 h, and a subsample of fish from the four groups was challenged with the bacterial septicemia pathogen Proteus mirabilis after the end of the crowding stress experiment. Compared with the control, the astaxanthin and emodin groups showed increases in serum total protein (TP), hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hepatic heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) mRNA levels at 12 and 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress. The combination group exhibited increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum TP, hepatic SOD activity and hepatic HSP70 mRNA levels within 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress. However, decreases relative to the control were observed in the serum cortisol and glucose contents in the three treatment groups at 12 and 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress, in ALT and AST activity in the astaxanthin and emodin group at 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress, and in the serum lysozyme activity, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and hepatic catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in the combination group at 24 h after the initiation of crowding stress. Additionally, the cumulative mortality after P. mirabilis infection was lower in all three treatment groups (57.00%-70.33%) than in the control (77.67%). Dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and emodin decreased

  6. Characterization of immune-related genes in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in response to LPS challenge.

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    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Chai, Xin-Yue; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Hua-Bin; Ge, Bao-Ming; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Fish are considered an excellent model for studies in comparative immunology as they are a representative population of lower vertebrates linked to invertebrate evolution. To gain a better understanding of the immune response in fish, we constructed a subtractive cDNA library from the head kidney of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 300 putative EST clones were identified which contained 95 genes, including 27 immune-related genes, 7 cytoskeleton-related genes, 3 genes involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis, 9 respiration and energy metabolism-related genes, 7 genes related to transport, 24 metabolism-related genes, 10 genes involved in stress responses, seven genes involved in regulation of transcription and translation and 59 unknown genes. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, a subset of randomly selected genes involved in the immune response to lipopolysaccharide challenge were investigated to verify the reliability of the SSH data which identified 16 up-regulated genes. The genes identified in this study provide novel insight into the immune response in fish. PMID:27235365

  7. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  8. Differential effect of waterborne cadmium exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

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    Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture of P.R.C., Fishery College, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovative Centre of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis. •Lipid homeostasis in muscle after Cd exposure derived from the down-regulation of both lipogenesis and lipolysis. •Our study determines the mechanism of waterborne Cd exposure on lipid metabolism in fish on a molecular level. •Our study indicates the tissue-specific regulatory effect of lipid metabolism under waterborne Cd exposure. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on lipid metabolism in liver and muscle of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to 0 (control), 0.49 and 0.95 mg Cd/l, respectively, for 6 weeks, the lipid deposition, Cd accumulation, the activities and expression level of several enzymes as well as the mRNA expression of transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in liver and muscle were determined. Waterborne Cd exposure reduced growth performance, but increased Cd accumulation in liver and muscle. In liver, lipid content, the activities and the mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthetase (FAS)) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased with increasing waterborne Cd concentrations. However, the mRNA expressions of LPL and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) α were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity as well as the mRNA expressions of CPT1 and PPARγ showed no significant differences among the treatments. In muscle, lipid contents showed no significant differences among the treatments. The mRNA expression of 6PGD, FAS, CPT1, LPL, PPARα and PPARγ were down-regulated by Cd exposure. Thus, our study indicated that Cd triggered hepatic lipid accumulation through the improvement of lipogenesis, and that lipid homeostasis in muscle was probably conducted by the down

  9. Ammonia toxicity induces glutamine accumulation, oxidative stress and immunosuppression in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

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    Li, Ming; Gong, Shiyan; Li, Qing; Yuan, Lixia; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried to test the response of yellow catfish for 28days under two ammonia concentrations. Weight gain of fish exposure to high and low ammonia abruptly increased at day 3. There were no significant changes in fish physiological indexes and immune responses at different times during 28-day exposure to low ammonia. Fish physiological indexes and immune responses in the treatment of high ammonia were lower than those of fish in the treatment of low ammonia. When fish were exposed to high ammonia, the ammonia concentration in the brain increased by 19-fold on day 1. By comparison, liver ammonia concentration reached its highest level much earlier at hour 12. In spite of a significant increase in brain and liver glutamine concentration, there was no significant change in glutamate level throughout the 28-day period. The total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the brain gradually decreased from hour 0 to day 28. Liver SOD, GPX and GR activities reached the highest levels at hour 12, and then gradually decreased. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance brain and liver content gradually increased throughout the 28-day period. Lysozyme, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the liver reached exceptionally low levels after day 14. This study indicated that glutamine accumulation in the brain was not the major cause of ammonia poisoning, the toxic reactive oxygen species is not fully counter acted by the antioxidant enzymes and immunosuppression is a process of gradual accumulation of immunosuppressive factors. PMID:26811908

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes in the spleens of polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C)-stimulated yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

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    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Chai, Xin-Yue; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae) is an economically important fish in China. However, genomic research and resources on this species are largely unavailable and still in infancy. In the present study, we constructed a cDNA library following poly I:C injection to screen for immune response genes in the spleens of P. fulvidraco using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 420 putative expressed sequence tag (EST) clones were identified at 24 h post-injection, which contain 103 genes consisting of 25 immune response genes, 12 cytoskeleton genes, 7 cell cycle and apoptosis genes, 7 respiration and energy metabolism genes, 7 transport genes, 26 metabolism genes, 10 stress response genes, 9 translational regulation genes, and 71 unknown genes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) results revealed that a set of randomly selected immune response genes were identified to be up-regulated after 24 h of poly I:C stimulation compared to controls. Our study provides an annotation of immune genes in detail and insight into fish immunity. PMID:27368543

  11. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

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    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  12. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  13. Differential induction of enzymes and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi-Liang; Luo, Zhi, E-mail: luozhi99@yahoo.com.cn; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Sun, Lin-Dan; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Cu downregulates lipogenesis and reduces lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue. •Mechanism of Cu affecting lipid metabolism is determined at the enzymatic and molecular levels. •Cu exposure differentially influences lipid metabolism between liver and adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of waterborne Cu exposure influencing lipid metabolism in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (2 (control), 24 (low), 71 (medium), 198 (high) μg Cu/l, respectively) for 6 weeks. Waterborne Cu exposure had a negative effect on growth and several condition indices (condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and visceral adipose index). In liver, lipid content, activities of lipogenic enzymes (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) as well as mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, FAS and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) genes decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. However, activity and mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in liver increased. In VAT, G6PD, ME and LPL activities as well as the mRNA levels of FAS, LPL and PPARγ genes decreased in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The differential Pearson correlations between transcription factors (SREBP-1 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)), and the activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes were observed between liver and VAT. Thus, our study indicated that reduced lipid contents in liver and VAT after Cu exposure were attributable to the reduced activities and mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes and their genes in these tissues. Different response patterns of several tested enzymes and genes to waterborne Cu

  14. Modulated expression and enzymatic activities of Darkbarbel catfish, Pelteobagrus vachelli for oxidative stress induced by acute hypoxia and reoxygenation.

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    Zhang, Guosong; Mao, Jianqiang; Liang, Fenfei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Cheng; Yin, Shaowu; Wang, Li; Tang, Zhonglin; Chen, Shuqiao

    2016-05-01

    Large changes in oxygen availability in aquatic environments, ranging from anoxia through to hyperoxia, can lead to corresponding wide variation in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fish with aquatic respiration. In order to evaluate the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxidative stress in fish, the mRNA and protein expression of SODs (Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) as well as indices (CP, LPO and MDA) and enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST) were analyzed in liver and brain tissues of Pelteobagrus vachelli. Predominant expression of PvSOD2 was detected in heart, brain, and liver. In contrast, PvSOD1 was highly expressed in liver. Based on the expression patterns of above parameters, we inferred that brain tissue of P. vachelli under 0.7 mg/L degree of acute hypoxia condition could experience hypometabolic states or no suffering stress, but brain tissue has effective mechanisms to minimize or prevent oxidative stress during the transition from hypoxia to reoxygenation. Our results also demonstrated an increased expression of SODs and enzymatic activities for oxidative stress in liver under hypoxic conditions, which supports the hypothesis that anticipatory preparation takes place in order to deal with the encountered oxidative stress during the recovery from hypoxia as proposed by M. Hermes-Lima. Therefore, this study will provide a clue to better understand the action mode of antioxidant genes and enzymes under oxidative stress in fish. PMID:26945243

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, based on mitochondrial DNA control region.

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    Zhong, Liqiang; Song, Chao; Wang, Minghua; Chen, Youming; Qin, Qin; Pan, Jianlin; Chen, Xiaohui

    2013-10-01

    Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 143 specimens sampled from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China; 151 polymorphic sites defined 72 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity indices (0.903-0.953) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00378-0.00970) demonstrated low genetic diversity of the yellow catfish populations in the five lakes. The analysis of molecular variance and the fixation index (F(st) = 0.0896) revealed insignificant genetic difference between samples from different lakes. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that yellow catfish might have undergone a population expansion. Neighbor-joining tree indicated a correlation between these population genetic differences and geographic distance. This study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the yellow catfish and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification, conservation, and artificial breeding.

  16. A tandem-repeat galectin-9 involved in immune response of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, against Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Wang, Yun; Ke, Fei; Ma, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuaibang

    2016-04-01

    Galectins exclusively recognize and bind β-galactoside on cell surface by carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In spite of extensive study of mammalian galectin importance in immune system, little is known about that of fish. To study the immune response of yellow catfish to pathogens, a tandem-repeat galectin-9 from yellow catfish was identified and named PfGAL9. Its full-length cDNA was 1314 bp, including a 117 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 951 bp of open reading frame (ORF), and a 246 bp of 3' UTR. The ORF encoded 316 amino acids (35.12 KDa), shared the highest 78% identity with the predicted galectin-9 of Ictalurus punctatus. This protein possessed two distinct CRDs with two highly conserved sugar binding motifs. Quantitative PCR showed that PfGAL9 was lowly expressed in skin, gill, fin, muscle, heart, and intestine, highly expressed in tested immune tissues (head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, spleen, and blood) in normal body. After inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, PfGAL9 was remarkably increased in head kidney and liver in a time-dependent manner. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, which not only agglutinated but also bond all examined bacteria. The binding activities are consistent with the size of aggregates formed by agglutinated bacteria. The agglutination must depend on its direct interaction with bacteria. These results suggested that PfGAL9 was involved in the innate immune response against bacterial infection and clearance of pathogens in yellow catfish. PMID:26892795

  17. Dietary Available Phosphorus Affected Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Hepatic Antioxidant Property of Juvenile Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

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    Qin Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%, and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  18. 灵芝多糖对黄颡鱼免疫细胞活性的影响%Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides on the Activation of Immunological Cells of the Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旋; 白东清; 杨广; 宁博; 张雪涛; 孙立卓

    2011-01-01

    选取540尾黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco),连续投喂含不同水平灵芝多糖(300,600,900,1 200,1 500mg/kg)的配合饲料8周.而后采用Percoll密度梯度离心等技术,对黄颡鱼头肾巨噬细胞与外周血白细胞进行分离纯化,使用NBT还原法、Griesse试剂显色法与MTT法测定头肾巨噬细胞呼吸爆发活性与外周血白细胞的增殖能力,探讨灵芝多糖对黄颡鱼免疫细胞活性的影响.结果表明,灵芝多糖各水平组均能显著提高黄颡鱼头肾巨噬细胞的氧呼吸爆发活性和外周血白细胞的增殖能力(P<0.01);投喂灵芝多糖饲料后,各组头肾巨噬细胞氮呼吸爆发活性虽有提高,但只有1 200~1 500mg/kg水平组为极显著提高(P<0.01).灵芝多糖可以有效提高黄颡鱼免疫细胞的活性.%In this test, 540 yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco) were selected, and fed with different levels of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides (300, 600, 900, 1 200, 1 500 mg/kg diet, respectively) for 8 weeks. Then the head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes of yellow catfish were separated by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. NBT reduction, Griesse reagent coloration and MTT assay were respectively used to evaluate the respiratory burst activity of head kidney macrophages and proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes , in order to discuss the effects of CLP on the activation of immunological cells of yellow catfish. The results showed that: the activity of oxygen respiratory burst activity of head kidney macrophages and the activity of proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes of every levels of GLP group were extremely enhanced ( P <0. 01). Although the nitrogen respiratory burst activities of every level of GLP group were increased, only activities of 1 200 - 1 500 mg/kg GLP groups were obviously improved (P<0.01). As a result, Ganodeima lucidum polysaccharides could effectively enhance the activation of immunological cells of the

  19. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analyses of the Complement Component C8α, C8β and C9 Genes in Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco after the Aeromonas hydrophila Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complement components C8α, C8β and C9 have important roles in the innate immune system against invading microorganisms. Partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes (Pf: abbreviation of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were cloned from yellow catfish. The Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes showed the greatest amino acid similarity to C8α (54% and C8β (62% of zebrafish and to C9 (52% of grass carp, respectively. Ontogenetic expression analyses using real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the three genes may play crucial roles during embryonic and early larval development. The mRNA expressions of the three genes were all at the highest levels in liver tissue, and at lower or much lower levels in 16 other tissues, demonstrating that the liver is the primary site for the protein synthesis of Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9. Injection of Aeromonas hydrophila led to up-regulation of the three genes in the spleen, head kidney, kidney, liver and blood tissues, indicating that the three genes may contribute to the host’s defense against invading pathogenic microbes. An increased understanding of the functions of the Pf_C8α, Pf_C8β and Pf_C9 genes in the innate immunity of yellow catfish will help enhance production of this valuable freshwater species.

  20. HISTOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINE IN LARVAE OF YELLOW CATFISH PELTEOBAGRUS FULVIDRACO%黄颡鱼仔稚鱼胃肠发育的显微和超微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞斌; 谢从新; 樊启学; 高超; 方礼豹

    2009-01-01

    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is an important commercial freshwater species in China. Due to its high market value, the culture of this species has increased rapidly in recent years. However, larvae rearing became a major bottleneck because of its high mortality. In order to enhance the success of larvae rearing of P. fulvidraco, we need to know the ontogeny of its digestive system thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to understand the morphological structure and the ultrastructure of digestive tract during the ontogeny of P. fulvidraco. We hope that this information would provide fundamental knowledge for larvae rearing management for this species. The histological and ultrastructural characteristic studies of the stomach and intestine of yellow catfish were carried out from hatching ( Od after hatching ( DAH ) ) until 35 DAH. Larvae were hatched from artificially spawned broodstock and maintained in the laboratory ( water temperature was 23 -25℃). They were fed with zooplankton from 3 to 17 DAH, adding zoobenthos from 10 DAH, and only zoobenthos from 18 to 35 DAH. Development of the digestive tract in yellow catfish followed the general pattern described for other species. At hatching, it consisted of an undifferentiated straight tube laying over the yolk sac. The digestive tract was differentiated into buccopharynx, esophagus, initial stomach, and intestine by 2 DAH. The intestine became differentiated into anterior and posterior regions separated by a valve at 3 DAH. The gastric gland in cardiac stomach appeared at 3 DAH, the same time at the first feeding. In ultrastructure, oxynticopeptic cell contained pepsinogenic granules and abundant tubu-lovesicular systems at 3 DAH. The abundant visible tubulovesicular systems suggested that oxynticopeptic cell was still in rest phase with little hydrogen chloride ( HCl) secreted at the first appearance time. As larvae grew, more pepsinogenic granules but less tubulovesicular systems were found in

  1. Expression Patterns of Cytochrome P450 Aromatase Genes During Ovary Development and Their Responses to Temperature Stress in Female Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Miao; QI Baoxia; WEN Haishen; HE Feng; LI Jifang; SHI Dan; HU Jian; ZHANG Yuanqing; MA Ruiqin; MU Weijie

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) plays a pivotal role in ovary development.In this study,we used semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to analyze spatiotemporal expressions of two P450arom genes (CYP1gA and CYP19B)and their responses to temperature stress in female yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco).Tissue distribution pattern of CYP19showed that CYP19B was abundantly expressed in fish brain and ovary (brain>ovary),but weakly in intestines,whereas CYP19Awas exclusively expressed in ovary.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed high transcript abundance of both CYP19A and CYP19B in the ovarian reproductive cycle,corresponding with serum estradiol-17β (E2) levels.Increases in aromatases,serum E2 and testosterone (T) levels in fish exposed to higher temperature indicated stimulation of ovarian maturation and recrudescence by heat stress in stages Ⅱ and V during the ovarian cycle,whereas associated decreases in stage III suggested vitellogenesis inhibition by heat stress.Gene expression of CYP19 was closely related to levels of serum E2.Results demonstrated CYP19 played a crucial role in the reproductive cycle of female yellow catfish.Different temperature stress affected CYP19 gene expression in the fish ovarian reproductive cycle.Associated P450arom genes could be useful for studying physiological aspects of yellow catfish.

  2. Immune protective effects of inactivated Edwardsiella ictaluri Vaccine on yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)%爱德华氏菌灭活疫苗对黄颡鱼免疫效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗黎丽; 刘毅; 周秋白; 熊六凤; 吴华东

    2014-01-01

    为建立一种环境友好型防治黄颡鱼!爱德华氏菌病的方法,利用从患病黄颡鱼脑部组织分离出的致病菌株JXHS制备黄颡鱼!爱德华氏菌的灭活疫苗。以平均体重为15~20 g的健康黄颡鱼为实验对象,免疫组腹腔注射0.2 mL浓度为3.0×109 CFU·mL-1的免疫原,对照组注射等量0.65%灭菌生理盐水,分别在注射7、14、21、28 d后随机从两组各取30尾实验鱼,尾静脉采血,检测免疫鱼的血清凝集抗体效价、白细胞吞噬活性(PP)、吞噬指数(PI)、溶菌酶(LSZ)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)等免疫指标的变化。结果表明:!爱德华氏菌灭活疫苗对黄颡鱼具有较强的免疫原性,与对照组相比,血清凝集抗体效价在免疫14、21和28 d显著升高;PP、PI和LSZ在所有采样时间点均显著上升;LSZ在免疫7、14、21和28 d均显著上升;AKP在免疫14、21和28 d活力显著上升;ACP在免疫7、14和21 d活力显著上升。血清凝集抗体效价、PP、PI、LSZ和 AKP均在21 d达到峰值,而 ACP在免疫7 d后达到峰值。免疫30 d后!爱德华氏菌攻毒结果表明,!爱德华氏菌灭活疫苗对黄颡鱼有较高的免疫保护作用,免疫保护率达到70.2%。由此可见,利用从病鱼体内分离的!爱德华氏菌菌株制备的灭活疫苗可提高黄颡鱼的免疫力并有效抵御!爱德华氏菌的攻击。%The research aimed to establish an environment-friendly way to protect the diseases of yellow cat-fish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)with Edwardsiella ictaluri.Healthy yellow catfish were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2ml (3.0×109 CFU·mL-1)inactivated vaccine of Edwardsiellaictaluri JXHS strain, which was isolated from yellow catfish with"Cracked head disease".The control group was inj ected with same volume of 0.65% physiological saline.Samples were collected after vaccination 7,14,21 and 28 days. Serum antibody

  3. Comparison of Growth Performance of Different Families of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus Fulvidraco)%黄颡鱼不同家系生长性能的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋朋; 陈校辉; 钟立强; 陈友明; 王明华; 潘建林

    2013-01-01

    以巢湖、滆湖、洪泽湖和太湖的黄颡鱼为亲本,构建了63个家系.6月龄时,每组随机挑选50尾黄颡鱼进行体重、全长的测量.测量结果显示:全长最大值是最小值的2.5倍,体重最大值是最小值的15.5倍.全长、体重在家系内和家系间都存在着显著差异.通过对亲本来源与子代生长性能的相关性分析得出:巢湖群体适合用作母本而涌湖群体适合用作父本.对全长与体重进行相互关系拟合,得到曲线为W=0.012L2.878 g/cm2.87(R2=0.970),说明子代中含有一批生长性能较高的子代处于快速生长期.%Yellow Catfish populations collected from Chaohu,Gehu,Hongzehu and Taihu were used to be hybrid parents and 63 hybrid combinations were constructed. When the fish grew to 6 month old,50 individuals were randomly selected from each group to measure in body weight and body length. The results showed that the maximum length was 2. 5 times as that of the minimum. As well as 15.5 times in body weight. There was a significant difference in the body weight and body length between intra-family and inter-family groups. The correlation analysis on the source of parents and offspring growth performance indicated that Chaohu Yellow Catfish population were suitable to be female parent and Gehu populations were suitable to be male parent. The relationship between the weight and length was found to follow a power function,W=0. 012L,2 878g/cm2 87(R2 =0. 970) .which indicated that F1 generation that contained a number of growth performance high progeny were in rapid growth.

  4. Effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone and Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole on Sex Reversal, Gonadal Structure, and Growth in Yellow Catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Qi-Xue; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Monosex populations are in demand in many fish species with sexual dimorphism, e.g., better growth performance, higher gonad value, superior ornamental value. From the point of view of research, a monosex population is one of the best materials for investigating sex-determining mechanisms, sex differentiation, and sex-linked markers. Sex reversal of females (phenotypic reversal from XX female to XX male) is the first step in all-female production in species with an XX/XY system for sex determination. In the present study, masculinization of yellow catfish, a species with XX/XY sex determination, was investigated by oral administration of various doses of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) or an aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (LZ); effects on survival, growth performance, sex ratio, and changes in gonadal structure were evaluated. Three doses (20, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) diet) of oral MT or LZ were administered to fry from 10 days post-hatching (DPH) to 59 DPH. Oral administration of MT at all doses did not significantly change the ratio of males (45.8%, 33.3%, and 50.0% respectively) compared to the control group (37.5%), while yielding intersex fish at all doses (4.2% to 8.3%). Oral administration of LZ produced a significantly higher proportion of males in all doses (75.5%, 83.3%, and 75.0%, respectively). Additionally, the lowest dose of LZ improved the growth of treated fish compared to the control, and all doses of LZ enhanced spermatogenesis in treated males. PMID:25920714

  5. Embryonic development of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Abbas, Khalid; Yan, Ansheng

    2006-12-01

    For production enhancement and procedure upgrade, the developmental phases of laboratory-reared eggs of catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated. Twenty mature females and 10 males were collected from Dadongmen wholesale fisheries market in Wuhan City on May 8, 2003. Zygotes were stripped from mature fish after hormone-induced ovulation, fertilized, and incubated through whole embryonic development. The fertilized eggs were stocked in density of 100 eggs/L in white square tanks of 10 L. Incubation water was dechlorinated tap water with continuous aeration. The tanks were lit directly with 60 W fluorescent bulbs with a 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 29.0±0.5°C, 6.7±0.4 mg/L and 7.4±2, respectively. The results showed that the eggs of P. fulvidraco were yellow, sticky and contained much yolk. The mean diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.03 mm. At the water temperature of 29.0±0.5°C, the ontogenesis spent about 33 h after fertilization. From fertilization to hatching, the embryonic development can be divided into 30 40 phases, which varies in the emphasis and direction of development. The detailed embryonic movement was also described.

  6. Embryonic development of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weimin; Khalid ABBAS; YAN Ansheng

    2006-01-01

    For production enhancement and procedure upgrade, the developmental phases of laboratory-reared eggs of catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated. Twenty mature females and 10 males were collected from Dadongmen wholesale fisheries market in Wuhan City on May 8, 2003. Zygotes were stripped from mature fish after hormone-induced ovulation, fertilized, and incubated through whole embryonic development. The fertilized eggs were stocked in density of 100 eggs/L in white square tanks of 10 L. Incubation water was dechlorinated tap water with continuous aeration. The tanks were lit directly with 60 W fluorescent bulbs with a 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 29.0±0.5℃, 6.7±0.4 mg/L and 7.4±0.2, respectively. The results showed that the eggs of P. fulvidraco were yellow, sticky and contained much yolk. The mean diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.03 mm. At the water temperature of 29.0±0.5 ℃, the ontogenesis spent about33 h after fertilization.From fertilization to hatching, the embryonic development can be divided into 30-40 phases, which varies in the emphasis and direction of development. The detailed embryonic movement was also described.

  7. Effects of Different Quality Fish Meal on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization and Liver Antioxidant Capacity of Juvenile Yellow Catfish ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)%不同品质鱼粉对黄颡鱼幼鱼生长性能、饲料利用及肝脏抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文文; 李弋; 周歧存

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different quality fish meal on growth performance, feed utilization and liver antioxidant capacity of juvenile yellow catfish ( Pelteobagrus ful-vidraco). A total of 270 juvenile yellow catfish with an initial body weight of (0.90±0.02) g were randomly divided into 3 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 yellow catfish for each replicate. Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets were formulated to contain different fish meal, such as imported fish meal ( Peru steam fish meal) , local fish meal ( fish meal produced in Rongcheng of Shandong) and mixed fish meal ( imported fish meal:local fish meal=1:1 ) , respectively. The results showed that weight gain rate ( WGR ) and specific growth rate ( SGR) in the local fish meal group were the highest, those in the mixed fish meal group took sec-ond place, and those in the imported fish meal group were the worst, there were signifant differences among 3 groups ( P0.05) . Serum total cholesterol ( TC) conent in the mixed fish meal group was the highest, and significantly higher than that in the imported fish meal group ( P0.05) . Fish fed the diet containing imported fish meal had higher superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , catalase ( CAT ) and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) activities and malondialdehyde ( MDA) content in liver than fish fed the diet containing local fish meal ( P0.05) . Muscle polyunsaturated fatty acid ( PUFA) content in mixed fish meal group was significantly higher than that in the imported and local fish meal groups (P0.05). Thus, relative to imported fish meal, the diet supplemented with local fish meal can improve growth perform-ance and liver antioxidant capacity of juvenile yellow catfish under this experimental conditions;feeding the di-et containing the mixed fish meal can help to increase accumulation of PUFA in muscle.%本试验旨在探讨不同品质鱼粉对黄颡鱼幼鱼生长性能、饲料利用及

  8. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Wei J; Wang Gui T; Nie Pin; Li Wen X

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the ...

  9. Sox9基因在黄颡鱼卵巢发育周期的表达及对热应激的响应%The expression of Sox9 during ovarian development and heat stress in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼; 温海深; 何峰; 李吉方; 胡建; 张远青; 马瑞芹; 母伟杰; 祁保霞

    2012-01-01

    采用半定量PCR的方法,分别从时空表达、温度应激调控和血清雌二醇(Estradiol-17β,E2)水平3个方面,共同研究雌性黄颡鱼Sox9基因的功能.结果表明,Sox9a1基因在雌性黄颡鱼各组织中存在广泛的表达,而Sox9a2则在脑和卵巢中有高表达(脑>卵巢),胃中表达微弱.在卵巢年周期发育中,卵巢中Sox9a1在Ⅲ期时达到高峰,Sox9a2则在Ⅴ期时达到峰值;脑中Sox9a1和Sox9a2表达的最大值均在Ⅱ期,后随着卵巢的发育表达水平显著下降.在热应激调控试验中,卵巢中Sox9a1虽然对热应激存在响应,但并没有出现E2相一致的变化趋势,而Sox9a2的变化趋势与血浆中E2相同.虽然脑中Sox9a1和Sox9a2在卵巢年周期发育的表达变化出现下降的趋势,但在热应激条件下,脑中Sox9a1和Sox9a2在Ⅱ期与E2的变化相反,而Ⅲ期到Ⅵ期与E2的变化相一致.该实验结果表明,卵巢中Sox9a1可能不参与卵巢的年周期发育,Sox9a2则参与卵巢发育的调控和E2的合成;在脑中,我们推测热应激可能改变了Sox9与雌激素的负调控关系,但其机理需要更深入的研究.%Since the Sox9 plays a pivotal role during ovary development, the importance of two forms of Sox9 in the process of ovarian recrudescence in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco was analyzed. Tissue distribution pattern showed preferential expression of Sox9a2 in brain and ovary (brain>ovary) , and trace amounts was detected in stomach, while the extensive expression of Sox9al was observed in several tissues. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR was developed to measure the mRNA levels. The high transcript levels of both isoforms in ovary were found in the reproductive phase of ovarian cycle, with the highest level in stage Ⅲ for Sox9al and Ⅴ for Sox9a2. While the level of Sox9 in brain dropped significantly from stage Ⅱ. The phase-dependent rising of Sox9a2 and Estradiol-17β(E2)in fish exposed to higher temperature revealed the stimulatory

  10. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez; Doaa M. Mokhtar; Alaa Sayed Abou-Elhamd; Ahmed Hassan S. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish) and grass carp (herbivorous fish) in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club ...

  11. The Clock gene clone and its circadian rhythms in Pelteobagrus vachelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Shao, Ting

    2015-05-01

    The Clock gene, a key molecule in circadian systems, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. We isolated a 936-bp partial cDNA sequence of the Clock gene ( Pva-clock) from the darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli that exhibited high identity with Clock genes of other species of fish and animals (65%-88%). The putative domains included a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and two period-ARNT-single-minded (PAS) domains, which were also similar to those in other species of fish and animals. Pva-Clock was primarily expressed in the brain, and was detected in all of the peripheral tissues sampled. Additionally, the pattern of Pva-Clock expression over a 24-h period exhibited a circadian rhythm in the brain, liver and intestine, with the acrophase at zeitgeber time 21:35, 23:00, and 23:23, respectively. Our results provide insight into the function of the molecular Clock of P. vachelli.

  12. Isolation and Pathogenicity Analyses onYersinia enterocoliticafrom Pelteobagrus vachelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jing; Wang Li

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocoliticais an important zoonotic pathogen that can induce disease outbreaks in a wide host range. Strain YER6022 was isolated fromPelteobagrus vachelli and identified using bacterial morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Five virulence factors were detected, then artificial infection experiment and histopathological method were carried out. These results showed that strain YER6022 was one ofY. enterocolitica family members. In addition,ail,ystb,virF,yadA andHPIintwere dectected. In artificial infection experiment, with 80% mortality and 100% morbidity, injectedPelteobagrus vachellisshowed red swollen of the anus, abdomen swelling and fim bleeding. There existed serious hyperaemia and edema in kidney, spleen, intestine and liver at the light microscope. Ultrastructural observation indicated that mitochondria of the liver, kidney, spleen and intestine swelled and mitochondrial cristae broke. The data had further shed light on its pathogenicity inPelteobagrus vachelli. It would benefit for further studies on pathogenesis ofPelteobagrus vachelli infected withY. enterocolitica.

  13. Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  14. Effects of Ibuprofen on the phase I metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defence system of the Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)%布洛芬对黄颡鱼Ⅰ相代谢酶及其抗氧化系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小燕; 彭颖; 廖伟; 李义刚; 苏甜; 欧瑞康; 陈昆慈; 李凯彬; 聂湘平

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effects of ibuprofen in environmental levels of 0. 05 , 0.5, 5 and 50 μg · L-1 via waterborne exposure on the phase I metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defence system of the yellow catfish were investigated. The activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase ( APND) , erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) , 7-ethoxyresorufin -O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes were induced at the initial stages and gradually inhibited with the extension of exposure time. After 24 h exposure, the highest levels of APND and ERND were detected at the concentration of 5 μg·L-1. Obvious EROD induction was observed at 24 h in all IBU exposure groups compared to the control except 0. 05 μg· L-1 group and then returned to the normal level after 168 h. The highest value occurred at 24 h for GST and at 168 h for catalase (CAT). The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly after 24 h exposure and reached the highest value at 72 h. ERND was a sensitive parameters and may be used as a potential biomarker for IBU exposure.%使用环境相关浓度水平(0.05、0.5、5、50 μg· L-1)的布洛芬(Ibuprofen,IBU)对黄颡鱼进行水体暴露,研究IBU对黄颡鱼Ⅰ相代谢酶及其抗氧化系统的影响.结果表明,随着暴露时间的延长,IBU对黄颡鱼肝脏Ⅰ相代谢P450酶系的氨基比林-N-脱甲基酶(APND)、红霉素-N-脱甲基酶(ERND)、7-乙氧基-异吩噁唑酮-脱乙基酶(EROD)和Ⅱ相代谢谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)均表现出先诱导后抑制的作用.暴露24 h时,IBU浓度为5 μg· L-1实验组对Ⅰ相代谢酶APND和ERND的诱导程度最大.当暴露时间达到168 h时,0.5 μg·L-1浓度组中APND和ERND活性均受到极显著抑制.Ⅰ相代谢酶EROD活性在暴露24 h后,除0.05 μg· L-1浓度组无明显变化外,其它浓度组皆受到显著诱导,随着暴露时间延长到168 h时,逐渐恢复到初始水平.GST活性在暴露24 h后,除0.05 μg·L-1浓度组外,其它浓度组均受到最大

  15. Carnivorous heterotopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    The past years have seen an upsurge of burger and barbecue restaurants in a Copenhagen gastronomic scene otherwise dominated by trends toward sustainability, ‘wholesome’, local and organic food. In these new spaces, meat is glorified and consumed materially and symbolically (through design and......’, opened in 2014 and elected as the 2014 Best New Restaurant in Copenhagen) and WarPigs, a Texas-inspired barbecue opened in 2015. We discuss negotiations of masculinity in these meatscapes that challenge contemporary ideals for (sustainable, moderate, wholesome) food consumption and gender performances....... We argue that these spaces of consumption express nostalgia and longing for authenticity that are simultaneously articulated as progressive and emancipatory. Consequently, these sites represent middle-class masculine counter-spaces – masculine, carnivorous heterotopias where archaic, working class...

