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Sample records for carnivora

  1. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    OpenAIRE

    Asahara, Masakazu; Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora...

  2. [Summary of phylogeny in family Felidae of Carnivora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li

    2012-11-01

    Felidae (cats) is one of the strict carnivorous groups in the order Carnivora, many of which are most familiar and spectacular to us. They are the top predators in the world. Thirty-six of 37 living cat species are considered as either "endangered" or "threatened". The relationships among species of the family Felidae, which evolved recently and rapidly, are difficult to resolve, and have been the subject of debate. Construction of a reliable Felidae phylogeny will be of evolutionarily significance and conservation value. In this paper, we summarized phylogeny of Felidae, including cytological, morphological and molecular evidence, and pointed out the existing phylogenetic problems. This review is expected to guide future researches of Felidae phylogeny, and to lay a theoretic foundation for the protection of this animal group. PMID:23208134

  3. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; de Kroon, Hans; Conde, Dalia A;

    2013-01-01

    Of the 285 species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks...... in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration...

  4. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  5. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?

    OpenAIRE

    Finarelli, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent analysis of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain–body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body mass). I performed phylogenetically corrected regressions to remove the effects of body mass, calculating correlations between residual values of encephalization with basal metabolic rate (BMR) and six life-history variables (gestation time, neonatal...

  6. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora evolved novel variability, exhibiting a high correlation between relative molar size and the shape of the first molar. Studies of Bmp7-hetero-deficient mice, which may exhibit lower Bmp7 expression, suggested that Bmp7 has pleiotropic effects on these two dental traits. Its effects are consistent with the pattern of dietary adaptation observed in Carnivora, but not that observed in other carnivorous mammals. A molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that Bmp7 sequence evolved by natural selection during ursid evolution, suggesting that it plays an evolutionary role in the variation of carnivoran dentition. Using mouse experiments and a molecular evolutionary analysis, we extrapolated the causal mechanism of the hitherto enigmatic ursid dentition (larger M2 than M1 and M3). Our results demonstrate how carnivorans acquired novel dental variability that benefits their dietary divergence.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the masked palm civet (Paguma larvata, Mammalia, Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Xu, Liwen; Bu, Hongliang; Wang, Di; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the masked palm civet (Paguma larvata, Mammalia, Carnivora) is a circular molecule of 16 710 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region. The features of the mitochondrial genome of the masked palm civet are similar to the other mammals. The phylogenetic analysis shows that all species from the family Viverridae cluster together, in which P. larvata exhibits the closest relationship with Genetta servalina. PMID:26403137

  8. The black-backed jackal (Carnivora: Canidae) in Namibia as intermediate host of two Sarcocystis species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemeier, H H; Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1995-12-01

    Two structurally different sarcocysts are reported from the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) in Namibia by means of light and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. They cannot be attributed to any of the hitherto described Sarcocystis species from Carnivora, of which the ultrastructure of the cyst wall is known. PMID:8745738

  9. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals: implications for their conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Of the 285 species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks, and responses to management strategies. Here we review 38 matrix models from 35 studies on 27 Carnivora taxa, covering 11% of the threatened Carnivora species. We show that the elasticity patterns (i.e. distribution over fecundity, juvenile survival and adult survival in Carnivora cover the same range in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration of important life cycles and their contributions to population growth rate. These general elasticity patterns among species, and their correlation with simple life history characteristics like body mass, age of first reproduction and life span, enables the extrapolation of population dynamical properties to unstudied species. With several examples we discuss how this slow-fast continuum, and related patterns of variation in reproductive loop elasticity, can be used in the formulation of tentative management plans for threatened species that cannot wait for the results of thorough demographic studies. We argue, however, that such management programs should explicitly include a plan for learning about the key demographic rates and how these are affected by environmental drivers and threats.

  10. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora)

    OpenAIRE

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Perelman, Polina L.; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; Alexander S Graphodatsky

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea li...

  11. Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, WeiHua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J; Gary K Beauchamp; Brand, Joseph G

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding reg...

  12. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Olifiers; Rita de C. Bianchi; Guilherme de M. Mourão; Matthew E. Gompper

    2009-01-01

    The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780) build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume w...

  13. Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    The Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) have played a central role in resolving the controversial systematics of the giant and red pandas, but phylogenetic relationships of species within the family itself have received much less attention. Cladistic analyses of morphological characters conducted during the last two decades have resulted in topologies that group ecologically and morphologically similar taxa together. Specifically, the highly arboreal and frugivorous kinkajou (Potos flavus) and olingos (Bassaricyon) define one clade, whereas the more terrestrial and omnivorous coatis (Nasua), raccoons (Procyon), and ringtails (Bassariscus) define another clade, with the similar-sized Nasua and Procyon joined as sister taxa in this latter group. These relationships, however, have not been tested with molecular sequence data. We examined procyonid phylogenetics based on combined data from nine nuclear and two mitochondrial gene segments totaling 6534bp. We were able to fully resolve relationships within the family with strongly supported and congruent results from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analyses. We identified three distinct lineages within the family: a (Nasua, Bassaricyon) clade, a (Bassariscus, Procyon) clade, and a Potos lineage, the last of which is sister to the other two clades. These findings, which are in strong disagreement with prior fossil and morphology-based assessments of procyonid relationships, reemphasize the morphological and ecological flexibility of these taxa. In particular, morphological similarities between unrelated genera possibly reflect convergence associated with similar lifestyles and diets rather than ancestry. Furthermore, incongruence between the molecular supermatrix and a morphological character matrix comprised mostly of dental characters [Baskin, J.A., 2004. Bassariscus and Probassariscus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) from the early Barstovian (Middle Miocene). J. Vert. Paleo. 24

  14. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  15. Evolution and function of fossoriality in the carnivora: implications for group-living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Noonan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The societies of group-living carnivores that neither hunt nor interact cooperatively may arise due to ecological drivers and/or constraints. In this study we evaluate whether group-living may be intrinsically associated with fossoriality; a link that is well supported in other taxa, but hitherto under-evaluated in the Carnivora. We make two over-arching predictions: i that fossoriality will be associated with carnivoran sociality; and ii that this association will be most evident in those species making extended use of subterranean dens. From a meta-analysis of key behavioural, ecological, ontological, and trophic traits, we demonstrate that three quarters of carnivore species exhibit some reliance on underground dens. Congruence between life-history traits and metrics of fossoriality evidenced that: 1 there are phylogenetic, and morphological constraints on wholly fossorial life-histories; 2 fossoriality correlated positively with the extent of offspring altriciality, linked to the use of natal dens; 3 burrow use increased with latitude; and 4 insectivorous carnivores were more fossorial than predatory carnivores. Corroborating work in the Rodentia, fossorial traits associated strongly with carnivoran group-living tendencies, where species utilising subterranean natal dens are 2.5 times more likely to form groups than those that do not. Furthermore, using comparative analyses, we evidence support for an evolutionary relationship between diet, fossoriality and sociality. We propose that fossorial dens act as a safe haven, promoting fitness benefits, territorial inheritance and cooperative breeding. We conclude that, among smaller (<15kg den-using carnivores, and especially for omnivorous/ insectivorous species for which food resource dispersion is favorable, continued cohabitation at natal dens can promote cohabitation among adults; that is, philopatric benefits leading to (not necessarily cooperative spatial groups.

  16. A new basal caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora from the middle Eocene of North America and remarks on the phylogeny of early carnivorans.

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    Susumu Tomiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive. Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans. The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. hutchisoni as a basal caniform carnivoran, and placed (1 Tapocyon robustus, Quercygale angustidens, "Miacis" sylvestris, "M." uintensis, and "M." gracilis inside or outside the Carnivora, (2 nimravids within the Feliformia, and (3 the amphicyonid Daphoenus outside the crown-group Canoidea. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium (neither condition is observed in L. hutchisoni are not associated with the origin of the Carnivora as traditionally thought, but instead occurred independently in the Caniformia and the Feliformia. A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. hutchisoni, and the postcranial morphology suggests a scansorial habit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty

  17. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  18. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780 build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.

  19. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia: a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates

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    Nyakatura Katrin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has proven to be an important foundation for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age. Additional, largely molecular sequence data are now available for many species and the advancement of computer technology means that many of the limitations of the original analysis can now be avoided. We therefore sought to provide an updated estimate of the phylogenetic relationships within all extant Carnivora, again using supertree analysis to be able to analyze as much of the global phylogenetic database for the group as possible. Results In total, 188 source trees were combined, representing 114 trees from the literature together with 74 newly constructed gene trees derived from nearly 45,000 bp of sequence data from GenBank. The greater availability of sequence data means that the new supertree is almost completely resolved and also better reflects current phylogenetic opinion (for example, supporting a monophyletic Mephitidae, Eupleridae and Prionodontidae; placing Nandinia binotata as sister to the remaining Feliformia. Following an initial rapid radiation, diversification rate analyses indicate a downturn in the net speciation rate within the past three million years as well as a possible increase some 18.0 million years ago; numerous diversification rate shifts within the order were also identified. Conclusions Together, the two carnivore supertrees remain the only complete phylogenetic estimates for all extant species and the new supertree, like the old one, will form a key tool in helping us to further understand the biology of this charismatic group of carnivores.

  20. Anatomical description of arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati (Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae

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    Daniel Arrais Biihrer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a widely distributed species in South America, also in Brazil. This study aimed to observe and describe the branching morphology of the main arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati, by comparing the findings with existing literature on the other domestic and wild species. For this study, two adult male specimens were used, collected from highways in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, victims of roadkill. The specimens were fixed in formalin solution and their aortic branches were filled with latex for subsequent dissection and analysis. It was observed that the left subclavian artery is a direct branch of the aortic arch, there is no formation of a bicarotid or celiac-mesenteric trunk, facts similarly described in domestic carnivores. Thus, it was noticed that the arterial branches of aorta in the coati, both in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, show a distribution very similar to that observed in domestic carnivores, something which reflects their evolutionary closeness within the Carnivora order. Thus, this study proves to be relevant by deepening anatomical knowledge on this wild species, enabling that aspects already known in canine veterinary medicine are applied to the coati.

  1. Binturong (Arctictis binturong and Kinkajou (Potos flavus digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates.

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    Joanna E Lambert

    Full Text Available Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue, Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF and acid detergent (ADF fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3; P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6. In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon.

  2. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  3. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes

  4. Ancestral state reconstruction of body size in the Caniformia (Carnivora, Mammalia): the effects of incorporating data from the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, John A; Flynn, John J

    2006-04-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the mammalian order Carnivora implied large body size as the ancestral condition for the caniform subclade Arctoidea using the distribution of species mean body sizes among living taxa. "Extant taxa-only" approaches such as these discount character state observations for fossil members of living clades and completely ignore data from extinct lineages. To more rigorously reconstruct body sizes of ancestral forms within the Caniformia, body size and first appearance data were collected for 149 extant and 367 extinct taxa. Body sizes were reconstructed for four ancestral nodes using weighted squared-change parsimony on log-transformed body mass data. Reconstructions based on extant taxa alone favored large body sizes (on the order of 10 to 50 kg) for the last common ancestors of both the Caniformia and Arctoidea. In contrast, reconstructions incorporating fossil data support small body sizes (fossil data was discarded, body size reconstructions became ambiguous, demonstrating that incorporating both character state and temporal information from fossil taxa unambiguously supports a small ancestral body size, thereby falsifying hypotheses derived from extant taxa alone. Body size reconstructions for Caniformia, Arctoidea, and Musteloidea were not sensitive to potential errors introduced by uncertainty in the position of extinct lineages relative to the molecular topology, or to missing body size data for extinct members of an entire major clade (the aquatic Pinnipedia). Incorporating character state observations and temporal information from the fossil record into hypothesis testing has a significant impact on the ability to reconstruct ancestral characters and constrains the range of potential hypotheses of character evolution. Fossil data here provide the evidence to reliably document trends of both increasing and decreasing body size in several caniform clades. More generally, including fossils in such analyses incorporates evidence of

  5. Professor Alan Turner (1947-2012). Specialist in Miocene-Pleistocene Carnivora, particularly Felidae and Hyaenidae and their palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Hannah; Turner, Adam; Antón, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Alan first trained as a telecom engineer, working for the GPO (General Post Office) which later became British Telecom. He never forgot this early training and was fascinated by how things worked - always happy to take something apart and fix it (although his attempt to close a large plate glass window with a geological hammer was not one of his successes). Following a few years as an engineer, he went to Sheffield University to study archaeology as a mature student in 1973. At this time Sheffield was a hotbed of prehistory with Graeme Barker, Robin Dennell and many others contributing to a truly research-led degree (with tutorials in the pub (well, it was the 1970s)) (Fig. 1). Alan's interest in bones developed at this time, and having graduated in 1976 he went on to take a PhD, supervised by Robin Dennell, on "Aspects of the palaeoecology of large predators, including man, during the British Upper Pleistocene, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships" which resulted in a life-long interest in the Carnivora and particularly hyaenas. Following his PhD, Alan moved to the Environmental Archaeology Unit at York to undertake a Science Research Council project on the morphometrics of domestic cattle and pigs from Coppergate and other major urban excavations in the city. Faced with a lot of measurements and statistics, Alan retained his interest in the animals themselves. The project also confirmed to Alan that prehistory was his metier, rather than the historic periods. Former York colleagues still fondly recall Alan's dry wit, and the day that he successfully put the irritating lab telephone beyond use with no externally visible trace of damage.

  6. A new amphicyonid (Mammalia, Carnivora, Amphicyonidae) from the late middle Miocene of northern Thailand and a review of the amphicyonine record in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigné, Stéphane; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Recent field research conducted in the middle Miocene basin of Mae Moh, northern Thailand, allow discovering dental remains of a new amphicyonid (Mammalia, Carnivora, Amphicyonidae). A thorough comparison with all known Asian and non-Asian Miocene genera of Amphicyonidae supports the assignment of these specimens to a new amphicyonine, Maemohcyon potisati gen. et sp. nov. We propose the first review of the fossil record of the Amphicyoninae and we discuss the possible geographic origin and phylogenetic relationships of this new taxon. It appears that Maemohcyon does not have close relationships with contemporary ( Amphicyon, Pseudocyon, Ischyrocyon, Pliocyon) or earlier ( Ictiocyon, Pseudarctos, Cynelos, Ysengrinia) genera. We suggest that the Maemohcyon lineage probably arrived much earlier than 13 Ma (age of Mae Moh fauna) and evolved in this insulated region until the late middle Miocene.

  7. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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    Susan Ziolkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient’s baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound.