  16. Comparative Histomorphological Studies on Oesophagus of Catfish and Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Abd El Hafez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 40 specimens of oesophaguses of both sexes of catfish (carnivorous fish and grass carp (herbivorous fish in order to observe the morphological and histological differences between the two species. Oesophagus of catfish was divided into 2 parts: anterior and posterior ones. The anterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by the presence of numerous mucosal folds. It was lined by stratified epithelium with goblet cells. In addition to club cells were observed in between the stratified epithelium. Scanning electron examination of the oesophageal epithelium of catfish demonstrated the presence of microvilli and fingerprint-like microridges in the superficial cell layer. The posterior part of the oesophagus of catfish was characterized by simple columnar mucus-secreting epithelium. The oesophagus of grass carp had shown the same structure along its entire length. It consisted of less folded mucosa than that observed in the oesophagus of catfish. The epithelium was characterized by the presence of taste buds. In conclusion, the present work revealed some differences in the structure of catfish oesophagus and grass carp oesophagus. These differences are related to type of food and feeding habits of each species.

  17. Relative condition factor and food and feeding habits of two ariid catfish from Mumbai waters

    OpenAIRE

    Deo, A.D.; Venkateshvaran, K.; Devaraj, M.

    2010-01-01

    Condition factor based on length-weight relationship and food and feeding habits of Arius dussumieri (Black lip sea catfish) and Osteogeneiosus militaris (Soldier catfish) from the Mumbai coast have been studied. Relative Condition Factor showed variations on a monthly basis, and appear to be influenced by feeding and breeding activities. Both the species studied are carnivorous bottom feeders, with crustaceans followed by other smaller fishes forming the major food item in the gut contents.

  18. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and phylogeny of the East Asian bagrid catfishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was sequenced from 8 bagrid catfishes in China. Aligned with cytochrome b sequences from 9 bagrid catfishes in Japan, Korea and Russia retrieved from GenBank, and selected Silurus meridionalis, Liobagrus anguillicauda, Liobagrus reini and Phenacogrammus interruptus as outgroups, we constructed a matrix of 21 DNA sequences. The Kimura's two-parameter distances were calculated and molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The results show that (i) there exist 3-bp deletions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene compared with cypriniforms and characiforms; (ii) the molecular phylogenetic tree suggests that bagrid catfishes form a monophyletic group, and the genus Mystus is the earliest divergent in the East Asian bagrid catfishes, as well as the genus Pseudobagrus is a monophyletic group but the genus Pelteobagrus and Leiocassis are complicated; and (iii) the evolution rate of the East Asian bagrids mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is about 0.18%~0.30% sequence divergence per million years.

  19. Sex biased expression of ghrelin and GHSR associated with sexual size dimorphism in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ma, Wenge; He, Yan; Wu, Junjie; Dawar, Farman Ullah; Ren, Fan; Zhao, Xiaohan; Mei, Jie

    2016-03-10

    Sexual size dimorphism has been observed in many cultivable fish species including yellow catfish, in which male fish grow much faster than female fish. Ghrelin is a potent stimulator of pituitary growth hormone (GH) release and known to potentially promote food intake and body weight gain. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism of sexual size dimorphism in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), ghrelin and its functional receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) cDNAs were cloned. Real-time PCR indicated that both ghrelin and GHSR were more highly expressed in hypothalamus and gut of male fish than female. During normal larval development, expression of ghrelin and GHSR genes was significantly higher in males than in females. 17a-Methyltestosterone (MT) treatment enhanced the expression of ghrelin in female larval fish and GHSR in both sexes, whereas the expression of ghrelin in male larval fish increased in the beginning, then decreased as the treatment time prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of ghrelin and GHSR in male juvenile was significantly increased compared with female juvenile, in short and long term fasting periods, suggesting that male fish may have a better appetite than female during fasting. Our results demonstrate that sex difference in the expression of ghrelin and GHSR may be involved in sexual size dimorphism by regulating feeding and GH/IGF signaling in yellow catfish. PMID:26692148

  20. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  1. Carnivores of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.

  2. Growing catfish in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Surtida, Marilyn B.; Buendia, Romeo Y.

    2000-01-01

    The catfish industry in the Philippines is budding and projected to expand in the coming years. This is evident from conversations with active catfish farmers who all hope to be able to expand production, whether backyard or commercial because their present production can hardly supply the demands of buyers. NIFTDC, a fisheries technology and development center in Dagupan City, Philippines, however, says that unless the government has a catfish program, expansion of the industry would be slow...

  3. Catfish - King of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Godø, Olav Rune; Huse, Irene; Michalsen, Kathrine

    1995-01-01

    During an acoustic tagging experiment on cod in the Barents Sea in March 1995 a hierarchy between different fish species was revealed, and the catfish (Anarhichas sp.) was observed to be dominant in relation to cod and haddock. When catfish are present at the fishing grounds, the dominant feeding behaviour of this species might reduce efficiency on other species. If longline catch data are used for stock assessment purposes, the catfish population might therefore be overestimat...

  4. Global large carnivore conservation and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2015-01-01

    International cooperation, including through international legal instruments, appears important for the conservation of large carnivores worldwide. This is due to, inter alia, the worrying conservation status and population trends of many large carnivore species; the importance of large carnivores f

  5. Evaluation of immune responses against the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish is a dominant aquaculture species in the USA and has been cultured for several decades. Recently, an increasing number of producers are showing an interest in the culture of hybrid catfish (channel catfish × blue catfish) instead of channel catfish due to its performance traits. The ...

  6. Plant-carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takabayashi, J.; Dicke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plants and carnivorous arthropods can interact mutualistically. A recent discovery is that such mutualisms can be mediated by volatile compounds — produced by plants in response to herbivore damage — that attract carnivores. However, after emission of these attractants, the plant has no control over

  7. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  8. Catfish production using intensive aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the last 3 years, researchers at UAPB and NWAC have been monitoring and verifying production yields in intensively aerated catfish ponds with aeration rates greater than 6 hp/acre. We now have three years of data on commercial catfish production in intensively aerated ponds. With stocking densi...

  9. The catfish genome database cBARBEL: an informatic platform for genome biology of ictalurid catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shaolin; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    The catfish genome database, cBARBEL (abbreviated from catfish Breeder And Researcher Bioinformatics Entry Location) is an online open-access database for genome biology of ictalurid catfish (Ictalurus spp.). It serves as a comprehensive, integrative platform for all aspects of catfish genetics, genomics and related data resources. cBARBEL provides BLAST-based, fuzzy and specific search functions, visualization of catfish linkage, physical and integrated maps, a catfish EST contig viewer with...

  10. The systematics of carnivorous sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Vacelet, Jean; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Borchiellini, Carole; Kelly, Michelle; Ríos, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges are characterized by their unique method of capturing mesoplanktonic prey coupled with the complete or partial reduction of the aquiferous system characteristic of the phylum Porifera. Current systematics place the vast majority of carnivorous sponges within Cladorhizidae, with certain species assigned to Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae. Morphological characters have not been able to show whether this classification is evolutionary accurate, and whether carnivory has evolved once or in several lineages. In the present paper we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the carnivorous sponges, interpret these results in conjunction with morphological characters, and propose a revised classification of the group. Molecular phylogenies were inferred using 18S rDNA and a combined dataset of partial 28S rDNA, COI and ALG11 sequences. The results recovered carnivorous sponges as a clade closely related to the families Mycalidae and Guitarridae, showing family Cladorhizidae to be monophyletic and also including carnivorous species currently placed in other families. The genus Lycopodina is resurrected for species currently placed in the paraphyletic subgenus Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) featuring forceps spicules and lacking sigmas or sigmancistras. The genera Chondrocladia and Cladorhiza are found to be monophyletic. However, results indicate that the subgenus Chondrocladia is polyphyletic with respect to the subgenera Meliiderma and Symmetrocladia. Euchelipluma, formerly Guitarridae, is retained, but transferred to Cladorhizidae. The four known carnivorous species currently in Esperiopsis are transferred to Abyssocladia. Neocladia is a junior homonym and is here renamed Koltunicladia. Our results provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that carnivory in sponges has evolved only once. While spicule characters mostly reflect monophyletic groups at the generic level, differences between genera represent evolution within family

  11. The systematics of carnivorous sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Vacelet, Jean; Boury-Esnault, Nicole; Borchiellini, Carole; Kelly, Michelle; Ríos, Pilar; Cristobo, Javier; Rapp, Hans Tore

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous sponges are characterized by their unique method of capturing mesoplanktonic prey coupled with the complete or partial reduction of the aquiferous system characteristic of the phylum Porifera. Current systematics place the vast majority of carnivorous sponges within Cladorhizidae, with certain species assigned to Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae. Morphological characters have not been able to show whether this classification is evolutionary accurate, and whether carnivory has evolved once or in several lineages. In the present paper we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the carnivorous sponges, interpret these results in conjunction with morphological characters, and propose a revised classification of the group. Molecular phylogenies were inferred using 18S rDNA and a combined dataset of partial 28S rDNA, COI and ALG11 sequences. The results recovered carnivorous sponges as a clade closely related to the families Mycalidae and Guitarridae, showing family Cladorhizidae to be monophyletic and also including carnivorous species currently placed in other families. The genus Lycopodina is resurrected for species currently placed in the paraphyletic subgenus Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) featuring forceps spicules and lacking sigmas or sigmancistras. The genera Chondrocladia and Cladorhiza are found to be monophyletic. However, results indicate that the subgenus Chondrocladia is polyphyletic with respect to the subgenera Meliiderma and Symmetrocladia. Euchelipluma, formerly Guitarridae, is retained, but transferred to Cladorhizidae. The four known carnivorous species currently in Esperiopsis are transferred to Abyssocladia. Neocladia is a junior homonym and is here renamed Koltunicladia. Our results provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that carnivory in sponges has evolved only once. While spicule characters mostly reflect monophyletic groups at the generic level, differences between genera represent evolution within family

  12. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs.

  13. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhilong; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min; Liu, Jie; Tong, Ting; Li, Jia; Huang, Yu; Wen, Bo; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs. PMID:27089325

  14. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  15. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    2003-01-01

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries. Recen

  16. Comparative Oxygen Tolerance of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus and Channel Catfish I. punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) have several advantages over channel catfish (I. punctatus) as commercial culture fish. They are more resistant to ESC, PGD, and CCVD, major diseases of channel catfish. They are very easy to seine, with a near-total harvest possible with one seine haul, and may ex...

  17. The Carnivore Connection Hypothesis: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Carnivore Connection” hypothesizes that, during human evolution, a scarcity of dietary carbohydrate in diets with low plant : animal subsistence ratios led to insulin resistance providing a survival and reproductive advantage with selection of genes for insulin resistance. The selection pressure was relaxed at the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution when large quantities of cereals first entered human diets. The “Carnivore Connection” explains the high prevalence of intrinsic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in populations that transition rapidly from traditional diets with a low-glycemic load, to high-carbohydrate, high-glycemic index diets that characterize modern diets. Selection pressure has been relaxed longest in European populations, explaining a lower prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, despite recent exposure to famine and food scarcity. Increasing obesity and habitual consumption of high-glycemic-load diets worsens insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in all populations.

  18. Piante carnivore: un percorso didattico

    OpenAIRE

    Delunas, Cristina; Fogu, Maria Caterina

    2006-01-01

    Since carnivorous plants always stir up interest and curiosity, we have realized a didactic route describing their different evolutional strategies. The route begins from observation of specimens present in the «Orto Botanico di Cagliari» to arrive inside the «Museo Botanico» where, by means of ancient tridimensional models and others of new constructions together with copious descriptive material, the visitor is guided to discover these strange vegetables.

  19. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Qian; Long-Fa Jiang; Li-Qiang Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15%) extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room te...

  20. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  1. “全鱼”转生长激素基因黄颡鱼首建者的建立%Generation of "all fish" growth hormone gene transgenic yellow catfish founders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛家春; 宋伟; 董张及; 许志强; 鲍洁; 周国勤; 潘建林; 杨家新; 赵庆顺

    2013-01-01

    黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)是一种重要的淡水名优经济鱼类,然而较小的体型和较慢的生长速率极大地降低了它的经济价值.为获得大规格且快速生长的黄颡鱼,开展了转生长激素基因黄颡鱼的研究.运用RT PCR和RACE-PCR技术,克隆了黄颡鱼生长激素基因的603 bp(碱基对)的编码序列和485 bp的3′UTR(非翻译区)序列.通过重叠PCR和限制性内切酶酶切连接,组建了一个长为2105 bp的“全鱼”转生长激素基因构件,该构件含1017 bp的黄颡鱼β-肌动蛋白近端启动子、603 bp的生长激素基因编码序列和485 bp的3′-UTR序列.采用显微注射将转生长激素基因构件导入黄颡鱼受精卵,从301尾由注射胚胎发育而来的黄颡鱼中共筛选获得40尾转生长激素基因黄颡鱼首建者.成功地建立了黄颡鱼基因组改造的技术平台,为黄颡鱼的基因工程育种奠定了基础.%Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) is one of the most important freshwater farmed species in China. However, its small size and slow growth rate limit its economic value. Growth hormone is a protein secreted by pituitary. It promotes animal growth. Overexpression of growth hormone in fishes results in the growth hormone gene transgenic fishes with enlarged body size and accelerated growth. In order to increase its body size and growth rate, we performed transgenic research on yellow catfish. Employing RT-PCR and RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends)-PCR, we cloned 603 bp (base pairs) complete coding sequence and 485 bp 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of yellow catfish growth hormone gene, respectively. Performing overlapping PCR and molecular cloning with restriction endonucleases, we constructed an "all fish" growth hormone gene transgenic construct with 2105 bp in length. The construct comprises 1017 bp of yellow catfish β-actin proximal promoter, 603 bp complete coding sequence and 485 bp 3'-UTR of yellow catfish growth hormone

  2. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  3. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  4. Pyridoxine requirements of channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J W; Murai, T

    1979-04-01

    In 20 and 12 week feeding trials, channel catfish fingerlings were fed purified diets containing five levels (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and six levels (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) of supplemental pyridoxine hydrochloride. Fish fed unsupplemented diets (pyridoxine content of 1.2 mg/kg) were characterized by anoxeria, nervous disorders, tetany, greenish-blue body coloration, and eventual mortality. Anemia, which has been reported in pyridoxine deficient salmonids, was not observed in pyridoxine deficient catfish. However, a microcytic, normochromic anemia was observed in groups fed high dietary levels of pyridoxine (20 mg/kg or greater). The dietary pyridoxine level required for maximal growth was approximately 3 mg/kg of diet. All other deficiency signs were prevented by 2.2 mg/kg of diet. PMID:430257

  5. Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectivity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate for fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined by bath immersion and injection infectivity experiments. Channel catfish exposed by immersion were exposed to baths containing 1012, 1011,...

  6. Stunning of farmed Afircan catfish( Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, S.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Pieterse, C.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether high-pressure injection of air into the brain of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) could render the animal unconscious and insensible immediately and permanently. In the study, 48 African catfish with a live weight of 900-1900 g were restrained an

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE LOGOS FOR FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Alvin R.; Dellenbarger, Lynn E.

    1993-01-01

    Product differentiation can consist of identifying the corporate firm that produces the product (such as Kraft) or the producer cooperative that produces the product (such as Ocean Spray). The Catfish Institute (funded by producers, feed mills and processors) was created to promote the generic sales of farm-raised catfish. Also, a number of Mississippi catfish processors are differentiating their product by promoting it as Mississippi Farm-Raised Catfish. Louisiana farm-raised catfish are hig...

  8. 黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)鳃的超微结构研究%FINE STRUCTURE OF GILLS IN TELEOST (PELTEOBAGRUS FULVIDRACO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗芬; 陈礼强; 康斌

    2011-01-01

    应用光学和电子显微成像技术对黄颡鱼鳃的表面形态特征、鳃小片血管分布及其内部超微结构进行了观察。结果表明,黄颡鱼鳃耙呈长锥形,鳃弓表面具棘状小刺,鳃小片呈褶皱状,镶嵌排列在长条形鳃丝两侧。光镜可观察到鳃小片两侧红色的入鳃和出鳃动脉以及中部片状毛细血管网。鳃耙、鳃弓、鳃丝及鳃小片表面均被扁平上皮细胞覆盖,其表面微嵴形态结构各异。鳃弓和鳃丝表面有线粒体密集细胞和粘液细胞开口,鳃小片表面未发现分泌细胞开口但附着大量粘液。鳃小片主要由单层或数层上皮细胞和由支持细胞包裹的血管腔构成。线粒体密集细胞分布于鳃小片边缘和血管周围,可分为两个亚型。黄颡鱼鳃上皮细胞和线粒体密集细胞的超微结构特征与其相应的呼吸功能和体内离子转运、能量代谢生理功能相适应。%Using optical and electron microscopic imaging techniques, we studied the fine structure of gills in teleost (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), including surface morphology, lamellar vascular distribution, and internal ultrastructure of gill iliamerit. The results showed that the prick-shaped gill rakers were presented on the anteromedial side of the arch opposite to the gill filaments, and abundant small spines were presented on the dorsal surface of the gill arch. Many gill lamellae were arranged on both sides of each filament, and interwove with each other. The red afferent filamental artery, the efferent filamental artery, and the capillary network of lamellae were clearly observed under an optical microscope. The gill rakers, gill arches, and branchial filaments were all covered by a layer of stratified epithelium, whereas distinct morphology of microridges were presented on the surface of pavement cells. In the stratified epithelium, the pillar cells, the mucous cells, the pavement cells, and the mitochon- dria-rich cells

  9. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E., III

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  10. Normal glucose metabolism of healthy carnivores mimics diabetes pathology of non-carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchermerhorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivores, such as the dolphin and the domestic cat, have numerous adaptations that befit consumption of diets with high protein and fat content, with little carbohydrate content. Consequently, nutrient metabolism in carnivorous species differs substantially from that of non-carnivores. Important metabolic pathways known to differ between carnivores and non-carnivores are implicated in the development of diabetes and insulin resistance in non-carnivores: 1. the hepatic glucokinase (GCK pathway is absent in healthy carnivores yet GCK deficiency may result in diabetes in rodents and humans, 2. healthy dolphins and cats are prone to periods of fasting hyperglycemia and exhibit insulin resistance, both of which are risk factors for diabetes in non-carnivores. Similarly, carnivores develop naturally-occurring diseases such as hemachromatosis, fatty liver, obesity and diabetes that have strong parallels with the same disorders in humans. Understanding how evolution, environment, diet and domestication may play a role with nutrient metabolism in the dolphin and cat may also be relevant to human diabetes.

  11. 黄颡鱼HSC70基因及其组织表达分析%HSC70 GENE AND ITS TISSUE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN YELLOW CATFISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 张其中; 张占会; 崔淼

    2009-01-01

    热休克蛋白70(HSPTO)与生物体的抗胁迫能力密切相关.本文采用RACE(Rapid amplification of cDNA ends)技术,从黄颡鱼Pelteobagrus fulvidraco克隆到一种组成型热休克蛋白(HSC70)基因及其cDNA.该cDNA全长2245bp,包括5'非编码区82bp,3'非编码区225bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1938bp,编码645个氨基酸组成的蛋白质.黄颡鱼HSC70基因含有8个内含子,与人、鼠、虹鳟和花斑溪鳉的HSC70基因内含子数目相同,位置相似.其中,最长内含子(873bp)位于5'端非编码区,其余内含子(长度在80-251bp之间不等)均在编码区以内.黄颡鱼HSC70基因编码的氨基酸序列与南方鲶的相似度最高,达96.13%,与欧洲银鲫和团头鲂的相似度分别为94.45%和94.14%.RT-PCR检测显示,正常情况下黄颡鱼HSC70在血细胞、心脏、肝、头肾、脾、鳃、肌肉和脑中均有表达,但表达量在鳃中最高,肌肉中最低;统计结果显示,热激后HSC70在血细胞、肝、头肾和脑中的表达量显著上升(p0.05).%Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70s) act as a role of chaperone and play a key function in cytoprotection and cytore-pair, including protein assembly, correct folding, and membrane translocation, it also enhance the organisms' immunity and enduration to stressors. Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is an important cultured species in China. In order to illuminate molecular mechanism of the HSP70 family members in the catfish against stressors and diseases, it is necessary to clone the gene and cDNA sequence of HSP70 family members in the first instance. Therefore, the gene and its cDNA of a HSP70 family member were cloned in yellow catfish, and mRNA expression of the gene was studied in various tissues and organs of the catfish under heat-treated or unstressed condition.A full length cDNA of 2245 bp was cloned in the gill of yellow catfish with RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1938 bp, 5

  12. "Sweet but dangerous": nectaries in carnivorous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz J. Płachno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In carnivorous plants, two types of nectaries occur: extra-floral nectaries, generally associated with prey luring, and floral ones associated with pollination. Nectar produced by extra-floral nectaries not only attracts prey but may also be involved in trapping prey and plays a role in myrmecophily. The diversity of nectary structure in carnivorous plants reflects complicated evolutionary routes in this unique ecological group.

  13. The World Demand for Catfish Pangasius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Roth, Eva; Nielsen, Max;

    2014-01-01

    in filleted form. The demand system includes seven equations representing for most important markets that are ASEAN & EAST ASIA, NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, RUSIAN & EASTERN EU, SOUTH & CENTRAL AMERICA, WESTERN EU, and ROW (rest of the world) markets. The monthly data are updating from January 2007 to March 2014....... Direct elasticity including own- and cross- price elasticity and income elasticity are calculated to show how consumers from different markets of the world prefer for the Pangasius catfish. We found that catfish products have big room of market demand, indicated by absolute values of own price......In this paper we present a world demand system for Pangasius catfish products. We use solely exporting data from Vietnam for estimating a non-linear Almost Ideal Demand System because Vietnam accounts for more than 90% catfish export value of the world and the products exported are mostly...

  14. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  15. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are

  16. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  17. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan Univer...

  18. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  19. Early sexing techniques in Lophiosilurus alexandri (Steindachner, 1876), a freshwater carnivorous catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo Filho, Reinaldo; Gheller, Valentim Arabicano; Chaves, Glauco Vinício; de Souza E Silva, Walisson; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Figueiredo, Luis Gustavo; da Costa Julio, Gustavo Soares; Luz, Ronald Kennedy

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sexing techniques for juvenile Lophiosilurus alexandri. With this aim, we evaluated three techniques: coelioscopy, performed with the use of video surgery equipment; coeliotomy, a surgical procedure for direct visualization of the gonads; and sex determination using a urethral probe to compare the genital papillae. For coelioscopy, the survival rate was 100% 30 days after the procedure, and the fish restarted eating 10 days after surgery. This technique resulted in a 100% correct identification of individuals identified as females, whereas for males, it was 66.6%. There was no significant difference between males and females for anesthesia induction and recovery times. However, the procedure took longer for males because of the difficulty in observing the gonads, which can be attributed to the large amount of visceral fat in males. Coeliotomy also resulted in a 100% survival rate 30 days after surgery, and the efficiency of this technique was 96.3% for males and 93.9% for females. The fish restarted eating between 10 and 14 days after surgery, and there were no significant differences between males and females for anesthesia induction and recovery times for the surgical procedure to visualize the gonads (P > 0.05). The urethral probe technique was less efficient with an accuracy rate of 67.8% and 81.8% for males and females, respectively. We conclude that coeliotomy was more efficient for sexing both sexes of juvenile L. alexandri.

  20. Early sexing techniques in Lophiosilurus alexandri (Steindachner, 1876), a freshwater carnivorous catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo Filho, Reinaldo; Gheller, Valentim Arabicano; Chaves, Glauco Vinício; de Souza E Silva, Walisson; Costa, Deliane Cristina; Figueiredo, Luis Gustavo; da Costa Julio, Gustavo Soares; Luz, Ronald Kennedy

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sexing techniques for juvenile Lophiosilurus alexandri. With this aim, we evaluated three techniques: coelioscopy, performed with the use of video surgery equipment; coeliotomy, a surgical procedure for direct visualization of the gonads; and sex determination using a urethral probe to compare the genital papillae. For coelioscopy, the survival rate was 100% 30 days after the procedure, and the fish restarted eating 10 days after surgery. This technique resulted in a 100% correct identification of individuals identified as females, whereas for males, it was 66.6%. There was no significant difference between males and females for anesthesia induction and recovery times. However, the procedure took longer for males because of the difficulty in observing the gonads, which can be attributed to the large amount of visceral fat in males. Coeliotomy also resulted in a 100% survival rate 30 days after surgery, and the efficiency of this technique was 96.3% for males and 93.9% for females. The fish restarted eating between 10 and 14 days after surgery, and there were no significant differences between males and females for anesthesia induction and recovery times for the surgical procedure to visualize the gonads (P > 0.05). The urethral probe technique was less efficient with an accuracy rate of 67.8% and 81.8% for males and females, respectively. We conclude that coeliotomy was more efficient for sexing both sexes of juvenile L. alexandri. PMID:27341771

  1. Stomach contents of the catfishes Osteogeneiosus militaris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Arius maculatus (Thunberg, 1792 in the Songkhla Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The catfishes, Osteogeneiosus militaris and Arius maculatus, were collected from Songkhla Lake, southern Thailand at two sites that varied in the extent to which they were exposed to higher salinity (the Outer Songkhla Lake and which were exposed to lower salinity (the Inner Songkhla Lake. Both fish species were carnivores feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates with regard to its major components of Tanaidacea, Amphipoda, Bivalvia, Polychaeta and Isopoda. Tanaidacean (Apseudes sapensis clearly dominated the diets of O. militaris in both sites ranging from 33.3 to 96.7% by frequency of occurrence and 23.5 to 90.2% by number. Amphipods were the most dominant prey of A. maculatus ranging from 40.0 to 93.3% by frequency of occurrence and 7.0-60.2% by number. Although Polychaeta were less numerically abundantly eaten by catfishes (0.4-6.4%, the frequency of occurrence was high (10.0-86.7% in almost all seasons. Some other large (Alpheidae and fish larvae and fast mobile animals (Mysidacea were much more commonly found in A. maculatus than in O. militaris. This study implies that these catfish species feed opportunistically on a variety of prey in their environment coupled with preferential feeding.

  2. DYNAMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING U.S. AND REGIONAL CATFISH DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Jack E.; Ermita, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Response to changes in factors influencing consumption of catfish and competing commodities differ between national, South Atlantic, and Southwest Central markets. A modified state adjustment model for catfish, beef, chicken, and other fish explicitly included age distribution, residence, occupation, education, and race/ethnic variables associated with habit formation. Nationally, per capita expenditures on catfish respond to present and past relative prices, and catfish, chicken, and other f...

  3. Comparative production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on growth and yield (kg/ha) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the channel x blue hybrid catfish (I. punctatus female x I. furcatus male), which shared the Jubilee strain of channel catfish as the maternal parent, was evaluated...

  4. The Organoleptic and Smoked Catfish Histology from Pre-cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Venny Yuliastri; Ruddy Suwandi; Uju

    2015-01-01

    Catfish is one of the main commodities in fresh water aquaculture. Indonesia catfish production increased 37,49% in 2010 until 2014. Protein content of catfish is 17.7-26.7% and fat about 0.95 until 11.5%. The objective of this study was to determine the best organoleptic and to study the changes of tissue structure of catfish caused by process precooking and smoking process. Precooked Catfish with variation 5, 10 and 15 minute; temperature of 100oC, and smoked for 7 hours with...

  5. Both recombinant African catfish LH and FSH are able to activate the African catfish FSH receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Vischer, HF; Granneman, JCM; Linskens, MHK; Schulz, RW; Bogerd, J

    2003-01-01

    LH and FSH are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, composed of a common alpha-subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific beta-subunit. Repeated efforts to isolate catfish FSH (cfFSH) have not been successful and only catfish LH (cfLH) has been purified from catfish pituitaries. Recently, however, we succeeded in cloning the cDNA encoding the putative cfFSHbeta; the cDNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunit of cfLH have been cloned before. Here we report the expression of biologica...

  6. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  7. Towards the ictalurid catfish transcriptome: generation and analysis of 31,215 catfish ESTs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  8. Conservation management of large carnivores in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L. Mills

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation management of large carnivores in Africa is reviewed. In large protected areas the complexity of the relations between predators and prey, and between competing predators, indicate that these relationships should not be disturbed, even though, superficially, there may seem to be sound reasons to do so. Management action, however, may have to be taken against carnivores that break out of reserves. The related questions of translocation and re-introduction are also complex. Guidelines for considering whether to and how to implement these strategies are presented. It is stressed that adequate follow-up observations should be made after translocating or re- introducing carnivores, so that more information on the success of these strategies can be obtained. Much of Africa comprises rural areas inhabited by pastoralists. It may be possible to manage some large carnivore species in these areas to the mutual benefit of man and beast, but for this type of program to be successful, a well planned public relations campaign is essential.

  9. Recent improvements in channel catfish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction in fish is a primary requisite for reliable, predictable and quality seed stock for aquaculture production or a stock enhancement program. Channel catfish is the leading aquaculture species in USA, accounting for 335 million pounds with a farm gate value of over $ 400 millio...

  10. Identification and characterization of full-length cDNAs in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp. ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding full-length cDNAs. Of this set, a total of 1,169 channel catfish and 933 blue catfish full-length cDNA clones were selected for re-sequencing to provide additional coverage and ensure sequence accuracy. A total of 1,745 unique gene transcripts were identified from the full-length cDNA set, including 1,064 gene transcripts from channel catfish and 681 gene transcripts from blue catfish, with 416 transcripts shared between the two closely related species. Full-length sequence characteristics (ortholog conservation, UTR length, Kozak sequence, and conserved motifs of the channel and blue catfish were examined in detail. Comparison of gene ontology composition between full-length cDNAs and all catfish ESTs revealed that the full-length cDNA set is representative of the gene diversity encoded in the catfish transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first catfish full-length cDNA set constructed from several cDNA libraries. The catfish full-length cDNA sequences, and data gleaned from sequence characteristics analysis, will be a valuable resource for ongoing catfish whole-genome sequencing and future gene-based studies of function and evolution in teleost fishes.

  11. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong Liu; Xianggang Gao; Yunfeng Li; Hao Su; Xueguang Liu; Chongbo He; Lei Gao

    2012-01-01

    Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa). In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptor...

  12. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwegiessen, van de, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 2) how age mediates the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 3) the potential effects of chemical ...

  13. Inactivation of Salmonellae in Frozen Catfish by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on salmonellae viability in frozen catfish was investigated using fresh cut of catfish artificially contaminated with stationary phase cells of salmonellae, frozen at-18 οC and irradiated with does ranging from 0.0 to 2.4 kGy. The D10 values for ten serovars of salmonellae ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 kGy. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most resistant serovars found in frozen catfish. Dosage at 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 103.2 Salmonella Enteritidis that may occasionally present in frozen catfish

  14. The Carnivores of the Northeastern Badia, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    BUNAIAN, Fayez

    2001-01-01

    The presence of 8 carnivores representing 3 families (Canidae, Felidae and Hyaenidae) in the northeastern Badia was con-firmed by trapping and spotlighting. The family Canidae is represented by 4 species: Canis aureus syriaca, Canis lupus arabs, Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes rueppelli. Three felines, Caracal caracal schmitzi, Felis margarita and Felis sylvestris tristrami, were spotlighted. Remains of recently killed Hyaena hyaena syriacawere recovered. Major threats affecting the population of d...

  15. Weight-Length Relationships in Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus) and Hardhead Catfish (Ariopsis felis) in Louisiana Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Klinkmann, Taylor; Torano, Joseph; 2; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the abundance and commercial importance of these two species, there is little published weight-length data for the gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and hardhead catfish (Ariopsis felis). For this study 84 catfish were caught (hook and line) from the Calcasieu Estuary in Southwest Louisiana near the Gulf of Mexico and estuaries and near shore waters close to bayou Lafourche. Using least squares regression, best fit curves were determined for weight (W) vs. total length (L) relat...

  16. High-throughput cryopreservation of spermatozoa of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus): establishment of an approach for commercial-scale processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, E.; Yang, Huiping; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid catfish created by crossing of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and male blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) are being used increasingly in foodfish aquaculture because of their fast growth and efficient food conversion. However, the availability of blue catfish males is limited, and their peak spawning is at a different time than that of the channel catfish. As such, cryopreservation of sperm of blue catfish could improve production of hybrid catfish, and has been studied in...

  17. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B

    2013-05-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm. PMID:23696970

  18. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. PMID:22417315

  19. Comparative susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to experimental challenge with Bolbophorus damnificus (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J; Reichley, Stephen R; Khoo, Lester H; Ware, Cynthia; Greenway, Terrence E; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David J

    2014-06-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been implicated in significant losses in catfish aquaculture since the late 1990s. The complex life cycle sequentially involves the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, the marsh rams horn snail Planorbella trivolvis, and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Research supports anecdotal reports from the industry, suggesting that the hybrid of Channel Catfish×Blue Catfish I. furcatus is less susceptible to disease agents that have been historically prohibitive to Channel Catfish production, namely the gram-negative bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, as well as the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. This current research compared the susceptibility of Channel Catfish, Blue Catfish, and their hybrid cross to an experimental challenge by B. damnificus. Fish were exposed to 0, 100, 200, and 400 B. damnificus cercariae per fish, and the numbers of metacercariae per fish were determined 14 d postchallenge. Metacercariae were recovered from all challenged fish. There were no significant differences among fish groups challenged with the same dose, suggesting Channel and Blue Catfish and their hybrid are comparably susceptible to B. damnificus infection. As such, it is recommended that producers raising hybrid catfish remain diligent in controlling populations of the snail intermediate host to prevent production losses attributed to B. damnificus, especially when loafing pelicans have been observed at the aquaculture operation. PMID:24895863

  20. CARNIVORE: A Disruption-Tolerant System for Studying Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Rutishauser; Vladislav Petkov; Jay Boice; Katia Obraczka; Patrick Mantey; Williams, Terrie M; Christopher C Wilmers

    2011-01-01

    We present CARNIVORE, a system for in situ, unobtrusive monitoring of cryptic, difficult-to-catch/observe wildlife in their natural habitat. CARNIVORE is a network of mobile and static nodes with sensing, processing, storage, and wireless communication capabilities. CARNIVORE's compact, low-power, mobile animal-borne nodes collect sensor data and transmit it to static nodes, which then relay it to the Internet. Depending on the wildlife being studied, the network can be quite sparse and ther...

  1. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Penteriani; María del Mar Delgado; Francesco Pinchera; Javier Naves; Alberto Fernández-Gil; Ilpo Kojola; Sauli Härkönen; Harri Norberg; Jens Frank; José María Fedriani; Veronica Sahlén; Ole-Gunnar Støen; Swenson, Jon E; Petter Wabakken; Mario Pellegrini

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible f...

  2. Morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract in carnivorous freshwater Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, Claudemir Kuhn; Chedid, Renata Alari; do Amaral, Antônio Carlos; Franceschini Vicentini, Irene Bastos; Vicentini, Carlos Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, a freshwater carnivorous catfish found in Neotropical region, using gross anatomy, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This species presented a short and tubular esophagus with thick longitudinal folds. The esophageal mucosa was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing epithelial cells, club cells and also numerous goblet cells, which secreted acidic and neutral mucins to protect and lubricate the epithelium. The stomach was a J-shaped saccular organ consisting of the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. The cardiac and fundic regions contained tubular gastric glands, whereas these glands were absent in the pyloric region. The gastric epithelial cells presented apical secretions that predominantly consisted of neutral mucins. The gastric musculature was, therefore, likely designed for retaining prey and the mechanical preparation of food. The intestine consisted of four regions: anterior, middle, posterior and rectal. The anterior intestine possessed thick folds to increase the surface area for absorption, the middle intestine was coiled and the posterior intestine presented thin folds and a thick musculature. The intestinal epithelium consisted mainly of enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes were columnar cells with a PAS-positive brush border that contained lysosomes in the posterior intestine. Goblet cells were more numerous in the posterior intestine and secreted acidic and neutral mucins important for lubricating and protecting the epithelium. The rectum was lined by columnar epithelium with goblet cells and epithelial cells containing apical acidic and neutral mucins.

  3. Nutritional Regulation of IGFs in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined changes in hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA, insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2) mRNA, muscle IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in fed (fed daily for 45 days) and restricted (not fed for 30 days followed by feeding for 15 days) channel catfish. By day 30, liver IGF-I mRNA...

  4. Use of Molecular Markers for Catfish Production and Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish are a diploid species native to North America and the primary product of U.S. aquaculture, and molecular genetic research supports selective breeding of catfish for commercial production. To date, short tandem repeat loci have been used to characterize DNA sequence variation within ...

  5. Production Practices of Commercial Catfish Producers in Northeast Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlow, Richard M.; Verma, Satish

    A study determined the yields obtained and the production practices followed by Louisiana commercial catfish farmers in Catahoula, Concordia, and Franklin Parishes. This information was used by the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service (LCES) faculty to develop a catfish education program. The study: (1) determined use of selected recommended…

  6. A liquid oxygen calculator for fasted channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of scientific literature concerning channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus respiration resulted in development of a Microsoft Excel© spreadsheet for estimating the volume of oxygen consumed by a given fasted channel catfish biomass. Entry of ten variables into the spreadsheet provides estimate...

  7. Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuel, R.; Boerrigter, J.; Roques, J.; Heul, van der J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Flik, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximatel

  8. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  9. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  10. Pre-spawning carotenoid fortified diets improve reproductive traits of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and subsequent progeny performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of consistent number of ovulatory competent channel catfish females is a pre-requisite for efficient production of channel catfish ' x blue catfish, I.furcatus ') hybrid in hatcheries. Raising hybrid catfish in production ponds enables the catfish farmer to harness improved growth rate...

  11. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  12. Radio telemetry equipment and applications for carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark R.; Fuller, Todd K.

    2012-01-01

    Radio-telemetry was not included in the first comprehensive manual of wildlife research techniques (Mosby 1960) because the first published papers were about physiological wildlife telemetry (LeMunyan et al. 1959) and because research using telemetry in field ecology was just being initiated (Marshall et al. 1962; Cochran and Lord 1963). Among the first uses of telemetry to study wildlife, however, was a study of carnivores (Craighead et al. 1963), and telemetry has become a common method for studying numerous topics of carnivore biology. Our goals for this chapter are to provide basic information about radio-telemetry equipment and procedures. Although we provide many references to studies using telemetry equipment and methods, we recommend Kenward's (2001) comprehensive book, A manual of wildlife radio tagging for persons who are unfamiliar with radio-telemetry, Fuller et al. (2005), and Tomkiewicz et al. (2010). Compendia of uses of radio-telemetry in animal research appear regularly as chapters in manuals (Cochran 1980; Samuel and Fuller 1994), in books about equipment, field procedures, study design, and applications (Amlaner and Macdonald 1980; Anderka 1987; Amlaner 1989; White and Garrott 1990; Priede and Swift 1992; Kenward 2001; Millspaugh and Marzluff 2001; Mech and Barber 2002), and in reviews highlighting new developments (Cooke et al. 2004; Rutz and Hays 2009; Cagnacci et al. 2010). Some animal telemetry products and techniques have remained almost unchanged for years, but new technologies and approaches emerge and replace previously available equipment at an increasing pace. Here, we emphasize recent studies for which telemetry was used with carnivores.

  13. Reductions in Susceptibility of Channel Catfish (Ictalutus punctatus) to Enteric Septicemia of Catfish (ESC) Through Two Generations of Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of disease resistance in aquaculture species through selective breeding has had some success. At the USDA-ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, a multitrait selection index was utilized to select for growth, carcass yield, and resistance to enteric septicemia of catfish (...

  14. 76 FR 26655 - Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... meetings, interested persons may submit comments on the proposed rule (76 FR 10434) on or before June 24..., 552, 555, 557, and 559-561 Public Meetings on the Proposed Rule for Mandatory Inspection of Catfish and Catfish Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. First Season Catfish Farming. A Workbook for Beginning Pond and Cage Culture of Channel Catfish. Teacher Edition and Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This workbook, comprised of both the teacher and student editions, presents guidelines useful for first-year catfish farmers in Oklahoma using pond or cage cultures to raise channel catfish. The teacher edition is a set of unit guidelines only. Contents include a list of suggested readings, important addresses with types of information available…

  16. Production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the production and water quality responses of the channel x...

  17. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are t...

  18. Oral vaccination of channel catfish against enteric septicemia of catfish using a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri, is the most problematic bacterial disease affecting catfish aquaculture in the southeastern United States. Efforts to develop an effective ESC vaccine have had limited industrial success. In commercial settings, ESC vaccines are...

  19. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  20. "No evidence for intercohort cannibalism in mixed-size cultures of food-size and fingerling hybrid catfish (channel catfish x blue catfish) grown in ponds in winter or summer."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish (' Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X ' Blue Catfish I. furcatus) are normally harvested by seining single-batch pond production systems in fall or winter. Ponds are typically restocked without draining. There is concern that without completely draining the pond after harvest, food...

  1. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) constructed by using an interspecific hybrid resource family.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Karsi, Attila; Li, Ping; Cao, Dongfeng; Dunham, R

    2003-01-01

    Catfish is the major aquaculture species in the United States. The hybrid catfish produced by crossing channel catfish females with blue catfish males exhibit a number of desirable production traits, but their mass production has been difficult. To introduce desirable genes from blue catfish into channel catfish through introgression, a genetic linkage map is helpful. In this project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 607 AFL...

  2. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  3. The Impact of Catfish Imports on the U.S. Wholesale and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Neal, Sammy J.; Hanson, Terrill R.; Jones, Keithly G.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of catfish imports and tariffs on the U.S. catfish industry, with particular focus on the U.S. International Trade Commission ruling on Vietnam in 2003. Given the importance of Vietnam to the U.S. catfish market, it was assumed that catfish import prices would increase by 35 percent if the maximum tariff was imposed on catfish from Vietnam. With the tariff, domestic catfish prices at the wholesale level would increase by $0.06 per l...

  4. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried Richard Heinrich; Seidel, Robin; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory. PMID:23049849

  5. Catapulting tentacles in a sticky carnivorous plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants, those termed 'active' have especially fascinated scientists since Charles Darwin's early works because trap movements are involved. Fast snap-trapping and suction of prey are two of the most spectacular examples for how these plants actively catch animals, mainly arthropods, for a substantial nutrient supply. We show that Drosera glanduligera, a sundew from southern Australia, features a sophisticated catapult mechanism: Prey animals walking near the edge of the sundew trigger a touch-sensitive snap-tentacle, which swiftly catapults them onto adjacent sticky glue-tentacles; the insects are then slowly drawn within the concave trap leaf by sticky tentacles. This is the first detailed documentation and analysis of such catapult-flypaper traps in action and highlights a unique and surprisingly complex mechanical adaptation to carnivory.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Full-Length cDNAs in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Liu, Hong; Liu, Shikai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Ke, Caihuan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome annotation projects, gene functional studies, and phylogenetic analyses for a given organism all greatly benefit from access to a validated full-length cDNA resource. While increasingly common in model species, full-length cDNA resources in aquaculture species are scarce. Methodology and Principal Findings Through in silico analysis of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) ESTs, a total of 10,037 channel catfish and 7,382 blue catfish cDNA clones were identified as potentially encoding f...

  7. Overcoming DNA extraction problems from carnivorous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested previously published protocols for DNA isolation from plants with high contents of polyphenols and polysaccharides for several taxa of carnivorous plants. However, we did not get satisfying results with fresh or silica dried leaf tissue obtained from field collected or greenhouse grown plants, nor from herbarium specimens. Therefore, we have developed a simple modified protocol of the commercially available Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit for rapid, effective and reproducible isolation of high quality genomic DNA suitable for PCR reactions. DNA extraction can be conducted from both fresh and dried leaf tissue of various carnivorous plant taxa, irrespective of high contents of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds and other secondary plant metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation and amplification.

    Probamos algunos protocolos publicados previamente para el aislamiento del ADN de plantas con alto contenido de polifenoles y polisacáridos para varios táxones de plantas carnívoras. Sin embargo, no conseguimos muy buenos resultados ni con tejidos de hojas frescas, ni con tejidos de hojas secadas en gel de sílice obtenidas de plantas colectadas en el campo o cultivadas en los invernaderos, ni de especímenes de herbario. Por lo tanto, hemos desarrollado un protocolo sencillo, modificado del Macherey- Nagel NucleoSpin® Plant kit disponible en el mercado para el aislamiento rápido, eficaz y reproducible de ADN genómico de alta calidad conveniente para la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La extracción del ADN se puede realizar en tejidos de hojas frescas o secas de varios táxones de plantas carnívoras, sin importar el grado de contenido de polisacáridos, compuestos fenólicos u otros metabolitos secundarios que interfieren con el aislamiento y la amplificación del ADN.

  8. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2016-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people's perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners' perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk). Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1) improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2) working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict. PMID:27617831

  9. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2016-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people's perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners' perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk). Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1) improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2) working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

  10. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  11. The Innate Immune-Related Genes in Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Catfish is one of the most important aquaculture species in America (as well as in Asia and Africa. In recent years, the production of catfish has suffered massive financial losses due to pathogen spread and breakouts. Innate immunity plays a crucial role in increasing resistance to pathogenic organisms and has generated increasing interest in the past few years. This review summarizes the current understanding of innate immune-related genes in catfish, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complements, lectins, cytokines, transferrin and gene expression profiling using microarrays and next generation sequencing technologies. This review will benefit the understanding of innate immune system in catfish and further efforts in studying the innate immune-related genes in fish.

  12. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio ( Listonella) anguillarum from catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Rad, Mehrnaz; Shahsavani, Davar

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum was isolated from several organs of some aquarium catfish in a fish population with high mortality. Macroscopic examination of the affected catfish revealed ascites in the abdomen, site-petechiae, and dorsal erection. Although there are some variations in phenotypic characterization among different isolates of Vibrio anguillarum, the majority show a common biochemical profile with distinct microscopic appearance that can provide presumptive identification of Vibrio anguilla...

  13. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Joseph W Kloepper; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including...

  14. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  15. The large terrestrial carnivore guild in Quaternary Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien

    2014-07-01

    Much of Southeast Asia's large terrestrial carnivores appeared, evolved and disappeared from the region for reasons that remain poorly understood. Two of the most significant extinctions are represented by the charismatic Pleistocene megacarnivores Pachycrocuta and Pliocrocuta. Southeast Asia hosts the last populations of these species globally. Their persistence in southern China until the late Pleistocene suggests their extinction was not tied to that of the machairodont cats, which like the rest of the world became extinct sometime in the early Pleistocene in this region. Instead the disappearance of the hyenids is probably related to climate change and deteriorating environmental conditions. There is some evidence that the wolf and domesticated dog first appeared in Southeast Asia, although confirmation of this awaits more detailed fossil records. There does not appear to be a large carnivore guild turnover of the same scale or time as recorded in Europe and Africa, although an extinction event in the late Pleistocene is provisionally recorded. Environmental changes and fluctuating sea levels have had a unique impact on the region's large carnivore guild. Several large carnivores from Java show unique genetic and morphological variations, and this could potentially be related to the connection between Java and the Indochinese mainland sometime during the middle Pleistocene. The effects of islands on the large carnivores are complicated and at times contradictory. Nevertheless, periods of isolation of large carnivores on Java, Sumatra and Borneo from the continent had impacts on both extinctions and speciations, with at least one well documented endemic large carnivore evolving in Sundaland (Sunda clouded leopard). Hunting and deforestation ongoing since the mid- to late Holocene means that many extant members of the large carnivore guild are at high risk of extinction.

  16. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Randau; Chris Carbone; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids...

  17. Price Volatility Spillover in Agricultural Markets: An Examination of U.S. Catfish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buguk, Cumhur; Hudson, Darren; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2003-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers in the U.S. catfish supply chain are analyzed based on monthly price data from 1980 through 2000 for catfish feed, its ingredients, and farm- and wholesale-level catfish. The exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) model was used to test univariate volatility spillovers for prices in the supply chain. Strong price volatility spillover from feeding material (corn, soybeans, menhaden) to catfish feed and farm- and wholesale-leve...

  18. EFFECTS OF GENERIC ADVERTISING ON PERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: THE CASE OF CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Venkateswaran, Meenakshi

    1990-01-01

    An eight equation partially-recursive econometric model is specified to indicate the effects of catfish advertising on product awareness, beliefs, attitude and consumption. Results indicate that the ad campaign in its first year (i) increased consumer's awareness on farm-raised catfish 15 percent, (ii) improved consumers' perceptions of and attitude toward catfish 3 to 6 percent, and (iii) increased at-home and restaurant purchases of catfish 12 to 13 percent. The response to the ad campaign ...

  19. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  20. Hydrogen peroxide treatments for channel catfish eggs infected with water molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi, or water molds Saprolegnia spp., on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus eggs can lower fry production. This requires the producer to spawn more catfish or face fingerling shortages. Few treatments have been tested against channel catfish eggs infested with an identified fungus. Hydrogen pe...

  1. Proximate Composition and Collagen Concentration of Processing Residue of Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residues (including heads, skin, viscera, frames, and trimmings) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus processing industry have generally been made into catfish meal and catfish oil that are used in animal feeds. There may be more efficient uses for these materials, such as producing collagen...

  2. Breeding strategy of US farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus affects progeny production and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    catfish propagation for decades has been dependent on random mating of male and female channel catfish in ponds. It is simple and has been fairly successful in fulfilling the needs of the US farm-raised catfish industry. However, natural pond spawning is unreliable, unpredictable, and incurs 30 t...

  3. Pyrethroid toxicity in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Montanha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine both the lethal and sublethal concentrations of Cypermethrin in young Silver Catfish (Brazilian "Jundiá", Rhamdia quelen on aquatic environment during 96 hours, as well as to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development period of Rhamdia quelen, and to verify their respective rates of fertilization, hatching and survival. Pyrethroid nowadays is a widely used insecticide, which presents a high toxicity to fish. In order to determine lethal and sublethal concentrations, 120 silver catfish were used; each one had an average weight of 59.58±4.50g and an average size of 20.33±2.34cm. Concentrations used were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of Cypermethrin per liter of water (mg/L. Fish were exposed to the product in 30-liter fish tanks. In each fish tank there were four fishes and the product was applied three times, i.e., a total of twelve fish were exposed to the product at each application, and a total of 120 fish during the entire experiment (n=120. In order to determine the Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin sublethal concentrations during the initial embryonic development, ovulation induction was performed on female fishes using hormones, and then and egg collection was performed. The eggs were then hydrated and fertilized in Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin in different concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0mg/L of Cypermethrin and 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L of Deltamethrin, in addition to the control group (0mg/L. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in containers with the respective pesticides of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin until hatching, when hatching rate was verified. Then the alevins, from the hatching, were kept on their respective concentrations of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin so that the survival rate could be analyzed regarding the tested insecticides, during both 12-hour and 24-hour periods

  4. SNP discovery and validation in wild and domesticated populations of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue catfish, Ictalurusfurcatus, are valued in the United States as a trophy fishery for their capacity to reach large sizes, sometimes exceeding 45 kg. Additionally blue catfish x channel catfish (I. punctatus) hybrid food fish production has recently increased the demand for blue catfish broodsto...

  5. Ecological drivers of antipredator defenses in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowich, Theodore; Haverkamp, Paul J; Caro, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Mammals have evolved several morphological and behavioral adaptations to reduce the risk of predation, but we know little about the ecological factors that favor their evolution. For example, some mammalian carnivores have the ability to spray noxious anal secretions in defense, whereas other species lack such weaponry but may instead rely on collective vigilance characteristic of cohesive social groups. Using extensive natural history data on 181 species in the order Carnivora, we created a new estimate of potential predation risk from mammals and birds of prey and used comparative phylogenetic methods to assess how different sources of predation risk and other ecological variables influence the evolution of either noxious weaponry or sociality in this taxon. We demonstrate that the evolution of enhanced spraying ability is favored by increased predation risk from other mammals and by nocturnality, but the evolution of sociality is favored by increased predation risk from birds of prey and by diurnality, which may allow for enhanced early visual detection. These results suggest that noxious defenses and sociality are alternative antipredator strategies targeting different predator guilds under different lighting conditions. PMID:24433406

  6. 江黄颡(Pelteobagrus vachelli)和乌苏里拟鳞(Pseudobagrus ussuriensis)杂交F1代形态差异%Morphometric differences of the hybrid F1 of Pelteobagrus vachelli × Pseudobagrus ussuriensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永祥; 陈友明; 陈校辉; 王明华; 潘莹; 夏爱军

    2011-01-01

    通过测定江黄颡雌、雄亲本,乌苏里拟鲿雌、雄亲本以及它们的正交F1代和反交F1代共6个实验鱼组合的形态和框架数据,运用卡方分析和多无分析方法,比较了杂交F1代与亲本之间的形态异同.可数性状卡方分析结果表明正、反交F1代与双亲在大部分可数性状上是一致的.但在胸鳍鳍条数上存在明显差异,胸鳍鳍条数可以作为区别杂交F1代与双亲的重要参数,在臀鳍和尾鳍性状上.杂交F1代与江黄颡亲本差异明显,而与乌苏里拟鲿亲本无差异.形态和框架数据的聚类分析结果表明,两亲本雌鱼组合与雄鱼组合之间、正交F1与反交F1实验鱼组合之间的形态最为接近,但正、反杂交F1代较其亲本性状出现了一定程度的多样化;主成分分析结果表明,6个组合的实验鱼在形态上的差别主要由鱼体体高的长度差异引起;以判别分析方法构建了 6个判别方程,其综合判别率为97.9%.三种多元分析结果表明,正、反杂交F1代较其亲本形态产生了一定程度的差异,正、反杂交子代在形态上较接近于乌苏里拟鲿.%The morphological variations of the reciprocal F1 hybrids between Pelteobagrus vachelli and Pseudobagrus ussuriensis were analyzed by Chi-square analysis and multivariate data analysis methods based on the parameters of morphometric characters. The results of Chi-square analysis indicated that there were no significant differences between the reciprocal F1 hybrids and their parents,except for the number of pectoral fin. The number of pectoral fin can be used as an important parameter to discriminate the reciprocal F1 hybrids from their parents. In aspect of the characters of anal fin and caudal fin, there were significant differences between the reciprocal F1 hybrids and their parents of P. vachelli, but not significant between reciprocal F1 hybrids and their parents of P. ussuriensis. The results of cluster analysis have revealed that the

  7. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: Uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram [University of Vienna, Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research Unit, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: wolfram.adlassnig@univie.ac.at; Steinhauser, Georg [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Peroutka, Marianne [University of Vienna, Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research Unit, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H. [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Lichtscheidl, Irene K. [University of Vienna, Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research Unit, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bichler, Max [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and {gamma}-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable.

  8. Suspending mammalian LHRHa-injected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus in individual nylon-mesh bag reduces stress and improves reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone induced spawning of channel catfish held communally in tanks is a reliable method to produce channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus ' x blue catfish, I. furcatus ' F1 hybrid catfish fry. However, mature catfish are crowded, and repeatedly handled during the process of induced ovulation. Repe...

  9. High-density interspecific genetic linkage mapping provides insights into genomic incompatibility between channel catfish and blue catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Li, Y; Qin, Z; Geng, X; Bao, L; Kaltenboeck, L; Kucuktas, H; Dunham, R; Liu, Z

    2016-02-01

    Catfish is the leading aquaculture species in the United States. The interspecific hybrid catfish produced by mating female channel catfish with male blue catfish outperform both of their parent species in a number of traits. However, mass production of the hybrids has been difficult because of reproductive isolation. Investigations of genome structure and organization of the hybrids provide insights into the genetic basis for maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow, thereby helping develop strategies for introgression and efficient production of the hybrids for aquaculture. In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using the hybrid catfish system with the catfish 250K SNP array. A total of 26,238 SNPs were mapped to 29 linkage groups, with 12,776 unique marker positions. The linkage map spans approximately 3240 cM with an average intermarker distance of 0.25 cM. A fraction of markers (986 of 12,776) exhibited significant deviation from the expected Mendelian ratio of segregation, and they were clustered in major genomic blocks across 15 LGs, most notably LG9 and LG15. The distorted markers exhibited significant bias for maternal alleles among the backcross progenies, suggesting strong selection against the blue catfish alleles. The clustering of distorted markers within genomic blocks should lend insights into speciation as marked by incompatibilities between the two species. Such findings should also have profound implications for understanding the genomic evolution of closely related species as well as the introgression of hybrid production programs in aquaculture.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE THREAT OF NAFTA ON U.S. CATFISH INDUSTRY USING A TRADITIONAL IMPORT DEMAND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ligeon, Carel; Jolly, Curtis M.; John D. Jackson

    1996-01-01

    The effects of increased exports from NAFTA member countries on the U.S. domestic catfish industry were evaluated. Results showed that the quantity of catfish imported will fall if the domestic price of catfish falls relative to the import price. Past imports have no effect on present imports. The income elasticity was negative indicating that imported catfish may be an inferior good. Doubling present levels of imports from NAFTA member countries is not a threat to the U.S. catfish industry.

  11. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FREQUENCY OF CATFISH CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Drammeh, Lamin; House, Lisa; Sureshwaran, Suresh; Selassie, Haile

    2002-01-01

    Consumption of seafood, including catfish, has become an important part of the diet for consumers in the United States. Per capita consumption of catfish increased from 0.41 pounds in 1985 to 0.90 pounds in 2001. The goal of this study is to investigate factors that influence the decisions to consume and frequency of consumption of catfish. One finding was the main emphasis of the Catfish Institute to market catfish as "farm-raised" and to increase preparation knowledge through distribution o...

  12. CARNIVORE: A Disruption-Tolerant System for Studying Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams TerrieM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present CARNIVORE, a system for in situ, unobtrusive monitoring of cryptic, difficult-to-catch/observe wildlife in their natural habitat. CARNIVORE is a network of mobile and static nodes with sensing, processing, storage, and wireless communication capabilities. CARNIVORE's compact, low-power, mobile animal-borne nodes collect sensor data and transmit it to static nodes, which then relay it to the Internet. Depending on the wildlife being studied, the network can be quite sparse and therefore disconnected frequently for arbitrarily long periods of time. To support "disconnected operation", CARNIVORE uses an "opportunistic routing" approach taking advantage of every encounter between nodes (mobile-to-mobile and mobile-to-static to propagate data. With a lifespan of 50–100 days, a CARNIVORE mobile node, outfitted on a collar, collects and transmits 1 GB of data compared to 450 kB of data from comparable commercially available wildlife collars. Each collar records 3-axis accelerometer and GPS data to infer animal behavior and energy consumption.Testing in both laboratory and free-range settings with domestic dogs shows that galloping and trotting behavior can be identified. Data collected from first deployments on mountain lions (Puma concolor near Santa Cruz, CA, USA show that the system is a viable and useful tool for wildlife research.

  13. Serosurvey of small carnivores in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Noss, Andrew J; Deem, Sharon L; Maffei, Leonardo; Dubovi, Edward J

    2007-07-01

    Five species of Bolivian carnivores, including nine Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), ten ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), one jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), nine pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and five crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were sampled between March 2001 and April 2005 and tested for antibodies to common pathogens of domestic carnivores. Carnivores were trapped in three areas: a village, the region between human settlements and a protected area, and within Kaa-Iya National Park, Bolivia. Antibodies to canine distemper virus were detected in ocelots and pampas foxes. Antibodies to canine parvovirus were detected in pampas foxes and crab-eating foxes. Geoffroy's cats and all of the ocelots tested positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), while fewer than half of Geoffroy's cats and no ocelots had antibodies to feline panleukopenia (FPV). These results confirm that these species of Bolivian carnivores are not naïve to common pathogens of domestic carnivores, and seropositive animals were found in villages as well as in the national park. PMID:17699100

  14. Cloning and differential expression of growth hormone in Pelteobagrus vachelli%瓦氏黄颡鱼生长激素基因克隆及其组织特异性表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏华; 龙丽娜; 王悦如; 陈立侨

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a pluripotent hormone produced by the pituitary gland in teleosts as in other vertebrates. It plays important roles in the growth, development and metabolism of vertebrates. In this study, to characterize GH in fish and to better understand the potential applications of GH in fish culture, we used reverse transcription-ploymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to obtain the full- length cDNA sequence encoding GH from the pituitary of darkbarbel cat-fish Pelteobagrus vachelli (P. vachelli), a freshwater fish of high commercial value cultured in China. GH precursor cDNA (GenBank:GU395549) consists of 1 203 bp in size with an open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 200 amino acid, a 77 bp 5'-untranslated region and a 523 bp 3'-untranslated region. The four Cys residues are located at conserved positions (Cys71, Cys173, Cys190, Cys198), and one possible site for N-glycosylation (Asn-Xaa-Scr/Thr, motif) is present at Asn197. Based on multi-sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the P. vachelli GH precursor shared a higher degree of homology (averaged 95%) with other species of fish belonging to the Order Siluriformes, but lower levels of homology between P. vachelli and the mammalian (averaged 34%) and bird (averaged 41%). The above results reveal that GH is conserved during evolution and is suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis of Siluriformes. By real-time quantitative PCR, tissue distribution profile showed that GH mRNA signals were all observed in pituitary, brain, muscle, liver, adipose tissue, stomach, spleen, ovary and testis. GH mRNA in pituitary was the most abundant and no significant GH mRNA expression was detected in kidney, heart, gill and intestines. The expression patterns of P. vachelli and previously studied animal GH suggest that GH through autocrine or paracrine pathway exerted its possible important local physiological function during development and growth of P. vachelli. These

  15. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally factors regulating channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  16. Book review: Conservation, ecology, and management of catfish: The second international symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series published by the American Fisheries Society devoted to catfish research, biology, and management, which was organized as a symposium held in St. Louis Missouri, in 2010 and builds upon the first symposium that was held in Davenport, Iowa, in 1998 (Irwin et al. 1999).  The organizations of the second symposium stated that this was to "serve as an addendum to Catfish 2000" and "to cover the four corners of catfish science: catfish biology, ecology, management, and conservation" (p. xi).  The book meets this standard easily.  With 64 pages organized into nine sections (plenary, catfishes as sport fish, non-game catfishes, nonnative catfishes, movement and habitat use, sampling and population assessment, age and growth, behavior, and future directions), this publication covers these four corners and more.

  17. Population genetic variations and phylogeography of Pelteobagrus intermedius%中间黄颡鱼群体遗传变异与亲缘生物地理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庆宁; 吕凤义; 廖伟群; 赵俊; 丘城锋

    2007-01-01

    通过分析81尾采自华南西部12条水系的中间黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus intermedius) mtDNA控制区435 bp的序列,研究其群体遗传变异及亲缘生物地理格局.结果显示,中间黄颡鱼群体间的遗传分化较小,核苷酸变异只有0.54%.12条水系的群体共有7个单倍型,其中一些现已相互隔离的水系中的群体共享同一个单倍型,提示这些水系曾经有非常密切的联系.根据嵌套进化支序分析,中间黄颡鱼可能起源于峒中河、北仑河、防城河所在的广西与越南交界地区,并通过两条途径向华南沿海西部诸独立水系和海南岛扩散,在演化过程中,曾发生片断化事件,长距离建群和持续的分布区扩张.

  18. Approaches, field considerations and problems associated with radio tracking carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    The adaptation of radio tracking to ecological studies was a major technological advance affecting field investigations of animal movements and behavior. Carnivores have been the recipients of much attention with this new technology and study approaches have varied from simple to complex. Equipment performance has much improved over the years, but users still face many difficulties. The beginning of all radio tracking studies should be a precise definition of objectives. Study objectives dictate type of gear required and field procedures. Field conditions affect equipment performance and investigator ability to gather data. Radio tracking carnivores is demanding and generally requires greater time than anticipated. Problems should be expected and planned for in study design. Radio tracking can be an asset in carnivore studies but caution is needed in its application.

  19. Morphological Differences and Karyotype of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in Dongting Lake Water Systems%洞庭湖水系黄颡鱼的形态差异及染色体组型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良国; 邹万生; 杨春英; 罗玉双; 杨品红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究洞庭湖水系黄颡鱼群体的形态特征和染色体组型.[方法]采用常规生物学形态测量及PHA和秋水仙素活体注射方法,分别对洞庭湖水系沅水和澧水的2个黄颡鱼群体进行形态学特征及染色体组型分析.[结果]沅水和澧水的黄顾鱼在体长/头长、体长/尾柄高、头长/吻长3个比例性状上存在显著差异(P<0.05),但它们的染色体数目及组型相同,其染色体数2n=52,核型公式为20M+12SM+ 10ST+ 10T,染色体臂数为84.[结论]研究结果对洞庭湖水系野生黄额鱼资源的保护及开发利用具有一定的理论指导意义.%[Objective] The research aimed to study the morphological characteristics and karyotype of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in Dongting Lake water systems. [ Method] By using the conventional biological morphometry, PHA and eolchicine injection method in vivo, the morphological characteristics and karyotype of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco between Yuanshui River and Lishui River of Dongting Lake water systems were analyzed. [Result] In three ratio traits including standard length/head length, standard length/caudal peduncle depth and head length/snout length, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco between Yuanshui River and Lishui River had significant differences (P<0.05). However, the number and karyotype of their chromosomes were same. The chromosome number is 2n =52, and the karyotype formula is 20M + 12SM + 10ST + 10T. The number of chromosome arm is 84. [ Conclusion] The research result had the certain theory guidance significance for the conservation and utilization of wild Pelteobagrus julvidracos resource in Dongting Lake water systems.

  20. Glucose transporter 1 localisation throughout pregnancy in the carnivore placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooding, F.B.P.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Klisch, K.;

    2007-01-01

    to be located in placental membranes. GT1 may be the only one on the syncytiotrophoblast (human) or both may be present on the same membrane (rodents) or be required in sequence (ruminants, horses and elephant). This paper shows GT1 to be the only transporter demonstrable by immunocytochemistry in carnivore...... (cat, dog and mink) endotheliochorial placental membranes. GT1 is invariably present on both apical and basal surfaces of the cyto- and syncytiotrophoblast in all carnivore species examined and the pattern of development is described from implantation to term....