  8. Distribución geográfica, historia natural y conservación del hurón menor Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae en la Patagonia central, Argentina Geographic distribution, natural history and conservation of the lesser grison Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae from Central Patagonia, Argentina

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    Marcelo Carrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El hurón menor, Galictis cuja, tiene una amplia distribución en el territorio patagónico extraandino, aunque sus registros puntuales son escasos. Este trabajo se desarrolló en la provincia del Chubut, Patagonia Central, Argentina. Aquí se aportan nuevas localidades de registro de G. cuja para esta región; se discuten aspectos de su distribución geográfica y conservación en el Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad y brevemente se explora la representación de G. cuja en los ensambles de carnívoros del ANP-PV desde el Holoceno tardío hasta la actualidad. Se adicionaron 18 nuevos registros de G. cuja en Patagonia central. Se detectó un conflicto entre los pobladores y hurones, que motiva la caza de estos últimos. Se verificó un aparente incremento de abundancia de G. cuja en los últimos miles de años, concomitante con la extinción regional o dramática disminución de Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.The Lesser Grison, Galictis cuja, is a species widely distributed in extra-Andean Patagonia, although its records are scarce. This work was carried out in Chubut province, Central Patagonia, Argentina. Here we report new occurrence localities of G. cuja for this region; we discuss aspects of their geographical distribution and conservation in the Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; World Heritage Site and briefly explores the representation of G. cuja in carnivore assemblages of ANP-PV, since the late Holocene to the present. We added 18 new records of G. cuja in Central Patagonia. We detected a conflict between the rural residents and the Lesser Grison, which motivates the hunting of the latter. There was an apparent increase in abundance of G. cuja in the last thousands of years, concomitant with regional extinction or dramatic reduction of Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.

  9. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 612 specimens bearing names of 604 species-group taxa of Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea as of May 2016. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprising 582 holotypes; 16 lectotypes, two of which are newly designated herein; 7 syntypes (15 specimens); and 1 neotype. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections and therefore are not in the database. Thirty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Arthur J. Poole and Viola S. Schantz’s 1942 “Catalog of the Type Specimens of Mammals in the United States National Museum, Including the Biological Surveys Collection” (Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 178). One of these, Lutra iowa Goldman, 1941, was transferred to the National Museum’s Paleobiology Department collection and is mentioned only briefly in this work. Orders and families are arranged systematically following D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder’s 2005 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, third edition, volume 1; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically, and within each currently recognized genus, species and subspecies accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon, type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record. An addendum

  10. Summary of phylogeny in family Felidae of Carnivora%食肉目猫科物种的系统发育学研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 张亚平; 于黎

    2012-01-01

    猫科动物(Felidae)是食肉目中肉食性最强的一科,其中许多成员是人们最熟悉、最引人注目的动物,也 是各地的顶级食肉动物.目前 37 个现存猫科物种中有 36 个已经被列为濒危和稀有对象.食肉目猫科物种的进 化历史是一个快速辐射和较近时期发生的物种形成事件,使得猫科物种之间系统发育关系的重建非常困难,一 直处于广泛争论的状态.构建可靠的猫科系统发育关系,具有重要的进化理论意义和保护生物学价值.文章对 猫科物种的系统发育学研究进展,包括来自于形态学特征、细胞学和分子生物学方面的证据做简要概述,并提 出目前研究中存在的问题.以期对今后猫科物种的系统发育方面的进一步研究工作具有指导意义,并为该类群 的生物多样性资源保护提供科学依据.%Felidae (cats) is one of the strict carnivorous groups in the order Carnivora, many of which are most familiar and spectacular to us. They are the top predators in the world. Thirty-six of 37 living cat species are considered as either "endangered" or "threatened". The relationships among species of the family Felidae, which evolved recently and rapidly, are difficult to resolve, and have been the subject of debate. Construction of a reliable Felidae phylogeny will be of evolu-tionarily significance and conservation value. In this paper, we summarized phylogeny of Felidae, including cytological, morphological and molecular evidence, and pointed out the existing phylogenetic problems. This review is expected to guide future researches of Felidae phylogeny, and to lay a theoretic foundation for the protection of this animal group.

  11. 影响食肉目动物能量学的生态因子%Ecological factors influence energetics in the Order Carnivora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian K. McNAB

    2005-01-01

    The variation of body mass in 62 species of mammals belonging to the Order Carnivora accounts for 86.8% of the variation in their basal rates of metabolism. When four other factors, substrate, food habits, habitat, and latitude, are combined with mass in the analysis, then 98.7% of the total variation in basal rate is accounted for, I.e., these ecological/behavioral factors accounted for 81.1% of the residual variation. Variation in body composition may be another factor influencing basal rate, which may account for the very low basal rates in large arboreal species. The principal mass-independent cause for variation in the basal rate of eutherian mammals is that high rates of energy expenditure, when ecologically feasible, facilitate high reproductive outputs, whereas some habits and environments require low energy expenditures, which lead to low rates of reproduction. Bringing family affiliation into the analysis contributes little to the analysis. Most correlations of physiological parameters with taxonomic affiliation represent crude correlations of ecological and behavioral characteristics with taxonomy. Phylogeny does not determine the states of malleable characters, except as it reflects ecology and behavior%在食肉目的62种动物中,体重的变异可以解释基础代谢率86.8%的变化.当栖息基底、食性、生境和纬度等4个因素与体重合起来一起分析,则可以解释基础代谢率98.7% 的变化, 即这些生态和行为因子可以解释代谢率残差变异的81.1%.身体成分也是影响基础代谢率的另一个因素,可以解释一些大型树栖种类的较低的代谢率.除体重因素外,导致真兽类基础代谢率变异的主要原因是:当生态因素适合时,高水平的能量消耗可以促进动物的高繁殖输出,而动物的某些习性和生存环境则会要求低能量消耗,从而使繁殖率降低.当以科为单元进行分析时,对结果没有影响.生理参数与分类单元之间大多数的

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Mustela eversmannii (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Honghai; Sun, Guolei; Zhao, Chao; Dou, Huashan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Steppe polecat, Mustela eversmannii, was sequenced for the first time using muscle tissue. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16 463 bp in length and overall base composition is A (32.7%), T (27.3%), C (26.1%), and G (13.9%), which indicates a strong A-T bias. A phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 13 protein-coding genes and two rRNA genes of 10 Mustela species' mitochondrial genomes using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) demonstrated that these Mustela species were clustered into two clades and M. eversmannii was close to M. putorius. PMID:26367202

  13. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  14. Ectoparasites of Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae from an urban forest in Southeastern Brazil Ectoparasitos de quatis Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae em uma floresta urbana no sudeste brasileiro

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    A.F.S.F. Rodrigues

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Em um fragmento de mata na área urbana de Juiz de Fora (MG foram capturados 15 quatis com armadilha e ceva, para estudo dos seus ectoparasitos. Outros quatro animais, atropelados no entorno, foram também examinados imediatamente após o atropelamento, e incluídos na análise. Os ectoparasitos foram removidos com a utilização de pinça e pente-fino e acondicionados em etanol 70°GL. Pulgas e piolhos foram clarificados e montados para análise em microscopia. Os ixodídeos foram identificados sob estereoscopia. Não foram encontrados carrapatos adultos. Larvas e ninfas de carrapatos foram encontradas, respectivamente, em 36,8% e 63,1% dos hospedeiros examinados. Ninfas que sofreram muda foram identificadas como Amblyomma cajenennse. A espécie de piolho Neotrichodectes pallidus foi obtida em 52,6% dos quatis. As pulgas Ctenocephalides felis felis e Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi apresentaram, respectivamente, as seguintes prevalências: 36,8% e 35,1%. O estudo mostra que no fragmento de mata na área urbana os quatis podem manter espécies de ectoparasitos comuns a estes hospedeiros, bem como intercambia-las entre o ambiente silvestre e urbano.

  15. Predictive equations for the estimation of body size in seals and sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Body size plays an important role in pinniped ecology and life history. However, body size data is often absent for historical, archaeological, and fossil specimens. To estimate the body size of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) for today and the past, we used 14 commonly preserved cranial measurements to develop sets of single variable and multivariate predictive equations for pinniped body mass and total length. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to test whether separate family specific regressions were more appropriate than single predictive equations for Pinnipedia. The influence of phylogeny was tested with phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). The accuracy of these regressions was then assessed using a combination of coefficient of determination, percent prediction error, and standard error of estimation. Three different methods of multivariate analysis were examined: bidirectional stepwise model selection using Akaike information criteria; all-subsets model selection using Bayesian information criteria (BIC); and partial least squares regression. The PCA showed clear discrimination between Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and Phocidae (earless seals) for the 14 measurements, indicating the need for family-specific regression equations. The PIC analysis found that phylogeny had a minor influence on relationship between morphological variables and body size. The regressions for total length were more accurate than those for body mass, and equations specific to Otariidae were more accurate than those for Phocidae. Of the three multivariate methods, the all-subsets approach required the fewest number of variables to estimate body size accurately. We then used the single variable predictive equations and the all-subsets approach to estimate the body size of two recently extinct pinniped taxa, the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus). Body size estimates using single variable regressions generally under or over-estimated body size; however, the all-subset regression produced body size estimates that were close to historically recorded body length for these two species. This indicates that the all-subset regression equations developed in this study can estimate body size accurately. PMID:24916814

  16. Molecular detection of Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in procyonids (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

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    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to diagnose the natural infection of captive and free-living procyonids with Trypanosoma evansi in the states of Amapá and Pará, Brazil. From February 2012 to August 2013, whole blood samples and blood smears were obtained from 45 free-living procyonids and from nine procyonids kept in captivity in wild life refuges and zoobotanical parks in the states of Amapá and Pará. Whole blood samples were collected and kept at -20ºC for the detection of T. evansi DNA by PCR using the RoTat 1.2 forward and RoTat 1.2 reverse primers. In addition, the blood smears were processed and examined for the presence of trypomastigote forms of T. evansi. T. evansi DNA was detected in 18.52% (10/54 of the procyonids, namely, in captive crab-eating raccoons and captive and free-living coatis in Pará State. No trypomastigote forms were observed in the blood smears. DNA from T. evansi was detected in P. cancrivorus and N. nasua in Pará State, being this the first such report in P. cancrivorus.

  17. Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive coatis (Nasua nasua Storr, 1780 (Carnivora: Procyonidae

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    H Langoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide infection that affects many species, including wild animals. The present study aimed to detect Leptospira spp. antibodies in 17 captive coatis (Nasua nasua by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Nine (52.94% animals tested positive and the following serovars were identified: Copenhageni (22.22%, Shermani (22.22%, Andamana (11.11%, Wolfii (11.11% and Pyrogenes (11.11%. Two samples presented coagglutination, one (11.11% for Hebdomadis and Wolfii, and another (11.11% for Hebdomadis, Hardjo and Wolfii. The current study revealed the presence of the infection even in animals without any clinical signs, reinforcing the possibility that wild animals in captivity may be infected by leptospire serovars, thus enabling reservoirs.

  18. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. PMID:22017133

  19. First larval record of Mesocestoides in carnivora of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Pérez Rivero, Alfredo; Santana Morales, María A; Kabdur, Alicia; González, Ana C; Quispe Ricalde, M Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

    2007-02-01

    Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. were recovered in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in 2004 from the peritoneal cavities of 2 domestic dogs and a domestic cat. Morphological and molecular identification were carried out. Mesocestoides litteratus from Vulpes vulpes was sequenced for the first time using the ITS-2 region (18S rDNA), and was included in the phylogenetic analysis to compare the sequence variability among these and other Mesocestoides spp. belonging to different carnivores. Phylogenetic studies were carried out based on maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analysis. The results showed the relationships between these and other previously published Mesocestoides species. Moreover, it is demonstrated that Mesocestoides sp. from Tenerife comprises a previously unreported sequence. This is the first larval record of Mesocestoides sp. in domestic animals from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

  20. Comparative molecular phylogeny and evolution of sex chromosome DNA sequences in the family Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Ayako; Fukui, Daisuke; Ueda, Miya; Tada, Kazumi; Toyoshima, Shouji; Takami, Kazutoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Uraguchi, Kohji; Raichev, Evgeniy; Kaneko, Yayoi; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family Canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the Y chromosome (ZFY, 924-1146 bp) and its homologous gene on the X chromosome (ZFX, 834-839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. The phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal ZFY sequences closely agreed with those by mtDNA and autosomal DNA trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between the wolf-like canids clade and the South American canids clade. However, the branching order of some species differed between phylogenies of ZFY and ZFX genes: Cuon alpinus and Canis mesomelas were included in the wolf-like canid clades in the ZFY tree, whereas both species were clustered in a group of Chrysocyon brachyurus and Speothos venaticus in the ZFX tree. The topology difference between ZFY and ZFX trees may have resulted from the two-times higher substitution rate of the former than the latter, which was clarified in the present study. In addition, two types of transposable element sequence (SINE-I and SINE-II) were found to occur in the ZFY final intron of the twelve canid species examined. Because the SINE-I sequences were shared by all the species, they may have been inserted into the ZFY of the common ancestor before species radiation in Canidae. By contract, SINE-II found in only Canis aureus could have been inserted into ZFY independently after the speciation. The molecular diversity of SINE sequences of Canidae reflects evolutionary history of the species radiation. PMID:22379982

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis chinensis (Carnivora:Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Xu, Jie-Tian; Zou, Fang-Dong; Peng, Que-Kun; Peng, Rui

    2016-09-01

    The full-length of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Prionailurus bengalensis chinensis was first determined in this study and consisted of a 16,990 bp fragment, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region (CR), and an origin of L-strand replication (OLR). The total base composition of the heavy strand was A, 33.0%; G, 13.6%; C, 26.0%; and T, 27.4%, with a slight AT bias of 60.4%. The complete mitogenomic data of P. b. chinensis may provide an important data set for further phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses of Genus Prionailurus species. PMID:25629472

  2. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  3. New Information About The Behavior Of Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae By Radio-Telemetry

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    Nakano-Oliveira E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira, Roberto Fusco, Etiene A. V. Dos Santos, Emygdio L. A. CDuring the development of a study about a community of carnivorous mammals, an otter was captured and equiped with a radio transmitter in an area of mangrove in the south coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. This study verified that: 1 - the animal used at least three burrows without communication between them. 2 – the most used burrow was at a distance of 2,6 km from the capture place; 3 - this individual usually moved between two islands that were separated by an estuary whose medium width was of approximately 1 km; 4 – it spent a long period on a small island of approximately 0,06 Km2 where a muddy substratum prevailed, not allowing the construction of a burrow. In spite of the little time that the otter stayed with the radio-transmitter, the data obtained are of relevant importance as they show an unknown activity pattern, besides showing in a short period some patterns of burrow use. Even though the otter removed its radio-collar, it didn’t cause any damage to the individual and it allowed the registration of behaviour patterns that had not been described before. Based upon the radio-transmitter as adapted, new perspectives open up for the effective study of this species, increasing the possibilities of obtaining data about activity patterns and home range for Lontra longicaudis.

  4. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger) (Carnivora, Canidae) in southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cory T. de Carvalho; Luiz E. M. Vasconcellos

    1995-01-01

    The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782). It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II) to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gat...

  5. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997516

  6. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  7. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo) (Carnivora: Felidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; Noll, Jéssica Caroline Gomes; Freitas, Ítallo Barros de; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time. PMID:27580395

  8. Occurrence (new record of maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (Carnivora, Canidae in southern Brazil

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    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.

  9. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger (Carnivora, Canidae in southeast Brazil

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    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.

  10. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  11. Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae from Panama

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    Roberto Miranda C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods. There were surveyed 720 canines belonging to 57 communities. Results. The results showed that 84% of the dogs were infested with at least one species of ectoparasite. Dogs from lowlands showed a higher percentage of parasitism and a greater biodiversity of parasites than dogs from highlands. There were found seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice, and one specie of botfly. The ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale and the flea Ctenocephalides felis were widespread; however Ixodes boliviensis and Pulex simulans showed a much narrower geographic distribution and they were found only in dogs from highlands. The flea species Rhopalopsyllus cacicus and the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found for the first time in panamanian dogs. Conclusions. The environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts. This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors.