  1. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2015-01-01

    A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini. PMID:26701468

  2. 黄颡鱼IgM基因的个体发生和抗体的代间传递%The ontogenesis and transfer of IgM between generations in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春涛; 张其中; 曾伯平

    2014-01-01

    为了解黄颡鱼IgM基因表达的个体发生和IgM抗体代间传递机制,实验利用Real-timePCR和ELISA等技术研究了黄颡鱼IgM重链基因在卵巢、胚胎和仔鱼的表达变化,以及黄颡鱼IgM抗体在卵巢、胚胎和仔鱼中的含量变化.结果显示,黄颡鱼3~7d仔鱼中,没有检测到IgM mRNA;14 d仔鱼IgM基因开始表达.用细菌免疫亲鱼后,对仔鱼IgM mRNA表达没有影响.黄颡鱼IgM抗体在卵巢、胚胎和仔鱼中都有分布,且呈现下降趋势,至9d仔鱼中抗体水平最低(是卵抗体含量的0.31倍).14 d仔鱼中IgM抗体水平上升(是9d仔鱼抗体含量的1.6倍).用细菌免疫亲鱼后,能显著提高胚胎、仔鱼中的IgM抗体水平,在卵中抗体含量提高了2.3倍,9d仔鱼中提高了1.8倍.研究表明,黄颡鱼IgM抗体可以在母本和后代之间传递,早期仔鱼IgM抗体主要来自于亲本;因此,免疫亲鱼能显著增加子代的抗体水平.

  3. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of [1(-14C] linoleic acid and [1(14C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  4. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnavalli N. Kumara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  5. Go big or go fish: morphological specializations in carnivorous bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Cheung, Elena

    2016-05-11

    Specialized carnivory is relatively uncommon across mammals, and bats constitute one of the few groups in which this diet has evolved multiple times. While size and morphological adaptations for carnivory have been identified in other taxa, it is unclear what phenotypic traits characterize the relatively recent evolution of carnivory in bats. To address this gap, we apply geometric morphometric and phylogenetic comparative analyses to elucidate which characters are associated with ecological divergence of carnivorous bats from insectivorous ancestors, and if there is morphological convergence among independent origins of carnivory within bats, and with other carnivorous mammals. We find that carnivorous bats are larger and converged to occupy a subset of the insectivorous morphospace, characterized by skull shapes that enhance bite force at relatively wide gapes. Piscivorous bats are morphologically distinct, with cranial shapes that enable high bite force at narrow gapes, which is necessary for processing fish prey. All animal-eating species exhibit positive allometry in rostrum elongation with respect to skull size, which could allow larger bats to take relatively larger prey. The skull shapes of carnivorous bats share similarities with generalized carnivorans, but tend to be more suited for increased bite force production at the expense of gape, when compared with specialized carnivorans. PMID:27170718

  6. Carnivore activity in the Sima de los Huesos (Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The Sima de los Huesos (SH) site is the largest accumulation of human remains from the Middle Pleistocene known to date. Studies in the last two decades have proposed different hypotheses to explain carnivore activity in the SH human sample. This study provides new data in order to test these different interpretations, and therefore to understand the role of the carnivores in site formation at SH. Carnivores are usually not the origin of large accumulations of hominin fossils in the Eurasian record. The results show that marks of carnivore activity in the SH sample appear very infrequently, which we interpret as indicating that carnivore activity was very sporadic at the site. This is in stark contrast with previous studies. The comparison of bone modification patterns at SH to actualistic carnivore data allows us to suggest that bears were likely to have been the carnivore responsible for the modification observed on both human and bear fossils.

  7. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  8. Temperature Cycles Induce Early Maturation in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major impediment in improvement of channel catfish by selective breeding is that a high percent of fish do not spawn until the third year. If the generation time could be shortened, genetic improvement could be achieved at a faster rate. The conditions that lead to sexual maturation in fish have...

  9. Delayed feeding of channel catfish fry stocked in ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared production variables between channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, nursery ponds fed according to industry standards, that is feeding immediately at stocking, to an alternative practice of delaying feeding for 6 wk after stocking in an effort to utilize natural pond productivity and redu...

  10. TOXAPHENE: CHRONIC TOXICITY TO FATHEAD MINNOWS AND CHANNEL CATFISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were continuously exposed to several toxaphene concentrations (13-630 ng) in flow-through diluter systems for 8 to 10 months. Growth and backbone quality of adult fathead minnows were decreased at 97 ...

  11. Can We Improve Catfish Growth and FCR Through Oxygen Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of channel catfish. Control ponds in each study were maintained with a minimum D...

  12. Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, CD63 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD63, also known as lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP-3), is a member of tetraspanin integral membrane protein family. This protein plays many important roles in immuno-physiological functions. In this communication, we cloned, sequenced and characterized the channel catfish, CD63 transcr...

  13. On Sciadeichthys (Selenaspis) Walrechti, a new South American catfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1954-01-01

    Two large specimens of a hitherto unknown species of neotropical catfish have recently been found dead and washed ashore beneath the dike along the Westerscheldt near Biezelinge, Zeeland, at a mutual distance of approximately 300 meters. Both were in excellent condition and have been presented to th

  14. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behaviou

  15. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  16. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  17. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Evaluation of locally available feed resources for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Chau Thi

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared inputs and outputs, economic factors and current feed use in small-scale farming systems producing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in the Mekong Delta. The nutrient content of locally available natural feed resources for striped catfish was determined and growth performance, feed utilisation and body indices were analysed in pond-cultured striped catfish fed diets where fish meal protein was replaced with protein from local feed resources. ...

  19. Analysis of a Blue Catfish Population in a Southeastern Reservoir: Lake Norman, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Grist, Joseph Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This investigation examined the diet, growth, movement, population genetics, and possible consumption demands of an introduced blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus population in Lake Norman, North Carolina. Clupeids, Corbicula fluminea, and Chara were the predominant food items (percent stomach contents by weight) found in blue catfish, and varied by season, lake-region, and fish size-class. Lake Norman blue catfish grow at a slower rate than has been reported for other reservoir populations, wi...

  20. Genomic organization of the channel catfish CD45 functional gene and CD45 pseudogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kountikov, Evgueni; Wilson, Melanie; Miller, Norman; Clem, William; Bengtén, Eva; Quiniou, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, which in mammals plays an important role in T and B cell receptor and cytokine signaling. Recently, a catfish cDNA was shown to contain all characteristic CD45 features: an alternatively spliced amino-terminus, a cysteine-rich region, three fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region, and two phosphotyrosine phosphatase domains. However, analyses of CD45 cDNAs from various catfish lymphoid cell lines demonstrated that catfish CD45 is uniqu...

  1. INTRA-PROCESSOR PRICE-SPREAD BEHAVIOR: IS THE U.S. CATFISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY COMPETITIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of price-spread behavior in the catfish-processing sector of the United States. A model of imperfect competition using conjectural variations was used to test for significant deviations from competition. Results show no significant deviation from competitive behavior, suggesting that catfish processor behave competitively. However, this result is limited by the assumption of equal market shares by each catfish-processing firm.

  2. IQF Catfish Retail Pack: A Study of Consumers' Willingness to Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Quagrainie, Kwamena K.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery retail channel represents a potential for increased sales for catfish products because of the competitive nature that imported catfish fillets pose at foodservice market channels. The study examined the potential for selling a household-size pack of IQF 6-fillets of catfish through the grocery market channels, and consumers' willingness to pay for the product. Data used were obtained from a survey conducted in selected southern U.S. cities. Results suggest that households will pur...

  3. Adjusting to Trade Policy: Evidence from U.S. Antidumping Duties on Vietnamese Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Brambilla; Guido Porto; Alessandro Tarozzi

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, after claims of dumping, the U.S. imposed heavy tariffs on imports of catfish from Vietnam. As a result, Vietnamese exports of catfish to the U.S. market sharply declined. Using a panel data of Vietnamese households, we explore the responses of catfish producers in the Mekong delta between 2002 and 2004. We study adjustments not only in catfish aquaculture but also in other economic activities. We find that, over this period, the rate of income growth was significantly lower among ho...

  4. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den, L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and 50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan con...

  5. Dynamic Effects of Grain and Energy Prices on the Catfish Feed and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Zheng, Hualu

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic effects of grain prices and energy prices on catfish feed prices and the price of food-sized catfish at the farm level. Using the autoregressive distributed lag model and bounds testing procedure, a long-run relationship between feed and farm prices and their determinants was confirmed. Given the effect of corn and soybean meal prices on catfish feed prices, and catfish fish feed prices on farm prices, the long-run responsiveness of feed prices to a percentage ...

  6. BOB.1 of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Not a transcriptional coactivator?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Wilson, Melanie R.; Miller, Norman W.; Cunningham, Charles; Warr, Gregory W.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)is driven by the Eμ3′ enhancer, whose core region contains two octamer motifs and a μE5 site. Orthologues of the Oct1 and Oct2 transcription factors have been cloned in the channel catfish and shown to bind to the octamer motifs within the core enhancer. While catfish Oct2 is an activator of transcription, catfish Oct1 failed to drive transcription and may act as a negative regulator of IGH tr...

  7. Factors affecting the decision process of catfish consumers: An empirical study in the two biggest cities in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Mai Thi Xuan

    2007-01-01

    The consumption of catfish in Vietnam has not grown enough to match their increased production. The objective of this study is to explore the factors that influence the decision process of catfish consumers in Vietnam. The findings provide information for the Vietnamese catfish industry to better attract more domestic consumers to eat catfish. This study seeks to address its objective by examining the relationships that exist between the experiences, perceptions of product attr...

  8. Bigger brains may make better problem-solving carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Benson-Amram, Dantzer, Stricker, Swanson, & Holekamp's (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 25321-25376, 2016) recent demonstration that larger-brained carnivores were more successful in a single problem-solving task, relative to smaller-brained carnivores, irrespective of social complexity, poses a challenge to proponents of the social intelligence hypothesis (Humphrey, 1976) and provides some support for the idea that larger relative brain sizes have evolved to support greater problem-solving abilities. However, an important question, neglected by the authors, is the extent to which foraging ecology, rather than social environment, more accurately predicts problem solving, and whether this relationship would be observed in noncarnivore, noncaptive animals across a range of tasks.

  9. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Gaume; Yoel Forterre

    2007-01-01

    International audience Background : The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the k...

  10. Evidence for competition between carnivorous plants and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, David E.; Krupa, James J.; Raffel, Thomas R.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that competition between disparate taxa can be important in determining community structure, yet surprisingly, to our knowledge, no quantitative studies have been conducted on competition between carnivorous plants and animals. To examine potential competition between these taxa, we studied dietary and microhabitat overlap between pink sundews (Drosera capillaris) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) in the field, and conducted a laboratory experiment examining the e...

  11. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoël

    2007-01-01

    Background : The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. Howev...

  12. Pollen Morphology of some Carnivorous plants from Tripura, India

    OpenAIRE

    Somnath Bhowmik; B. K. Datta

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphological structure of two carnivorous plant family covering four species of Tripura, India namely Drosera burmannii Vahl (Droseraceae) Utricularia bifida Linnaeus, Utricularia ceruleaea Linnaeus and Utricularia gibba Linnaeus (Lentibulariaceae) have been studied under Scanning Electron Microscope for the first time. Pollen grains of the studied four taxa varied widely among them and could be used for segregating both at generic as well as species level. Pollens of Droseraceae shed...

  13. A preliminary report on carnivorous mammals from Pondaung fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Egi, Naoko; Tsubamoto, Takehisa

    2000-01-01

    Some carnivore materials have been discovered from the Pondaung Formatioin in central Myanmar recently. The materials are separable into at least two genera, both of which are hyaenodontid creodonts. One of them is a medium-sized proviverrine. Collected parts include a maxilla, lower molar fragments, and some postcranial fragments. It shows some distinctive dental characters such as small protocone lobe on P_4, anterolingually-placed protocone and posterolingually-placed metacone relative to ...

  14. Isotopic tracking of large carnivore palaeoecology in the mammoth steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-06-01

    Isotopic tracking of carnivore palaeoecology is a relatively new approach that yielded important results for the study of the non-analogue mammoth steppe biome. After describing the prerequisite to apply this approach and the possible complications, the main achievements will be described for extinct carnivore species such as scimitar-tooth cat Homotherium serum, cave lion Panthera spelaea, giant short-faced bear Arctodus simus, cave bear Ursus spelaeus s.l., as well as for ancient representatives of extant species such as brown bear Ursus arctos and wolf Canis lupus. Isotopic tracking showed that scimitar-tooth cats in Alaska were not specialist proboscidean predators but rather generalist consumers of other large herbivores. The majority of cave lions analysed so far were focused on reindeer, some individuals were specialized on cave bears, especially in contexts of competition with cave hyenas. Giant short-faced bears in Alaska were not pure herbivores and consumed meat from reindeer, muskoxen and possibly other predators, but may have still incorporated plant resources in their menu. In contrast, all cave bear populations studied so far for which a clear dietary reconstruction could be done were virtually pure herbivores, only a few cases are still unclear. Interestingly, brown bears used the opposite extreme of the dietary spectrum when competing with other large bears such as cave bears and giant short-faced bears, i.e. were more carnivorous in Europe and more herbivorous in Alaska. Finally wolves seem to have been outcompeted by hyenas but became dominant predators during the Lateglacial in Europe to the expense of the last cave lions. The results obtained through this approach are also relevant for improving conservation strategies of endangered extant large carnivores.

  15. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  16. Comprehensive survey and genomic characterization of toll-like receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: identification of novel fish TLRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of channel catfish Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) was undertaken following a genomic PCR approach based on degenerate primers. Twenty different TLRs were identified in channel catfish. Channel catfish TLR sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on their conserv...

  17. Seasonal Differences in Steroids and Maturation-related Genes in Channel Catfish Under Normal and Accelerated Thermoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is hampered by a long generation time. Female channel catfish typically spawn when they are 3-years-old; however, a low percentage of spawning may be observed at two years of age. Mature female channel catfish can spawn once annually. Their...

  18. Mortality Pattern in Captive Wild Carnivores in Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Kinge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 244 deaths were recorded in seven different species of captive wild carnivores which reveal highest mortality in lion 92 (37.70 % followed by 60 (24.59 % in tiger and leopard respectively. Lowest mortality was recorded in rest of felines. Similarly region wise and season wise mortality summarized. Disease symptom wise mortality pattern revealed involvement of respiratory affection in 56 (22.95 % followed by digestive 46 (18.85 % miscellaneous 40 (16.39 % and generalized conditions 39 (15.98 %. The causes of death attributed to specific diseases in carnivores 13 (5.31 % showed trypanosomiasis, hookworm in tiger, trypanosomiasis in jungle cat, fox and pasteurellosis in lion and leopard. From study it is concluded that pattern of mortality in carnivores is serious concerned in captive wildlife conservation and these losses due to mortality can be controlled to considerable extent by taking appropriate measures (Veterinary aid well in time. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 23-25

  19. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  20. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  1. Major Patterns in the History of Carnivorous Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    The history of carnivorous mammals is characterized by a series of rise-and-fall patterns of diversification in which declining clades are replaced by phylogenetically distinct but functionally similar clades. Seven such examples from the last 46 million years are described for North America and Eurasia. In three of the seven turnover events, competition with replacement taxa may have driven the decline of formerly dominant taxa. In the remaining four this is less likely because inferred functional similarity was minimal during the interval of temporal overlap between clades. However, competition still may have been important in producing the rise-and-fall pattern through suppression of evolution within replacement taxa; as long as the large carnivore ecospace was filled, the radiation of new taxa into that ecospace was limited, only occurring after the extinction of the incumbents. The apparently inevitable decline of incumbent taxa may reflect the tendency for clades of large carnivorous mammals to produce more specialized species as they mature, leading to increased vulnerability to extinction when environments change.

  2. In vivo and in vitro CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kristine L; Ganesan, Shobana; Patel, Monali; Metzger, Christine; Quiniou, Sylvie; Waldbieser, Geoff; Scheffler, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Our goal was to study the induction of CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). CYP1B belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of genes, is involved in the oxidation of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and could potentially be a useful biomarker in fish for exposure to AhR ligands. The full-length catfish CYP1B cDNA is 2417 nt to the polyA tail and encodes a putative protein of 536 amino acids. It has 67% amino acid similarity to carp and zebrafish CYP1B and 68% similarity to carp CYP1B2. Male channel catfish were collected from three Mississippi Delta sites: Lake Roebuck, Itta Bena; Bee Lake, Thornton; and Sunflower River, Indianola. Total RNA was isolated from wild-caught catfish gill, blood, gonad and liver tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine relative induction of CYP1B in wild catfish compared to laboratory control and BaP-exposed catfish (20mg/kg i.p. after 4 days). BaP exposure significantly induced CYP1B message in blood, gonad, and liver of laboratory catfish. In these same tissues of wild catfish from sites with relatively low sediment contaminants, CYP1B message was not statistically increased relative to laboratory control catfish. CYP1B transcript abundance was higher in gills compared to other tissues in both laboratory and wild catfish. When primary cultured gill cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BaP, TCDD, and PCBs 77, 126 and 169, CYP1B mRNA was induced more than 10-fold while PCB153 and 4,4'DDT did not cause significant CYP1B induction. Our results suggest that catfish CYP1B is induced by the classic AhR ligands. PMID:16697458

  3. An evaluation of agreement between pectoral spines and otoliths for estimating ages of catfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, J.A.; Schramm, Harold; Gerard, Patrick D.; Irwin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths have been shown to provide more accurate ages than pectoral spine sections for several catfish populations; but sampling otoliths requires euthanizing the specimen, whereas spines can be sampled non-lethally. To evaluate whether, and under what conditions, spines provide the same or similar age estimates as otoliths, we examined data sets of individual fish aged from pectoral spines and otoliths for six blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus populations (n=420), 14 channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus populations (n=997), and 10 flathead catfish Pylodictus olivaris populations (n=947) from lotic and lentic waters throughout the central and eastern U.S. Logistic regression determined that agreement between ages estimated from otoliths and spines was consistently related to age, but inconsistently related to growth rate. When modeled at mean growth rate, we found at least 80% probability of no difference in spine- and otolith-assigned ages up to ages 4 and 5 for blue and channel catfish, respectively. For flathead catfish, an 80% probability of agreement between spine- and otolith-assigned ages did not occur at any age due to high incidence of differences in assigned ages even for age-1 fish. Logistic regression models predicted at least 80% probability that spine and otolith ages differed by ≤1 year up to ages 13, 16, and 9 for blue, channel, and flathead catfish, respectively. Age-bias assessment found mean spine-assigned age differed by less than 1 year from otolith-assigned age up to ages 19, 9, and 17 for blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish, respectively. These results can be used to help guide decisions about which structure is most appropriate for estimating catfish ages for particular populations and management objectives.

  4. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  5. DNA damage and radiocesium in channel catfish from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in some of the most radioactively contaminated habitats on earth. Despite evacuation of all human inhabitants from the most contaminated areas, animals and plants continue to thrive in these areas. This study examines the levels of contamination and genetic damage associated with cesium-137 in catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from the cooling pond and a control site. In general, catfish from the cooling pond exhibit greater genetic damage, and the amount of damage is related to the concentration of radiocesium in individual fish. Genetic damage is primarily in the form of DNA strand breaks, with few micronuclei being observed in contaminated fish. The possible roles that acclimation and adaption play in the response to high levels of radiation exposure are discussed

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punhal, Lashari; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Waryani, Baradi; Jalbani, Shaista; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Zhang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Eutropiichthys vacha, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red-listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,478 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.06% A, 27.59% C, 15.65% G, and 25.68% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, E. vacha provides the fundamental tool for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:25630731

  7. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  8. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA. This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources.

  9. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  10. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Salces-Castellano, A.; Paniw, M.; Casimiro-Soriguer, R.; Ojeda, F.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyte Drosophyllum lusitan...

  11. Examining the Prey Mass of Terrestrial and Aquatic Carnivorous Mammals: Minimum, Maximum and Range

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Tracey L Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Predator-prey body mass relationships are a vital part of food webs across ecosystems and provide key information for predicting the susceptibility of carnivore populations to extinction. Despite this, there has been limited research on the minimum and maximum prey size of mammalian carnivores. Without information on large-scale patterns of prey mass, we limit our understanding of predation pressure, trophic cascades and susceptibility of carnivores to decreasing prey populations. The majorit...

  12. Pollinator-prey conflicts in carnivorous plants: When flower and trap properties mean life or death

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.; Byers, John A.; David M. Suckling

    2016-01-01

    Insect-pollinated carnivorous plants are expected to have higher fitness if they resolve pollinator-prey conflicts by sparing insects pollinating their flowers while trapping prey insects. We examined whether separation between flowers and traps of the carnivorous sundew species or pollinator preferences for colours of flowers enable these plants to spare pollinators. In addition, we collected odours from flowers and traps of each carnivorous species in order to identify volatile chemicals th...

  13. Beware of the wolf: Is animal fear affecting willingness to pay for conservation of large carnivores?

    OpenAIRE

    Brännlund, Runar; Johansson, Maria; Karlsson, Jens; Sjöström, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    From an interdisciplinary approach, this study aims at analysing self-reported animal fear, specifically large carnivore fear, in relation to public willingness to financially contribute to fulfil a governmental policy on large carnivore-induced costs. In a survey of 2 455 Swedes, it was found that people whose animal fear was directed particularly towards large carnivores, were less likely to be willing to pay (WTP), or were likely to be willing to pay a lower amount of money. In the predict...

  14. Bioaccumulation of P-32 in bluegill and catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluegill and catfish were fed P-32 at a constant feeding rate per body weight to determine the bioaccummulation factor (BF/sub r/) for P-32 in muscle relative to water. The fish were maintained in flow-through tanks at two feeding levels. The bluegill accumulated P-32 for 51 days, followed by depuration for 28 days. The catfish study had to be teminated after 11 days. Fish were analyzed in triplicte for P-32 and phosphorus at intervals of 1 to 8 days. Additional aquaria experiments were performed to determine the effects of water temperature, feeding rate, and type of food (worms vs. pellets) on P-32 uptake, and to observe P-32 uptake from water by unfed fish (including fish with blocked esophagus). A simple calculational model was used to determine the phosphorus turnover constant from the specific activity in tissue relative to food. This ratio at steady state approaches the BF/sub r/BF ratio (where BF is the phosphorus bioaccumulation factor) if P-32 transfers rapidly from water to food. The bluegill showed a weight gain of 0.2 %/d, a phosphorous turnover constant in muscle of 0.43 %/d, and a BF/sub r//BF ratio of 0.081 at the higher feeding rate, and 0.05 %/d, 0.34 %/d, and 0.064 at the lower feeding rate. Hence, respective P-32 BF/sub r/ values are 6000 and 4000 at a phosphorus BF of 70,000. The BF/sub r/ values for catfish were approximately twice as high. The aquarium experiments suggest that the higher factors are due to a much higher phosphorus intake, higher water temperature, higher retention from pellets than from worms, and possible higher retention by catfish than bluegill under the same conditions. 36 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  15. DNA Barcoding of Catfish: Species Authentication and Phylogenetic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Lian; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Kucuktas, Huseyin; He, Shunping; Zhou, Chuanjiang; Na-Nakorn, Uthairat; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    As the global market for fisheries and aquaculture products expands, mislabeling of these products has become a growing concern in the food safety arena. Molecular species identification techniques hold the potential for rapid, accurate assessment of proper labeling. Here we developed and evaluated DNA barcodes for use in differentiating United States domestic and imported catfish species. First, we sequenced 651 base-pair barcodes from the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene from individuals of ...

  16. The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Vari; Carl J. Ferraris Jr.; Mário C. C. de Pinna

    2005-01-01

    The catfishes of the subfamily Cetopsinae of the Neotropical family Cetopsidae are revised. Four genera, Cetopsidium new genus, Cetopsis, Denticetopsis, and Paracetopsis Bleeker are recognized as valid. Bathycetopsis, Hemicetopsis, and Pseudocetopsis are considered synonyms of Cetopsis and Paracetopsis Eigenmann & Bean and Cetopsogiton synonyms of Paracetopsis. Thirty-seven species are recognized in the Cetopsinae. Cetopsidium includes six species: C. ferreirai, new species, rio Trombetas; C....

  17. Basic steps in the production of the African catfish seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ondhoro, C.C.; Mwanja, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    A typical production cycle for African catfish farming begins with a selection of fingerlings or juvenile fish of good quality for brood stock development. Fish are selected from a family or grow out stock basing on records of the origin,age, strain and performance history of the parents or from the wild in this brochure, we explain the basic steps and requirements a farmer needs in order to achieve good results in the hatchery.

  18. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  19. A First Generation Bac-Based Physical Map of the Channel Catfish Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the kar...

  20. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2001-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  1. A trap panel for in-pond raceways to capture escaped catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first commercial-scale in-pond raceway system (IPRS) used to produce catfish in west Alabama was constructed from funds by a joint effort involving the Alabama Catfish Producers Association, Dean Wilson Farms, and Auburn University. The goal of this project was to improve profitability of catfis...

  2. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untrea

  3. Remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater by sorption onto hydoxyapatite derived from catfish bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite was prepared from catfish bones, called catfish hydroxyapatite (CFHA), by mechanical and chemical treatment methods and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite. The ability of CFHA to rem...

  4. Draft genome sequences of four virulent aeromonas hydrophila strains from catfish aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (VAh) strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the Southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group....

  5. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  6. Biofloc production technology promising in temperate zones – Channel catfish perform during winter months

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility to grow Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in an outdoor biofloc system during winter in a temperate zone. High biomasses of market-size channel catfish were successfully maintained through the winter with high survival and in good condition in both...

  7. Plasma polar lipid profiles of channel catfish with different growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased growth in channel catfish is an economically important trait and has been used as a criterion for the selection and development of brood fish. Selection of channel catfish toward increased growth usually results in the accumulation of large amounts of fats in their abdomen rather than incr...

  8. Performance evaluation of intensive, pond-based culture systems for catfish production in Mississippi: year one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish farming is the leading form of aquaculture in the U.S. and has a significant economic impact in the southern states. Increased feed and energy costs, and competition from foreign imports have recently caused catfish farmers to intensify production as a means of improving efficiency and profi...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Strains from Catfish Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, a clonal group of virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains has been causing severe disease in the catfish aquaculture industry in the southeastern United States. Here, we report draft genomes of four A. hydrophila isolates from catfish aquaculture that represent this clonal group. PMID:27540076

  10. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  11. Response of channel x blue hybrid catfish to chronic diurnal hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance traits and metabolic responses of the channel x blue hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus female x I. furcatus male) in response to chronic diurnal hypoxia were evaluated in this 197-d study. Sixteen 0.1-ha earthen ponds were stocked with 15,169 hybrid catfish/ha (47 g/fish) and managed t...

  12. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  13. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  14. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Genome Organization of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of studying pathogenesis of enteric septicemia of catfish, we noted that channel catfish matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene was up-regulated after Edwardsiella ictaluri infection. In this study, we cloned, sequenced using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method and cha...

  15. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaolin

    2010-01-01

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing ...

  16. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C

    2010-01-01

    Background Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing ...

  17. The use of hematology method and blood endoparasite observation for determining catfish (Clarias gariepinus) health in fishery Mangkubumen, Boyolali

    OpenAIRE

    AGUNG BUDIHARJO; NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI; INTAN ESTETIKA ALAMANDA

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to find out the health condition of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) based on hematology and to find out the blood endoparasite type of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) bred in Mangkubumen Boyolali. The sample collection of catfish in this research was conducted in Mangkubumen, Boyolali. The catfish becoming the sample had following criteria: 3 month old, 100-150 gr weight, and 20-25 cm long. The sample of catfish was taked from 5 pools, it was taken 10 fishes from each pool. The ...

  18. Smallest bitter taste receptor(T2Rs)gene repertoire in carnivores%Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ling HU; Peng SHI

    2013-01-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection,preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds.Accordingly,carnivores,who encounter these toxic substances less often,should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores.To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception,we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse),two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog).We also identified,for the first time,the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret,giant panda,polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes,including 12-16 intact genes,0-1 partial but putatively functional genes,and 3-8 pseudogenes.Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species,supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes,herbivores an intermediate number,and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire.To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity,we constructed a phylogenetic tree,which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree,suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals.Similarly,the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events.Collectively,these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size,diet and habit.

  19. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abernathy Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 BAC end sequences and their applications for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Using these and the additional 20,000 existing BAC end sequences as a resource along with linkage mapping and existing physical map, conserved syntenic regions were identified between the catfish and zebrafish genomes. A total of 10,943 catfish BAC end sequences (17.3% had significant BLAST hits to the zebrafish genome (cutoff value ≤ e-5, of which 3,221 were unique gene hits, providing a platform for comparative mapping based on locations of these genes in catfish and zebrafish. Genetic linkage mapping of microsatellites associated with contigs allowed identification of large conserved genomic segments and construction of super scaffolds. Conclusion BAC end sequences and their associated polymorphic markers are great resources for comparative genome analysis in catfish. Highly conserved chromosomal regions were identified to exist between catfish and zebrafish. However, it appears that the level of conservation at local genomic regions are high while a high level of chromosomal shuffling and rearrangements exist between catfish and zebrafish genomes. Orthologous regions established through comparative analysis should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in catfish.

  20. S-like ribonuclease gene expression in carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Emi; Kawahara, Minako; Kodaira, Reina; Kume, Marina; Arai, Naoki; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Functions of S-like ribonucleases (RNases) differ considerably from those of S-RNases that function in self-incompatibility. Expression of S-like RNases is usually induced by low nutrition, vermin damage or senescence. However, interestingly, an Australian carnivorous plant Drosera adelae (a sundew), which traps prey with a sticky digestive liquid, abundantly secretes an S-like RNase DA-I in the digestive liquid even in ordinary states. Here, using D. adelae, Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap) and Cephalotus follicularis (Australian pitcher plant), we show that carnivorous plants use S-like RNases for carnivory: the gene da-I encoding DA-I and its ortholog cf-I of C. follicularis are highly expressed and constitutively active in each trap/digestion organ, while the ortholog dm-I of D. muscipula becomes highly active after trapping insects. The da-I promoter is unmethylated only in its trap/digestion organ, glandular tentacles (which comprise a small percentage of the weight of the whole plant), but methylated in other organs, which explains the glandular tentacles-specific expression of the gene and indicates a very rare gene regulation system. In contrast, the promoters of dm-I, which shows induced expression, and cf-I, which has constitutive expression, were not methylated in any organs examined. Thus, it seems that the regulatory mechanisms of the da-I, dm-I and cf-I genes differ from each other and do not correlate with the phylogenetic relationship. The current study suggests that under environmental pressure in specific habitats carnivorous plants have managed to evolve their S-like RNase genes to function in carnivory. PMID:23959189

  1. Pollen Morphology of some Carnivorous plants from Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Bhowmik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphological structure of two carnivorous plant family covering four species of Tripura, India namely Drosera burmannii Vahl (Droseraceae Utricularia bifida Linnaeus, Utricularia ceruleaea Linnaeus and Utricularia gibba Linnaeus (Lentibulariaceae have been studied under Scanning Electron Microscope for the first time. Pollen grains of the studied four taxa varied widely among them and could be used for segregating both at generic as well as species level. Pollens of Droseraceae shed in tetrahedral tetrad condition while those of Lentibulariaceae are in monad. The exine sculpture in Droseraceae is spinulose while in Lentibulariaceae it is psilate to faintly gemmate

  2. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2008-07-01

    We study the rheology of the digestive fluid secreted by the carnivorous pitcher plants Nepenthes rafflesiana and its role in the mechanism of insects trapping. Using a combination of physical measurements (surface tension, wetting properties, extensional and shear rheometry), insects bioessays and high-speed video, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is a highly viscoelastic fluid and that this property is crucial for the retention of insect in its trap. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements (large Deborah numbers).

  3. The ultrafast valve of an aquatic carnivorous plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmottant, Philippe; Vincent, Olivier; Joyeux, Marc; Quilliet, Catherine; Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Aquatic carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) are plants that catch prey animals with suction traps. Here we present an experimental study with high speed video analyses of the extremely fast trapping movements, and show that suction is performed in less than a millisecond, much faster than previously thought. We reveal how the convex door morphology is optimized for a fast opening and closure, which we confirm by numerical simulations: the trapdoor is an elastic valve that buckles inside (entailing rapid opening) and then unbuckles (entailing rapid closure). These precise and reproducible motions are coupled with a strong suction swirl causing accelerations of up to 600 g, and leaving little escape chances for prey animals.

  4. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Swiątek, Piotr; Kamińska, Iwona

    2014-11-01

    Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied at the end of their winter dormancy. At this stage, the turions of all species had starch as their main storage material. In contrast with A. vesiculosa, Utricularia turions were rich in protein storage vacuoles, and proteins were also accumulated as crystalline inclusions in the nuclei. All examined species accumulated lipid droplets in cells of epidermal glands. PMID:24770880

  5. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5. PMID:27180098

  6. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penezic, Aleksandra; Selakovic, Sanja; Pavlovic, Ivan; Cirovic, Dusko

    2014-01-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the

  7. The evolution of cursorial carnivores in the Tertiary: implications of elbow-joint morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ki; Werdelin, Lars

    2003-11-01

    The evolution of cursorial adaptations in Tertiary (65-1.65 Myr ago) carnivores has been a contentious issue. Most such studies have focused on the relationship between hind limb proportions and running speed. Here, we show morphometrically that in extant carnivores, the elbow joint has evolved in two distinct directions with mutually exclusive implications for locomotor ability and prey procurement. Some carnivores retain supinatory ability, allowing them to manipulate prey and other items with the forepaws. Such carnivores can become very large. Other carnivores lose the ability to supinate and become cursors. This allows for only moderate size increase. Modern carnivores above ca. 20 kg body mass are committed to one or other of these strategies. This threshold coincides with a postulated threshold in carnivore physiology. The biaxial pattern mostly follows phylogenetic lines, but a strong selective regime can override this signal, as shown by the extant cheetah. Oligocene (33.7-23.8 Myr ago) and early-middle Miocene (23.8-11.2 Myr ago) carnivores follow the same pattern, though in the Miocene the pattern is shifted towards larger body mass, which may be owing to the extraordinary richness of browsing ungulates at this time.

  8. Induction of lauric acid omega-hydroxylation by peroxisomal proliferators in bluegill and catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, M.L. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States); Henderson, M.C.; Buhler, D.R. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Peroxisome proliferating agents (PPAs) are a structurally diverse group of chemicals that include environmental chemical contaminants such as certain chlorinated herbicides, solvents and plasticizers. PPAs have previously been shown to induce anti-trout laruci acid hydroxylase immunoreactive proteins in bluegill and catfish. In this investigation, induction of lauric acid hydroxylase activity and immunoreactive proteins was confirmed, and the mass spectral analysis of specific hydroxylation products was performed in order to identify possible species-specific differences in fatty acid metabolism. Male bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were administered clofibrate or ciprofibrate 48 hr prior to hepatic or trunk kidney (catfish only) microsome preparation. While no significant differences were observed in male catfish, male bluegill had significant decreases in hematocrit and plasma protein indicating hemodilution due to possible gill or kidney damage. Both bluegill and catfish exhibited induction of hepatic and kidney (catfish only) anti-trout lauric acid hydroxylase immunoreactive proteins. In general, total metabolism of lauric acid was greater, and higher levels of wP2, wP3, and wP4 products were produced in control catfish than in juvenile male trout. In male bluegill, lauric acid hydroxylation products wP, wP4 and wP5 were significantly induced by clofibrate treatment. Taken together the above data indicate that peroxisome proliferation may be an important consideration for responsive species exposed to PPAs by environmental chemical contamination.

  9. European quaternary refugia: a factor in large carnivore extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Hannah J.; Turner, Alan; Wilkinson, David M.

    2002-12-01

    The extinction of large carnivores in Europe during the Quaternary is reviewed and the potential role of glacial refugia in these extinctions is investigated using the VORTEX model for population viability analysis. A model was built for a medium sized big cat similar to the extinct Panthera gombaszoegensis utilising life history data from the modern jaguar Panthera onca. This approach highlighted the potential importance of glacial refugia in the extinction process. Even model refugia the size of the Italian peninsula did not guarantee persistence of a population over a 1000 yr time span, illustrating the role of chance in survival in such a refugium. An area the size of the largest Mediterranean island was unable to support a big cat population for a period of 1000 yr. The models also demonstrated the importance of inbreeding as a mechanism for extinction in refugia. It is suggested that repeated genetic bottlenecks during successive glaciations would tend to remove lethal recessive alleles from the population, increasing the probability of survival in refugia in subsequent glaciations. The history of extinction of large carnivores in the European Quaternary is interpreted in the light of these results.

  10. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  11. The carnivorous bladderwort (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae): a system inflates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Victor A; Jobson, Richard W; Michael, Todd P; Taylor, Derek J

    2010-01-01

    Carnivorous plants inhabit nutrient-poor environments, where prominent targets of prey capture are organic nitrogen and phosphorus. Some carnivorous plants also acquire carbon from their victims. A new report focusing on Utricularia, the bladderwort, demonstrates that carbon assimilated from photosynthesis is paradoxically secreted into the trapping environment, where it may help to support a mutualistic bacterial community. This bacterial community may also secrete allelochemicals that attract microcrustaceans which bear a strong overt resemblance to bladderwort traps. Furthermore, Utricularia and its sister genus Genlisea share anomalous molecular evolutionary features, such as highly increased rates of nucleotide substitution and dynamic evolution of genome size, from approximately 60-1500 megabases depending on the species or even population. A mechanistic hypothesis, based on the mutagenic action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is proposed to underlie these phenomena, involving error-prone repair at the level of DNA bases and double-strand breaks. It is argued that these plants are prime candidates for further research on the complexities of plant physiology associated with carnivory, metagenomic surveys of trap microbial communities, novel plant nitrogen/nutrient utilization pathways, the ecology of prey attraction, whole-plant and trap comparative development, and, finally, evolution of the minimal angiosperm genome. PMID:20007200

  12. Remote camera-trap methods and analyses reveal impacts of rangeland management on Namibian carnivore communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, M.J.; Sanjayan, M.; Lowenstein, J.; Nelson, A.; Jeo, R.M.; Crooks, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the abundance and distribution of mammalian carnivores is vital for understanding their ecology and providing for their long-term conservation. Because of the difficulty of trapping and handling carnivores many studies have relied on abundance indices that may not accurately reflect real abundance and distribution patterns. We developed statistical analyses that detect spatial correlation in visitation data from combined scent station and camera-trap surveys, and we illustrate how to use such data to make inferences about changes in carnivore assemblages. As a case study we compared the carnivore communities of adjacent communal and freehold rangelands in central Namibia. We used an index of overdispersion to test for repeat visits to individual camera-trap scent stations and a bootstrap simulation to test for correlations in visits to camera neighbourhoods. After distilling our presence-absence data to the most defensible spatial scale, we assessed overall carnivore visitation using logistic regression. Our analyses confirmed the expected pattern of a depauparate fauna on the communal rangelands compared to the freehold rangelands. Additionally, the species that were not detected on communal sites were the larger-bodied carnivores. By modelling these rare visits as a Poisson process we illustrate a method of inferring whether or not such patterns are because of local extinction of species or are simply a result of low sample effort. Our Namibian case study indicates that these field methods and analyses can detect meaningful differences in the carnivore communities brought about by anthropogenic influences. ?? 2007 FFI.

  13. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  14. Disposition of 1-naphthol in the channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited data exists on the disposition of xenobiotics in the channel catfish. The present study examines 1-naphthol as a model compound for phase 2 metabolism and dose dependent kinetics in this species. 14C-Naphthol was administered orally or intravascularly at 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg. Plasma levels of naphthol after intravascular dosing were fitted to a three compartment pharmacokinetic model. There was a dose related change in several pharmacokinetic parameters but little evidence of metabolic saturation. Approximately 60% of the oral dose was renally excreted in 24 hr as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. The bile also contained the glucuronide and an unidentified polar metabolite, but little or no sulfate. The low bioavailability (38%) of naphthol was probably a result of first pass metabolism. The edible flesh had the lowest levels of residual compound while the liver and trunk kidney had the highest. Approximately 1% of the dose remained in the tissues at 24 hr. This study demonstrates that 1-naphthol is readily conjugated and rapidly eliminated in catfish. The dose dependency of kinetic values may have resulted from saturable tissue binding

  15. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  16. Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit. PMID:23776004

  17. Improved method for sectioning pectoral spines of catfish for age determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Marc A.; Hall, Glenda R.

    1990-01-01

    A modified low-speed saw provided fast and precise sectioning of catfish pectoral spines for use in aging studies. In one hour, 10–15 spines can be sectioned, the sections mounted, and the annuli counted.

  18. Radioactivity studies on farm raised and wild catfish produced in Mississippi, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the contribution of radiation dose to human from consumption of catfish, a comparative radiological assessment study was performed on farm and river raised fish. Gamma spectroscopic analyses of catfish indicated the presence of isotopes of 40K, 226Ra, and 228Ra with activity values of 99.4 ± 14.5, 0.41 ± 0.05, and 0.89 ± 0.08 Bq kg-1 respectively in farm catfish and 101 ± 15.7, 0.47 ± 0.05, and 0.97 ± 0.050 Bq kg-1 respectively in river catfish. The measured activities in two sets of samples were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test at 95 % confidence interval and results indicated that activities of 226Ra and 228Ra were significantly different. (author)

  19. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  20. The fry patterns in the South-American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The fry pattern of aquarium-bred species of the South-American catfish genus Corydoras, contribute to discriminate between species of the so-called ‘acutus’-group, showing a greyish adult colour pattern.

  1. Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Extraction Yield and Quality of Catfish Oil in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimsook Thitiphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave pretreatment of catfish processing waste on oil recovery and quality was investigated. Fish oil was extracted using the enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase enzyme after the microwave pretreatment. The effect of microwave power and microwave pretreatment times was evaluated. The results revealed that a highest yield of 9.25% when catfish waste was treated at 110 W for 60 s. This condition was found as the most appropriate condition of microwave pretreatment since it decreased the extraction time from 150 min to up to 30 min. Analysis of oil quality indices (e.g. acid value, p-anisidine value, peroxide value extracted by microwave pretreatment and non-pretreatment indicated that catfish oil from both processes has comparatively similar fatty acids composition. In addition, catfish oil was extracted by microwave pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis had lower lipid oxidation compared to several standards.

  2. Chronic pathology and longevity of Drepanocephalus spathans infections in juvenile channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drepanocephalus spathans (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is a common parasite of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The cercariae of D. spathans have been shown infective to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The developing metacercariae concentrate in the cranial regio...

  3. A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhlich, Ursula B; Chiappe, Luis M

    2006-03-16

    Small Late Jurassic theropod dinosaurs are rare worldwide. In Europe these carnivorous dinosaurs are represented primarily by only two skeletons of Compsognathus, neither of which is well preserved. Here we describe a small new theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Schamhaupten in southern Germany. Being exquisitely preserved and complete from the snout to the distal third of the tail, the new fossil is the best-preserved predatory, non-avian dinosaur in Europe. It possesses a suite of characters that support its identification as a basal coelurosaur. A cladistic analysis indicates that the new taxon is closer to maniraptorans than to tyrannosauroids, grouping it with taxa often considered to be compsognathids. Large portions of integument are preserved along its tail. The absence of feathers or feather-like structures in a fossil phylogenetically nested within feathered theropods indicates that the evolution of these integumentary structures might be more complex than previously thought.

  4. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  5. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Oki Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaeamphora longicervia H.Q.Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1 an innermost larval chamber with a distinctive outer wall; (2 an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3 an outermost zone of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the formerly reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G.Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation.

  6. Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William Oki; Dilcher, David Leonard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Sun, Ge; Fleischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Archaeamphora longicervia H. Q. Li was described as an herbaceous, Sarraceniaceae-like pitcher plant from the mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Here, a re-investigation of A. longicervia specimens from the Yixian Formation provides new insights into its identity and the morphology of pitcher plants claimed by Li. We demonstrate that putative pitchers of Archaeamphora are insect-induced leaf galls that consist of three components: (1) an innermost larval chamber; (2) an intermediate zone of nutritive tissue; and (3) an outermost wall of sclerenchyma. Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous, Sarraceniaceae-like angiosperm, but represents insect-galled leaves of the previously reported gymnosperm Liaoningocladus boii G. Sun et al. from the Yixian Formation. PMID:25999978

  7. An Asian Origin of Virulent Aeromonas hydrophila Responsible for Disease Epidemics in United States-Farmed Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Sun, Dawei; McGarey, Donald J.; Wrenn, Shannon; Alexander, Laura M.; Martino, Maria Elena; Xing, Ye; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2009, catfish farming in the southeastern United States has been severely impacted by a highly virulent and clonal population of Aeromonas hydrophila causing motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) in catfish. The possible origin of this newly emerged highly virulent A. hydrophila strain is unknown. In this study, we show using whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics that A. hydrophila isolates from diseased grass carp in China and catfish in the United States have highly si...

  8. Assessment, Development and Implementation of Training Materials for Food Defense/Safety, Biosecurity, and Traceability within the Catfish Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Anna F.; Williams, J. Byron; Crist, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research and subsequent training sessions was to assess food defense in the catfish industry, promote awareness and educate catfish farmers and processors on the principles of food defense, biosecurity and traceability of agricultural commodities and ingredients used in human food production. In the catfish processing chain, preliminary investigations have indicated that there are areas throughout production, processing and distribution that are susceptible to potential ...

  9. The impacts of non-tariff barriers on the export price of Vietnamese catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Khuu, Thi Phuong Dong

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study to identify the impacts of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on Vietnamese catfish export price in the international market. The time-series monthly data from 1999 to 2011 was used in our paper. Base on the demand and supply equilibrium theory, we constructed the function of Vietnamese catfish export price. The unit toot test results showed that our data was stationary at differenced level. Therefore, the econometric models, such as first-differenced model, Error correction mo...

  10. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    OpenAIRE

    Abernathy Jason; Xu Peng; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Ninwichian Parichart; Wang Shaolin; Jiang Yanliang; Liu Hong; Kucuktas Huseyin; Liu Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of...

  11. College Students' Opinions of U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Terrill R.; Rose, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A survey focusing on factors related to consumption of fish and seafood, including catfish, and targeted at college-aged students was developed and administered in conjunction with Auburn University's Earth Day dining promotion. Six hundred forty completed surveys were obtained over two days in April, 2012. Findings suggest that students had an overall positive opinion toward catfish, citing enjoyment of flavor (44 percent), better texture (38 percent), less expensive (43 percent), and greate...

  12. Whole genome comparative analysis of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) with four model fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanliang; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Hong; Sun, Fanyue; Bao, Lisui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to study evolution of genomes. It allows transfer of genome information from the well-studied model species to non-model species. Catfish is an economically important aquaculture species in United States. A large amount of genome resources have been developed from catfish including genetic linkage maps, physical maps, BAC end sequences (BES), integrated linkage and physical maps using BES-derived markers, physical map contig-specific sequences...

  13. Comparative analysis of catfish BAC end sequences with the zebrafish genome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Shaolin; Ninwichian, Parichart; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Xu, Peng(Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190, Beijing, China); Abernathy, Jason; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Comparative mapping is a powerful tool to transfer genomic information from sequenced genomes to closely related species for which whole genome sequence data are not yet available. However, such an approach is still very limited in catfish, the most important aquaculture species in the United States. This project was initiated to generate additional BAC end sequences and demonstrate their applications in comparative mapping in catfish. Results We reported the generation of 43,000 B...

  14. Distribution of catfishes in wetlands of two flood plain districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rajagopal; Davidar, P.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted on the distribution of catfishes in selected wetlands in Kancheepuram and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Different types of wetlands such as tanks, pools, lakes, open wells and estuaries were selected for the study based on their different environmental set up. Fishes were collected with the help of fishermen using cast and seine nets. Twelve species of catfishes from five families (Ariidae, Bagridae, Heteropneustidae, Schilbeidae and Siluridae) wer...

  15. Delivering the Goods: Lessons Learned from Direct Delivery of Kentucky Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Tropp, Debra; Clifton, Kimberly; McKenna, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    USDA initiated a pilot study in cooperation with KDA and PAAC that examined the marketing, transportation, and delivery strategies of the catfish processing cooperative. The information gathered should prove useful to many groups involved in this type of enterprise. The study had several emphases: • Describing the marketing channels, customers, and products used by the cooperative in selling catfish. • Describing the procedures and equipment used in PAAC’s direct delivery operation. • Examini...

  16. On-farm feed resources for catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phonekhampheng, Oudom

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to collected information African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production systems, and the chemical composition and nutritive value of potentially available feedstuffs. Moreover, the apparent digestibility (AD) of nutrient and amino acids (AA) in raw, sun-dried and ensiled Golden Apple snails (GAS) was evaluated, as well as the potential of GAS to replace fish meal in the diet for growing African catfish fingerlings. The farmers used traditional feedstuffs such as mai...

  17. Karyotype Analysis of the New Catfish Mystus ngasep (Siluriformes: Bagridae) from Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukham Sanjabihari; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; WAIKHOM, Gusheinzed

    2013-01-01

    Karyotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of catfish Mystus ngasep, a new species of bagrid catfish described from the Northeast India, Manipur was studied for the first time by examining 200 metaphase spreads chromosome from the kidney cells of 25 healthy specimens. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n=56 and the total fundamental arm number was determined as NF=90. The karyotype consisted of 12 Metacentric (m), 22 Submetacentric (Sm), 8 Subtelocentric (St) and 14 Teloce...

  18. Phylogeny and biogeography of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Ellison

    Full Text Available The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44-53 million years ago (Mya (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya. By 25-44 (HPD = 35 Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America. This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14-32 (HPD = 23 Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2-7, HPD = 4 Mya; the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation

  19. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.

  20. The channel catfish genome sequence provides insights into the evolution of scale formation in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Bao, Lisui; Zhang, Jiaren; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Sun, Luyang; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Zeng, Qifan; Fu, Qiang; Gao, Sen; Li, Ning; Koren, Sergey; Jiang, Yanliang; Zimin, Aleksey; Xu, Peng; Phillippy, Adam M; Geng, Xin; Song, Lin; Sun, Fanyue; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Chen, Ailu; Jin, Yulin; Yuan, Zihao; Yang, Yujia; Tan, Suxu; Peatman, Eric; Lu, Jianguo; Qin, Zhenkui; Dunham, Rex; Li, Zhaoxia; Sonstegard, Tad; Feng, Jianbin; Danzmann, Roy G; Schroeder, Steven; Scheffler, Brian; Duke, Mary V; Ballard, Linda; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Liu, Haixia; Armbruster, Jonathan; Xie, Yangjie; Kirby, Mona L; Tian, Yi; Flanagan, Mary Elizabeth; Mu, Weijie; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Catfish represent 12% of teleost or 6.3% of all vertebrate species, and are of enormous economic value. Here we report a high-quality reference genome sequence of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), the major aquaculture species in the US. The reference genome sequence was validated by genetic mapping of 54,000 SNPs, and annotated with 26,661 predicted protein-coding genes. Through comparative analysis of genomes and transcriptomes of scaled and scaleless fish and scale regeneration experiments, we address the genomic basis for the most striking physical characteristic of catfish, the evolutionary loss of scales and provide evidence that lack of secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins accounts for the evolutionary loss of scales in catfish. The channel catfish reference genome sequence, along with two additional genome sequences and transcriptomes of scaled catfishes, provide crucial resources for evolutionary and biological studies. This work also demonstrates the power of comparative subtraction of candidate genes for traits of structural significance. PMID:27249958

  1. Understanding patch departure rules for large carnivores: lion movements support a patch-disturbance hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeix, Marion; Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Loveridge, Andrew J; Davidson, Zeke; Hunt, Jane E; Madzikanda, Hillary; Macdonald, David W

    2011-08-01

    We test two hypotheses that could account for patch departure by large mammalian carnivores. One hypothesis is the unsuccessful-hunt hypothesis, where carnivores leave an area after an unsuccessful hunt but continue hunting in the same area after a successful hunt. The second hypothesis is the patch-disturbance hypothesis, where carnivores depart the area after a successful hunt because of behavioral responses of prey to predator presence. We used global positioning system collars to monitor the movements of African lions (Panthera leo) and identified their kill sites to distinguish between these two hypotheses. Lions moved to a different area (≥ 5 km away) after 87% of the kills, which supports the patch-disturbance hypothesis for patch-departure behavior of large mammalian carnivores.

  2. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.

    2006-01-01

    Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory persecution by pastoralists are worldwide conservation concerns. Poor understanding of the ecological and social underpinnings of this human¿wildlife conflict hampers effective conflict management programs. The endangered snow leopard Unc

  3. Infectivity of Canadian isolates of Trichinella spiralis nativa for swine, rats and carnivores.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis nativa isolates from widely separated geographic areas of Canada was determined by feeding infected musculature to swine, laboratory rats and carnivores (cats, foxes, ferrets). Low infectivity for swine and rats and high infectivity for carnivores were observed. Light infections were established in four of 16 swine examined between 25 and 53 days postinfection. Feeding of infected porcine musculature to ferrets demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis nat...

  4. Habitat Selection of a Large Carnivore along Human-Wildlife Boundaries in a Highly Modified Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Chihiro Takahata; Scott Eric Nielsen; Akiko Takii; Shigeyuki Izumiyama

    2014-01-01

    When large carnivores occupy peripheral human lands conflict with humans becomes inevitable, and the reduction of human-carnivore interactions must be the first consideration for those concerned with conflict mitigation. Studies designed to identify areas of high human-bear interaction are crucial for prioritizing management actions. Due to a surge in conflicts, against a background of social intolerance to wildlife and the prevalent use of lethal control throughout Japan, Asiatic black bears...

  5. Locomotor adaptations in Plio-Pleistocene large carnivores from the Italian Peninsula: Palaeoecological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo MELORO

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores are rarely considered for environmental reconstructions because they are extremely adaptable and their geographic range is usually large. However, the functional morphology of carnivore long bones can be indicative of locomotor behaviour as well as adaptation to specific kind of habitats. Here, different long bone ratios belonging to a subsample of extant large carnivores are used to infer palaeoecology of a comparative sample of Plio-Pleistocene fossils belonging to Italian paleo-communities. A multivariate long bone shape space reveals similarities between extant and fossil carnivores and multiple logistic regression models suggest that specific indices (the brachial and the Mt/F) can be applied to predict adaptations to grassland and tropical biomes. These functional indices exhibit also a phylogenetic signal to different degree. The brachial index is a significant predictor of adaptations to tropical biomes when phylogeny is taken into account, while Mt/F is not correlated anymore to habitat adaptations. However, the proportion of grassland-adapted carnivores in Italian paleo-communities exhibits a negative relationship with mean oxygen isotopic values, which are indicative of past climatic oscillations. As climate became more unstable during the Ice Ages, large carnivore guilds from the Italian peninsula were invaded by tropical/closed-adapted species. These species take advantage of the temperate forest cover that was more spread after 1.0 Ma than in the initial phase of the Quaternary (2.0 Ma) when the climate was more arid.

  6. Shrub encroachment affects mammalian carnivore abundance and species richness in semiarid rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaum, Niels; Rossmanith, Eva; Popp, Alexander; Jeltsch, Florian

    2007-01-01

    Shrub encroachment due to overgrazing has led to dramatic changes of savanna landscapes and is considered to be one of the most threatening forms of rangeland degradation e.g. via habitat fragmentation. Mammalian carnivores are particularly vulnerable to local extinction in fragmented landscapes. However, our understanding of how shrub encroachment affects mammalian carnivores is poor. Here we investigated the relative sensitivities of ten native carnivores to different levels of shrub cover ranging from low (25%) in 20 southern Kalahari rangeland sites. Relative abundance of carnivores was monitored along 40 sand transects (5 m × 250 m) for each site. Our results show that increasing shrub cover affects carnivore species differently. African wild cats, striped polecats, cape foxes and suricates were negatively affected, whereas we found hump-shaped responses for yellow mongooses, bat-eared foxes and small-spotted genets with maximum abundance at shrub covers between 10 and 18%. In contrast, black-backed jackals, slender mongooses and small spotted cats were not significantly affected by increasing shrub cover. However, a negative impact of high shrub cover above 18% was congruent for all species. We conclude that intermediate shrub cover (10-18%) in savanna landscapes sustain viable populations of small carnivores.

  7. Effect of stocking biomass on solids, phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and production parameters in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of initial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Rafinesque, 1818) fingerling biomass (1.4, 1.8, or 2.3 kg m-3) on phytoplankton communities, common off-flavors, and stocker catfish production parameters was evaluated in biofloc technology production tanks. Stocker catfish size (145.5 – 1...

  8. Assembly of 500,000 Inter-Specific Catfish Expressed Sequence Tags and Large Scale Gene-Associated Marker Development for Whole Genome Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpo...

  9. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  10. Physiological responses of Chinese longsnout catfish to water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of water temperature on the growth and physiology of the Chinese longsnout catfish ( Leiocassis longirostris Günther). The fish were reared at four temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and sampled on days 7, 20, and 30. We measured plasma levels of insulin, free thyroxine (FT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), lysozyme and leukocyte phagocytic activity. The optimum water temperature for growth was 27.7°C. The plasma levels of insulin and FT4 declined significantly ( P<0.05) on day 30 at temperatures above 20°C. Lysozyme activity was significantly ( P<0.05) lower at 25°C than at other temperatures. We conclude that final weight, insulin, FT4, and lysozyme were significantly affected by water temperature.

  11. Risk analysis of tractor overturns on catfish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Walter B; Ibendahl, Gregory A; Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2010-10-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries occur on catfish farms as a result of tractor overturns, but these injuries can be greatly mitigated when a tractor is equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS) and seatbelt. This study analyzed the proportion of tractors on catfish farms in Mississippi not equipped with ROPS and the cost of retrofitting those tractors with a ROPS and seatbelt as compared to the expected benefits gained from adding the protection. To determine if farmers have the financial incentive to retrofit older tractors, a net present value framework was used because the expected benefits occur over a number of years. The ROPS retrofit is a one-time cost that occurs immediately, and thus the present value does not need to be calculated, i.e., time period 0. According to this study adding ROPS will provide a net benefit of $22,877 in the event of an overturn. When dealing with small farms (tractor is used for approximately twice as many hours compared to an average tractor on large farms, the extra hours worked by a single tractor resulted in total benefits of retrofitting ROPS of $9.45 per year, whereas for large farms the net benefit is $4.70 (=125 acres). Given that the least expensive retrofit is $147, it would take 15.5 years of tractor use on the small farms for the expected benefits to outweigh the cost. Given the large range of costs that could occur due to an overturn, there could be a significant premium for not having ROPS protection. In other words, there likely is a smaller range of costs from an overturn with ROPS than without ROPS because ROPS reduces the more serious incidents. PMID:20954036

  12. Frugivory and seed dispersal by carnivorous mammals, and associated fruit characteristics, in undisturbed Mediterranean habitatsFrugivory and seed dispersal by carnivorous mammals, and associated fruit characteristics, in undisturbed Mediterranean habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of carnivorous mammals (Order Carnivora) in seed dispersal has remained virtually unexplored, despite the well-known fact that these animals commonly ingest fleshy fruits and defecate their seeds. This paper presents data on the dispersal of seeds by carnivores in an extensive area of relatively undisturbed habitats in south­ eastern Spain, and is based on the examination of more than 1,500 carnivore feces collected over a 10-yr period. Seeds from 27 plant ...

  13. Copper use and accumulation in catfish culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Helle; Løjmand, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Hai, Dao M; Holm, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture of Pangasius hypophthalmus (striped catfish) in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes in 2011 and catfish fillets are exported worldwide. The intensive cultures of catfish mainly in earth ponds have made it necessary to apply CuSO4 and other chemicals to control external parasites and other pathogens. However, accumulation of Cu in aquaculture ponds may pose a hazard to growth of fish or to the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine accumulation of Cu in sediment, water and fish in a catfish pond with a history of repeated treatment with CuSO4 in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Copper concentrations in pond sediment were in the interval 21.3-45.7 mg kg(-1) dw and did not exceed the Vietnamese values for soil to be used for agricultural production (70 mg kg(-1) dw.). During three samplings the total mean concentration of Cu in pond water (4 μg L(-1)) did not exceed the LC50-value (70 μg L(-1)) for catfish and the mean dissolved concentration of Cu (0.986 μg L(-1)) did not seem to constitute a risk for the stability of the aquatic ecosystem. No significant variation in Cu concentrations between sampling sites in the pond and depth of sediment profile were determined. The accumulation of Cu in catfish was highest in the liver compared to the skin, gills and muscle tissue. With the current practice of removing pond sludge three to four times during a production cycle little if any Cu seems to accumulate in catfish ponds despite repeated anti-parasite treatments with CuSO4. Further studies are needed to assess the eco-toxicity and impact on agricultural production when pond sediment is discharged into aquatic recipients and used as soil fertilizer.

  14. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  15. Locating human-wildlife interactions: landscape constructions and responses to large carnivore conservation in India and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sunetro Ghosal; Ketil Skogen; Siddhartha Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    People’s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landscapes ...

  16. The Holocene occurrence of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) in Belgium: the archaeozoological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Neer, W.; Ervynck, A.

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given of the skeletal remains of the European catfish Silurus glanis found thus far in Belgian archaeological sites. These finds demonstrate that the species is autochthonous and allow documenting its occurrence and disappearance during the Holocene in the Scheldt and Meuse basins. Possible causes for the local extinction of this catfish are discussed.

  17. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish. PMID:26747053

  18. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1991 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during ...

  19. Molecular and morphological characterization of myxozoan actinospore types from a commercial catfish pond in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The actinospore diversity of infected Dero digitata was surveyed (May, 2011) from a channel catfish production pond in the Mississippi Delta region for the elucidation of unknown myxozoan life cycles. Only two myxozoan life cycles have been molecularly confirmed in channel catfish (Ictalurus puncta...

  20. Feeding Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp. Does Not Improve Growth or Survival of Channel Catfish Experimentally Challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major problem in the channel catfish industry has been high disease loss to enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Feeding probiotics may prove beneficial in improving disease resistance. The first study examined the effects of a Lactobacillus probiotic (Flor...

  1. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  2. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  3. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  4. Tracking neighbours promotes the coexistence of large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Mattisson, Jenny; Persson, Jens; Aronsson, Malin; Andrén, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The study of competition and coexistence among similar interacting species has long been considered a cornerstone in evolutionary and community ecology. However, understanding coexistence remains a challenge. Using two similar and sympatric competing large carnivores, Eurasian lynx and wolverines, we tested the hypotheses that tracking among heterospecifics and reactive responses to potential risk decreases the probability of an agonistic encounter when predators access shared food resources, thus facilitating coexistence. Lynx and wolverines actively avoided each other, with the degree of avoidance being greater for simultaneous than time-delayed predator locations. Wolverines reacted to the presence of lynx at relatively short distances (mean: 383 m). In general, lynx stayed longer, and were more stationary, around reindeer carcasses than wolverines. However, when both predators were present at the same time around a carcass, lynx shortened their visits, while wolverine behavior did not change. Our results support the idea that risk avoidance is a reactive, rather than a predictive, process. Since wolverines have adapted to coexist with lynx, exploiting lynx-killed reindeer carcasses while avoiding potential encounters, the combined presence of both predators may reduce wolverine kill rate and thus the total impact of these predators on semi-domestic reindeer in Scandinavia. Consequently, population management directed at lynx may affect wolverine populations and human-wolverine conflicts. PMID:26979573

  5. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

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    Craig Packer

    Full Text Available Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities.

  6. Coproduction and ecological significance of naphthoquinones in carnivorous sundews (Drosera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Paul A; van der Kooy, Frank

    2012-06-01

    While the 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives 7-methyljuglone (1) and plumbagin (2) possess a diverse and well documented array of biological activities, relatively little remains known about the functional significance of these compounds in planta and, in particular, their possible relation to carnivorous syndromes. In addition, the chemotaxonomic distribution of naphthoquinones (NQs) amongst species of Drosera L. is of phytopharmaceutical interest. Following the quantitative assessment of interspecific variation of 1 and 2 in 13 species and cultivars of Drosera, our findings demonstrate that these NQs are ubiquitously coproduced in, generally, species-specific ratios, and that 1 appears negatively associated with the occurrence of pigmentation in sundews. The prospective antifeedant function of 1 was evaluated in relation to allocation in various organs and ontogenetic phases of D. capensis L., revealing that significantly higher levels were accumulated in young and reproductive organs, most likely for defensive purposes. Investigation into the relationship between the biosynthesis of NQs and carnivory showed that production of 1 is optimally induced and localized in leaves in response to capture of insect prey. As a whole, these findings reveal the clear importance of this secondary metabolite in ecological interactions as well as holding implication for future bioactivity studies on the genus. PMID:22700223

  7. Evidence for competition between carnivorous plants and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that competition between disparate taxa can be important in determining community structure, yet surprisingly, to our knowledge, no quantitative studies have been conducted on competition between carnivorous plants and animals. To examine potential competition between these taxa, we studied dietary and microhabitat overlap between pink sundews (Drosera capillaris) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) in the field, and conducted a laboratory experiment examining the effects of wolf spiders on sundew fitness. In the field, we found that sundews and spiders had a high dietary overlap with each other and with the available arthropod prey. Associations between sundews and spiders depended on spatial scale: both sundews and spiders were found more frequently in quadrats with more abundant prey, but within quadrats, spiders constructed larger webs and located them further away from sundews as the total sundew trapping area increased, presumably to reduce competition. Spiders also constructed larger webs when fewer prey were available. In the laboratory, our experiment revealed that spiders can significantly reduce sundew fitness. Our findings suggest that members of the plant and animal kingdoms can and do compete. PMID:20462904

  8. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  9. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem.