  12. New Information About The Behavior Of Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) By Radio-Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano-Oliveira E.; Fusco R.; Dos Santos E.A.V.; Monteiro-Filho E.L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira, Roberto Fusco, Etiene A. V. Dos Santos, Emygdio L. A. CDuring the development of a study about a community of carnivorous mammals, an otter was captured and equiped with a radio transmitter in an area of mangrove in the south coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. This study verified that: 1 - the animal used at least three burrows without communication between them. 2 – the most used burrow was at a distance of 2,6 km from the capture place; 3 - this i...

  13. First Record of Postcranial Bones in Devinophoca emryi (Carnivora, Phocidae, Devinophocinae

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    Rahmat S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Devinophoca emryi material from the early Badenian, early Middle Miocene (16.26–14.89 Ma presents mixed cranial and especially postcranial characters with the three extant phocid subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Monachinae and Phocinae, as well as unique postcranial characters not seen in any taxa. These distinguishing characters (i. e. well-outlined, large oval facet on greater tubercle of humerus; broader width between the head and lesser tubercle of humerus; femoral proximal epiphysis larger than distal; thin innominate ilium that is excavated on ventral surface demonstrate that this material belongs to a recently described species (D. emryi. During ecomorphotype analyses, fossil humerus and femur bones were directly associated with their corresponding mandible to reveal associations based on Recent morphological analogues. Strong correlation between ecomorphotypes and postcranial morphology supports placement of this material to D. emryi and not its sister taxon, D. claytoni. The previously described skull, mandible and teeth and postcranial bones described herein were discovered at the same locality during excavations at the base of the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Slovakia, at the junction of the Morava and Danube rivers. The geological age of D. emryi and the presence of mixed characters strongly suggest that this species was an early relative to the ancestor of seals, possibly being a terminal branch of the phocid tree. This material allows for emended diagnoses of the species, updated assessments of geographical distribution and provides further material for clarification of controversial phylogenetic relationships in Phocidae.

  14. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology.

  15. Cats in the forest : predicting habitat adaptations from humerus morphometry in extant and fossil Felidae (Carnivora).

    OpenAIRE

    Meloro, C; Elton, S.; Louys, J.; Bishop, L.C.; Ditchfield, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores are rarely incorporated in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, largely because of their rarity within the fossil record. However, multivariate statistical modeling can be successfully used to quantify specific anatomical features as environmental predictors. Here we explore morphological variability of the humerus in a closely related group of predators (Felidae) to investigate the relationship between morphometric descriptors and habitat categories. We analyze linear mea...

  16. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irineo, Gabriela; Santos-Moreno, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22 km2) during a two years period (March 2011-June, 2013), in Oaxaca state, Southeast Mexico. Data allowed the estimation of the population density, activity pattern, sex ratio, residence time, and spatial distribution. Population density was calculated using Capture-Recapture Models for demographically open populations; besides, circular techniques were used to determine if nocturnal and diurnal activity varied significantly over the seasons, and Multiple Discriminant Analysis was used to determine which of the selected environmental variables best explained ocelot abundance in the region. A total of 103 ocelot records were obtained, with a total sampling effort of 8,529 trap-days. Density of 22-38 individuals/100 km2 was estimated. Ocelot population had a high proportion of transient individuals in the zone (55%), and the sex ratio was statistically equal to 1:1. Ocelot activity was more frequent at night (1:00-6:00h), but it also exhibited diurnal activity throughout the study period. Ocelot spatial distribution was positively affected by the proximity to the village as well as by the amount of prey. The ocelot population here appears to be stable, with a density similar to other regions in Central and South America, which could be attributed to the diversity of prey species and a low degree of disturbance in Los Chimalapas. PMID:25720177

  17. Is it possible to identify four small Neotropical felids (Carnivora: Felidae based on hair microstructure?

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    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and L. pardalis. To accomplish that, we used measurements of the length, width and area of the cuticular scales in the guard hairs and calculated the relationship between width and length (quotient for each species. A multiple discriminant analysis was conducted on the measurements and the percentage of correct identification was obtained. We found a high overlap in the quotients of these species, which indicates that this technique does not identify Neotropical felids accurately. This inefficiency was also confirmed by the multiple discriminant analysis, where only 74% correct identifications were obtained. Therefore we recommend that hair analysis is used only in combination with other sources of evidence, for instance molecular tools.

  18. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rafael; Moreno, Ricardo S; Kays, Roland W; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot's parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult's increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. PMID:19256443

  19. Is it possible to identify four small Neotropical felids (Carnivora: Felidae) based on hair microstructure?

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi; Flávia Heloisa Rodriguez; Fernando C. Passos

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and...

  20. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  1. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Pérez-Irineo; Antonio Santos-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22km 2 ) durin...

  2. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol. PMID:26666134

  3. A Study on Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; YİĞİT, Nuri; Sözen, Mustafa

    1999-01-01

    In this study, five specimens of Mustela nivalis collected from five localities in Turkey were examined based on karyological, morphological, bacular and some ecological aspects. The karyotype of M. nivalis has 2n=42, NFa=72 and FN=76. The baculum seems to be similar to that of specimens of M. nivalis dinniki from Erivan (Armenia).

  4. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

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    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  5. Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil

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    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.

  6. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

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    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos não-voadores e aves foram os itens mais freqüentes, sendo proporcionalmente mais predados no outono e no verão, respectivamente. Artrópodos foram mais predados no inverno e na primavera e ovos de aves e/ou répteis somente no verão e na primavera, período de reprodução nestes dois grupos.

  7. New evidence of the sabertooth cat Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae in the late Pleistocene of southern Chilean Patagonia Nueva evidencia del gato dientes de sable Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae en el Pleistoceno tardío de Patagonia meridional chilena

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    ALFREDO PRIETO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil dental evidence that supports the presence of Smilodon populator (Lund in the region. This evidence corresponds to the most southern record of the genus in the world, and the final step in the colonization of South America after the Great American Biotic Interchange. An AMS radiocarbon date on teeth indicates that the remains from Southern Chilean Patagonia are the most recent record for the genus in South America.Surpatagonia es particularmente rica en mamíferos finiplesitocenos, particularmente camélidos, équidos y xenartros. Los carnívoros, por su parte, se encuentran representados en menor número en el registro paleontológico. Dentro de estos, el género Smilodon, es de particular interés debido a que su presencia en la región no ha sido convincentemente demostrada. En este trabajo presentamos evidencia dental que permite confirmar la presencia de Smilodon populator (Lund en la región. Esta evidencia corresponde al registro más sureño de este taxón y al paso final en la colonización de América del Sur después del Gran Intercambio Biótico Americano. Un fechado radiocarbónico directo AMS indica que los restos de Patagonia del Sur corresponden a los registros más tardíos para este género en el subcontinente.

  8. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Pedó; Ana C. Tomazzoni; Sandra M. Hartz; Alexandre U. Christoff

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  9. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae no sul do Brasil

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    Moisés Gallas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5 were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.Para o Brasil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 foi registrada em cinco espécies de felídeos silvestres. No presente estudo, cinco gatos-do-mato-pequenos (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775, vítimas de atropelamento, foram coletados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões crônicas causadas por O. pardalis foram observadas no intestino delgado de um dos espécimes. Cortes histológicos permitiram a identificação de um infiltrado leucocitário bem definido e uma área de fibrose do colágeno. Somente machos (n = 5 de O. pardalis foram encontrados, com prevalência de 20%. O ciclo biológico das espécies de Oligacanthorhynchus é pouco conhecido, no entanto, artrópodes foram considerados como hospedeiros intermediários. A baixa prevalência encontrada pode estar relacionada ao número de hospedeiros examinados, bem como, com a ingestão de poucos artrópodes infectados por larvas de O. pardalis. Este é o primeiro registro de O. pardalis parasitando L. tigrinus para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  10. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  11. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Gallas; Eliane Fraga da Silvera

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n...

  12. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae) Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae)

    OpenAIRE

    João M. D. Miranda; Itiberê P. Bernardi; Kauê C. Abreu; Fernando C. Passos

    2005-01-01

    There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). With our document...

  13. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports on puma (Puma concolor have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in order to provide protected habitats and assure the genetic flow amongst puma populations.

  14. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Several reports on puma (Puma concolor) have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in or...

  15. Population and prey of the Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Felidae in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

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    M.M.H. Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results from intensive small scale surveys are often difficult to extrapolate to wider spatial scales, yet an understanding at such scales is critical for assessing the minimum densities and populations of rare and wide ranging species. In this paper, the minimum size of population and minimum density estimates of Bengal Tigers Panthera tigris tigris and its prey were conducted from 2005 to 2007 using camera traps for 90 days and using distance sampling surveys for over 200 days, respectively. The results were extrapolated from the core study area in Katka-Kochikhali, southeastern Sundarbans, to five additional sites using indices of abundance. With the use of 10 camera-traps at 15 trap-points, field data provided a total of 829 photos, including seven photos of five individual tigers. A total of 5.0 (SE = 0.98 tigers (adults and sub-adults are thus estimated in the core area with an estimated density of 4.8 tigers/100km2. Distance sampling surveys conducted on large mammalian prey species obtained an overall density estimate of 27.9 individuals/km2 and a biomass density of 1,037kg/km2. Indices of abundance were obtained by using tiger track sighting rates (number of tracks/km of riverbank and the sighting rates of the prey species (number of prey/km of riverbank in the core area and in five additional sites across the region. The densities of tiger tracks and sighting rates of prey were strongly correlated suggesting a wide scale relationship between predator and prey in the region. By combining the estimates of absolute density with indices of abundance, an average of 3.7 tigers/100km2 across the region is estimated, which given an area of 5,770km2, predicts a minimum of approximately 200 tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

  16. CT scanning analysis of Megantereon whitei (Carnivora, Machairodontinae) from Monte Argentario (Early Pleistocene, central Italy): evidence of atavistic teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Sardella, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    CT scanning analysis applied to vertebrate palaeontology is providing an increasing number of data of great interest. This method can be used in many branches of palaeontology such as the investigation of all the fossilized elements in a hard matrix and the hidden structures in the bones. A large number of pathologies are "hidden", completely or partially invisible on the external surface of the bones because their development took place within the bones. However, the study of these diseases and abnormalities plays a crucial role in our understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes of extinct taxa. The analysis of a partial skeleton of the sabre-toothed felid Megantereon whitei from the Early Pleistocene karst filling deposits of Monte Argentario (Tuscany, Italy) has been carried out. The CT scanning analysis put in evidence the presence of supernumerary teeth (P2) and the absence of P3 in the mandible. The occurrence of P2 can be considered as an evidence of atavism. Such an archaic feature is recorded for the first time in Megantereon.

  17. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaicka, Ligia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E; Wayne, Robert K; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  18. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  19. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae) in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Prerna; Advait Edgaonkar; Yogesh Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%), vegetative matter (24.38%), Chital (21.61%), Nilgai (9.57%), rodent (1.54%), birds (1.23%), Sambar (0.62%) and Wild Pig (0.31%) were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential ...

  20. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

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    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%, vegetative matter (24.38%, Chital (21.61%, Nilgai (9.57%, rodent (1.54%, birds (1.23%, Sambar (0.62% and Wild Pig (0.31% were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential prey killed by jackals, 89.4kg came from Chital and 10.6kg came from Nilgai calves.  The impact that predation can have on the ungulate population in an enclosed area is discussed. 

  1. A preliminary baseline status of the Syrian Brown Bear Ursus arctos syriacus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Golestanak, Northern Iran

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    Mohammad Sadegh Farhadinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information is lacking for the Syrian Brown Bear across the sub-species range, making it difficult to assess at any level.  In the present investigation, our goal was to illustrate the population status of the Brown Bear in the Golestanak area, northern Iran, based on field surveys we conducted during the summers of 2011 and 2012.  We counted a total of 30 and 21 bears in two consecutive years, with family groups consisting of more than half of the identified individuals.  Sub-adults had the lowest contribution among the observed individuals, just below 10%, which may be due to their high dispersal behaviour to avoid adults.  Our results provide a foundation for future systematic baseline investigations on the population status of the brown bear in northern Iran, which can be used in management programs.  Aside from improving monitoring efforts within key habitats of the species, enhancing conservation efforts to secure the population is essential to safeguard this female core area. 

  2. [Feeding habits of raccoon (Procyon lotor) (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in a coastal, tropical wet forest of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Wong, G; Rodríguez, M A

    2001-01-01

    Raccoon (Procyon lotor) food habits were studied at Manuel Antonio National Park, a tropical rain forest in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica from May to December 1987, from September to December 1989 and from January to April 1990. A 134 feces sample size was used to assess the most important items in raccoon diet: two crab species (Gecarcinus quadratus and Cardisoma crassum) with a relative frequency of 0.94 in the rainy season of 1987, 0.76 in the rainy season of 1989 and 0.65 in the dry season of 1990. Fruits were the second category in importance, with relative frequencies of 0.09 for 1987, 0.32 for 1989 and 0.44 for 1990.

  3. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae, appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

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    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km² and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more diurnal, with a cathemeral activity pattern, when the other cats were present. Oncilla is likely to be in a subordinate position in interactions with larger cats and changes its activity to decrease the chances for interspecific encounters. In this study, however, the presence of other cat species covaries with habitat changes (from coastal forest patches to dense evergreen forests. We also verified the highest oncilla relative abundance in an area with no sympatric larger cats, with abundance decreasing when it was in sympatry with margay, ocelot and puma. Our results, together with recent records of oncilla in other degraded landscapes of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, provide evidence that oncillas may thrive even in harsh environments where other cats have already been extinct. This raise interesting conservation insights, as in the absence of other cats, L. tigrinus may assume a top predator role of these impoverished vertebrate communities.

  4. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

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    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTU's, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

  7. Selection of habitat by the jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae, in the upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Laury Cullen Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used data from VHF and GPS radio-tagged jaguars, Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 to quantify jaguar habitat selection and how adult individuals in the Upper Paraná River region selected among the available habitat types. We followed the framework in which animals make decisions about resource use at hierarchical stages, namely selection of home range within a study area (second-order selection and selection of patches within a home range (third-order selection. We quantified habitat preferences at two orders of selection with respect to habitat types and to test the null hypothesis that habitat utilization by jaguars was random at both study sites. Using compositional analysis, we assessed habitat selection by jaguars at second- and third-orders of selection. Jaguars consistently preferred dense marshes and primary forests, and avoided human-dominated areas such as intensively managed open pastures. Although the avoidance of disturbed and developed habitat types by jaguars is not surprising, this is the first study to document it. If small protected areas, such as the ones already existing in the Upper Paraná region, are to sustain jaguar populations they, must include and protect as many primary forests and marshlands as possible, so that jaguars can disperse, hunt wild prey and take care of their cubs without being disturbed. What is urgently needed in these jaguar-protected areas is the creation of larger protected areas that can sustain jaguars in their favored habitat.