  10. The microbial Phyllogeography of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Margaret M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2011-05-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants host diverse microbial communities. This plant-microbe association provides a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary processes that influence the spatial diversity of microbial communities. Using next-generation sequencing of environmental samples, we surveyed microbial communities from 29 pitcher plants (Sarracenia alata) and compare community composition with plant genetic diversity in order to explore the influence of historical processes on the population structure of each lineage. Analyses reveal that there is a core S. alata microbiome, and that it is similar in composition to animal gut microfaunas. The spatial structure of community composition in S. alata (phyllogeography) is congruent at the deepest level with the dominant features of the landscape, including the Mississippi river and the discrete habitat boundaries that the plants occupy. Intriguingly, the microbial community structure reflects the phylogeographic structure of the host plant, suggesting that the phylogenetic structure of bacterial communities and population genetic structure of their host plant are influenced by similar historical processes. PMID:21431933

  11. Strategy of nitrogen acquisition and utilization by carnivorous Dionaea muscipula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jörg; Gao, Peng; Honsel, Anne; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Burzlaff, Tim; Alfarraj, Saleh; Hedrich, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    Plant carnivory represents an exceptional means to acquire N. Snap traps of Dionaea muscipula serve two functions, and provide both N and photosynthate. Using (13)C/(15)N-labelled insect powder, we performed feeding experiments with Dionaea plants that differed in physiological state and N status (spring vs. autumn plants). We measured the effects of (15)N uptake on light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), dark respiration (R(D)) and growth. Depending on N status, insect capture briefly altered the dynamics of R(D)/A(max), reflecting high energy demand during insect digestion and nutrient uptake, followed by enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Organic N acquired from insect prey was immediately redistributed, in order to support swift renewal of traps and thereby enhance probability of prey capture. Respiratory costs associated with permanent maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery were thereby minimized. Dionaea's strategy of N utilization is commensurate with the random capture of large prey, occasionally transferring a high load of organic nutrients to the plant. Our results suggest that physiological adaptations to unpredictable resource availability are essential for Dionaea's success with regards to a carnivorous life style. PMID:24141381

  12. Bats Are Acoustically Attracted to Mutualistic Carnivorous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöner, Michael G; Schöner, Caroline R; Simon, Ralph; Grafe, T Ulmar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ji, Liaw Lin; Kerth, Gerald

    2015-07-20

    Mutualisms between plants and animals shape the world's ecosystems. In such interactions, achieving contact with the partner species is imperative. Plants regularly advertise themselves with signals that specifically appeal to the partner's perceptual preferences. For example, many plants have acquired traits such as brightly colored, fragrant flowers that attract pollinators with visual, olfactory, or--in the case of a few bat-pollinated flowers--even acoustic stimuli in the form of echo-reflecting structures. However, acoustic attraction in plants is rare compared to other advertisements and has never been found outside the pollination context and only in the Neotropics. We hypothesized that this phenomenon is more widespread and more diverse as plant-bat interactions also occur in the Paleotropics. In Borneo, mutualistic bats fertilize a carnivorous pitcher plant while roosting in its pitchers. The pitcher's orifice features a prolonged concave structure, which we predicted to distinctively reflect the bats' echolocation calls for a wide range of angles. This structure should facilitate the location and identification of pitchers even within highly cluttered surroundings. Pitchers lacking this structure should be less attractive for the bats. Ensonifications of the pitchers around their orifice revealed that this structure indeed acts as a multidirectional ultrasound reflector. In behavioral experiments where bats were confronted with differently modified pitchers, the reflector's presence clearly facilitated the finding and identification of pitchers. These results suggest that plants have convergently acquired reflectors in the Paleotropics and the Neotropics to acoustically attract bats, albeit for completely different ecological reasons. PMID:26166777

  13. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication. PMID:24789140

  14. Morbillivirus infections, with special emphasis on morbilliviruses of carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T

    1999-09-01

    Morbilliviruses infections cause significant mortality in human beings and animals. Measles virus is responsible for up to two million childhood deaths annually in the developing world, while rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants cause severe epizootics in domestic and wild ruminants in areas of the world where they remain endemic. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a cause of fatal disease in many species of carnivores. Distemper is controlled by vaccination in domestic dogs and farmed mink, but it may be impossible to eradicate the virus because of its global distribution and wide variety of susceptible host species, which includes both freshwater and marine seals. Research is currently under way to develop new recombinant vaccines, since the currently available live attenuated vaccines for CDV are not safe for use for all species and many valuable zoo animals need to be protected from CDV. New morbilliviruses with potentially disastrous ecological consequences for marine mammals have been discovered in the past decade; phocid distemper virus (PDV) in seals and the cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) has been found in dolphins, whales and porpoises. Reverse transcription, coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) and nucleic acid sequencing, has been used to characterise the morbilliviruses and has given insights into the evolution of this virus genus. PMID:10515262

  15. Influence of fertilizing water pH on the hatching success of stripped channel catfish eggs on channel x blue hybrid catfish embryo production in hatcheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable egg quality is one of the most important constrains to the development of aquaculture. The quality of eggs that are manually stripped from channel catfish are affected by variation in parental genetics, maturity, type and dose of hormone, age and pre-spawning stress of female fish. Furthe...

  16. Spatial patterns of African ungulate aggregation reveal complex but limited risk effects from reintroduced carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Remington J; Killion, Alexander K; Montgomery, Robert A; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W

    2016-05-01

    The "landscape of fear" model, recently advanced in research on the non-lethal effects of carnivores on ungulates, predicts that prey will exhibit detectable antipredator behavior not only during risky times (i.e., predators in close proximity) but also in risky places (i.e., habitat where predators kill prey or tend to occur). Aggregation is an important antipredator response in numerous ungulate species, making it a useful metric to evaluate the strength and scope of the landscape of fear in a multi-carnivore, multi-ungulate system. We conducted ungulate surveys over a 2-year period in South Africa to test the influence of three broad-scale sources of variation in the landscape on spatial patterns in aggregation: (1) habitat structure, (2) where carnivores tended to occur (i.e., population-level utilization distributions), and (3) where carnivores tended to kill ungulate prey (i.e., probabilistic kill site maps). We analyzed spatial variation in aggregation for six ungulate species exposed to predation from recently reintroduced lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Although we did detect larger aggregations of ungulates in "risky places," these effects existed primarily for smaller-bodied (lion, an ambush (stalking) carnivore, had stronger influence on ungulate aggregation than the hyena, an active (coursing) carnivore. In addition, places where lions tended to kill prey had a greater effect on ungulate aggregation than places where lions tended to occur, but an opposing pattern existed for hyena. Our study reveals heterogeneity in the landscape of fear and suggests broad-scale risk effects following carnivore reintroduction only moderately influence ungulate aggregation size and vary considerably by predator hunting mode, type of predation risk, and prey species.

  17. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie E K Winterbach

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging large carnivores often range beyond the boundaries of protected areas into human-dominated areas. Mapping out potentially suitable habitats on a country-wide scale and identifying areas with potentially high levels of threats to large carnivore survival is necessary to develop national conservation action plans. We used a novel approach to map and identify these areas in Botswana for its large carnivore guild consisting of lion (Panthera leo, leopard (Panthera pardus, spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea, cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. The habitat suitability for large carnivores depends primarily on prey availability, interspecific competition, and conflict with humans. Prey availability is most likely the strongest natural determinant. We used the distribution of biomass of typical wild ungulate species occurring in Botswana which is preyed upon by the six large carnivores to evaluate the potential suitability of the different management zones in the country to sustain large carnivore populations. In areas where a high biomass of large prey species occurred, we assumed interspecific competition between dominant and subordinated competitors to be high. This reduced the suitability of these areas for conservation of subordinate competitors, and vice versa. We used the percentage of prey biomass of the total prey and livestock biomass to identify areas with potentially high levels of conflict in agricultural areas. High to medium biomass of large prey was mostly confined to conservation zones, while small prey biomass was more evenly spread across large parts of the country. This necessitates different conservation strategies for carnivores with a preference for large prey, and those that can persist in the agricultural areas. To ensure connectivity between populations inside Botswana and also with its neighbours, a number of critical areas for priority management actions exist

  18. Examining the prey mass of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous mammals: minimum, maximum and range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-01-01

    Predator-prey body mass relationships are a vital part of food webs across ecosystems and provide key information for predicting the susceptibility of carnivore populations to extinction. Despite this, there has been limited research on the minimum and maximum prey size of mammalian carnivores. Without information on large-scale patterns of prey mass, we limit our understanding of predation pressure, trophic cascades and susceptibility of carnivores to decreasing prey populations. The majority of studies that examine predator-prey body mass relationships focus on either a single or a subset of mammalian species, which limits the strength of our models as well as their broader application. We examine the relationship between predator body mass and the minimum, maximum and range of their prey's body mass across 108 mammalian carnivores, from weasels to baleen whales (Carnivora and Cetacea). We test whether mammals show a positive relationship between prey and predator body mass, as in reptiles and birds, as well as examine how environment (aquatic and terrestrial) and phylogenetic relatedness play a role in this relationship. We found that phylogenetic relatedness is a strong driver of predator-prey mass patterns in carnivorous mammals and accounts for a higher proportion of variance compared with the biological drivers of body mass and environment. We show a positive predator-prey body mass pattern for terrestrial mammals as found in reptiles and birds, but no relationship for aquatic mammals. Our results will benefit our understanding of trophic interactions, the susceptibility of carnivores to population declines and the role of carnivores within ecosystems. PMID:25162695

  19. Examining the prey mass of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous mammals: minimum, maximum and range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlee A Tucker

    Full Text Available Predator-prey body mass relationships are a vital part of food webs across ecosystems and provide key information for predicting the susceptibility of carnivore populations to extinction. Despite this, there has been limited research on the minimum and maximum prey size of mammalian carnivores. Without information on large-scale patterns of prey mass, we limit our understanding of predation pressure, trophic cascades and susceptibility of carnivores to decreasing prey populations. The majority of studies that examine predator-prey body mass relationships focus on either a single or a subset of mammalian species, which limits the strength of our models as well as their broader application. We examine the relationship between predator body mass and the minimum, maximum and range of their prey's body mass across 108 mammalian carnivores, from weasels to baleen whales (Carnivora and Cetacea. We test whether mammals show a positive relationship between prey and predator body mass, as in reptiles and birds, as well as examine how environment (aquatic and terrestrial and phylogenetic relatedness play a role in this relationship. We found that phylogenetic relatedness is a strong driver of predator-prey mass patterns in carnivorous mammals and accounts for a higher proportion of variance compared with the biological drivers of body mass and environment. We show a positive predator-prey body mass pattern for terrestrial mammals as found in reptiles and birds, but no relationship for aquatic mammals. Our results will benefit our understanding of trophic interactions, the susceptibility of carnivores to population declines and the role of carnivores within ecosystems.

  20. Structural and functional characteristics of S-like ribonucleases from carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Emi; Jumyo, Shinya; Arai, Naoki; Kanna, Kensuke; Kume, Marina; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Tanase, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although the S-like ribonucleases (RNases) share sequence homology with the S-RNases involved in the self-incompatibility mechanism in plants, they are not associated with this mechanism. They usually function in stress responses in non-carnivorous plants and in carnivory in carnivorous plants. In this study, we clarified the structures of the S-like RNases of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Nepenthes bicalcarata and Sarracenia leucophylla, and compared them with those of other plants. At ten positions, amino acid residues are conserved or almost conserved only for carnivorous plants (six in total). In contrast, two positions are specific to non-carnivorous plants. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S-like RNases of the carnivorous plants form a group beyond the phylogenetic relationships of the plants. We also prepared and characterized recombinant S-like RNases of Dionaea muscipula, Cephalotus follicularis, A. vesiculosa, N. bicalcarata and S. leucophylla, and RNS1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. The recombinant carnivorous plant enzymes showed optimum activities at about pH 4.0. Generally, poly(C) was digested less efficiently than poly(A), poly(I) and poly(U). The kinetic parameters of the recombinant D. muscipula enzyme (DM-I) and A. thaliana enzyme RNS1 were similar. The k cat/K m of recombinant RNS1 was the highest among the enzymes, followed closely by that of recombinant DM-I. On the other hand, the k cat/K m of the recombinant S. leucophylla enzyme was the lowest, and was ~1/30 of that for recombinant RNS1. The magnitudes of the k cat/K m values or k cat values for carnivorous plant S-like RNases seem to correlate negatively with the dependency on symbionts for prey digestion. PMID:24771022

  1. Detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using AR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davar Giveki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important usages of machine learning is diagnosis of diverse diseases. In thiswork, we introduces a diagnosis model based on Catfish binary particle swarm optimization(CatfishBPSO, kernelized support vector machines (KSVM and association rules (AR as our featureselection method to diagnose erythemato-squamous diseases. The proposed model consisted of two stages.In the first stage, AR is used to select the optimal feature subset from the original feature set. Next, basedon the fact that kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure significantly influences theclassification accuracy and CatfishBPSO is a promising tool for global searching, a CatfishBPSO basedapproach is employed for parameter determination of KSVM. Experimental results show that the proposedAR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM model achieves 99.09% classification accuracy using 24 features of theerythemato-squamous disease dataset which shows that our proposed method is more accurate comparedto other popular methods in this literature like Support vector machines and AR-MLP (association rules -multilayer perceptron. It should be mentioned that we took our dataset from University of CaliforniaIrvine machine learning database.

  2. Detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using AR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davar Giveki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important usages of machine learning is diagnosis of diverse diseases. In thiswork, we introduces a diagnosis model based on Catfish binary particle swarm optimization(CatfishBPSO, kernelized support vector machines (KSVM and association rules (AR as our featureselection method to diagnose erythemato-squamous diseases. The proposed model consisted of two stages.In the first stage, AR is used to select the optimal feature subset from the original feature set. Next, basedon the fact that kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure significantly influences theclassification accuracy and CatfishBPSO is a promising tool for global searching, a CatfishBPSO basedapproach is employed for parameter determination of KSVM. Experimental results show that the proposedAR-CatfishBPSO-KSVM model achieves 99.09% classification accuracy using 24 features of theerythemato-squamous disease dataset which shows that our proposed method is more accurate comparedto other popular methods in this literature like Support vector machines and AR-MLP (association rules -multilayer perceptron. It should be mentioned that we took our dataset from University of CaliforniaIrvine machine learning database.

  3. The efficacy of mass-marking channel catfish fingerlings by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been extensively used for marking a variety of fish species, but has never been successfully used to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Channel catfish fingerlings (~ 25 mm TL) obtained from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation at Byron Fish Hatchery were kept in Living Streams (791 to 1,018 L) equipped with recirculation units. Marking trials consisted of immersing channel catfish in one of three concentrations (250, 450, and 700 mg/L) OTC hydrochloride [HCl] for 6 hours. Samples of channel catfish were obtained from each group at 1-week and 4-week postimmersion. Lapilli otoliths and pectoral spines were removed to assess mark presence with an epi-fluorescent compound microscope. After one week, no marks were detected on pectoral spines for all treatments, mark detection on otoliths depended on concentration, but never exceeded 43% (700 mg/L). After four weeks, all otoliths and pectoral spines were determined marked for 700 mg/L OTC, 20% for fish immersed in 450 mg/L OTC, and 0% were marked after four weeks at the 250 mg/L OTC. Results show, channel catfish fingerlings can be successfully marked with immersion in OTC at 700 mg/L for at least 6 hours.

  4. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  5. Chemical and Microbiology Characteristic of Smoked and Seasoned African Catfish Fillet Affected by Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kalingga Murda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus many cultivated by the farmers, however if not treated quicklydamaged. One treatment that can maintain quality product african catfish is by smoked and canning. Theaim of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiological characteristics of smoked Africancatfish fillet with seasoning packaged cans during storage. Preparation of research carried out by soakingthe African catfish fillet into seasonings and liquid smoke concentration of 10% by immersion for 1minute, and then next process of curing and drying. Products that are ripe weighed 110 g and signedinto cans sized Ø 301x205. Added medium brine concentration 5% and vegetable oil as much as 100ml, a process exhausting and seaming. The last stage is performed a sterilization process (126oC for 20minutes, cooling and incubation (24oC for 2 weeks. Observations deterioration of product quality ofsmoked African catfish fillet with seasoning performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Tests conducted includechemical test which includes test TVB, pH and peroxide value and microbiological testing in the formof TPC. The results showed that the combined treatment of the fumigation and the addition of medium(saline 5% and solution of vegetable oil combined with treatment canning able to maintain productquality of smoked African catfish fillet with seasoning, based TVB, pH, peroxide value and TPC duringstorage.

  6. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Axel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squeaker catfishes (Pisces, Mochokidae, Synodontis are widely distributed throughout Africa and inhabit a biogeographic range similar to that of the exceptionally diverse cichlid fishes, including the three East African Great Lakes and their surrounding rivers. Since squeaker catfishes also prefer the same types of habitats as many of the cichlid species, we hypothesized that the East African Synodontis species provide an excellent model group for comparative evolutionary and phylogeographic analyses. Results Our analyses reveal the existence of six major lineages of Synodontis in East Africa that diversified about 20 MYA from a Central and/or West African ancestor. The six lineages show a clear geographic patterning. Two lineages are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (plus one non-endemic representative, and these are the only two Synodontis lineages that diversified further into a small array of species. One of these species is the cuckoo catfish (S. multipunctatus, a unique brood parasite of mouthbrooding haplochromine cichlids, which seems to have evolved in parallel with the radiation of its cichlid host lineage, the Tropheini. We also detect an accelerated rate of molecular evolution in S. multipunctatus, which might be the consequence of co-evolutionary dynamics. Conclusion We conclude that the ancestral lineage of today's East African squeaker catfish fauna has colonized the area before the Great Lakes have formed. This ancestor diversified rapidly into at least six lineages that inhabit lakes and rivers in East Africa. Lake Tanganyika is the only lake harboring a small species flock of squeaker catfishes.

  7. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  8. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Darnell

    Full Text Available Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and dominant lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta. Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  9. Fluorescence labelling of phosphatase activity in digestive glands of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, B J; Adamec, L; Lichtscheidl, I K; Peroutka, M; Adlassnig, W; Vrba, J

    2006-11-01

    A new ELF (enzyme labelled fluorescence) assay was applied to detect phosphatase activity in glandular structures of 47 carnivorous plant species, especially Lentibulariaceae, in order to understand their digestive activities. We address the following questions: (1) Are phosphatases produced by the plants and/or by inhabitants of the traps? (2) Which type of hairs/glands is involved in the production of phosphatases? (3) Is this phosphatase production a common feature among carnivorous plants or is it restricted to evolutionarily advanced species? Our results showed activity of the phosphatases in glandular structures of the majority of the plants tested, both from the greenhouse and from sterile culture. In addition, extracellular phosphatases can also be produced by trap inhabitants. In Utricularia, activity of phosphatase was detected in internal glands of 27 species from both primitive and advanced sections and different ecological groups. Further positive reactions were found in Genlisea, Pinguicula, Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Nepenthes, and Cephalotus. In Utricularia and Genlisea, enzymatic secretion was independent of stimulation by prey. Byblis and Roridula are usually considered as "proto-carnivores", lacking digestive enzymes. However, we found high activity of phosphatases in both species. Thus, they should be classified as true carnivores. We suggest that the inflorescence of Byblis and some Pinguicula species might also be an additional "carnivorous organ", which can trap a prey, digest it, and finally absorb available nutrients. PMID:16865659

  10. Does litter size variation affect models of terrestrial carnivore extinction risk and management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor S Devenish-Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variation in both survival and reproduction has the potential to influence extinction risk. Especially for rare or threatened species, reliable population models should adequately incorporate demographic uncertainty. Here, we focus on an important form of demographic stochasticity: variation in litter sizes. We use terrestrial carnivores as an example taxon, as they are frequently threatened or of economic importance. Since data on intraspecific litter size variation are often sparse, it is unclear what probability distribution should be used to describe the pattern of litter size variation for multiparous carnivores. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used litter size data on 32 terrestrial carnivore species to test the fit of 12 probability distributions. The influence of these distributions on quasi-extinction probabilities and the probability of successful disease control was then examined for three canid species - the island fox Urocyon littoralis, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Best fitting probability distributions differed among the carnivores examined. However, the discretised normal distribution provided the best fit for the majority of species, because variation among litter-sizes was often small. Importantly, however, the outcomes of demographic models were generally robust to the distribution used. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide reassurance for those using demographic modelling for the management of less studied carnivores in which litter size variation is estimated using data from species with similar reproductive attributes.

  11. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. PMID:20345402

  12. Assembly of 500,000 inter-specific catfish expressed sequence tags and large scale gene-associated marker development for whole genome association studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catfish Genome Consortium; Wang, Shaolin; Peatman, Eric; Abernathy, Jason; Waldbieser, Geoff; Lindquist, Erika; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan; Wang, Mei; Li, Ping; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Vullaganti, Deepika; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Murdock, Christopher; Small, Brian C; Wilson, Melanie; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Yanliang; Lee, Yoona; Chen, Fei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqi; Xu, Peng; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Baoprasertkul, Puttharat; Quilang, Jonas; Sha, Zhenxia; Bao, Baolong; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Qun; Takano, Tomokazu; Nandi, Samiran; Liu, Shikai; Wong, Lilian; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Quiniou, Sylvie; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman; Trant, John; Rokhsar, Daniel; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2010-03-23

    Background-Through the Community Sequencing Program, a catfish EST sequencing project was carried out through a collaboration between the catfish research community and the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. Prior to this project, only a limited EST resource from catfish was available for the purpose of SNP identification. Results-A total of 438,321 quality ESTs were generated from 8 channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and 4 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) libraries, bringing the number of catfish ESTs to nearly 500,000. Assembly of all catfish ESTs resulted in 45,306 contigs and 66,272 singletons. Over 35percent of the unique sequences had significant similarities to known genes, allowing the identification of 14,776 unique genes in catfish. Over 300,000 putative SNPs have been identified, of which approximately 48,000 are high-quality SNPs identified from contigs with at least four sequences and the minor allele presence of at least two sequences in the contig. The EST resource should be valuable for identification of microsatellites, genome annotation, large-scale expression analysis, and comparative genome analysis. Conclusions-This project generated a large EST resource for catfish that captured the majority of the catfish transcriptome. The parallel analysis of ESTs from two closely related Ictalurid catfishes should also provide powerful means for the evaluation of ancient and recent gene duplications, and for the development of high-density microarrays in catfish. The inter- and intra-specific SNPs identified from all catfish EST dataset assembly will greatly benefit the catfish introgression breeding program and whole genome association studies.

  13. Biomarker assessment of the effects of coal strip-mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes how a suite of biomarkers was used to evaluate acute (1-day) to semichronic (3-month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, lctalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, haematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were used to evaluate the importance of exposure routes: one excluding contact with the sediments and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed to both exposure regimens, but evidence of DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. The transient changes in biomarkers followed by a return to reference values represented an initial stress and an acclimation to normal levels

  14. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  15. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Văn Quân

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engine in area will reduce the HC, CO, SOx and NOx emission to the environment. Therefore, with a study on applying the catfish biofuel, it will reduce the climate change by the increasing of sea water level and save energy by using green energy to replace petrol oil.

  16. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Peter D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion, which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Results Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Conclusions Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration.

  17. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Gaume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  18. Effects of different heat treatments on lipid quality of striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Domiszewski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. As a result of consumer acceptance and low price production, sales of striped catfish fillets continue to grow. Striped catfish fillets, due to their white meat and lack of fish scent, can be an alternative to fish such as cod or hake. The paper analysed the influence of four different kinds of heat treatment: boiling with and without the addition of salt, frying, microwave cooking, microwave cooking without water on the composition of fatty acids and the lipid oxidation and hydrolysis level of striped catfish fillets. Material and methods. Assays were performed on striped catfish fillets (Pangasius hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878, which were bought from local supermarket. Fillets one year before expiration date were assayed. Quality of fish lipids was determined by an analysis of the following factors: peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AsV, TOTOX value, conjugated dienes (CD, acid value (AV, along with an analysis of the composition of fatty acid (FA via gas chromatography. Results. It was shown that conventional cooking and microwave cooking of striped catfish fillets results in an approximately 10% change in the amount of PUFA, including EPA and DHA, whereas the percentages of SFA and MUFA remain unchanged. The amount of the sum of EPA and DHA in 100 g of raw fillet was 16.5 mg, whereas after conventional cooking, microwave cooking and frying the sum of EPA and DHA was respectively: 12, 22 and 23 mg. It was observed that conventional cooking causes an average 10% loss of fat, a change not observed in case of microwave cooking. In spite of a substantial influence of heat treatment on the amount of both primary and secondary oxidation products, striped catfish lipids maintained good quality after the treatment – PV of every sample was below 3 meq O2/kg lipids, and AsV below 1.5. The addition of salt during boiling caused a 16-fold increase in the amount of peroxides and a fourfold increase in the amount of secondary oxidation

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Sperata seenghala (Sykes, 1839) (Siluriformes, Bagridae) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and red listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,588 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.28% A, 27.80% C, 15.31% G, and 25.57% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of catfish, Sperata seenghala provides the fundamental tools for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:24617486

  20. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  1. THE PRESENCE OF FLUOROQUINOLONES AS ANTIBIOTIC ON CATFISH : A RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Titik Budiati

    2010-01-01

    Catfish is a one of freshwater fish which has good nutrition for human but it can be contaminated by antibiotic such as fluoroquinolones. In risk assessment , the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of fluoroquinolones was considered to be 0.0080 g/kg/day and acceptable daily intake (ADI) for fluoroquinolone is 0.15 μg/kg/day on the basis body weight. There are no reports of toxicity in man or animals from the consumption of fluoroquionolones in catfish and the levels of fluoroquinolones...

  2. Influence of Wind Vector Structure Variation of Typhoon "Catfish" Circulation on Its Pathway Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the wind vector structure variation of No.1013 strong typhoon "catfish",and its influence on typhoon pathway mutation.[Method] According to the theory that the asymmetric structure of typhoon vortex had influence on typhoon movement,the center of No.1013 super typhoon "catfish" was as the coordinate origin,and 850,500 hPa tangential rotation speeds within 300-500 km were decomposed into u and v components.The composite force movement tendency of typhoon was analyzed.T...

  3. A Study on applying the Catfish Biofuel in The Mekong Delta for The Marine Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Văn Quân; Ho Trung Phuoc

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing of Catfish products has been developed rapidly in the Mekong delta. Every year, about 1.2 million tons of Catfish and 150,000 tons of biofuel are produced. The biofuel B100 manufactures in Mekong delta satisfies the America standard ASTM D6751; EURO EN 14214 or Vietnamese standard TCVN 7717. Mekong delta, a lower land area, has a large inland water way system with around 100.000 river boats that operate with marine diesel engine. Using the biofuel for the marine diesel engin...

  4. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  5. Carnivore use of avocado orchards across an agricultural-wildland gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Nogeire

    Full Text Available Wide-ranging species cannot persist in reserves alone. Consequently, there is growing interest in the conservation value of agricultural lands that separate or buffer natural areas. The value of agricultural lands for wildlife habitat and connectivity varies as a function of the crop type and landscape context, and quantifying these differences will improve our ability to manage these lands more effectively for animals. In southern California, many species are present in avocado orchards, including mammalian carnivores. We examined occupancy of avocado orchards by mammalian carnivores across agricultural-wildland gradients in southern California with motion-activated cameras. More carnivore species were detected with cameras in orchards than in wildland sites, and for bobcats and gray foxes, orchards were associated with higher occupancy rates. Our results demonstrate that agricultural lands have potential to contribute to conservation by providing habitat or facilitating landscape connectivity.

  6. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  7. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Adam R; Steinworth, Bailey M; Hale, Melina E

    2016-02-10

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  8. Morphology of the gas bladder in bumblebee catfishes (Siluriformes, Pseudopimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birindelli, José L O; Shibatta, Oscar A

    2011-07-01

    The gross morphology of the gas bladder is described and compared for representatives of all valid genera of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes). Cephalosilurus albomarginatus and species of Batrochoglanis, and Microglanis have the most basic form: a large, cordiform gas bladder with a simple internal T-shaped septum. Cephalosilurus apurensis, C. fowleri, and C. nigricauda also have a large, cordiform gas bladder, but they have well-developed trabeculae associated with the internal T-shaped septum, and a pair of well-developed constrictor muscles inserted on the external wall; the latter feature is present in most species of Pimelodidae, but absent in all other catfishes. The monotypic Lophiosilurus alexandri also has well-developed constrictor muscles, and its gas bladder is moderately sized. The species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis have a diminutive gas bladder partially divided into two lateral sacs without internal communication, and lack constrictor muscles. The parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is a wide and long shelf connected to the dorsal surface of the gas bladder in most pseudopimelodid genera. However, in the species of Pseudopimelodus and Cruciglanis the parapophysis of the fourth vertebra is shorter and has its anterior ramus folded back, partially covering the gas bladder anteroventrally; and the tympanic opening is smaller than in species of the other genera. Five phylogenetic characters are proposed based on the morphology of the gas bladder and associated structures in species of Pseudopimelodidae, and the evolution of those characters in the family is discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21538478

  9. Within-population isotopic niche variability in savanna mammals: disparity between carnivores and herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl eCodron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Large mammal ecosystems have relatively simple food webs, usually comprising three – and sometimes only two – trophic links. Since many syntopic species from the same trophic level therefore share resources, dietary niche partitioning features prominently within these systems. In African and other subtropical savannas, stable carbon isotopes readily distinguish between herbivore species for which foliage and other parts of dicot plants (13C-depleted C3 vegetation are the primary resource (browsers and those for which grasses (13C-enriched C4 vegetation are staples (grazers. Similarly, carbon isotopes distinguish between carnivore diets that may be richer in either browser, grazer, or intermediate-feeding prey. Here, we investigate levels of carbon and nitrogen isotopic niche variation and niche partitioning within populations (or species of carnivores and herbivores from South African savannas. We emphasize predictable differences in within-population trends across trophic levels: we expect that herbivore populations, which require more foraging effort due to higher intake requirements, are far less likely to display within-population resource partitioning than carnivore populations. Our results reveal generally narrower isotopic niche breadths in herbivore than carnivore populations, but more importantly we find lower levels of isotopic differentiation across individuals within herbivore species. While these results offer some support for our general hypothesis, the current paucity of isotopic data for African carnivores limits our ability to test the complete set of predictions arising from our hypothesis. Nevertheless, given the different ecological and ecophysiological constraints to foraging behaviour within each trophic level, comparisons across carnivores and herbivores, which are possible within such simplified foodwebs, make these systems ideal for developing a process-based understanding of conditions underlying the evolution of

  10. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Sugiyama

    Full Text Available From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550, one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24 and felids (n = 29.

  11. Patterns of Livestock Predation by Carnivores: Human-Wildlife Conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyou; Buzzard, Paul; Chen, Yongchun; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Alleviating human-carnivore conflict is central to large carnivore conservation and is often of economic importance, where people coexist with carnivores. In this article, we report on the patterns of predation and economic losses from wild carnivores preying on livestock in three villages of northern Baima Xueshan Nature Reserve, northwest Yunnan during a 2-year period between January 2010 and December 2011. We analyzed claims from 149 households that 258 head of livestock were predated. Wolves ( Canis lupus) were responsible for 79.1 % of livestock predation; Asiatic black bears ( Selenarctos thibetanus) and dholes ( Cuon alpinus) were the other predators responsible. Predation frequency varied between livestock species. The majority of livestock killed were yak-cattle hybrids or dzo (40.3 %). Wolves killed fewer cattle than expected, and more donkeys and horses than expected. Wolves and bears killed more adult female and fewer adult male livestock than expected. Intensified predation in wet season coincided with livestock being left to graze unattended in alpine meadows far away from villages. On average, carnivore attacks claimed 2.1 % of range stock annually. This predation represented an economic loss of 17 % (SD = 14 %) of the annual household income. Despite this loss and a perceived increase in carnivore conflict, a majority of the herders (66 %) still supported the reserve. This support is primarily due to the benefits from the collection of nontimber resources such as mushrooms and medicinal plants. Our study also suggested that improvement of husbandry techniques and facilities will reduce conflicts and contribute to improved conservation of these threatened predators.

  12. Study on Elimination of Oxytetracycline in Muscle of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco%土霉素在黄颡鱼肌肉组织中残留消除规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁娟; 李汝琴; 彭小云; 刘红; 陈孝煊; 吴志新

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the elimination of Oxytetracycline in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco muscle. At 25℃water temperature, following oral administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg of OTC per day for 5 days, the fish were sampled at certain time, and the concentration were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average recovery rate of OTC in P. fulvidraco muscle was 80.2%, and the limit of detection was 0.05 µg/g. The results revealed that the elimination of OTC from muscle of P. fulvidraco was very slow, the withdrawal period of OTC in the muscle of P. fulvidraco was 46 days until the concentration of OTC reducing to 0.1 µg/g under there experiment conditions.%为研究土霉素在黄颡鱼肌肉组织中残留消除规律。在水温25℃条件下,以每天100 mg/kg 的剂量,连续5天口灌土霉素后定时取样,采用高效液相色谱法检测。结果显示:黄颡鱼肌肉组织中土霉素的平均回收率为80.2%,方法检出限为0.05µg/g。研究结果表明:土霉素在黄颡鱼肌肉组织中消除缓慢,其含量降到0.1µg/g的休药期为46天。

  13. Locating Human-Wildlife Interactions: Landscape Constructions and Responses to Large Carnivore Conservation in India and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunetro Ghosal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People′s reactions to large carnivores take many forms, ranging from support and coexistence to resistance and conflict. While these reactions are the outcome of many different factors, in this paper we specifically explore the link between social constructions of landscapes and divergent responses to large carnivore presence. We compare case studies from four different landscapes shared by people and large carnivores, in India and Norway. We use social construction of landscapes as a key concept to explore responses to large carnivores in the context of ecological, economic, social, and cultural changes in these areas. Based on this comparison, we argue that the process of change is complex, with a plurality of responses from the groups affected by it. The response to large carnivore presence is influenced by many different factors, of which the interpretation of change-particularly landscape change-plays a significant role.