  8. Feeding of small Neotropical felids (Felidae: Carnivora and trophic niche overlap in anthropized mosaic landscape of South Brazil

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    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the diversity of a community and its dynamics is especially important in altered habitats such as agricultural fields, where this information can help biodiversity conservation programs. In an altered landscape of the interior Atlantic Forest, western Paraná State, Brazil (25º41’ to 25º20’S and 53º56’ to 54º35’W, samples (310 were collected and a total of 110 samples could be determined for some small Neotropical felids, including 39 Leopardus guttulus (oncilla, 38 L. wiedii (margay and 33 Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarondi. The diets of these felids contained typical synanthropic prey such as Mus musculus in 44% (L. guttulus, 32% (L. wiedii and 15% (P. yagouaroundi of the total samples. This observation and the sample collection in agricultural places demonstrate that felids can use this anthropized landscape. The small mammals (<100 g were more common in the diet of these species. Nevertheless, the correction factor was shown to have significant efficiency in correcting estimates of biomass ingested for two of the three species of felids, and we therefore recommend that these species be used in future studies. Even with this observed coexistence, the food niche of the three species showed a large overlap.

  9. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae), appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos; Maurício E. Graipel; Marcos A. Tortato; Carlos A. Zucco; Nilton C. Cáceres; Fernando V. B. Goulart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775), a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km²) and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more d...

  10. First record of Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in stratigraphic context in the Late Pleistocene of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sergio G.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H.; Rodrigues, Shirlley; Morgan, Cecilia C.; Bernardes, Camila; Avilla, Leonardo; Lynch, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Although five genera of procyonids are currently present in South America, only two of the extant genera, Procyon and Nasua are represented in the South American fossil record. A recent discovery of a procyonid lower second molar in Late Pleistocene deposits of Aurora do Tocantins, northern Brazil, offers potential to further our understanding of the stratigraphic and temporal range of South American fossil procyonids. We use geometric morphometric analysis of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks to explore morphological variation in the lower second molars of extant Procyon lotor and Procyon cancrivorus and multivariate methods to support the identification of the Pleistocene specimen as P. cancrivorus. This material represents the second fossil record of P. cancrivorus in South America Procyonids entered South America in two phases: the first comprising by Cyonasua and Chapadmalania during the Late Miocene, and the other recent genera, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. These Late Miocene procyonids were more carnivorous than Late Pleistocene-Recent omnivorous taxa and possible went extinct due to competition with other placental carnivorans that entered South America and diversified during the latest Pliocene-Early Pleistocene.

  11. Study on Pleistocene Fossil Cats (Carnivora, Felidae) From a Limestone Cave in Kenting, Southern Taiwan, East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yi; Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Chee

    2016-04-01

    The limestone cave, Lobster Cave, located in the Kenting National Park of southern Taiwan, is yielding numerous Pleistocene mammalian fossils buried within the continental deposits. In this study, fossil molars of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) recovered from the same horizon in the cave, were examined. Three isolated felid molars; p3, p4 and m1, having a series of progressive increase in size, were believed as belonged to the same individual. Traditional linear measurement and two-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis for the occlusal surface outlines have been conducted on the fossil molars; comparisons were also done with the extant clouded leopard. Results obtained have shown that the cave fossil clouded leopard is closer to the extant clouded leopard in molar characters; but, are slightly larger than the extant ones in their size. Nevertheless, even the clouded leopard in Taiwan was regarded as to have been extinct and its past existence has still been in doubt, the current study revealed that the clouded leopards have inhabited in Taiwan since Pleistocene, and has a larger body size than that of the recent one.

  12. EVOLUTION OF CRANIAL CAVITIES IN GIANT PANDAS( AILUROPODA, CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA )%大熊猫颅内腔的演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董为; 张觉非

    2011-01-01

    描述比较了早更新世大熊猫小种(Ailuropoda microta)、晚更新世大熊猫巴氏种(A.baconi)、现生大熊猫(A.melanoleuca)和北极熊(Ursus maritimus)的虚拟三维颅内模.大熊猫脑窝内模的形态在小种、巴氏种和现生种之间大致相似,而与北极熊区分明显.大熊猫的脑窝内模容积从小种到巴氏种呈增大趋势,但从巴氏种到现生种呈减小趋势.大熊猫的大脑沟回在脑窝内模上留下的印痕非常明显,并从小种经巴氏种到现生种则呈稳定增长趋势.相反,北极熊的大脑沟回在脑窝内模上留下的印痕不明显,而血管印痕在脑窝枕区的两侧很明显.嗅球窝内模腹部的纵沟在大熊猫小种发育,在巴氏种较弱,在大熊猫现生种几乎不存在,而在北极熊较发育.大熊猫的脑量商在小种、巴氏种和现生种之间差别不大,但大熊猫的脑量商明显大于北极熊.大熊猫的副鼻窦在小种、巴氏种和现生种之间的差别不大,但与北极熊差别较大.大熊猫的额窦很长、较高、背侧脊形,而北极熊的额窦长度相对较短、高度较低、宽度稍大、背侧平缓.大熊猫的上颌窦较宽,而北极熊的则较窄.大熊猫的蝶窦很小,而北极熊的则较大,覆盖在脑腔前侧.大熊猫这3个不同时期的种与北极熊在颅内腔上这些明显的差异支持将大熊猫从熊科中独立出来的分类.%Three-dimensional virtual cranial endocasts of the Early Pleistocene Ailuropocla microta, the late Pleistocene A. baconi, extant A. melanoleuca and Ursus maritimus were described and compared.The morphologies of cranial endocasts of giant pandas are generally similar to each other, but quite different from that of the polar bear. The intracranial volumes appear the smallest in A. microta, intermediate in A. melanoleuca, and the largest in A. baconi. The sulci and gyri impressions are developed on cranial endocasts of the giant pandas, more so in A. rnelanoleuca than in A. microta. On the contrary,they are not developed on the cranial endocast of the polar bear, but the blood vessel impressions are developed on the lateral occipital sides in the polar bears. The ventral longitudinal groove on olfactory endocast is developed in A. microta, weak in A. baconi, nearly absent in A. melanoleuca, but well developed in Ursus maritimus. The encephalization quotient is similar among A. microta, A. baconi and A. melanoleuca, but it is much greater for giant pandas than in the polar bear. The morphology of the paranasal sinuses is also similar among giant pandas, but different from that of the polar bear.The frontal sinuses of giant pandas are rather long, quite high and dorsally ridgy, but those of the polar bear are shorter, relatively lower, wider and dorsally flat. The maxillary sinuses of giant pandas are relatively wide, but those of the polar bear are narrow. The sphenoid sinuses of giant pandas are all small, but those of the polar bear are large and cover the anterior portion of the braincase. These endocranial differences between giant pandas and the polar bear support the classification of giant pandas as an independent family.

  13. No need to replace an “anomalous” primate (Primates) with an “anomalous” bear (Carnivora, Ursidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Pine, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative “yeti”, “bigfoot”, and other “anomalous primate” hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an “anomalous primate”, but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  14. No need to replace an “anomalous” primate (Primates with an “anomalous” bear (Carnivora, Ursidae

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    Eliécer Gutiérrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative “yeti”, “bigfoot”, and other “anomalous primate” hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an “anomalous primate”, but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus, but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos, the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  15. Anatomy of the “false thumb” of Tremarctos ornatus (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae: phylogenetic and functional implications

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    Salesa, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the radial sesamoid or “false thumb” of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus, showing its great morphological similarities with that of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca and the differences with that of the rest of the Ursidae. This points to the existence of a common origin for this structure in both species, but considering the accepted phylogenies of ursids, the sharing of a “false thumb” in T. ornatus and A. melanoleuca would be a plesiomorphy for these groups, whereas in the rest of the ursids the radial sesamoid was probably reduced, lacking the specialised function that this bone has in Tremarctinae and Ailuropodinae.Se describe por primera vez el sesamoideo radial o “falso pulgar” del oso de anteojos (Tremarctos ornatus, mostrando la gran similitud morfológica con el del panda gigante (Ailuropoda melanoleuca y las diferencias que presenta con el resto de los Ursidae. Esto apunta a la existencia de un origen común para esta estructura en ambas especies, pero considerando las filogenias aceptadas de Ursidae, la presencia de falso pulgar en T. ornatus y A. melanoleuca sería una simplesiomorfía respecto al resto de úrsidos, en los cuales el sesamoideo radial nunca aumentó de tamaño, careciendo de la especializada función que posee en Tremarctinae y Ailuropodinae.

  16. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia) and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M S L; Machado, R; Barbieri, F; Freitas, N S; Oliveira, L R

    2013-02-01

    Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp.) in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival. PMID:23644801

  17. Morfo-histologia dos pulmões e árvore bronquial de Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora: Procyonidae

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    J.F.F.S. Paranaíba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nenhuma característica dos seres vivos é tão primordial quanto a respiração, e os pulmões são os principais órgãos do sistema respiratório. Este estudo tem por objetivo descrever os aspectos macroscópicos da traqueia, dos brônquios e dos lobos pulmonares bem como os aspectos microscópicos dos brônquios pulmonares do mão-pelada e compará-los com dados da literatura de estudos realizados com mamíferos silvestres e domésticos. Utilizaram-se três exemplares de Procyon cancrivorus, que foram fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Os pulmões e a traqueia foram dissecados e fotografados com câmera fotográfica digital (Câmera Sony a200, 10.2mpx. Para a identificação das características microscópicas, foram coletados fragmentos de cada brônquio seguindo as técnicas de rotina histológica. O pulmão do Procyon cancrivorus se divide em quatro lobos direito e dois lobos esquerdo e a traqueia apresenta cerca de 31 a 34 anéis. Os brônquios extrapulmonares se dividem em direito e esquerdo; o direito se subdivide em brônquios lobares cranial, médio, acessório e caudal, e o esquerdo em lobares cranial e caudal, com seus respectivos brônquios segmentares. Microscopicamente, os brônquios apresentam um epitélio prismático pseudoestratificado ciliado com células caliciformes e feixes de fibras de musculatura lisa, placas de cartilagem hialina e fibras elásticas. O conhecimento da morfologia desses órgãos nas espécies silvestres auxilia em estudos descritivos e/ou comparativos entre espécies.

  18. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  19. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

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    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  20. A study on karyotype of Small-toothed palm civet, Arctogalidia trivirgata (Carnivora, Viverridae by using conventional staining method

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    Dumnui, S.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first karyotypic study of Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females kept in Dusit Zoo, Bangkok. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr. in presence of Colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa's staining were applied to stain the chromosome. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome of Small-toothed palm civet was 2n = 40, the fundamental number (NF was 66 in both male and female. The type of autosomes were 2 large metacentric, 2 large submetacentric, 8 large acrocentric, 4 large telocentric, 4 medium submetacentric, 4 medium telocentric, 4 small metacentric, 2 small submetacentric, 2 small acrocentric and 6 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, chromosome 17 showed a clearly observable satellite. X-chromosome was the large metacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest acrocentric chromosome.The karyotype formula for the male Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+Y = Lm 3+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 3+St 6The karyotype formula for the female Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+X = Lm 4+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6

  1. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  2. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaicka, Ligia; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E.; Wayne, Robert K.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  3. Disposition and external morphology of hair on a female of the species otter Lutra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae

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    Arani Nanci Bonfim Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze aspects of the otter’s hair (Lutra longicaudis. Size, shape and number of hairs, as well as their layers and distribution on the skin were observed. To accomplish this purpose, 1mm2 of skin with its respective hair was removed from 44 points of the body surface and was examined under a stereoscopic microscope in order to be measured, counted and morphologically analyzed. The results were registered in histograms and schematic drawings and compared to the descriptions for other species. The covering hair reached a maximum height of 18mm and a minimum of 3.5mm, while wholly hair showed a maximum height of 11mm and a minimum of 1.5mm. The cuticle flake hairs of the covering coat modified, along the connecting rod according to its bore, shape, number and architecture. The cortex was thick in the portion where the covering coat took the form of a flattened spindle. The wholly coat was practically constituted by the cortex. The results obtained in this study suggest that the otter has a complex fur, different to the other animals. This is probably due mainly to its semi-aquatic habit.

  4. On the morphological variation and taxonomy of the Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 (Carnivora, Felidae

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 is a small cat found in the Southern Cone of South America and, depending on the author, four or five subspecies have been usually recognized (L. g. geoffroyi, L. g. paraguae, L. g. euxanthus, L. g. salinarum and L. g. leucobaptus, mainly based on external morphological characters, such as color pattern of the pelage. In order to clarify the taxonomy of L. geoffroyi, I analyzed approximately 200 specimens housed in museums. I have examined the external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms in the search for patterns of congruent characters that would indicate the existence of taxonomic units. Twenty craniodental measurements were taken and tested by univariate and multivariate (MANOVA, PCA and DFA procedures. In this study I detected a great variation in the morphological characters, and thus it was not possible to determine whether any of these were geographically consistent and could be used to determine any taxonomic unit. Based on this, I do not recognize any subspecific division for L. geoffroyi. Along its geographic range, a gradual and subtle change from one color pattern to the next along the latitude was detected, but the morphological characters that were used to define the putative subspecies were also detected in a same population. Furthermore, the present study is congruent with the results obtained by previous molecular data, suggesting that L. geoffroyi has a high level of genetic diversity with no geographic structure. This indicates the existence of a large panmictic population with no significant barriers to gene flow and, as a consequence, no subspecies should be recognized.

  5. Habitat use, social structure and basic ethological aspects of a band of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766 (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Atlantic Forest area, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Deborah de Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Coatis (Nasua nasua are terrestrials, despite their extreme ease of climbing trees, and have a complex social structure, where the males are solitary outside the reproductive season and the females live in groups with their pups and juveniles for most of the year. This study aimed to describe the use of habitat and social structure of a coati group in the Cantareira State Park, a fragment of the Atlantic Forest located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. The behavior of these animals was observed in the fragment twice per week. The results showed that it was similar to that described in the literature, with a preference for the ground habitat rather than trees, the fact that the males are solitary (except at the time of reproduction, and the gregarious habit of females and their pups and juveniles.

  6. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations. PMID:25720180

  7. 中国灵猫科的支序系统学分析%Cladistic Analysis of the Family Viverridae (Carnivora) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍晟; 杨君兴; 向左甫; 马世来

    2003-01-01

    选取分布于中国境内的8属9种灵猫科动物的88个骨骼性状、31个外部形态性状和1个行为性状,运用替代外群法分别以赤狐(犬科狐属)和青鼬(鼬科貂属)共同或单独作为外群进行支序分析,得出10个支序图,其步长(TL)为106~136,一致性指数(CI)为0.581~0.660,保留指数(RI)为0.610~0.714.经合意分析得到4个相似的支序图,其TL为41~136,CI为0.581~0.732,RI为0.610~0.818,结果支持:①斑灵狸、大灵猫、小灵猫构成一个单系群,与传统分类一致(均属灵猫亚科);②椰子狸、花面狸、熊狸构成一个单系群,与传统分类一致(均属长尾狸亚科);③红颊、食蟹与灵猫科其他种为姐妹群关系(Bootstrap检验支持率100%),建议类为一亚科;④长颌带狸拥有较多自近裔性状如三个门齿孔,是一个高度特化的种类,其系统地位有待进一步研究.

  8. Infeccion natural de Speothos venaticus (Carnivora: Canidae por estadios adultos de Lagochilascaris sp. Natural infection of Speothos venaticus (Carnívora: Canidae by adult Lagochilascaris sp.