  14. Hierarchical multi-species modeling of carnivore responses to hunting, habitat and prey in a West African protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cole Burton

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs are a cornerstone of global efforts to shield wildlife from anthropogenic impacts, yet their effectiveness at protecting wide-ranging species prone to human conflict--notably mammalian carnivores--is increasingly in question. An understanding of carnivore responses to human-induced and natural changes in and around PAs is critical not only to the conservation of threatened carnivore populations, but also to the effective protection of ecosystems in which they play key functional roles. However, an important challenge to assessing carnivore communities is the often infrequent and imperfect nature of survey detections. We applied a novel hierarchical multi-species occupancy model that accounted for detectability and spatial autocorrelation to data from 224 camera trap stations (sampled between October 2006 and January 2009 in order to test hypotheses about extrinsic influences on carnivore community dynamics in a West African protected area (Mole National Park, Ghana. We developed spatially explicit indices of illegal hunting activity, law enforcement patrol effort, prey biomass, and habitat productivity across the park, and used a Bayesian model selection framework to identify predictors of site occurrence for individual species and the entire carnivore community. Contrary to our expectation, hunting pressure and edge proximity did not have consistent, negative effects on occurrence across the nine carnivore species detected. Occurrence patterns for most species were positively associated with small prey biomass, and several species had either positive or negative associations with riverine forest (but not with other habitat descriptors. Influences of sampling design on carnivore detectability were also identified and addressed within our modeling framework (e.g., road and observer effects, and the multi-species approach facilitated inference on even the rarest carnivore species in the park. Our study provides insight for the

  15. Dietary breadth and trophic position of introduced European catfish Silurus glanis in the River Tarn (Garonne River basin), southwest France

    OpenAIRE

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Crivelli, Alain Jean; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Although being a widely introduced and successfully established species, the European catfish Silurus glanis L. (the world’s third largest freshwater fish) remains poorly studied in its introduced areas. Here we studied the trophic ecology of non-native European catfish in a large river system in south-western France using stomach content and stable isotope analyses (SIA). We used fin samples for SIA of catfish and hence tested the validity of using fin tissue as a proxy for muscle in SIA. Th...

  16. Evaluation of catfish by-products as protein sources for pigs in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preservation methods of catfish by-products (CBP), and the effects of replacing marine fish meal (FM) with these processing byproducts on diet digestibility, performance, feed efficiency and carcass quality in growing-finishing pigs. Paper I presents data on catfish production, processing and the nutritive value of catfish by-product meals (CBM) in the Mekong Delta (MD) of Vietnam. In Paper II, CBP silage made with 20-40% addition of sugar cane molasses (...

  17. Threadfin shad impacts phytoplankton and zooplankton community structures in channel catfish ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankton community structure and chlorophyll a concentration were compared in 12 0.1-ha earthen ponds co-stocked with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) in multiple-batch culture (initial biomass = 5,458 kg ha-1) and a planktivore, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense Güther, 1867;...

  18. Overcoming inconsistencies in mortality rates during winter experimental challenges of channel catfish with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the goals of the ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit is to incorporate disease resistance to ESC, caused by the bacterium, Edwardsiella ictaluri, into our selective breeding program. Through repeated experiments we have determined an optimal challenge dose of E. ictaluri that produces 50-70% ...

  19. Utilization of laserpuncture induction as spawning stimulation in catfish (Clarias spp. crossbreeding toward egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky S.W. Kusuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The induction of laserpuncture on the reproductive acupoint of catfish can accelerate gonadotropin hormone formation from the pituitary especially gonadotropin II (GTH-II which has a role in the final stage of oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning stimulation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of laserpuncture induction toward the egg quality from crossbreeding catfish male var. Paiton and female var. Sangkuriang. The egg quality was measured by the following parameters: fertilization rate (FR, egg hatching rate (HR, and larvae survival rate (SR. The research treatments were conducted using two levels along with eight repetitions. The results show that the crossbreed catfish using laserpuncture induction affected the parameters by increasing the mean value of fertilization rate, egg hatching rate and larvae survival rate significantly (P < 0.05 compared with mean value of fish without induction. This study concluded that laserpuncture induction on the crossbreeding between broodstock of male catfish var. Paiton and female var. Sangkuriang will increase FR, HR and SR.

  20. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2016-04-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  1. Prevalence of veterinary drug residues and heavy metals in catfish nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seafood, including catfish, can sometimes become contaminated with chemicals and heavy metals at levels which would harm human health. Seafood safety has been increasing concerns to the consumers in the United States and limited availability of domestic fresh products in retail stores have been rais...

  2. Global transcription analysis of vaccinated channel catfish following challenge with virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the identities of genes involved in either innate or adaptive immunity, microarray analysis of 65,182 UniGene transcripts were performed to compare gene expression in vaccinated channel catfish after challenge with a virulent Edwardsiella ictaluri compared to that in sham-vaccinated fis...

  3. In-pond raceway systems and catfish disease related cases in west Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production systems such as in-pond raceway systems (IPRS) and split-pond production systems are providing an alternative to traditional pond culture for raising catfish. Currently, there are over 1,300 water acres of production in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Alabama utilizing split-pond production sy...

  4. Plutonium-237: comparative uptake in chelated and non-chelated form by channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation can either enhance or reduce the uptake of ingested plutonium relative to PuOH (monomer) in channel catfish. Reduced uptake of 237Pu-fulvate is due either to the molecular weight of the complex or its stability in metabolic systems. Increased uptake of 237Pu-citrate is attributable to instability of the complex in metabolic systems. (author)

  5. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODELING OF THREE WATERBORNE CHLOROETHANES IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for fish was used to describe the uptake and disposition of three chlorinated ethanes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). atfish were simultaneously exposed to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachlo...

  6. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND CHLOROETHANE GILL FLUX IN THE CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALRUS PUNCTATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fish respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain in ivo respiratory-cardiovascular and chloroethane gill flux data on transected channel catfish (Ictalrus punctatus). ethods used for spinal transection, attachment of an oral membrane (respiratory mask), placement and att...

  7. Biomarker assessment of the effects of strip mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suite of biomarkers were used to evaluate acute (1 day) to semi-chronic (3 month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, hematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were utilized to evaluate the importance of exposure routes; one allowing exclusive contact with the water column and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed in both regimes, but DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. Transient increases in hemoglobin, ALAD, and hematocrit levels were observed at 1 month for both exposure regimes, followed by a return to control levels for the duration of the study. Environmental conditions (i.e., changes in water quality and temperature) may have contributed to the variable plasma chloride and glucose levels observed in all catfish exposed to strip mine wastes. Further analysis of the data with non-metric clustering techniques and correlations with tissue metal residues may yield more insights into causal relationships

  8. Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in catfish from U.S. commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), amended the Federal Meat Inspection Act to provide that "catfish, as defined by the Secretary," is an amenable species and therefore subject to continuous inspection by the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service. Since few background data are ...

  9. Economic feasibility of an in-pond raceway system for commercial catfish production in west Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endeavor of this project was to improve profitability of catfish farming by demonstrating methods to achieve high levels of survival, feed performance, and efficiency in a commercial farm setting. A commercial-scale, in-pond raceway system was constructed in 2007 in a 6.0 ac earthen pond on a ca...

  10. Molecular responses of ceruloplasmin to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection and iron overload in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruloplasmin is a serum ferroxidase that carries more than 90% of the copper in plasma and has documented roles in iron homeostasis as well as antioxidative functions. In our previous studies, it has been shown that the ceruloplasmin gene is strongly up-regulated in catfish during challenge with Ed...

  11. Commercial catfish pond water color and fish-eating birds: What is the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to test and predict fish-eating bird use and avoidance at catfish production ponds during 2 winters in Arkansas. We measured (1) physical (size, length, width, depth, surface condition, secchi depth), (2) biological (fish size and stocking density, algal species composition ...

  12. Acute toxicity and histopathology of channel catfish fry exposed to peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry were exposed to peracetic acid (PAA) for 48h in static toxicity bioassays at 23C. The test water was 217 and 126 mg/L (as CaCO3) total alkalinity and total hardness, respectively. Probit LC50 values were estimated with the trimmed Sp...

  13. Single intravenous and oral dose pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma distribution and elimination of florfenicol in channel catfish were investigated after a single dose (10mg/kg) of intravenous i.v.) or oral administration in freshwater at a mean water temperature of 25.4°C. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography...

  14. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, chemokine receptor CXCR4 cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this communication, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript....

  15. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  16. Oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in split ponds vs. conventional catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Split Pond aquaculture system (SP) has captured the attention of catfish producers across the southern U.S. The SP represents a lower cost adaptation of Clemson University’s Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS). The original PAS design relied on slowly rotating paddlewheels to move water throu...

  17. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2001-09-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  18. Changes in health beneficial components during ice storage of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.; Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Maehre, H.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ice-storage is the most common method of preserving fresh fish. The aim of this work was to study whether ice storage had an effect on contents at selenium, taurine and fatty acid composition in farmed African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Gutted fish (n = 40) were stored in melting ice for 21 days,

  19. Functioning of catfish electroreceptors: Influence of calcium and sodium concentration on the skin potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, V.J.A.; Bretschneider, F.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. The skin potential of catfish was measured in order to test the hypothesis that it controls electroreceptor sensitivity. 2. 2. The skin potential depends on the “milieu extérieur” in the same way as reported lor goldfish (Fig. 2). 3. 3. The variation of the skin potential is very large compa

  20. Isolation and immunohistochemical identification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from the tissue of catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vinay; Prasad, Yogendra

    2014-03-01

    This study deals with the identification of bacteria in paraffin embedded tissue of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus experimentally infected with F. psychrophilum to ascertain it's precise role in the occurrence and state of carrier stage of coldwater disease in asymptomatic fishes. Significant (P fish pathogenic bacteria in carrier fish where mortality occurs without explicit clinical signs of disease. PMID:24665767

  1. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  2. Susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish to parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the susceptibility of 3 blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) strains (D&B, USDA 101 and USDA 102) to the parasite Ichthyopthirius multifiliis (Ich). In Trial I, a cohabitation study (all strains stocked communally) was conducted and fish were exposed to theronts at 0, 200, 1000, 5,...

  3. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  4. Impact of weather on off-flavor episodes at a Louisiana commercial catfish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catfish aquaculture industry is hampered by off-flavor events that affect timely sale and pond restocking. In this study, weather data was correlated with geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol levels in 21 commercial ponds. Samples were collected weekly for 44 weeks. The off-flavor compounds, geosmi...

  5. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using quantitative PCR technique, the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes [NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin D, hepcidin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 ...

  6. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  7. Effects of co-stocking smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, with channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in catfish is caused by the myxozoan Henneguya ictaluri. The complex life cycle requires Dero digitata as the oligochaete host. Efforts to control PGD by eradicating D. digitata have been unsuccessful. Smallmouth buffalo, Ictiobus bubalus, (SMB) are opportunistic bot...

  8. Sex Genotype and Sex Phenotype Contribute to Growth Differences Between Male and Female Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish have an XX:XY genotypic system of sex determination, and until the present study, the influence of sex genotype on growth could not be distinguished from sex phenotype. Genotypic male fish (XY) were produced by mating normal (XX) female fish with YY male fish. A subsample from eac...

  9. Complement regulatory protein genes in channel catfish and their involvement in disease defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yun; Song, Lin; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiaozhu; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-11-01

    Complement system is one of the most important defense systems of innate immunity, which plays a crucial role in disease defense responses in channel catfish. However, inappropriate and excessive complement activation could lead to potential damage to the host cells. Therefore the complement system is controlled by a set of complement regulatory proteins to allow normal defensive functions, but prevent hazardous complement activation to host tissues. In this study, we identified nine complement regulatory protein genes from the channel catfish genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their orthology relationships, supporting their correct annotation and potential functional inferences. The expression profiles of the complement regulatory protein genes were determined in channel catfish healthy tissues and after infection with the two main bacterial pathogens, Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare. The vast majority of complement regulatory protein genes were significantly regulated after bacterial infections, but interestingly were generally up-regulated after E. ictaluri infection while mostly down-regulated after F. columnare infection, suggesting a pathogen-specific pattern of regulation. Collectively, these findings suggested that complement regulatory protein genes may play complex roles in the host immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth hormone from Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Anathy; Thayanithy Venugopal; Ramanathan Koteeswaran; Thavamani J Pandian; Sinnakaruppan Mathavan

    2013-03-01

    A tissue-specific cDNA library was constructed using polyA+ RNA from pituitary glands of the Indian catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and a cDNA clone encoding growth hormone (GH) was isolated. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA clone is 1132 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF) of 603 bp; the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of the cDNA are 58 bp and 456 bp long, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of H. fossils GH shared 98% homology with other catfishes. Mature GH protein was efficiently expressed in bacterial and zebrafish systems using appropriate expression vectors. The successful expression of the cloned GH cDNA of catfish confirms the functional viability of the clone.

  11. Effect of chronic, nightly hypoxia on growth and yield of channel x blue hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance traits and metabolic responses of the channel x blue hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus female, Jubilee strain x I. furcatus male, D&B strain) in response to chronic nightly hypoxia were evaluated in this 197-d study. Sixteen 0.25-acre earthen ponds were stocked with 6,141 hybrid catfis...

  12. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  13. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  14. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so

  15. Pre and postprandial changes in orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined pre- and postprandial changes in the expression of plasma ghrelin (GHRL) and mRNAs encoding GRLN, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cholecystokinin (CCK) in channel catfish. Fish were either offered feed (Fed) or fasted (Unfed). Feeding incr...

  16. Developing a low cortisol responsive line of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj G. Chatakondi and Brian C. Peterson USDA ARS Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, 141 Experiment Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. nagaraj.chatakondi@ars.usda.gov Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus is the most important farm-raised aquacultured species in the USA. Stressors in aquacultu...

  17. Plasma cortisol stress response in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus influences susceptibility to Edwardeseilla ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone in fish as its plasma variations correlate with the occurrence of various stressful situations. Past studies have demonstrated that fish subjected to handling stress or poor water quality had a reduced ability to resist pathogens. Channel catfish fingerlings th...

  18. Annual correlative changes in gonads and pituitary gonadotropes of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Peute, J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of male and female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can be divided into a breeding period (May–August), a resting period (September–February) and a period of full gametogenesis (March–April). The pituitary gonadotropin (GTH) content and the ultrastructure of the gonadotrop

  19. The regulation of gonadotropin release by neurohormones and gonadal steroids in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R. de; Goos, H.J.Th.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropic hormone (GTH) from the pituitary of teleosts is considered to be regulated by neuropeptides and neuroamines of cerebral origin and steroid hormones from the gonads. This paper reviews our studies concerning the control of GTH release in the African catfish, Clarias gari

  20. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  1. Gender nor sex hormones alter the disease susceptibility of channel catfish to Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of monosex populations for aquaculture is becoming widely used for several species. Monosex populations are not in wide use in the catfish industry but techniques to develop all male populations have been developed. These studies were conducted to determine if there were any differences be...

  2. Comparison of phytoplankton communities in catfish split-pond aquaculture systems with conventional ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a growing interest and use of variations of partitioned aquaculture systems (PAS) in recent years by the southeastern United States of America farmed catfish industry. Split-pond systems, one type of PAS, are designed to better manage fish waste byproducts (e.g., ammonia) and dissolv...

  3. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Cathepsin H and L cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathepsin H and L, a lysosomal cysteine endopeptidase of the papain family, are ubiquitously expressed and involve in antigen processing. In this communication, the channel catfish cathepsin H and L transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. Total RNA from tissues was extracted and cDNA libraries we...

  4. Streptococcal Arthritis, Osteolysis, Myositis, and Spinal Meningitis in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details findings of an investigation into complaints by commercial fingerling producers of low-grade mortalities, poor reproductive success, emaciation, skin lesions, and severely arched backs among broodstock of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Gross lesions involved the jaw, fin ba...

  5. Male-specific DNA markers from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, B; Egedi, S; Bártfai, R; Orbán, L

    2000-01-01

    We searched for sex-specific DNA sequences in the male and female genomes of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) by comparative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays performed on pooled DNA samples. Two sex-linked RAPD markers were identified from the male DNA pool and confirmed on individual samples, showing good agreement with phenotypic sex. Both markers were isolated, cloned and characterized. The first marker (CgaY1) was nearly 2.6 kb long, while the length of second one (CgaY2) was 458 bp. Southern blot analysis with a CgaY1 probe showed strong hybridizing fragments only in males and not in females under stringent conditions, indicating the presence of multiple copies of CgaY1 in the male genome. When tested by zoo blot on the genomes of two closely related species from the Clariidae family, CgaY1 hybridized to the DNA of Heterobranchus longifilis and generated a faint male-specific band at low stringency. CgaY2 produced similar hybridization pattern in both sexes of C. gariepinus, C. macrocephalus and H. longifilis. Specific primers were designed to the sequences and the markers were amplified in multiplex PCR reactions together with a control band common to all individuals. This allowed for rapid, molecular sexing of the species on the basis of a simple three band (male) versus one band (female) pattern. According to our knowledge these are the first sex-specific DNA markers isolated from a siluroid fish species. PMID:11766847

  6. Molecular characterization of canine kobuvirus in wild carnivores and the domestic dog in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte-Castillo, Ximena A; Heeger, Felix; Mazzoni, Camila J; Greenwood, Alex D; Fyumagwa, Robert; Moehlman, Patricia D; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of Kobuvirus (Family Picornaviridae) infection in carnivores is limited and has not been described in domestic or wild carnivores in Africa. To fill this gap in knowledge we used RT-PCR to screen fresh feces from several African carnivores. We detected kobuvirus RNA in samples from domestic dog, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. Using next generation sequencing we obtained one complete Kobuvirus genome sequence from each of these species. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed canine kobuvirus (CaKV) infection in all four species and placed CaKVs from Africa together and separately from CaKVs from elsewhere. Wild carnivore strains were more closely related to each other than to those from domestic dogs. We found that the secondary structure model of the IRES was similar to the Aichivirus-like IRES subclass and was conserved among African strains. We describe the first CaKVs from Africa and extend the known host range of CaKV. PMID:25667111

  7. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H;

    2014-01-01

    occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results...

  8. A Ten-Year Molecular Survey on Parvoviruses Infecting Carnivores in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, C; Desario, C; Patouchas, O; Eftimov, P; Gruichev, G; Manov, V; Filipov, G; Buonavoglia, C; Decaro, N

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses represent the most important infectious agents that are responsible for severe to fatal disease in carnivores. This study reports the results of a 10-year molecular survey conducted on carnivores in Bulgaria (n = 344), including 262 dogs and 19 cats with gastroenteritis, and 57 hunted wild carnivores. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), followed by virus characterization by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays, detected 216 parvovirus positive dogs with a predominance of canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a, 79.17%) over CPV-2b (18.52%) and CPV-2c (2.31%). Rottweilers and German shepherds were the most frequent breeds among CPV-positive pedigree dogs (n = 96). Eighteen cats were found to shed parvoviruses in their faeces, with most strains being characterized as FPLV (n = 17), although a single specimen tested positive for CPV-2a. Only two wild carnivores were parvovirus positive, a wolf (Canis lupus) and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes), both being infected by CPV-2a strains. PMID:25382194

  9. Insecticides reduce survival and the expression of traits associated with carnivory of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Congelosi, Alexandra M; Rohr, Jason R

    2012-03-01

    While agrochemical pollution is thought to be an important conservation threat to carnivorous plants, the effects of insecticides on these taxa have not been quantified previously. Using a combination of lab- and field-based experiments, we tested the effects of commercial and technical grades of three widely used insecticides (carbaryl, lambda-cyhalothrin, and malathion) on survival and the expression of traits associated with carnivory of pink sundews (Drosera capillaris) and Venus flytraps (Dionaea muscipula). Commercial grades were generally more harmful than technical grades under lab and field conditions, but all three insecticides were capable of reducing both survival and the expression of traits associated with carnivory within recommended application rates. However, pink sundews appeared to be more susceptible to insecticides than Venus flytraps, perhaps because of larger numbers of digestive glands on the leaf surfaces. We make several recommendations for future research directions, such as examining the long-term effects of insecticides on carnivorous plant populations, for example in terms of growth rates and fitness. Additionally, future research should include representative species from a wider-range of carnivorous plant growth forms, and explore the mechanism by which insecticides are harming the plants. Given the effects we observed in the present study, we suggest that the use of insecticides should be carefully managed in areas containing vulnerable carnivorous plant species. PMID:22076028

  10. First report of Spirocerca sp. in Denmark – a tumor-inducing parasite in carnivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Larsen, Gitte;

    2014-01-01

    During routine health surveillance of wild carnivores in Denmark, several tumors, measuring up to 3.0 x 4.5 x 2.5 cm, were detected in the stomach and the omentum of an autopsied red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The fox was hunted in the Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which is 230 km from the closest mainland...

  11. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, F. (Franziska); W.E. Kaman (Wendy); F.J. Bikker (Floris); Yilamujiang, A. (Ayufu); Mithöfer, A. (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCarnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the p

  12. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Buch; W.E. Kaman; F.J. Bikker; A. Yilamujiang; A. Mithöfer

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themse

  13. Pollinator-prey conflicts in carnivorous plants: When flower and trap properties mean life or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Byers, John A; Suckling, David M

    2016-01-01

    Insect-pollinated carnivorous plants are expected to have higher fitness if they resolve pollinator-prey conflicts by sparing insects pollinating their flowers while trapping prey insects. We examined whether separation between flowers and traps of the carnivorous sundew species or pollinator preferences for colours of flowers enable these plants to spare pollinators. In addition, we collected odours from flowers and traps of each carnivorous species in order to identify volatile chemicals that are attractive or repellent to pollinators and prey insects. In Drosera spatulata and D. arcturi, no volatiles were detected from either their flowers or traps that could serve as kairomone attractants for insects. However, behavioural experiments indicated white colour and spatial separation between flowers and traps aid in reducing pollinator entrapment while capturing prey. In contrast, D. auriculata have flowers that are adjacent to their traps. In this species we identified chemical signals emanating from flowers that comprised an eight-component blend, while the plant's traps emitted a unique four-component blend. The floral odour attracted both pollinator and prey insects, while trap odour only attracted prey. This is the first scientific report to demonstrate that carnivorous plants utilize visual, spatial, and chemical signals to spare flower visitors while trapping prey insects. PMID:26888545

  14. Jasmonic acid and herbivory differentially induce carnivore-attracting plant volatiles in Lima bean plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Gols, R.; Ludeking, D.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Lima bean plants respond to feeding damage of two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with the emission of a complex blend of volatiles that are products of several different biosynthetic pathways. These volatiles attract the carnivorous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of

  15. The acclimation of carnivorous round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) to solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Doboš, Marko; Babić, Marija; Jurak, Edita

    2015-01-01

    Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant which inhabits nutrient-poor, moist, and sun-exposed areas such as peat bogs and sandpits. These habitats are threatened by succession which could lead to substantial shading of sundews. Nevertheless, D. rotundifolia can also gr

  16. Iridoid and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides of the endangered carnivorous plant Pinguicula lusitanica L. (Lentibulariaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevenstuk, T.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Waard, de P.; Romano, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports for the first time the identification of the major compounds of Pinguicula lusitanica, an endangered carnivorous plant species, using minimal amounts of plant material. A methanol extract was prepared from in vitro cultured plantlets and analyzed by HPLC–SPE–NMR/HPLC–MS. Three irid

  17. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  18. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei), and the Yaqui chub (Gila purpurea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei),...

  20. Evaluation of a cohabitation challenge model in immunization trials for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcein marking and cohabitation challenge have not been investigated in fish parasite research. This study evaluated a cohabitation challenge method in immunization trials against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using calcein, a fluorescent dye, to mark channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafi...

  1. INDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND ASSOCIATED TOXICITY IN LIVERS OF HARDHEAD CATFISH, ARIUS FELIS, FROM CONTROL AND EPIZOOTIC SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work with a live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen, Edwardsiella ictaluri, demonstrated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the head kidney, paralleling enteric septicemia (Hawke et al. 1981; Schoor and Plumb 1994). However, another study exposing...

  2. Comparison of stomach contents and condition of two catfish species living at ambient temperatures and in a heated discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower condition factors for two catfish species in water heated by effluents from APCo's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant as compared to control areas probably is not due to lack of food as evidenced by macroinvertebrate sampling and the fact that only 4.3 percent of the catfish stomachs were empty. Results suggested that young-of-the-year channel catfish were nonselectively eating food organisms present at both control and heated stations. The difference between stomach contents of flatheat catfish from the heated site and fauna available at that site indicated that fish were either moving out of the heated area to feed or were selectively feeding on organisms (particularly mayflies) which were in the substrate or drifted into the heated area. Stomach contents of the two species and distribution and abundance of the macroinvertebrate benthos community are detailed

  3. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompper, Matthew E; Lesmeister, Damon B; Ray, Justina C; Malcolm, Jay R; Kays, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York's Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus) and fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor). Martens (Martes americana) were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp.) occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel) where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild. PMID:26731404

  4. Differential Habitat Use or Intraguild Interactions: What Structures a Carnivore Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Gompper

    Full Text Available Differential habitat use and intraguild competition are both thought to be important drivers of animal population sizes and distributions. Habitat associations for individual species are well-established, and interactions between particular pairs of species have been highlighted in many focal studies. However, community-wide assessments of the relative strengths of these two factors have not been conducted. We built multi-scale habitat occupancy models for five carnivore taxa of New York's Adirondack landscape and assessed the relative performance of these models against ones in which co-occurrences of potentially competing carnivore species were also incorporated. Distribution models based on habitat performed well for all species. Black bear (Ursus americanus and fisher (Martes pennanti distribution was similar in that occupancy of both species was negatively associated with paved roads. However, black bears were also associated with larger forest fragments and fishers with smaller forest fragments. No models with habitat features were more supported than the null habitat model for raccoons (Procyon lotor. Martens (Martes americana were most associated with increased terrain ruggedness and elevation. Weasel (Mustela spp. occupancy increased with the cover of deciduous forest. For most species dyads habitat-only models were more supported than those models with potential competitors incorporated. The exception to this finding was for the smallest carnivore taxa (marten and weasel where habitat plus coyote abundance models typically performed better than habitat-only models. Assessing this carnivore community as whole, we conclude that differential habitat use is more important than species interactions in maintaining the distribution and structure of this carnivore guild.

  5. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athreya, Vidya; Odden, Morten; Linnell, John D C; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Karanth, Ullas

    2013-01-01

    Protected areas are extremely important for the long term viability of biodiversity in a densely populated country like India where land is a scarce resource. However, protected areas cover only 5% of the land area in India and in the case of large carnivores that range widely, human use landscapes will function as important habitats required for gene flow to occur between protected areas. In this study, we used photographic capture recapture analysis to assess the density of large carnivores in a human-dominated agricultural landscape with density >300 people/km(2) in western Maharashtra, India. We found evidence of a wide suite of wild carnivores inhabiting a cropland landscape devoid of wilderness and wild herbivore prey. Furthermore, the large carnivores; leopard (Panthera pardus) and striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) occurred at relatively high density of 4.8±1.2 (sd) adults/100 km(2) and 5.03±1.3 (sd) adults/100 km(2) respectively. This situation has never been reported before where 10 large carnivores/100 km(2) are sharing space with dense human populations in a completely modified landscape. Human attacks by leopards were rare despite a potentially volatile situation considering that the leopard has been involved in serious conflict, including human deaths in adjoining areas. The results of our work push the frontiers of our understanding of the adaptability of both, humans and wildlife to each other's presence. The results also highlight the urgent need to shift from a PA centric to a landscape level conservation approach, where issues are more complex, and the potential for conflict is also very high. It also highlights the need for a serious rethink of conservation policy, law and practice where the current management focus is restricted to wildlife inside Protected Areas. PMID:23483933

  6. An advanced method to assess the diet of free-ranging large carnivores based on scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wachter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diet of free-ranging carnivores is an important part of their ecology. It is often determined from prey remains in scats. In many cases, scat analyses are the most efficient method but they require correction for potential biases. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed mass of each prey species, the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat needs to be determined and corrected for prey body mass because the proportion of digestible to indigestible matter increases with prey body mass. Prey body mass can be corrected for by conducting feeding experiments using prey of various body masses and fitting a regression between consumed prey mass to excrete one scat and prey body mass (correction factor 1. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed individuals of each prey species and includes prey animals not completely consumed, the actual mass of each prey consumed by the carnivore needs to be controlled for (correction factor 2. No previous study controlled for this second bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use an extended series of feeding experiments on a large carnivore, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, to establish both correction factors. In contrast to previous studies which fitted a linear regression for correction factor 1, we fitted a biologically more meaningful exponential regression model where the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat reaches an asymptote at large prey sizes. Using our protocol, we also derive correction factor 1 and 2 for other carnivore species and apply them to published studies. We show that the new method increases the number and proportion of consumed individuals in the diet for large prey animals compared to the conventional method. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for the interpretation of scat-based studies in feeding ecology and the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts for the conservation of large carnivores.

  7. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J., E-mail: j.millett@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Foot, G.W. [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Svensson, B.M. [Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  8. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  9. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E Gangaas

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine. The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country, they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents. We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the

  10. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  11. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available Protected areas are extremely important for the long term viability of biodiversity in a densely populated country like India where land is a scarce resource. However, protected areas cover only 5% of the land area in India and in the case of large carnivores that range widely, human use landscapes will function as important habitats required for gene flow to occur between protected areas. In this study, we used photographic capture recapture analysis to assess the density of large carnivores in a human-dominated agricultural landscape with density >300 people/km(2 in western Maharashtra, India. We found evidence of a wide suite of wild carnivores inhabiting a cropland landscape devoid of wilderness and wild herbivore prey. Furthermore, the large carnivores; leopard (Panthera pardus and striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena occurred at relatively high density of 4.8±1.2 (sd adults/100 km(2 and 5.03±1.3 (sd adults/100 km(2 respectively. This situation has never been reported before where 10 large carnivores/100 km(2 are sharing space with dense human populations in a completely modified landscape. Human attacks by leopards were rare despite a potentially volatile situation considering that the leopard has been involved in serious conflict, including human deaths in adjoining areas. The results of our work push the frontiers of our understanding of the adaptability of both, humans and wildlife to each other's presence. The results also highlight the urgent need to shift from a PA centric to a landscape level conservation approach, where issues are more complex, and the potential for conflict is also very high. It also highlights the need for a serious rethink of conservation policy, law and practice where the current management focus is restricted to wildlife inside Protected Areas.

  12. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758) from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Yakhchali; Ali-Asghar Tehrani; Mozafar Ghoreishi

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes inclu...

  13. Characterization of an Oct1 orthologue in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: A negative regulator of immunoglobulin gene transcription?

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Norman W; Wilson Melanie R; Kruiswijk Corine P; Ross David A; Hikima Jun-ichi; Lennard Mara L; Warr Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The enhancer (Eμ3') of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) has been well characterized. The functional core region consists of two variant Oct transcription factor binding octamer motifs and one E-protein binding μE5 site. An orthologue to the Oct2 transcription factor has previously been cloned in catfish and is a functionally active transcription factor. This study was undertaken to clone and characterize the Oct1 trans...

  14. Effect of Oxytetracycline-Medicated Feed on Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Catfish Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    DePaola, A.; Peller, J. T.; Rodrick, G E

    1995-01-01

    The effect of oxytetracycline-medicated feeds on antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria from fish intestines and water in catfish ponds was investigated. In experiments in the fall and spring, using ponds with no previous history of antibiotic usage, percentages of tetracycline-resistant bacteria in catfish intestines obtained from medicated ponds increased significantly after 10 days of treatment. In the fall, resistance of the intestinal and aquatic bacteria returned to pretreatmen...

  15. Quality of antimicrobial products used in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Minh Phu; Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Marie-Louise Scippo; Anders Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial usage is common in Asian aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the quality of antimicrobial products used by Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farmers. Twenty one antimicrobial products (11 products contained a single antimicrobial and 10 products contained a mixture of two different antimicrobials) commonly used by catfish farmers were obtained from so-called chemical shops located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatog...

  16. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of Asian catfish oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpisanu Thammapat; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Patcharin Raviyan

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of the concentrating conditions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) extracted from Asian catfish oil was studied to obtain a maximum concentration. The crude fish oil was extracted from the belly flap and adipose tissue of Asian catfish, and the extracted oil was used as fresh crude oil. The EPA and DHA were concentrated by the urea complexation method. A hexagonal rotatable design was applied to examine the effects of crystallization temperatur...

  17. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased walleye survival in comparison with controls. In the channel catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for all OTC-HCl treatment groups relative to controls. Results from these trials indicated that OTC-HCl treatments effectively reduced mortality in walleyes (10 mg/L only) and channel catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. KANDUNGAN ASAM LEMAK DAN KARAKTERISTIK FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK IKAN LELE DAN MINYAK IKAN LELE TERFERMENTASI (FATTY ACID CONTENTS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CATFISH OIL AND FERMENTED CATFISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskari Ngadiarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Catfish oil and fermented catfish oil have not been developed and commercially produced as catfish derived products. Various processing of catfish oil will change both the composition and physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the composition of fatty acids and physico-chemical characteristics of both catfish oil (MIL and fermented catfish oil (MILT. Results showed that fatty acid composition of catfish oil was MUFA (36.12%> PUFA> (32.43%> SFA (31.45%, while the composition of fermented catfish oil was MUFA (42.96%> SFA (42.32%> PUFA (15.39%. The fermentation process with lactic acid bacteria increased the content of stearic acid but decreased the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Physical and chemical characteristics of MIL and MILT were almost similar, they indicated oxidation process, based on melting point, viscosity, and thiobarbituric acid values. Therefore, in the production of catfish oil or fermented cat fish oil, it is necessary to add spices and/or nutrient as antioxidants sources. Keywords: catfish oil, PUFA, MUFA, SFA and CLA  ABSTRAK Minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT sebagai produk turunan dari ikan lele masih belum banyak dikembangkan dan diproduksi secara komersial. Berbagai proses pengolahan minyak dapat mengubah komposisi dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia minyak ikan lele. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi komposisi asam lemak dan karakteristik fisiko-kimia dari minyak ikan lele (MIL dan minyak ikan lele terfermentasi (MILT. Komposisi asam lemak pada MIL secara berurutan adalah MUFA (36,12% > PUFA (32,43% > SFA (31,45%, sedangkan setelah difermentasi menjadi MILT terjadi perubahan yaitu MUFA (42,96% > SFA (42,32% > PUFA (15,39%. Jenis asam lemak jenuh yang mengalami peningkatan  pada MILT adalah asam lemak stearat, sedangkan asam lemak tidak jenuh ganda yang mengalami penurunan adalah asam linoleat dan linolenat yang

  19. Morphological Difference and Karyotype of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in Dongting Lake Water System%洞庭湖水系黄颡鱼的形态差异及染色体组型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良国; 邹万生; 杨春英; 罗玉双; 杨品红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究洞庭湖水系黄颡鱼群体的形态特征和染色体组型。[方法]采用常规生物学形态测量及PHA和秋水仙素活体注射方法,分别对洞庭湖水系沅水和澧水的2个黄颡鱼群体进行形态学特征及染色体组型分析。[结果]沅水和澧水的黄颡鱼在体长/头长、体长/尾柄高、头长/吻长3个比例性状上存在显著差异(P〈0.05),但它们的染色体数目及组型相同,其染色体数2n=52,核型公式为20M+12SM+10ST+10T,染色体臂数为84。[结论]研究结果对洞庭湖水系野生黄颡鱼资源的保护及开发利用具有一定的理论指导意义。%[Objective] The research aimed to study the morphological characteristics and karyotype of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco in Dongting Lake water system.[Method] By using the conventional biological morphometry,PHA and colchicine injection method in vivo,the morphological characteristics and karyotype of P.fulvidraco in Yuanshui River and Lishui River of Dongting Lake were analyzed.[Result] In three ratio traits including standard length/head length,standard length/caudal peduncle depth,head length/snout length,P.fulvidraco of Yuanshui River and Lishui River had significant differences(P0.05).However,the number and karyotype of their chromosomes were same.The chromosome number was 2n = 52,and the karyotype formula was 20M+12SM+10ST+10T.The number of chromosome arm was 84.[Conclusion] The research result had certain theoretical guidance significance for the protection and utilization of wild P.resource in Dongting Lake water system.

  20. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF EUROPEAN CATFISH (SILURIS GLANIS L. SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Dunaevskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study of the microscopic structure and morphometric parameters of European catfish spleen. Methodology. For the study, we used the spleen of clinically healthy age-2 European catfish (Silurus glanis L.. We determined the absolute and relative weight of the organ or the index of spleen development. For the histological studies, pieces of the material were preserved in 10-12 % cooled neutral formalin solution, with subsequent filling in paraffin. Paraffin sections were prepared using a sledge microtome, with a thickness of no more than 10 microns. To determine the cell and tissue morphology under light microscopy, we the staining of histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Determination of spleen linear dimensions, morphometric measurements were carried out using the "Master of Morphology". Quantitative parameters were analyzed in "Statistica 6.0". Findings. European catfish spleen corresponded to general regularities of fish spleen structure: we identified support-contractile apparatus, white and red pulp and inherent cellular composition. Peculiarities of the microscopic structure of this organ in European catfish is underdevelopment of radial trabeculae, poor development of periarterial lymphoid sheaths, absence of the differentiation to zones in lymphoid nodules. The most developed was red pulp (70.82 ± 10.76%, the least developed — support-contractile apparatus (7.04 ± 0.65%. The base of the white pulp (22.14 ± 6.61% is lymphoid nodules without propagation center. The support-contractile apparatus of the spleen, which includes capsule and trabecular system, is developed unevenly. E.g., the capsule thickness in different parts of the body is not the same, the biggest thickness is in porta, where it attains 21.85 ± 7.44 micrometers, its relative area is 3.06 ± 0.32%. Relative area of the trabecular system is 3.98 ± 2.57%, the most developed are vascular trabeculae. Originality. We found the peculiarities of spleen

  1. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  2. Urban domestic dog populations as a source of canine distemper virus for wild carnivores in the Coquimbo region of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Jamett, G.; Chalmers, W.S.K.; Cunningham, A.A.; Cleaveland, S.; Handel, I.G.; Bronsvoort, B.M.DeC.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Urban areas can support dog populations dense enough to maintain canine distemper virus (CDV) and can be a source of infection for rural dogs and free-ranging carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban and rural domestic dog and wild carnivore populations and their effects on the epidemiology of CDV to explain retrospectively a CD outbreak in wild foxes in 2003. From 2005 to 2007 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was...

  3. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, G.; RICE S.p.; Millett, J.

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the ...

  4. Where Is My Food? Brazilian Flower Fly Steals Prey from Carnivorous Sundews in a Newly Discovered Plant-Animal Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Fleischmann; Fernando Rivadavia; Paulo M Gonella; Celeste Pérez-Bañón; Ximo Mengual; Santos Rojo

    2016-01-01

    A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae) have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae) in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the D...

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species. PMID:27195685

  6. Straminipilous organisms growing on herbivorous pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) and carnivorous piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeczuga, B; Godlewska, A; Mazalska, B; Muszyńska, E

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the growth of straminipilous organisms on the skin, muscles and liver of herbivorous pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus) and carnivorous piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) in water of three different eutrophication levels. Sixteen straminipilous organism species were found growing on the investigated body parts of both species of fish used as baits. The higher number of species was found on the baits of carnivorous species (15) when compared with the ones from the herbivorous pirapitinga (10 species). The highest number of straminipilous organisms species developed on the skin of both species of fish. The highest number of species of straminipilous organisms was observed growing in the water of the BiaBa river (middle eutrophication), while the lowest number occurred in the baits of vessels with water from the Dojlidy pond (low eutrophication). PMID:20549064

  7. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species.

  8. Studies on the nutrition of brackish water catfish - Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus . 1. Preliminary investigations on the probable use of vegetable oil in catfish feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Igbinosun, J.E.; Talabi, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Four groups of brackishwater catfish were fed four diets: N.F. (NIOMR formula 1 feed), A. B. and C. for seven weeks. Feeds N.F., A., B and C. contained 1.21% fish oil + 5.59% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 7.39% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 9.09% vegetable oil; 1.21% fish oil + 10.89% vegetable oil respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that growth was best in the group fed diets containing 10.89% vegetable oil and least in those containing 9.09% vegetable oil

  9. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin. PMID:8796441

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes. PMID:25329264

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of catfish Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, Sisoridae; Siluriformes) from Indus River Sindh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashari, Punhal; Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Jiang, Li; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Deng, Yulin; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish Bagarius bagarius, was isolated by LA PCR (TakaRa LAtaq, Dalian, China); and sequenced by Sanger's method to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome, which is listed Critically Endangered and Red Listed species. The complete mitogenome was 16,457 bp in length and contains 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.14% A, 27.72% C, 15.62% G and 25.50% T. The complete mitochondrial genome of fresh water catfish, B. bagarius provides the basic genetic tools for breeding and conservation program to enhance aquaculture production. PMID:24660912

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes.

  13. Histopathological evaluation of seven Amazon species of freshwater ornamental armored catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish commonly known as acaris or plecos are freshwater armored catfish economically important as a food resource and as ornamental fish. Most of these species are captured in the Amazon region. However, despite its economic importance, there is a lack of knowledge about their biological aspects. Thus, this study aimed to characterize and evaluate the histopathological aspects of important organs as gills, liver, integument and kidney of seven species of armored freshwater ornamental catfish fromGuamáRiver,Pará State,Brazil. All organs showed typical characteristics of organs of other teleosts. In some species, gills and liver showed slight histopathological changes: telangiectasis, edema and morphological changes related to the presence of parasites (Monogenea and Digenea in the gills, and changes in the arrangement of hepatocytes rows, and vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver. Thus, the knowledge of the normal structure of organs and changes found can be used as tools for environmental and health monitoring of animals.

  14. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luciana Segura de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control. Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with chloramphenicol presented higher survival than the treatment with oxytetracycline and both showed significantly higher survival than control. Swimming activity was higher in the fish treated with antibiotics and salt compared to control fish. A combination of the studied antibiotics plus salt is more effective to treat both A. hydrophila infection and I. multifiliis infestation in silver catfish, but since the use of chloramphenicol is not allowed in Brazil, oxytetracycline plus salt seems to be the best treatment option.

  15. Explosive development of pectoral muscle fibres in large juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, S; Fine, M L

    2015-11-01

    As part of an effort on scaling of pectoral spines and muscles, the basis for growth was examined in six pectoral muscles in juvenile blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, the largest catfish in North America. Fibre number increases slowly in fish from 13.0 to 26.4 cm in total length, doubles by 27.0 cm and remains stable in larger individuals. Simultaneously, mean fibre diameter decreases by half, caused by the addition of new small fibres, before increasing non-linearly in larger fish. The orders of magnitude disparity between the size at hatching and the size of large adults may have selected for rapid muscle fibre addition at a threshold size.

  16. Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nor Siti-Azizah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the most suitable extender and theirrespective dilution ratios for African catfish sperm for artificial induced breeding and cryopreservationpurposes. Three natural extenders were tested i.e. coconut water, sugarcane water and soybeansolutions, at three different levels of sperm to extender dilutions of 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. While Ringersolution was used as a control Diluted sperm were fertilized with ready isolated eggs to assess thefertility and hatching rate at 0, 6 and 12 hour intervals. The results showed that the eggs hatchedapproximately 19 to 27 hours after fertilization. In general, the fertilization and hatching rates decreasedwith increasing dilution ratio. With respect to natural extenders, the coconut water showed the highestfertility and hatching rates at 1:20 dilution ratio. Therefore, coconut water at 1:20 dilution ratio was theoptimal condition for African catfish spermatozoa among the natural extenders investigated.

  17. Production of Generation-2 Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas cultured with Spirulina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangsak Meng-umphan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment of Spirulina-supplemented pellet feed to 5-year-old F1 groups of Mekong giant catfish (Pangasinodon gigas from the brood stock and intended for use as breeders. The effects on their growth and maturation when cultured in an earthen pond were observed. Results revealed that, compared to control, there was more gain in weight while the feed conversion ratio was lower. The number of red blood cells was also higher while that of white blood cells was lower, compared to control. Out of 18 treated fish (9 males and 9 females, 6 males and 2 females gave sperms and eggs while none from control group did. It was concluded that Spirulina supplemented in pellet feed can improve growth and maturation performance to the brood stock of Mekong giant catfish.

  18. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Dawson, Mary R; Tedford, Richard H

    2009-04-23

    Modern pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and the walrus) are semi-aquatic, generally marine carnivores the limbs of which have been modified into flippers. Recent phylogenetic studies using morphological and molecular evidence support pinniped monophyly, and suggest a sister relationship with ursoids (for example bears) or musteloids (the clade that includes skunks, badgers, weasels and otters). Although the position of pinnipeds within modern carnivores appears moderately well resolved, fossil evidence of the morphological steps leading from a terrestrial ancestor to the modern marine forms has been weak or contentious. The earliest well-represented fossil pinniped is Enaliarctos, a marine form with flippers, which had appeared on the northwestern shores of North America by the early Miocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, that represents a morphological link in early pinniped evolution. The new taxon retains a long tail and the proportions of its fore- and hindlimbs are more similar to those of modern terrestrial carnivores than to modern pinnipeds. Morphological traits indicative of semi-aquatic adaptation include a forelimb with a prominent deltopectoral ridge on the humerus, a posterodorsally expanded scapula, a pelvis with relatively short ilium, a shortened femur and flattened phalanges, suggestive of webbing. The new fossil shows evidence of pinniped affinities and similarities to the early Oligocene Amphicticeps from Asia and the late Oligocene and Miocene Potamotherium from Europe. The discovery suggests that the evolution of pinnipeds included a freshwater transitional phase, and may support the hypothesis that the Arctic was an early centre of pinniped evolution. PMID:19396145

  19. Scent-marking and intrasexual competition in a cooperative carnivore with low reproductive skew

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, C. A.; Manser, M B

    2008-01-01

    Most mammals scent-mark and a variety of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour. Differences in the main function of scent-marking between species are likely to be related to differences in social systems. Here, we investigate the functions of scent-marking in a cooperatively breeding carnivore. In the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), individuals of both sexes commonly breed in their natal group and reproductive skew within groups is low. Using experimental scent-mark prese...

  20. Megaherbivores as pacemakers of carnivore diversity and biomass: distributing or sinking trophic energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J; M Clauss

    2008-01-01

    Question: What is the trophic role of megaherbivores? Hypothesis: Depending on their life histories, megaherbivores can either act as sinks or distributors of trophic energy. Methods: Comparative review of mammal and dinosaur faunas, and aspects of their reproductive biology. Conclusion: Extant (mammalian) megaherbivore populations represent trophic sinks that potentially limit carnivore diversity and productivity, because they are immune to predation and follow a reproductive strate...

  1. Thelazia callipaeda in wild carnivores from Romania: new host and geographical records

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Ionică, Angela Monica; D’Amico, Gianluca; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Deak, Georgiana; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Șimonca, Vasile; Iordache, Daniel; Modrý, David; Gherman, Călin Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Background Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne zoonotic nematode parasitizing the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans, with a vast distribution in Asia and the former Soviet Union. In Europe, the nematode has an emerging trend, being reported in Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Romania, Greece and Serbia, with human cases known in Italy, France, Spain, Serbia and Croatia. In Romania, the infection was so ...

  2. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu; Constantin Cazacu; Ovidiu Ionescu; Georgeta Ionescu; Ramon Jurj; Marius Popa; Roxana Cazacu; Ancuta Cotovelea

    2014-01-01

    We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus). Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data seri...

  3. Integrating resource selection into spatial capture-recapture models for large carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Kelly M.; Goldberg, Joshua; Hebblewite, Mark; Russell, Robin E.; Jimenez, Ben; Robinson, Hugh S.; Pilgrim, Kristine; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers need reliable methods to estimate large carnivore densities and population trends; yet large carnivores are elusive, difficult to detect, and occur at low densities making traditional approaches intractable. Recent advances in spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have provided new approaches for monitoring trends in wildlife abundance and these methods are particularly applicable to large carnivores. We applied SCR models in a Bayesian framework to estimate mountain lion densities in the Bitterroot Mountains of west central Montana. We incorporate an existing resource selection function (RSF) as a density covariate to account for heterogeneity in habitat use across the study area and include data collected from harvested lions. We identify individuals through DNA samples collected by (1) biopsy darting mountain lions detected in systematic surveys of the study area, (2) opportunistically collecting hair and scat samples, and (3) sampling all harvested mountain lions. We included 80 DNA samples collected from 62 individuals in the analysis. Including information on predicted habitat use as a covariate on the distribution of activity centers reduced the median estimated density by 44%, the standard deviation by 7%, and the width of 95% credible intervals by 10% as compared to standard SCR models. Within the two management units of interest, we estimated a median mountain lion density of 4.5 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% CI = 2.9, 7.7) and 5.2 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% CI = 3.4, 9.1). Including harvested individuals (dead recovery) did not create a significant bias in the detection process by introducing individuals that could not be detected after removal. However, the dead recovery component of the model did have a substantial effect on results by increasing sample size. The ability to account for heterogeneity in habitat use provides a useful extension to SCR models, and will enhance the ability of wildlife managers to reliably and

  4. Phytochemical studies and biological activity of carnivorous plants from the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Grevenstuk, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Ciências Biotecnológicas (Biotecnologia Vegetal), Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2010 In this thesis several studies were conducted with four carnivorous plant species which occur on Portuguese territory: Pinguicula lusitanica, Pinguicula vulgaris, Drosera intermedia and Drosera rotundifolia. Most habitats of these plants are threatened and natural populations are scarce, therefore micropropagation protocols were developed to ...

  5. Jasmonates trigger prey-induced formation of ‘outer stomach’ in carnivorous sundew plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoko; Reichelt, Michael; Mayer, Veronika E.; Mithöfer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the growth-related phytohormone auxin is the endogenous signal that initiates bending movements of plant organs. In 1875, Charles Darwin described how the bending movement of leaves in carnivorous sundew species formed an ‘outer stomach’ that allowed the plants to enclose and digest captured insect prey. About 100 years later, auxin was suggested to be the factor responsible for this movement. We report that prey capture induces both leaf bending and the accum...

  6. Microrheometry of sub-nanolitre biopolymer samples: non-Newtonian flow phenomena of carnivorous plant mucilage

    OpenAIRE

    Erni, Philipp; Varagnat, Matthieu; Clasen, Christian; Crest, Jérôme; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2011-01-01

    Sundew plants (Drosera) capture insects using tiny drops of a viscoelastic fluid. These mucilage droplets are typically tens of micrometres in diameter, corresponding to fluid volumes in, or below, the nanolitre range. In contrast to other carnivorous plants, the physical principles and the role of rheology in the capturing mechanism are not yet fully understood. The rather simple chemical composition reported for the capturing fluid (a high molecular weight acidic polysaccharide composed of ...

  7. Ecophysiological Traits of Terrestrial and Aquatic Carnivorous Plants: Are the Costs and Benefits the Same?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamec, Lubomír; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of trade-offs among physiological and morphological traits and their use in cost-benefit models and ecological or evolutionary optimization arguments have been hallmarks of ecological analysis for at least 50 years. Carnivorous plants are model systems for studying a wide range of ecophysiological and ecological processes and the application of a cost-benefit model for the evolution of carnivory by plants has provided many novel insights into trait-based cost-benefit models. Ce...

  8. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Gil

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  9. Carnivore Competition and Resource use in the Serengeti Ecosystem of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Frame, George Walter

    1986-01-01

    Coexisting ungulate-eating carnivores--lion, spotted hyena, cheetah, leopard, African wild dog, black-backed jackal, common jackal, and six species of vulture--are examined in East Africa's Serengeti ecosystem. Niche similarities year-round, by season, and by location are described using food, habitat, time of hunting, and other variables. Intraspecific niches of cheetah sex, age, and social groups show that male coalitions differ most from the others in hunting behavior and habitat use. Test...

  10. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous Nepenthes plants

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska Buch; Kaman, Wendy E.; Bikker, Floris J.; Ayufu Yilamujiang; Axel Mithöfer

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCarnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generat...

  11. Diet Composition and Digestive Enzymes Activity in Carnivorous Fishes Inhabiting Mudflats of Indian Sundarban Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Atreyee; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; HOMECHAUDHURI, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    Intertidal mudflats occupy a significant component of the total estuarine habitat available to fishes as nursery and foraging grounds. In this study, fifteen sites were randomly explored along three estuarine rivers in Indian Sundarbans and 27 fish species, were recorded. Upon analysis of prey preferences, they were categorized into different trophic types. A comparative study of the digestive physiology of 10 carnivorous species as functional analogues was carried out in order to find ou...

  12. Carnivores from the mexican state of Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramírez-Pulido; Noé González-Ruiz; Genoways, Hugh H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are consider...

  13. The First Sequenced Carnivore Genome Shows Complex Host-Endogenous Retrovirus Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Martínez Barrio; Marie Ekerljung; Patric Jern; Farid Benachenhou; Sperber, Göran O.; Erik Bongcam-Rudloff; Jonas Blomberg; Göran Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Host-retrovirus interactions influence the genomic landscape and have contributed substantially to mammalian genome evolution. To gain further insights, we analyzed a female boxer (Canis familiaris) genome for complexity and integration pattern of canine endogenous retroviruses (CfERV). Intriguingly, the first such in-depth analysis of a carnivore species identified 407 CfERV proviruses that represent only 0.15% of the dog genome. In comparison, the same detection criteria identified about si...

  14. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Castellano, A; Paniw, M; Casimiro-Soriguer, R; Ojeda, F

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyteDrosophyllum lusitanicum(Drosophyllaceae), which has been described as an autogamous selfing species but produces large, yellow flowers. Using a flower removal and a pollination experiment, we assessed, respectively, whether large flowers in this species may serve as an attracting device to prey insects or whether previously reported high selfing rates for this species in peripheral populations may be lower in more central, less isolated populations. We found no differences between flower-removed plants and intact, flowering plants in numbers of prey insects trapped. We also found no indication of reduced potential for autogamous reproduction, in terms of either seed set or seed size. However, our results showed significant increases in seed set of bagged, hand-pollinated flowers and unbagged flowers exposed to insect visitation compared with bagged, non-manipulated flowers that could only self-pollinate autonomously. Considering that the key life-history strategy of this pyrophytic species is to maintain a viable seed bank, any increase in seed set through insect pollinator activity would increase plant fitness. This in turn would explain the maintenance of large, conspicuous flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant. PMID:26977052

  15. Genome-wide analysis of adaptive molecular evolution in the carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba

    OpenAIRE

    CARRETERO PAULET, LORENZO; Chang, T-H; Librado Sanz, Pablo; Ibarra Laclette, E.; Herrera Estrella, L.; Rozas Liras, Julio A.; Albert, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    The genome of the bladderwort Utricularia gibba provides an unparalleled opportunity to uncover the adaptive landscape of an aquatic carnivorous plant with unique phenotypic features such as absence of roots, development of water-filled suction bladders, and a highly ramified branching pattern. Despite its tiny size, the U. gibba genome accommodates approximately as many genes as other plant genomes. To examine the relationship between the compactness of its genome and gene turnover, we compa...

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Adaptive Molecular Evolution in the Carnivorous Plant Utricularia gibba

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Librado, Pablo; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rozas, Julio; Albert, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    The genome of the bladderwort Utricularia gibba provides an unparalleled opportunity to uncover the adaptive landscape of an aquatic carnivorous plant with unique phenotypic features such as absence of roots, development of water-filled suction bladders, and a highly ramified branching pattern. Despite its tiny size, the U. gibba genome accommodates approximately as many genes as other plant genomes. To examine the relationship between the compactness of its genome and gene turnover, we compa...

  17. Book review: Large carnivore conservation: Integrating science and policy in the North American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A. J.; Cox, M. M.; Ernst, E. E.; Haley, H. J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Loney, D. A.; Mackert, M. M.; McCombs, A. L.; Piatscheck, F.; Pocius, V. M.; Stein, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Klaver reviewed Large Carnivore Conservation as part of a graduate seminar and seminar participants represented the full range of readers who might be interested in the book: natural resource managers, citizen advocates, researchers, and students. Although we encountered a variety of opinions based on our different backgrounds and orientations, we discovered a surprising amount of consensus both about what the book does well and where it falls short of our expectations.

  18. A Survey of Trichinella spiralis in Wild Carnivores in Southwestern Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Bourque, Michel

    1985-01-01

    In 1982-1983, 144 muscle samples from 11 different species of wild carnivores from southwestern Quebec, Canada, were examined for the presence of Trichinella spiralis larvae, using direct microscopic examination and the peptic digestion method. Two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (out of 29) and one pine marten (Martes americana) (out of 56) were found positive, giving a 2.1% prevalence for the whole sample.

  19. Conservation of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus): carnivore and people relationships in the southeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Consorte-McCrea, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maned wolves are endangered carnivores endemic to Brazil. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of interest groups towards the conservation of the maned wolf in urban and rural areas; to investigate how such attitudes may influence the maned wolf's status and conservation; and to recommend ways to incorporate such knowledge into strategies to conserve both wolf and habitat. The methodology used questionnaires and interviews. Questionnaires targeted people living in the neighbourhoo...

  20. Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore

    OpenAIRE

    Chapron, Guillaume; Treves, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of...

  1. Development of new stem cell-based technologies for carnivore reproduction research

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Travis; Kim, Yeunhee; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    New reproductive technologies based on stem cells offer several potential benefits to carnivore species. For example, development of lines of embryonic stem cells in cats and dogs would allow for the generation of transgenic animal models, which could be used to advance both veterinary and human health. Techniques such as spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testis xenografting offer new approaches to propagate genetically valuable individual males, even if they should die before prod...

  2. Attract them anyway: benefits of large, showy flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salces-Castellano, A; Paniw, M; Casimiro-Soriguer, R; Ojeda, F

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology of carnivorous plants has largely been studied on species that rely on insects as pollinators and prey, creating potential conflicts. Autogamous pollination, although present in some carnivorous species, has received less attention. In angiosperms, autogamous self-fertilization is expected to lead to a reduction in flower size, thereby reducing resource allocation to structures that attract pollinators. A notable exception is the carnivorous pyrophyteDrosophyllum lusitanicum(Drosophyllaceae), which has been described as an autogamous selfing species but produces large, yellow flowers. Using a flower removal and a pollination experiment, we assessed, respectively, whether large flowers in this species may serve as an attracting device to prey insects or whether previously reported high selfing rates for this species in peripheral populations may be lower in more central, less isolated populations. We found no differences between flower-removed plants and intact, flowering plants in numbers of prey insects trapped. We also found no indication of reduced potential for autogamous reproduction, in terms of either seed set or seed size. However, our results showed significant increases in seed set of bagged, hand-pollinated flowers and unbagged flowers exposed to insect visitation compared with bagged, non-manipulated flowers that could only self-pollinate autonomously. Considering that the key life-history strategy of this pyrophytic species is to maintain a viable seed bank, any increase in seed set through insect pollinator activity would increase plant fitness. This in turn would explain the maintenance of large, conspicuous flowers in a highly autogamous, carnivorous plant.

  3. Assessing the Potential Threat Landscape of a Proposed Reintroduction Site for Carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Samantha K.; Parker, Daniel M; Peinke, Dean M.; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing carnivores into an area, using African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) as an example. The Great Fish River Nature Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, has been identified as a potential reserve to reintroduce wild dogs, and we applied this framework to provide a threat assessment of the surrounding area to determine potential levels of human-wildlife conflict. Although 56% of neighbouring landowners and local ...

  4. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin E Gangaas; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (m...

  5. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

    OpenAIRE

    Ace Baehaki1); Shanti Dwita Lestari; Achmad Rizky Romadhoni

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius) enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%). The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidra...

  6. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Fijan; Peter W. Perschbacher

    2000-01-01

    The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government ins...

  7. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  8. Evaluation of red seaweed Gracilaria arcuata as dietary ingredient in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Shamlol, Faozi S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried marine seaweed, Gracilaria arcuata for the first time as dietary ingredient in partial substitution of fishmeal on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group; D2; D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% G. arcuata meal respectively. One hundred and eighty African catfish weighing 9.62 ± 0.42 g, (mean ± SE) was divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fishes showed significant differences (P  0.05) were observed between the control group and fishes fed D2 for all previous parameters. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with a diet containing G. arcuata than in the control group and D2 which contains 10% of G. arcuata. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with G. arcuata included in 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and D2. However, the study recommended that C. gariepinus can accept this ingredient up to 10% in their diets. More defined experiments therefore seem to be necessary in order to determine the maximum level of this marine seaweed in diets with amino acid supplementation for African catfish.

  9. Comparative in vitro metabolism and activation of benzo(a)pyrene from two species of catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploch, S.A.; Di Giulio, R.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Cytochrome P4501A activity as measured by hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase EROD in isolated microsomes is consistently found to be 10 to 20 fold higher in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctuatus) than in a closely related species of catfish, the brown bullhead (Ameriurus nebulosus). To measure more directly the ability of these two species to activate a model PAH, microsomes and hepatocytes isolated from naphthoflavone induced channel catfish (CC) and brown bullhead (BB) were incubated with [{sup 3}H]- or [{sup 14}C]benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to compare metabolite formation and binding to DNA and protein. Microsomes from channel catfish produce 4-fold higher levels of BP metabolites (hexane non-extractable) than brown bullhead (253.0, 9.0 vs 58.8, 14.9 pmole/mg, protein/min). Binding of microsome activated BP to salmon sperm DNA demonstrated a similar 5-fold difference between the two species. Using isolated hepatocytes, the two species demonstrated less pronounced, but consistent differences in metabolite formation (29.85, 2.2 vs 20.1, 0.96 pmole/10{sup 6}, cells/min, CC vs BB), DNA binding and total protein binding (13.2, 2.53 vs 10.57, 1.72 pmole BP/mg, protein/min, CC vs BB). Surprisingly, these preliminary data suggest that induced CC liver activate a model PAH carcinogen more quickly and produce higher levels of stable adducts than a cancer prone species (brown bullhead). Other aspects of BP activation, detoxification and genotoxicity in these two species may contribute to species` susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

  10. Survival and behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, submitted to antibiotics and sodium chloride treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Luciana Segura de; Andrade Rafael Luiz Barboza de; Becker Alexssandro Geferson; Baldisserotto Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of antibiotics and NaCl on the behavior and survival of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, infested by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and infected with Aeromonas hydrophila, juveniles were treated with chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol + salt, oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline + salt and water alone (control). Fish survival in the treatments with chloramphenicol + salt and oxytetracycline + salt was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The treatment with ch...

  11. Studies on certain aspects of behaviour in the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercy T.V. Anna; Pillai N. Krishna; Balasubramanian N. K.

    2001-01-01

    Horaglanis krishnai is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug-out wells at Kottayam, Kerala. This fish has great zoogeographical importance as a similar blind clariid, Uegitglanis zammaroni is found only in the artesian wells of the former Italian Somaliland. Studies on certain behavioural aspects of the fish in captive conditions showed that, this fish even though is blind, exhibited a high degree of thigmotactism. Locomotion, comfort behaviour, feeding and light sensitivity of the fish were stu...

  12. Redescription of the Striped Catfish Mystus tengara (Hamilton, 1822) (Siluriformes: Bagridae), India

    OpenAIRE

    A. Darshan; Mahanta, P. C.; Barat, A.; P. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The Bagrid Catfish Mystus tengara was described from a pond located in India under the genus Pimelodus. The validity of the fish has been confused and has frequently been treated as a synonym of Mystus vittatus. In this study, the species is rediagnosed and redescribed on the basis of fresh material collected from the Ganga-Brahmaputra drainage. M. tengara is diagnosed from congeners in having a unique combination of the following characters: body with a distinct tympanic spot and four bro...

  13. Effect of Enzyme Supplementation in Diet for the Growth of Channel Catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Erum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Channel catfish has practically proven to be one of the species with virtually remarkable performance in fresh water pond culture. Due to better growth rate, good adaptation and acceptability towards artificial feed channel catfish was introduced to Pakistan. A study was conducted to see the role of dietary enzyme Laccasse supplementation in a diet (35% CP on growth of fingerlings of channel catfish. For this purpose a six week nutrition study was conducted in Aquaria of Aquaculture and Fisheries program (NARC. Fish was fed a locally prepared (35% CP diet incorporated with three different concentration of Laccasse enzyme i.e., at the rate of 1, 2 and 3 mL/kg. The dietary pellets were prepared and air dried and fed to the fish at the rate of three percent of wet body weight twice daily. Prior to the start of study fish were acclimatized for a period of two weeks on experimental diets. Weights of the fish were recorded at the start and end of trial fortnightly in between. At the end result was deduced through the data of weight gain. The results revealed that Laccasse supplemented at a concentration of 2 mL/kg has higher growth, however it is insignificant (p>0.05 with a concentration of 3 mL/kg. So addition of laccasse in higher concentration or lower concentrations serve no purpose. We concluded that further detailed studies are added to evaluate the role of laccasse enzyme in feed utilization and growth enhancement of channel catfish juveniles.

  14. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  15. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    OpenAIRE

    German, Donovan P.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the structure and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of wood-eating catfishes, the gross morphology, length, and microvilli surface area (MVSA) of the intestines of wild-caught Panaque nocturnus, P. cf. nigrolineatus “Marañon”, and Hypostomus pyrineusi were measured, and contrasted against these same metrics of a closely related detritivore, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus. All four species had anatomically unspecialized intestines with no kinks, valves, or ceca o...

  16. Ituglanis agreste, a new catfish from the rio de Contas basin, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio M. Q. Lima; Cinara P. Neves; Rafael M. Campos-Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Ituglanis agreste, a new species of catfish, is described from a tributary stream of the rio Gongogi drainage, rio de Contas basin, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, from a transition area between the Atlantic Rain Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga savanna. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: elongate interopercle plate with high number of odontodes (26-30), high number of ribs (5-6), fewer vertebrae (36), number of branchiostegal rays (7), number of ...

  17. Karyotype analysis of an endemic sucker catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad,1981 (Actinopterygii: Sisoridae), from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; NAZARI, Narges; GHOLAMIFARD, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The karyotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of southern catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981, was investigated for the first time by examining metaphase chromosome spreads obtained from gill epithelial and kidney cells. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n = 52. The karyotype consisted of 9 pairs of metacentric, 14 pairs of submetacentric, and 3 pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. The arm number was 98. No heteromorphic sex chromosomes were cytologically detected in th...

  18. Hypoxia tolerance and partitioning of bimodal respiration in the striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Wang, Tobias;

    2011-01-01

    Air-breathing fish are common in the tropics, and their importance in Asian aquaculture is increasing, but the respiratory physiology of some of the key species such as the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage 1878 is unstudied. P. hypophthalmus is an interesting species...... to air-breathe. The possibility of reducing air-breathing frequency may be energetically beneficial for the fish, leaving more of the aerobic scope for growth and other activities, due to the proposed energetic costs of surfacing behavior....

  19. Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-06-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different 'attractiveness' (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768

  20. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168