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    Gregorio S. Volcán G.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Un ejemplar adulto macho de Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842 fue muerto accidentalmente en una vía de penetración rural, situada en la región Noroeste del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, en el Municipio donde desde hace 16 años vive una paciente con lagochilascariasis. El animal conservado durante un mes por congelación y desprovisto de su piel y cabeza fue autopsiado, hallándose en la tráquea dos especímenes adultos hembras y grávidos de Lagochilascaris sp., los cuales presentaban algunas características morfológicas de sus partes blandas diferentes a Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; entretanto, distintivos estables como son la forma de los interlabios, la localización de la vulva y particularmente el tamaño y número de las depresiones de la cáscara de los huevos, inclinan a pensar que se trata de aquel parásito, a pesar de no haberse hallado vermes machos que permitiesen el estudio de las espículas y su ducto eyaculador. Fueron localizadas en cortes histológicos de laringe y tráquea profundamente situadas, secciones de formas degeneradas con características atribuíbles a Lagochilascaris sp.An adult male Speothos venaticus Lund (bush dog was found killed on a rural road in the Northeast of Bolívar State, in a locality where a patient with lagochilascariasis has lived for the past 16 years. The animal was frozen for 1 month, and after removal of the head and skin, was autopsied. Two adult gravid females of Lagochilascaris sp. were found in the trachea. Certain morphological characteristics of the soft parts differed from the description given for Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; however, stable characters, such as the form of the interlabials, the location of the vulva, and particulary the size and number of depressions of the egg shell appear to indicate that the worms are of the above mentioned species. Unfortunately, no males were found for study of the spicules and ejaculatory duct. In histological sections of the larynx and the trachea from the deep tissues, parts of degenerated worms were found, with characteristics attributable to Lagochilascaris sp.

  9. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia M. Togura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas. Dessa forma, a presença de fezes frescas em latrinas ativas de ariranhas parecem aumentar o registro de espécies de vertebrados, sendo especialmente importante para os grupos que apresentam guilda trófica similar.

  10. Variation in social organisation of lions with particular reference to the Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica (Carnivora: Felidae of the Gir forest, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sociality is one of the distinctive features of Lions (Panthera leo, which are the only social felids. Their evolutionary history is important both for understanding the evolution of sociality and that of other sympatric species owing to their widespread distribution throughout the entire Holarctic region during the Pleistocene. Lion grouping patterns, cooperative behaviour and strategies vary throughout their range and in different habitats. Their resilience in diverse habitats facing a variety of conservation pressures is largely owing to this plasticity of lion social behaviour. This review describes the variation in social organisation of lions in 11 habitats across Africa, taking into account relevant ecological parameters. The social organization of the Asiatic Lion is described from this perspective using the results of previous studies and of a five-year study conducted between 2002 and 2006 in the Gir forest of India.

  11. Survival of a native mammalian carnivore, the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792 (Carnivora: Felidae, in an agricultural landscape on an oceanic Philippine island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.P. Lorica

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about vulnerability of mammalian carnivores to extinction, especially on small islands, appear to conflict with prior reports of endemic populations of leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792 surviving in agricultural landscapes on oceanic islands. We investigated the persistence of the Visayan leopard cat (P. b. rabori in the sugarcane fields on Negros, an oceanic island in central Philippines. A population remained throughout the year at our study site on a sugarcane farm, and reproduction was noted. Non-native rodents form the bulk of the cat diet, followed by reptiles, birds, amphibians, and insects. Prey species identified from the samples commonly occur in agricultural areas in the Philippines. Prey composition did not vary significantly with respect to wet and dry season, or sugarcane harvest cycle. This study provides evidence that an intensively managed agricultural landscape on this oceanic island supports a native obligate carnivore that subsists primarily on exotic rats. This study supports a prior prediction that leopard cats will show flexibility in prey selection on islands with few or no native small mammal prey species, but in this case they do so not by switching to other vertebrates and invertebrates, but rather to exotic pest species of rodents.

  12. Survival of a native mammalian carnivore, the leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792 (Carnivora: Felidae), in an agricultural landscape on an oceanic Philippine island

    OpenAIRE

    M.R.P. Lorica; Heaney, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about vulnerability of mammalian carnivores to extinction, especially on small islands, appear to conflict with prior reports of endemic populations of leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) surviving in agricultural landscapes on oceanic islands. We investigated the persistence of the Visayan leopard cat (P. b. rabori) in the sugarcane fields on Negros, an oceanic island in central Philippines. A population remained throughout the year at our study site on a sugarcane f...

  13. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  14. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  15. Functional anatomy of the postcranial skeleton of Styriofelis lorteti (Carnivora, Felidae, Felinae from the Middle Miocene (MN 6 locality of Sansan (Gers, France

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    Peigné, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The postcranial skeleton of the European Middle Miocene feline Styriofelis lorteti has been traditionally known on the basis of fragmentary fossils mainly from the French locality of Sansan. The discovery of an almost complete skeleton in the same site in the excavations of 1990 opened the possibility of unprecedented assessment of the morphology and function of this early felid. In this paper we describe this material, and compare it with a sample of modern and fossil felids, finding a combination of a generally modern morphology, with moderate adaptations to terrestrial locomotion, besides a set of primitive characters linking S. lorteti with earlier felids like Proailurus lemanensis.El esqueleto post-craneal del felino Styriofelis lorteti, del Mioceno medio de Europa, ha sido tradicionalmente conocido en base a fósiles fragmentarios, procedentes principalmente del yacimiento francés de Sansan. El descubrimiento en este yacimiento de un esqueleto casi completo, durante la campaña de 1990, abrió la posibilidad de llevar a cabo un análisis sin precedentes de la morfología y función de este félido primitivo. En este trabajo se describe este material, comparándose con una muestra de felinos fósiles y actuales, hallándose una combinación entre una morfología general moderna, con adaptaciones moderadas para la locomoción terrestre, junto con una serie de caracteres primitivos que relacionan a S. lorteti con los félidos más antiguos como Proailurus lemanensis.

  16. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  17. Chemical immobilization of captive Cougars Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (Carnivora: Felidae using a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine and xylazine

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    Jesús Lescano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Handling of large felids is highly risky, hence immobilization is required for the safety of personnel.  Data on the effects of anesthetic drugs used for immobilizing Cougars Puma concolor are scarce. This study describes the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg, ketamine (1.6mg/kg and xylazine (0.4mg/kg in pumas. Five captive adult and clinically healthy Cougars were included in this study.  Animals were immobilized by remote injection using blow pipe and darts.  The durations of induction, immobilization and recovery periods and their qualities were recorded.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature and blood pressure were recorded at five minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then all animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine, intramuscularly administered.  Central tendency and dispersal statistics were calculated for each parameter.  The duration of the induction period was 10.4±6.4 minutes and the duration of the recovery period was 83.3±35.1 minutes. Induction, immobilization and recovery periods were smooth and adequate anesthetic depth was achieved.  The mean heart rate was 122±10 beats/minute, mean respiratory rate was 10±1 breaths/minute, mean body temperature was 39.1±0.2 0C and mean blood pressure was 139±12 mmHg.  No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in vital parameters over the duration of the assessment.  The tested anesthetic combination effectively immobilized the cougars included in this study and provided safety for the personnel involved.  Though vital signs were not significantly affected, a degree of hypoventilation was observed and respiratory support is recommended when using this anesthetic combination in cougars. 

  18. Does indigestible food remains in the scats of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Carnivora: Ursidae represent actual contribution of various diet items?

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    N. Baskaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of diet items in the food of sloth bears is estimated solely based on the dry weight or volume of indigestible food remains found in the scats, assuming that the ratio of digestible versus indigestible matters is equal in all diet items. However, this is not true in reality. The implication of this assumption is that the species that contribute a larger bulk of digestible matters are underestimated, while that of less digestible parts get overestimated and consequently are portrayed as important food sources. This study experimentally converts the percent contribution of important fruit items estimated using ‘indigestible fruit remains’ in the scats into percent contribution by ‘digestible fruit content’ using known dry weight of digestible fruit contents per volume of indigestible items (estimated using fresh fruit samples from the field. The percent composition of various fruit items obtained using digestible fruit content is significantly different from that derived using indigestible fruit remains in the scats. Future studies could adopt the dry weight of digestible matter as this method estimates the contribution of various food items to the diet of bears more accurately.

  19. Demographics, diet, movements, and survival of an isolated, unmanaged raccoon Procyon lotor (Procyonidae, Carnivora) population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Arielle Waldstein; Simons, Theodore R.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are highly adaptable meso-carnivores that inhabit many environments, including the Atlantic barrier islands, where their role as predators of declining, beach-nesting bird and turtle species is of particular interest. Population models that improve our understanding of predator-prey dynamics are receiving increasing attention in the literature; however, their effective application requires site-specific information on population parameters. We studied an unharvested raccoon population on the Outer Banks of North Carolina and evaluated spatial and seasonal differences in a number of population/demographic factors of raccoons inhabiting areas of high and low human activity. Raccoons denned and foraged primarily in salt marsh habitats but shifted their movements in response to changes in seasonal resource conditions. The population was skewed toward older animals and exhibited delayed breeding, typical of populations at high density with few sources of mortality. Diet and movement analysis indicated shorebird and turtle predation was attributed to a small number of individual raccoons. Although seasonal resources appeared adequate to sustain a high population density of raccoons, poor body condition and low recruitment suggested a population near carrying capacity.

  20. Los ursidae (Carnivora: fissipedia) fósiles de la República Argentina : Aspectos sistemáticos y paleoecológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo era realizar un estudio sistemático, filogenético y paleoecológico sobre las especies de Ursidae Tremarctinae del Pleistoceno de la Argentina; pero debido a que se obtuvieron distintos subsidios se pudieron estudiar todos los taxones de la subfamilia. A raíz del trabajo realizado, se brinda la primer hipótesis filogenética para todos los taxones de la subfamilia Tremarctinae, excepto Plionarctos que es tratado a nivel genérico; se revisa la sistemática de las espec...

  1. Distribución de los ectoparásitos de Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae) de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Sergio; Miranda, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la distribución de ectoparásitos de perros en Panamá. Materiales y métodos. Se examinaron 720 individuos en 57 comunidades. Resultados. Los resultados demostraron que el 84% de los perros presentaron al menos una especie de ectoparásito. Los perros de tierras bajas mostraron un mayor porcentaje de parasitismo y mayor biodiversidad de parásitos que los animales de tierras altas. Se encontraron siete especies de garrapatas, cuatro de pulgas, dos de piojo...

  2. Genetic characterization of the unique short segment of phocid herpesvirus type 1 reveals close relationships among alphaherpesviruses of hosts of the order Carnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo further characterize phocid herpesvirus type 1 (PhHV-1) at the molecular level, a cluster of genes comprising the complete unique short (Us) region of PhHV-1 has been cloned and sequenced. Within this region, ORFs were detected that code for the equivalent of the Us 2- protein of herp

  3. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia M. Togura; Darren Norris; Fernanda Michalski

    2014-01-01

    O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788)], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W), sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitor...

  4. El orden Carnivora (Mammalia) en el Perú: Estado del conocimiento y prioridades de investigación para su conservación

    OpenAIRE

    E. Daniel Cossíos; Paloma Alcázar; Ursula Fajardo; Kelly Chávez; Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto; et al

    2012-01-01

    La alta diversidad de especies de carnívoros del Perú puede generar problemas al momento de decidir los taxa y temas sobre los que deben dirigirse los esfuerzos de investigación. En este trabajo se evalúa el esfuerzo de investigación en base al número de publicaciones realizadas para cada familia y especie de carnívoro en el Perú. Asimismo, se señalan los vacíos de información relevantes para la conservación de cada especie y se presenta la primera evaluación de las prioridades de investigaci...

  5. Estimación poblacional y conservación de felinos (Carnivora: Felidae) en el norte de Quintana Roo, México

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce María Ávila-Nájera; Cuauhtémoc Chávez; Marco A. Lazcano-Barrero; Sergio Pérez-Elizalde; José Luis Alcántara-Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    La estimación de la densidad de fauna silvestre per-mite tener una idea del estado de salud de las poblacionesy en algunos casos indica el estado de conservación delos ecosistemas. Los métodos de evaluación deben hacerestimaciones no sesgadas, ya que servirán de base paraestrategias de conservación de especies clave. Algunasregiones en México han sido identificadas como áreas dealta prioridad para la conservación de especies con ciertonivel de riesgo, como es la Península de Yucatán (PY),dond...

  6. El orden Carnivora (Mammalia en el Perú: Estado del conocimiento y prioridades de investigación para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Daniel Cossíos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La alta diversidad de especies de carnívoros del Perú puede generar problemas al momento de decidir los taxa y temas sobre los que deben dirigirse los esfuerzos de investigación. En este trabajo se evalúa el esfuerzo de investigación en base al número de publicaciones realizadas para cada familia y especie de carnívoro en el Perú. Asimismo, se señalan los vacíos de información relevantes para la conservación de cada especie y se presenta la primera evaluación de las prioridades de investigación sobre este grupo animal en el Perú. Se registró 145 publicaciones sobre carnívoros peruanos realizadas desde el año 1943. El número de publicaciones presentó grandes diferencias entre taxa, entre temas estudiados y entre las ecorregiones en las que se realizaron las investigaciones. Según la escala de prioridades propuesta, la especie que debe ser estudiada con mayor prioridad es el coatí andino Nasua olivacea y la de menor prioridad es el ocelote Leopardus pardalis. Los resultados de nuestro trabajo resaltan la urgencia de realizar investigaciones sobre ciertas especies de carnívoros de las que existen pocos datos publicados, tanto a nivel local como global, y que se distribuyen en pocas ecorregiones del Perú. Tanto la escala de prioridades de investigación como la lista de vacíos de información serán de utilidad para guiar esfuerzos logísticos y financieros de investigadores particulares, instituciones privadas y gubernamentales.

  7. Patrones de distribución de felinos silvestres (Carnivora: Felidae) en el trópico seco del Centro-Occidente de México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Felipe Charre-Medellín; Tiberio Cesar Monterrubio-Rico; Daniel Guido-Lemus; Eduardo Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El estado de Michoacán se caracteriza por presentaruna importante heterogeneidad ambiental, en términosde clima, topografía y tipos de vegetación, que incluyenal bosque tropical seco que se encuentra en peligro deextinción a nivel mundial. Algunos trabajos mencionanla presencia de las seis especies de felinos que habitanen México, para la región; sin embargo, la evidencia paraapoyar estos trabajos es escasa, por lo que llenar esta faltade información es especialmente crítico en el caso de esp...

  8. Dieta de Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae en la Reserva Nacional de Junín, Junín, Perú

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    Ursula Fajardo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio caracteriza la dieta de Leopardus colocolo en los alrededores del lago Junín, en el centro del Perú, a partir de los restos de las presas presentes en 43 heces. El origen de las heces del predador se determinó a partir del ADN mitocondrial de las células epiteliales intestinales adheridas a la superficie de las heces, utilizando como marcador la región de control. Los restos de las presas fueron identificados utilizando literatura especializada y la comparación con especímenes de colección, identificando un total of 14 ítems alimenticios pertenecientes a mamíferos de las familias Cricetidae (6, Chinchillidae (1 y Caviidae (1 y aves de las familias Anatidae (3 y Rallidae (2, y un grupo de aves no identificadas (1. Los roedores fueron el principal componente de la dieta de L. colocolo, en frecuencia y biomasa, seguido por las aves. Entre los ítems alimenticios consumidos, el roedor cricétido pequeño Calomys sp. fue el más frecuente; sin embargo, el mayor aporte de biomasa relativa fue proporcionado por el roedor mediano Cavia tschudii. La amplitud de nicho obtenida fue baja (Bsta= 0.17, indicando una dieta especializada. Nuestros resultados confirman que, como ocurre con la mayoría de felinos pequeños neotropicales, L. colocolo es un predador especializado en la captura de vertebrados, principalmente mamíferos pequeños. No se registró variación estacional en la dieta y el análisis de las clases de edad de los roedores cricétidos mostró que los adultos fueron los más consumidos. Se infiere que L. colocolo tiene un patrón de actividad diurno y nocturno.

  9. Feeding habits of the crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, in a mosaic area with native and exotic vegetation in Southern Brazil Hábito alimentar do cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, em área de mosaico de vegetação nativa e exótica no Sul do Brasil

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 is the most widespread neotropical canid, most commonly inhabiting forested areas. This animal is a generalist omnivore that is able to use environments disturbed by human activities. The aim of this study was to describe its diet through the stomach content analysis of 30 samples obtained from specimens that were run over in a mosaic composed by Araucaria Pine Forest, Semidecidual Seasonal Forest, natural grasslands, and exotic vegetation. The items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (F.O. and percentage of occurrence (P.O.. A total of 64 food items were found among 171 occurrences. According to F.O. method, plant items corresponded to 93.3% of the occurrences, followed by animal items (86.7% and human rejects (16.6%. Among plants, fruits accounted for 92.9% of the occurrences, followed by leaves (53.6% and flowers (10.7%. Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassman, 1968 and the exotic Hovenia dulcis Thunberg were the most consumed fruits (30% each, and the most consumed leaves were Poaceae. Among preyed animals, the F.O. was 73.3% for invertebrates (mostly Orthoptera and Coleoptera, 36.7% each and 63.3% for vertebrates (mostly mammals, 33.3%. Regarding the P.O. method, there was an overestimation of invertebrates (98.1% due to the presence of ants and termites in the stomach of a single individual. In general, C. thous presented its usual diet. Its generalistic feeding habits can positively influence its survival in altered environments. This study also compares different methods for dietary analysis and discusses some opportunistic behaviors of C. thous, such as the consumption of exotic species and the use of silviculture areas as hunting sites.Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 é o canídeo neotropical mais amplamente distribuído e habita principalmente ambientes florestados. Este animal possui hábito alimentar onívoro generalista e demonstra capacidade de utilizar ambientes perturbados pela ação do homem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever sua dieta através da análise de 30 conteúdos estomacais de espécimes atropelados, provenientes de um mosaico constituído por Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, Campos Naturais e vegetação exótica. Os itens foram quantificados em freqüência de ocorrência (F.O. e porcentagem de ocorrência (P.O.. No total foram identificados 64 itens, distribuídos em 171 ocorrências. De acordo com o método F.O., itens vegetais ocorreram em 93,3% das amostras, itens animais em 86,7% e rejeitos humanos em 16.6%. Entre os vegetais, os frutos apresentaram a maior F.O. (92,9%, seguido das folhas (53,6% e flores (10,7%. Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassman, 1968 e a espécie exótica Hovenia dulcis Thunberg se destacaram entre os frutos consumidos (30% cada, e Poaceae entre as folhas consumidas. Dentre os animais, 73,3% foram invertebrados, com destaque para Orthoptera e Coleoptera (36,7% cada, e 63,3% foram vertebrados, destacando-se os mamíferos (33,3%. Em relação ao método P.O. houve a supervalorização de invertebrados (98,1% devido ao consumo de formigas e cupins observado no estômago de um indivíduo. Em geral, C. thous apresentou uma dieta conforme o esperado. Seus hábitos alimentares generalistas podem influenciar positivamente sua sobrevivência em ambientes alterados. Este trabalho ainda compara diferentes métodos de análises da dieta e discute alguns comportamentos oportunistas de C. thous, como o consumo de espécies exóticas e o uso do ambiente de silvicultura para a caça.

  10. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in a pool system in Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil=Dieta de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae em um sistema de poções na Floresta Atlântica do Estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis in a pool system within the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN Usina Maurício, located in Paraíba do Sul river basin, Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais State. The diet composition was determined based on the identification of items present in 212 scats sampled between July 2008 and October 2009 in a 4.1 km stretch of the pool system. The found items and its respective percentages of occurrence were: mollusks (0.5%, insects (16.5%, spiders (1.4%, crustaceans (3.3%, fish (96.7%, amphibians (0.9%, snakes (3.8%, birds (2.8%, mammals (8.5% and fruits (0.5%. Among fish, the identified families and respective percentages of occurrence were: Loricariidae (65.4%, Pimelodidae (42.9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7.3%, Erythrinidae (3.9%, Synbranchidae (2.4%, Anostomidae (2%. Therefore fish make up the most consumed item in the study area, with the predominance of benthic siluriformes (families Loricariidae and Pimelodidae. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os hábitos alimentares de Lontra longicaudis em um sistema de poções na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural – RPPN Usina Maurício, localizada na bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Estado de Minas Gerais. A composição da dieta foi determinada com base na identificação de itens presentes em 212 amostras de fezes coletadas entre julho de 2008 e outubro de 2009 em um trecho de 4,1 km de um sistema de poções. Os itens alimentares encontrados e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: moluscos (0,5%, insetos (16,5%, aranhas (1,4%, crustáceos (3,3%, peixes (96,7%, anfíbios (0,9%, serpentes (3,8%, aves (2,8%, mamíferos (8,5%, frutos (0,5%. Dentre os peixes, famílias identificadas e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: Loricariidae (65,4%, Pimelodidae (42,9% Cichlidae (22%, Characidae (7,3%, Erythrinidae (3,9%, Synbranchidae (2,4%, Anostomidae (2%. Os peixes, portanto, representaram o item mais consumido na área de estudo, com predominância de siluriformes bentônicos (famílias Loricariidae e Pimelodidae.

  11. Osos (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) del Pleistoceno Ibérico: III. Estudio anatómico y métrico del miembro torácico, carpo y metacarpo.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    1988-01-01

    En esta nota se realiza un estudio biométrico y morfológico comparado de los huesos del miembro torácico, carpo y metacarpo de U. deningeri, U. spelaeus y U. arctos. Las medidas de los huesos largos revelan la existencia de dimorfismo sexual, que no se detecta tan claramente en las de los huesos del carpo y metacarpo. El oso de las cavernas tenia huesos pesados y su disposición general indica que era un excelente cavador, pero mal corredor y trepador. El aumento de tamaño fue acom...

  12. Evolutionary affinities of the order Perissodactyla and the phylogenetic status of the superordinal taxa Ungulata and Altungulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, D; Gouy, M; Duret, L

    1997-04-01

    Contrary to morphological claims, molecular data indicate that the order Perissodactyla (e.g., horses, rhinoceroses, and tapirs) is neither part of the superordinal taxon Paenungulata (Sirenia, Proboscidea, and Hyracoidea) nor an immediate outgroup of the paenungulates. Rather, Perissodactyla is closer to Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla (Cetacea+Artiodactyla) than it is to the paenungulates. Therefore, two morphologically defined superordinal taxa, Altungulata (Proboscidea, Sirenia, Hyracoidea, and Perissodactyla) and Ungulata (Altungulata and Cetartiodactyla), are invalidated. Perissodactyla, Carnivora, and Cetartiodactyla are shown to constitute a rather tight trichotomy. However, a molecular analysis of 36 protein sequences with a total concatenated length of 7885 aligned amino acids indicates that Perissodactyla is closer to Cetartiodactyla than either taxa is to Carnivora. The relationships among Paenungulata, Primates, and the clade consisting of Perissodactyla, Carnivora, and Cetartiodactylaa could not be resolved on the basis of the available data. PMID:9126561

  13. Hábito alimentar e interferência antrópica na atividade de marcação territorial do Puma concolor e Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae e outros carnívoros na Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo, Brasil Food habits and anthropic interference on the territorial marking activity of Puma concolor and Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae and other carnivores in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hábitos alimentares da onça-parda, jaguatirica e outros carnívoros foram estudados na Juréia (80.000 ha, um dos maiores remanescentes de Mata Atlântica do estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi baseado na análise de fezes encontradas durante um período de amostragem de 15 meses e 415 km percorridos. A diversidade de presas encontradas nas fezes foi alta para ambos os felinos, tendo como presas mais importantes da onça-parda em freqüência de ocorrência e biomassa, o cateto e o tatu-de-rabo-mole, e marsupiais na dieta da jaguatirica. Maior freqüência de fezes de carnívoros foi encontrada distante das casas de moradores tradicionais, sugerindo um comportamento territorial evitando a proximidade da presença humana.Food habits of puma, ocelot and other carnivores were studied in Juréia (80.000 ha, one of the largest remnants of Atlantic forest of the state of São Paulo. The study was based on the analysis of scats found during a sampling period of 15 months and 415 km traversed. The diversity of prey found was high for both felines, with higher frequency and estimated biomass of collared peccary and the greater naked-tailed armadillo in the diet of the puma, and marsupials in the diet of the ocelot. The highest frequency of carnivore scats was found distant from traditional households, suggesting avoidance behavior towards human presence.

  14. Hábito alimentar e interferência antrópica na atividade de marcação territorial do Puma concolor e Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) e outros carnívoros na Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo, Brasil Food habits and anthropic interference on the territorial marking activity of Puma concolor and Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) and other carnivores in the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Martins; Juliana Quadros; Marcelo Mazzolli

    2008-01-01

    Os hábitos alimentares da onça-parda, jaguatirica e outros carnívoros foram estudados na Juréia (80.000 ha), um dos maiores remanescentes de Mata Atlântica do estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi baseado na análise de fezes encontradas durante um período de amostragem de 15 meses e 415 km percorridos. A diversidade de presas encontradas nas fezes foi alta para ambos os felinos, tendo como presas mais importantes da onça-parda em freqüência de ocorrência e biomassa, o cateto e o tatu-de-rabo-mole...

  15. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and to test the rate of germination of the seeds after passing through the digestive tract of the animal. The work was carried out in a 680 ha fragment of the Semidecidual Seasonal Forest in the Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, located in the city of Londrina-Paraná, south of Brazil. The methodology consisted of the collection of excrement of C. thous which were analyzed in laboratory for identification of consumed items and seeds. In germination tests, the seeds were placed to germinate in Petri dishes with wet cotton. Ninety-three animal feces samples, with 219 animal and vegetable items were registered, being 36.52% remaining portions of small rodents, 24.19% of grasses, 13.24% of birds, 10.47% of insects, 6.39% of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4.6% of other items of animal origin and 4.54% of items vegetable origin. In addition, C. thous dispersed nine species of plants, with relevant importance to the germination of some seeds, which passed through the digestive tract, except for the most consumed of fruit, S. romanzoffiana, whith no seed germination at all in lab conditions. In conclusion, C. thous has a generalistc and opportunistc diet, surviving in degraded and anthropic areas and being able to act as a seed disperser.

  16. Effects of livestock on the feeding ecology of endemic culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi in central Argentina Efectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica del zorro culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi (Carnivora: Canidae endémico del centro de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA V. PIA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock can affect the feeding ecology of carnivores either directly, by becoming potential prey, or indirectly, by modifying selection of other prey. Selection of other prey is modified through the negative effects of livestock on food and cover, which reduces density and increases vulnerability of wild prey. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi is an endemic subspecies of culpeo fox of central Argentina that is persecuted due to predation on livestock. We studied the direct and indirect effects of livestock on P. c. smithersi's feeding ecology by evaluating its diet, prey availability, and prey selection in two areas with different livestock abundance-a national park and an adjacent sheep and cattle ranch in the Achala grassland plateau. We studied diets from feces and used conversion coefficients to estimate prey numbers and biomass consumed. Culpeos preyed primarily on native rodents (cavies and cricetines according to both prey numbers and biomass. The differences in culpeo diet, prey availability, and prey selection between sites were strongly associated with effects of livestock. Culpeos consumed more livestock carrion and birds at the ranch, and tucos (Ctenomys sp. only at the park. Livestock density was high at the ranch and low at the park, cricetine and tuco densities were significantly higher at the park, and European hare (Lepus europaeus densities were similar between sites. According to prey numbers consumed culpeos did not appear to be selective, but according to biomass they consumed cricetines more and hares less than expected at both sites and sheep more than expected at the park. Livestock may reduce densities and increase vulnerabilities of cricetines and fossorial tucos in Achala by soil trampling that destroys burrows, competition for forage, and reduction of grass coverEl ganado puede afectar la ecología trófica de los carnívoros en forma directa, siendo una presa potencial, e indirecta, modificando la selección de otras presas. La selección de otras presas es modificada a través de efectos negativos del ganado sobre el alimento y la cobertura, reduciendo la densidad e incrementando la vulnerabilidad de presas silvestres. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi es una subespecie endémica de zorro culpeo del centro de Argentina que es perseguida debido a su depredación sobre ganado. Estudiamos los efectos directos e indirectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica de P. c. smithersi evaluando su dieta y disponibilidad y selección de presas en dos sitios con diferente abundancia de ganado-un parque nacional y una estancia adyacente de ovinos y vacunos en el pastizal de Pampa de Achala. Estudiamos la dieta a partir de heces y utilizamos coeficientes de conversión para estimar el número y biomasa de presas consumidas. Los culpeos depredaron principalmente sobre roedores nativos (cuises y cricétidos de acuerdo con el número y la biomasa de presas consumidas. Las diferencias en consumo, disponibilidad y selección de presas entre sitios estuvieron fuertemente asociadas con efectos del ganado. Los culpeos consumieron más carroña de ganado y aves en la estancia y tucos (Ctenomys sp. únicamente en el parque. La densidad de ganado fue alta en la estancia y baja en el parque, las densidades de cricétidos y tucos fueron significativamente mayores en el parque y las densidades de liebre europea (Lepus europaeus fueron similares entre sitios. De acuerdo con el número de presas consumidas los culpeos no parecieron ser selectivos, pero de acuerdo con la biomasa consumieron más cricétidos y menos liebres que lo esperado en ambos sitios y más ovejas que lo esperado en el parque. El ganado podría reducir las densidades e incrementar la vulnerabilidad de cricétidos y de los cavícolas tucos en Achala a través del pisoteo del suelo que destruye cuevas, la competencia por forraje y la reducción de la cobertura de pastos

  17. The sabre-toothed cat Megantereon from the Pleistocene of Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtén, B.

    1962-01-01

    In April 1961 the present author made a study of the fossil Carnivora from Java in the Dubois Collection, of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden. Among a lot of unidentified specimens, one was found to represent a sabre-toothed cat of a type not hitherto known from the Pleistocene of Ja

  18. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red fox

  19. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Timm; Osterhaus, Albert

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions frequently occur, often leading to devastating epizootics in highly susceptible or immunologically naive populations.

  20. Mustelidae are natural hosts of Staphylococcus delphini group A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Schmidt, Kristina Runge; Petersen, Tina Steiner;

    2012-01-01

    158 SIG isolates from less studied animal species belonging to the order Carnivora, including mink (n=118), fox (n=33), badger (n=6) and ferret (n=1). Species identification was performed by nuc PCR in combination with sodA sequence analysis and pta PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP...

  1. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions fr

  2. Biting through constraints: cranial morphology, disparity and convergence across living and fossil carnivorous mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Anjali; Milne, Nick; Wroe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carnivory has evolved independently several times in eutherian (including placental) and metatherian (including marsupial) mammals. We used geometric morphometrics to assess convergences associated with the evolution of carnivory across a broad suite of mammals, including the eutherian clades Carnivora and Creodonta and the metatherian clades Thylacoleonidae, Dasyuromorphia, Didelphidae and Borhyaenoidea. We further quantified cranial disparity across eutherians and metatherians to test the h...

  3. A List of the Marine Mammals of the World. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Dale W.

    This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration publication lists 116 species of living and recently extinct marine mammals of the world. Included are 36 species of Order Carnivora (polar bear, sea otter, and 34 pinnipeds); 5 species of Order Sirenia; 10 of Order Mysticeti (baleen whales); and 65 species of Order Odontoceti (tooth whales).…

  4. New Species of Praepusa (Carnivora, Phocidae, Phocinae from the Netherlands Supports East to West Neogene Dispersal of True Seals / Новый вид Praepusa (Carnivora, Phocidae, Phocinae из Нидерландов, подтверждающий распростра- нение настоящих тюленей в неогене с востока на запад

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Иссле- дование новых ископаемых остатков (плечевой кости и крестца из Нидерландов показывает морфоло- гически отличительные признаки, позволяющие описать нового представителя подсемейства Phocinae (Praepusa boeska sp.n. из позднего миоцена - раннего плиоцена. Диагностические различия в форме клювовидного отростка плечевой кости (овальной у самцов по сравнению с треугольной у самок, глу- бине ямки локтевого отростка (мелкой у самцов по сравнению с глубокой у самок, а также наличии округлого первого вентрального отверстия и толстой боковой стенки в крестце самцов обнаруживают первые доказательства полового диморфизма у представителей рода Praepusa. Описанный вид добав- ляет информацию о распространении настоящих тюленей, подтверждая расселение этого рода на за- пад через Паратетис. Высокая степень эндемизма вследствие изоляции Паратетиса и климатические, ге- ологические и стратиграфические отличия указывают, что проникновение Praepusa в Восточный Пара- тетис (ранний - средний миоцен, 16,5-13,6 млн лет назад произошло до заселения им Центрального (средний миоцен 13,6-11,2 млн лет назад, а позже и Западного Паратетиса (поздний миоцен - начало плиоцена, 11,6-3,6 млн лет назад. Ископаемые остатки Pr. boeska являются наиболее ранними из остат- ков известных на сегодняшний день представителей этого рода и были обнаружены намного западнее ранее описанного палеонтологического материала. Эти находки помогают объяснить происхождение и расселение описанных видов рода Praepusa по сравнению с другими родами подсемейства Phocinae.

  5. The evolution of the social brain: anthropoid primates contrast with other vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Susanne; Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis argues that large brains have arisen over evolutionary time as a response to the social and ecological conflicts inherent in group living. We test predictions arising from the hypothesis using comparative data from birds and four mammalian orders (Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Chiroptera and Primates) and show that, across all non-primate taxa, relative brain size is principally related to pairbonding, but with enduring stable relationships in primates. We argue that th...

  6. Impact of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on disparity and rates of evolution in the carnivoran skull

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Katrina E; Smaers, Jeroen B; Goswami, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Which factors influence the distribution patterns of morphological diversity among clades? The adaptive radiation model predicts that a clade entering new ecological niche will experience high rates of evolution early in its history, followed by a gradual slowing. Here we measure disparity and rates of evolution in Carnivora, specifically focusing on the terrestrial-aquatic transition in Pinnipedia. We analyze fissiped (mostly terrestrial, arboreal, and semi-arboreal, but also inc...

  7. Ejemplares tipo de mamíferos en colecciones cubanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos García, Ignacio; Borroto Páez, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Se brinda información sobre los ejemplares tipo (50 holotipos y sus paratipos) de mamíferos (Xenarthra, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, Carnivora, Sirenia y Rodentia) depositados en siete colecciones cubanas. En las fichas de los holotipos se incluye la información de la descripción original y además se hacen actualizaciones y correcciones sobre este material. Information on the type specimens (50 holotypes and their paratypes) of mammals (Xenarthra, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, C...

  8. Nucleotide and protein sequences for dog masticatory tropomyosin identify a novel Tpm4 gene product

    OpenAIRE

    Brundage, Elizabeth A.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Reiser, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Jaw-closing muscles of several vertebrate species, including members of Carnivora, express a unique, “masticatory”, isoform of myosin heavy chain, along with isoforms of other myofibrillar proteins that are not expressed in most other muscles. It is generally believed that the complement of myofibrillar isoforms in these muscles serves high force generation for capturing live prey, breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting. A unique isoform of tropomyosin (Tpm) was reported to b...

  9. Ecomorphology of radii in Canidae: Application to fragmentary fossils from Plio-Pleistocene hominin assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Meloro; Julien Louys

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentary long bone material from fossil Carnivora is rarely considered to support palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Here, we use morphometry of the radius in extant carnivorans of the dog family (Canidae) to reconstruct the palaeobiology of extinct canids from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (Bed I and II) and Koobi Fora, Kenya. We use radius morphometrics to predict adaptation to prey size and introduce a new method for quantifying canid habitat adaptations based on the geographic distribution...

  10. Possibilities of acupressure diagnostics indifferent diseases of carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Branislav

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the possibility of using acupressure on established points of stepped-up skin sensibility (puncta maxima - PM) for the purpose of diagnosing certain diseases of internal organs or the state of the bone-joint system in carnivora. It presents the theoretical basis of acupressure diagnostics on the grounds of the existence of pathways for conducting pain and the familiar principle of viscero-cutaneous reflexes. It describes the technique of diagnosis using acupressure. Seven ...

  11. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2013-07-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified.

  12. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Valério Carvalho; Clarisse Vieira Botelho; Caroline Gracielle Torres Ferreira; Paulo Oldemar Scherer; Jamária Adriana Pinheiro Soares-Martins; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida; Abelardo Silva Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availabilit...

  13. Carnivore rabies: ecological and evolutionary aspects / La rabbia nei Carnivori: aspetti ecologici ed evolutivi

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Wandeler

    1991-01-01

    Abstract Populations of a number of species of the order Carnivora sustain independent rabies epidemics in different parts of the world. These main hosts are all small to medium size (0.4 - 20 kg) omnivores, scavenging, and foraging on small vertebrates, invertebrates, fruit, and refuse produced by humans. They reach highest population densities in and near human settlements. High intrinsic population growth rates allow rapid recoveries of populations decimated b...

  14. Female brain size and parental care in carnivores.

    OpenAIRE

    Gittleman, J L

    1994-01-01

    Comparative studies indicate that species differences in mammalian brain size relate to body size, ecology, and life-history traits. Previous analyses failed to show intrasexual or behavioral patterns of brain size in mammals. Across the terrestrial Carnivora, I find to the contrary. Differences in female, but not male, brain size associate with a fundamental ecological and evolutionary characteristic of female behavior. Other factors equal, females that provide the sole parental care have la...

  15. Notes on the Mammals Found in Kazdağı National Park and Its Environs

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri YİĞİT; DEMİRSOY, Ali; Ahmet KARATAŞ; ÖZKURT, Şakir; ÇOLAK, Ercüment

    2006-01-01

    The present study is based on species collected and observed in Kazdağı National Park and its surroundings. Field collections yielded 40 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (4), Chiroptera (14), Lagomorpha (1), Rodentia (11), Carnivora (8), and Artiodactyla (2), Of the species recorded in this study, 6 were new records from north-west Anatolia: Sorex volnuchini, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis emarginatus, Eptesicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, and Microtus subterraneus.

  16. Frugivory and seed dispersal by carnivorous mammals, and associated fruit characteristics, in undisturbed Mediterranean habitatsFrugivory and seed dispersal by carnivorous mammals, and associated fruit characteristics, in undisturbed Mediterranean habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of carnivorous mammals (Order Carnivora) in seed dispersal has remained virtually unexplored, despite the well-known fact that these animals commonly ingest fleshy fruits and defecate their seeds. This paper presents data on the dispersal of seeds by carnivores in an extensive area of relatively undisturbed habitats in south­ eastern Spain, and is based on the examination of more than 1,500 carnivore feces collected over a 10-yr period. Seeds from 27 plant ...

  17. Lov karnivorních savců v paleolitu s důrazem kladeným na oblast České republiky.

    OpenAIRE

    KABÁTOVÁ, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims to focus on hunting of carnivorous mammals in the Palaeolithic period. This activity constituted one of the fundamental economic, spiritual and existential tenets of Palaeolithic man-hunter. It also discusses the bioindication properties of animals in the archaeological context and research methods of the study of Carnivora remains. The work result is well arranged catalog of most archaeological sites, which were discovered in the Czech republic with confirmed findings o...

  18. Carnivores from the mexican state of Puebla: Distribution, taxonomy, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramírez-Pulido; Noé González-Ruiz; Genoways, Hugh H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are consider...

  19. Structure of the cerebral cortex. Intrinsec organization and comparative analysis of the neocortex | Estructura de la corteza cerebral. Organización intrínseca y análisis comparativo del neocórtex

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, Facundo

    2002-01-01

    We review our present knowledge on the intrinsic organization of the neocortex based on studies carried out with the Golgi method in several mammalian species. An outline is presented on certain general aspects of the termination of specific afferent fibers in layer IV in insectivora, rodents, carnivora and primates. The principal components of the cerebral cortex have been classified in two broad types: pyramidal cells, which account for nearly 70% of the total population, and intrinsic neur...

  20. investigations concerning the FMD-outbreak in Europe in 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Mouchantat, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute febrile infectious disease characterized by the formation of vesicles and erosions on mucous membranes (squamous epithelium) of the alimentary tract and on hairless skin. In addition to the order Artiodactyla families of the order Insectivora, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Perissodactyla and Carnivora are susceptible to a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Most descriptions of FMD in naturally infected roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Europe a...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=M...irounga+leonina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NS ... ...a/Carnivora Mirounga_leonina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax

  2. Aspects of carnivoran evolution in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Reihaneh

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concerns the evolution of African small carnivorans, with emphasis on East African Viverridae and Herpestidae (Carnivora, Mammalia). Viverridae and Herpestidae are two Old World feliform (belonging to the cat branch) carnivoran families with a confusing, and sometimes even misleading, taxonomic and systematic history, in addition to a scarce fossil record. A new genus and species from Fort Ternan, western Kenya, dated to ca 14 Mya (million years ago), was described and tentativel...

  3. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua)

    OpenAIRE

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos; Bruno Machado Bertassoli; Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Ana Flávia de Carvalho; Ricardo Alexandre Rosa; Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2010-01-01

    The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work w...

  4. Basal metabolic rate in carnivores is associated with diet after controlling for phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Williams, Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum metabolic rate of postabsorptive, inactive endotherms while in their rest phase and thermal neutral zone, have contributed significantly to our understanding of animal energetics. Besides body mass, the main determinant of BMR, researchers have invoked diet and phylogenetic history as important factors that influence BMR, although their relative importance has been controversial. For 58 species within the Carnivora, we tested the hypothesis that BMR is correlated with home range size, a proxy for level of activity, and diet, using conventional least squares regression (CLSR) and regression based on phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). Results showed that BMR of Carnivora was positively correlated with home range size after controlling for body mass, regardless of the statistical method employed. We also found that diet and mass-adjusted home range size were correlated. When we simultaneously tested the effect of diet and mass-adjusted home range on mass-adjusted BMR, home range size was insignificant because of its colinearity with diet. Then we eliminated home range size from our model, and diet proved to be significant with both CLSR and PIC. We concluded that species that eat meat have larger home ranges and higher BMR than species that eat vegetable matter. To advance our understanding of the potential mechanisms that might explain our results, we propose the "muscle performance hypothesis," which suggests that selection for different muscle fiber types can account for the differences in BMR observed between meat eaters and vegetarian species within the Carnivora.

  5. Shape variation in the skull and lower carnassial in a wild population of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahara, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Individual variations in skull and lower carnassial morphology within a wild population of raccoon dog were examined using geometric morphometric techniques. We compared individual morphological variations by using relative warp analysis, and then tested morphological integration between the skull and carnassial by using partial least square (PLS) analysis. The most marked variation in skull shape was the dorsoventral flexion; i.e., deformation from klinorhynchy to airorhynchy. Two remarkable variations were observed, including tilting between the trigonid (or carnassial blade) and the talonid in the lower carnassial, and the relative sizes of the trigonid and the talonid. This observed variation in skull shape was similar to previous reports of variations among dog breeds that correlate with a polymorphism of the Runx2 gene. This polymorphism has also been reported to correlate with snout length, which is strongly related to carnivorous or omnivorous dietary adaptations, across the entire order Carnivora. Our results in the lower carnassial were also similar to previously reported patterns observed for carnivorous or omnivorous dietary adaptations among Carnivora. However, in our PLS analysis between skull and carnassial shapes, we only found a significant correlation in a lower dimension, suggesting a lower degree of integration. These results indicate that shape variations, which could be sources of natural selection in the skull and carnassial, were present in a wild population, suggesting high evolvability of these variations in the raccoon dog and the order Carnivora in general. PMID:23480380

  6. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut. This study determined the composition and stability of fecal microbiota of 3 captive polar bears by group-specific quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) using the 16S rRNA gene as target. Intestinal metabolic activity was determined by analysis of short-chain fatty acids in feces. For comparison, other Carnivora and mammals were included in this study. Total bacterial abundance was approximately log 8.5 DNA gene copies·(g feces)-1 in all 3 polar bears. Fecal polar bear microbiota was dominated by the facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci, and the Clostridium cluster I. The detection of the Clostridium perfringens α-toxin gene verified the presence of C. perfringens. Composition of the fecal bacterial population was stable on a genus level; according to results obtained by PCR-DGGE, dominant bacterial species fluctuated. The total short-chain fatty acid content of Carnivora and other mammals analysed was comparable; lactate was detected in feces of all carnivora but present only in trace amounts in other mammals. In comparison, the fecal microbiota and metabolic activity of captive polar bears mostly resembled the closely related grizzly and black bears.

  7. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lei

    Full Text Available Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in

  8. Fox- and raccoon-dog–associated rabies outbreaks in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early

  9. Possibilities of acupressure diagnostics indifferent diseases of carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the possibility of using acupressure on established points of stepped-up skin sensibility (puncta maxima - PM for the purpose of diagnosing certain diseases of internal organs or the state of the bone-joint system in carnivora. It presents the theoretical basis of acupressure diagnostics on the grounds of the existence of pathways for conducting pain and the familiar principle of viscero-cutaneous reflexes. It describes the technique of diagnosis using acupressure. Seven graphic pictures present the localization of optimal PM for acupressure diagnostics.

  10. Limb preference in the gallop of dogs and the half-bound of pikas on flat ground

    CERN Document Server

    Hackert, Rémi; Herbin, Marc; Abourachid, Anick; Libourel, P A

    2008-01-01

    During fast locomotion - gallop, half bound - of quadruped mammals, the ground contact of the limbs in each pair do not alternate symmetrically. Animals using such asymmetrical gait thus choose whether the left or the right limb will contact the ground first, and this gives rise to limb preference. Here, we report that dogs (Mammalia, Carnivora) and pikas (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) prefer one forelimb as trailing limb and use it as such almost twice as often as the other. We also show that this choice depends on the individual and is not a characteristic of the species, and that the strength of the preference was not dependent on the animal's running speed.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda..._melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  13. Pseudogenization of the Umami Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r1 in the Giant Panda Coincided with its Dietary Switch to Bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huabin; Yang, Jian-Rong; Xu, Huailiang; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-01-01

    Although it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda is a vegetarian with 99% of its diet being bamboo. The draft genome sequence of the giant panda shows that its umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 is a pseudogene, prompting the proposal that the loss of the umami perception explains why the giant panda is herbivorous. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced all six exons of Tas1r1 in another individual of the giant panda and five other carnivores. We found that the open reading frame (OR...

  14. [Dipetalonema lineage. New attempt at classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaud, A G; Bain, O

    1976-01-01

    Through comparing the morphological evolution to the host range and the geographical distribution we can suggest Dipetalonema sensu-largo may be interpreted as a gondwanian lineage which may have evolved after the three main austral continents drifted apart. Therefore, we propose the following systematic splitting: --Sprattia n.gen., type species: S. venacavincola parasite of Australian Marsupials, which may be related to Litomosa; --Breinlia Yorke and Maplestone, 1926, and Breinlia (Johnstonema) (Yeh, 1957), parasite of Australian Marsupials; --Skrjabinofilaria (Travassos, 1925), parasite of American Marsupials; --Macdonaldius (Khanna, 1933), parasite of American Reptiles; --Dipetalonema (Orihelia) n.sub. gen., type species: D. (O.) anticlava, parasite of Dasypodidae; --Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) (Cobbold, 1870), parasite of Insectivora, Carnivora, Pinnipedia, sometimes Rodents; --Dipetalonema (Molinema) (Freitas and Lent, 1939), parasite of Caviomorpha and Beavers; --Dipetalonema (Loxodontofilaria) (Berghe and Gillain, 1939), parasite of Ethiopian Ungulates; --Dipetalonema (Chenofilaria) (Kou, 1958), parasite of Asiatic Pholidota and Australian Marsupials; --Dipetalonema (Dipetalonema) (Diesing, 1861), parasite of American Primates; --Monanema Anteson, 1968, parasite of Rodents other than Cariomorpha; --Ackertia (Vaz, 1934), parasite of Caviomorpha; --Tetrapetalonema (Sandnema) n.sub.gen., type species: T. (S.) digitata, parasite of Asiatic Insectivora and Primates; --Tetrapetalonema (Tetrapetalonema) (Faust, 1935), parasite of Tupaidae, Platyrhinii, and, sometimes, American Rodents and Carnivora; --Tetrapetalonema (Esslingeria) n. sub.gen., type species: T. (E.) perstans, parasite of African African Anthropoidea and Humans; --Filarissima (Chabaud, 1974), parasite of Caviomorpha.

  15. Species identification key of Korean mammal hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

    2014-05-01

    The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology.

  16. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Valério Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV, which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies.

  17. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release. PMID:26555109

  18. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release.

  19. Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Ulfur; Adegoke, Joseph A; Bodin, Kristina; Born, Erik W; Esa, Yuzine B; Gullberg, Anette; Nilsson, Maria; Short, Roger V; Xu, Xiufeng; Janke, Axel

    2002-06-11

    The strict orthology of mitochondrial (mt) coding sequences has promoted their use in phylogenetic analyses at different levels. Here we present the results of a mitogenomic study (i.e., analysis based on the set of protein-coding genes from complete mt genomes) of 60 mammalian species. This number includes 11 new mt genomes. The sampling comprises all but one of the traditional eutherian orders. The previously unrepresented order Dermoptera (flying lemurs) fell within Primates as the sister group of Anthropoidea, making Primates paraphyletic. This relationship was strongly supported. Lipotyphla ("insectivores") split into three distinct lineages: Erinaceomorpha, Tenrecomorpha, and Soricomorpha. Erinaceomorpha was the basal eutherian lineage. Sirenia (dugong) and Macroscelidea (elephant shrew) fell within the African clade. Pholidota (pangolin) joined the Cetferungulata as the sister group of Carnivora. The analyses identified monophyletic Pinnipedia with Otariidae (sea lions, fur seals) and Odobenidae (walruses) as sister groups to the exclusion of Phocidae (true seals).

  20. Differential evolution of MAGE genes based on expression pattern and selection pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Starting from publicly-accessible datasets, we have utilized comparative and phylogenetic genome analyses to characterize the evolution of the human MAGE gene family. Our characterization of genomic structures in representative genomes of primates, rodents, carnivora, and macroscelidea indicates that both Type I and Type II MAGE genes have undergone lineage-specific evolution. The restricted expression pattern in germ cells of Type I MAGE orthologs is observed throughout evolutionary history. Unlike Type II MAGEs that have conserved promoter sequences, Type I MAGEs lack promoter conservation, suggesting that epigenetic regulation is a central mechanism for controlling their expression. Codon analysis shows that Type I but not Type II MAGE genes have been under positive selection. The combination of genomic and expression analysis suggests that Type 1 MAGE promoters and genes continue to evolve in the hominin lineage, perhaps towards functional diversification or acquiring additional specific functions, and that selection pressure at codon level is associated with expression spectrum.

  1. Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Tommy G; Sikes, Robert S; Parsons, Jennifer L; Rude, Brian J; Bissell, Heidi A; Ouellette, John R

    2011-01-01

    Endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bears (Family Ursidae), within the order Carnivora. They specialize on an herbivorous diet of bamboo yet retain a gastrointestinal tract typical of their carnivorous ancestry. The evolutionary constraints of their digestive tract result in a low extraction efficiency from bamboo (<40% in reported studies). The goal of this study was to determine the energy digestibility of bamboo by giant pandas used in digestibility trials and through subsequent analyses with bomb calorimetry. Seven digestibility trials were conducted (three with bamboo-only diets and four with supplemental diets). Energy digestibilities ranged from 7.5-38.9% for mixed diets and 9.2-34.0% for bamboo-only diets. The bamboo-only trials summarized here represent, to our knowledge, the first empirical data available for energy digestibility on a bamboo diet for giant pandas. PMID:20814990

  2. Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Ulfur; Adegoke, Joseph A; Bodin, Kristina; Born, Erik W; Esa, Yuzine B; Gullberg, Anette; Nilsson, Maria; Short, Roger V; Xu, Xiufeng; Janke, Axel

    2002-06-11

    The strict orthology of mitochondrial (mt) coding sequences has promoted their use in phylogenetic analyses at different levels. Here we present the results of a mitogenomic study (i.e., analysis based on the set of protein-coding genes from complete mt genomes) of 60 mammalian species. This number includes 11 new mt genomes. The sampling comprises all but one of the traditional eutherian orders. The previously unrepresented order Dermoptera (flying lemurs) fell within Primates as the sister group of Anthropoidea, making Primates paraphyletic. This relationship was strongly supported. Lipotyphla ("insectivores") split into three distinct lineages: Erinaceomorpha, Tenrecomorpha, and Soricomorpha. Erinaceomorpha was the basal eutherian lineage. Sirenia (dugong) and Macroscelidea (elephant shrew) fell within the African clade. Pholidota (pangolin) joined the Cetferungulata as the sister group of Carnivora. The analyses identified monophyletic Pinnipedia with Otariidae (sea lions, fur seals) and Odobenidae (walruses) as sister groups to the exclusion of Phocidae (true seals). PMID:12034869

  3. A soluble class I molecule analogous to mouse Q10 in the horse and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, A M; Valas, R B; Maloy, W L; Coligan, J E

    1986-01-01

    Horse serum is shown to contain a soluble class I molecule analogous to the secreted Q10 molecule in the mouse. This molecule has several similarities to the recently described mouse Q10 molecule: it is smaller than membrane-bound equine class I molecules; it occurs in a high molecular mass complex of 200-300 kd in serum; and the serum levels of the equine molecule are similar to that of the Q10 molecule (about 30 micrograms/ml). A soluble molecule is also detected in the sera of species related to the horse; it has in fact been found in all the wild members of the order Perissodactyla so far tested. However, it was not detected in the serum of members of the orders Carnivora, Sirenia, Proboscidea, Artiodactyla, and Primates that were tested, nor in the serum of members of the order Rodentia other than in that of the genus Mus. PMID:3519445

  4. MITE INFECTION IN A MASKED PALM CIVET (PAGUMA LARVATA) TREATED BY SELAMECTIN (STRONGHOLD®, PFIZER LTD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Lara; Nardini, Giordano; Leopardi, Stefania; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    The masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) is a small Asian mammal (order Carnivora, family Viverridae) uncommon in Italy. Limited information is available about management and sanitary maintenance in captivity. A 4-mo-old masked palm civet presented with pruritus, itch, scratching, and disorexia. On physical examination, alopecia and crusts were detected on the ventral and lateral trunk, tail, legs, and lips. Skin scrapings and cytology revealed Notoedres spp. and bacterial infection. On histopathology, parasitic dermatitis was observed with the presence of a Sarcoptidae mite and Demodex spp. Selamectin spot-on (15 mg/kg every 2 wk, three applications) and marbofloxacin per os (2.5 mg/kg once daily for 2 wk) were administered, and the animal recovered in 1 mo. With the good response to this therapy, a notoedric mange was thought to be the main problem. This is the first report about the use of selamectin to treat a mite infection in masked palm civet. PMID:26352967

  5. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  6. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  7. A Checklist of the Mammals of small Italian islands

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    Francesco Angelici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Present knowledge on mammals of small Italian islands consists mainly of episodic records. In this paper we collect all available information about the distribution of wild mammals on 47 small Italian islands. A total of 37-38 species was found, including: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora and 4 Artiodactyla. The subspecific level has been identified whenever possible. The mammal fauna of the Isle of Elba (Tuscan Archipelago is the richest, with 24 species, while the most common species are Rattus rattus present on 47 islands Oryctolagus cuniculus (34, and Mus musculus (33. With the exception of Crocidura sicula, the current mammal fauna on small Italian islands originated from introductions.
    Riassunto Checklist dei mammiferi delle piccole isole italiane Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui mammiferi delle piccole isole del territorio italiano è frutto, perlopiù, di segnalazioni episodiche. Abbiamo raccolto le informazioni disponibili riguardo i mammiferi selvatici. Sono state prese in esame 47 isole, sulle quali è stata segnalata la presenza di un totale di 37-38 specie così ripartite: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora e 4 Artiodactyla. Quando possibile è stato identificato anche il livello subspecifico. In base ai dati finora disponibili, la teriofauna dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano risulta quella più diversificata (24 specie, mentre le specie più diffuse sono Rattus rattus, presente su 47 isole, Oryctolagus cuniculus (34 e Mus musculus (33. Con l’eccezione di Crocidura sicula, i popolamenti attuali di mammiferi selvatici nelle piccole isole italiane sono originati da introduzioni operate dall’uomo.

  8. La presencia de Ixodes luciae en el noroeste argentino y nuevos huéspedes para Ixodes pararicinus y algunas especies de Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae Presence of Ixodes luciae in Argentina northwest and new hosts for Ixodes pararicinus and some species of Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía G. Autino

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de una colección de garrapatas de mamíferos del noroeste argentino, depositados en la Colección de Anexos de la Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, permitió ampliar el área de distribución de Ixodes luciae Sénevet, a las provincias de Salta y Tucumán e incrementar su rango de huéspedes al roedor sigmodontino Calomys callosus (Rengger y a los marsupiales de la familia Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas y Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Se registró a C . callosus y Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi como nuevos huéspedes de Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, y a los Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer y Oncifelis geoffroyi (d´Orbigny & Gervais como nuevos huéspedes de Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga y Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se observó la infestación de Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae por I. luciae y la presencia de Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, sobre L. gymnocercus . Ninfas de Amblyomma sp . se obtuvieron de Akodon Meyen (Sigmodontinae.The analysis of a tick collection of mammals from northwestern Argentina deposited in the Annexes (ACML of Colección Mamíferos Lillo (CML National University of Tucumán, amplified the distribution of Ixodes luciae Sénevet, to Salta and Tucumán provinces and increased the host range to the sigmodontinae rodent Calomys callosus (Rengger and the Didelphidae Micoureus constantiae (Thomas, Thylamys cinderella Thomas and Thylamys venustus (Thomas. Calomys callosus and Oligoryzomys destructor (Tschudi were registered as new hosts of Ixodes pararicinus Keirans & Clifford, and the Carnivora Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fischer and Oncifelis geoffroyi (d´Orbigny & Gervais as new hosts of Amblyomma neumanni Ribaga, and Amblyomma parvum Aragão, respectively . Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest (Didelphidae was also found infested with I. luciae while Amblyomma tigrinum Koch was

  9. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass)b. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  10. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  11. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  12. The Effect of Computerized Testing on Sun Bear Behavior and Enrichment Preferences

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    Bonnie M. Perdue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of comparative cognition investigates species’ differences and similarities in cognitive abilities, and sheds light on the evolutionary origins of such capacities. Cognitive testing has been carried out in a variety of species; however, there are some taxa that are underrepresented in this field. The current work follows on a recent increase in cognitive research in the order Carnivora with a specific focus on sun bears. Sun bears are the smallest existing bear species and live in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. They have an omnivorous diet and use their tongues to forage for insects and sap. Little is known about sun bear cognition, although much like other bear species, anecdotes suggest a high level of intelligence. The current work explored training sun bears to use a touchscreen computer. This effort allows for insight into cognitive abilities as well as providing a complex source of enrichment for the bears. The bears use their tongues to respond to a touchscreen computer, and the effects on stereotypic behaviors on exhibit and preference for this over other forms of enrichment were examined. Overall, bears performed well on the task and showed a preference for the computer.

  13. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  14. REVISED AND COMMENTED CHECKLIST OF MAMMAL SPECIES OF THE ROMANIAN FAUNA

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    Dumitru Murariu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the permanent influences of different factors (habitat degradation and fragmentation, deforestation, infrastructure and urbanization, natural extension or decreasing of some species’ distribution, increasing number of alien species etc., from time to time the faunistic structure of a certain area is changing. As a result of the permanent and increasing anthropic and invasive species’ pressure, our previous checklist of recent mammals from Romania (since 1984 became out of date. A number of 108 taxa are mentioned in this checklist, representing 7 orders of mammals: Insectivora (10 species, Chiroptera (30 sp., Lagomorpha (2 sp., Rodentia (35 sp., Cetacea (3 sp., Carnivora (19 sp., Artiodactyla (8 sp.. In this list are mentioned the scientific and vernacular names (in Romanian and English languages, species distribution and conservation status, according to the Romanian regulations. Thus, only 21 species have stable populations while 76 have populations in decline or in drastic decline. Other categories are not evaluated or even present an increase in their population.

  15. Ecomorphology of radii in Canidae: Application to fragmentary fossils from Plio-Pleistocene hominin assemblages

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    Carlo Meloro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary long bone material from fossil Carnivora is rarely considered to support palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Here, we use morphometry of the radius in extant carnivorans of the dog family (Canidae to reconstruct the palaeobiology of extinct canids from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (Bed I and II and Koobi Fora, Kenya. We use radius morphometrics to predict adaptation to prey size and introduce a new method for quantifying canid habitat adaptations based on the geographic distributions of the extant species sampled. Linear Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA and cluster neighbour-joining algorithms are employed to investigate radial morphometrics as described by 29 linear measurements. Results of our analyses suggest that a phylogenetic signal is present in radial morphometrics, even if it does not allow us to accurately discriminate among genera. A binary prey size categorisation of “small-medium” versus “large” prey can be more accurately predicted than a habitat categorisation scheme (Open, Mixed, Closed. The East African fossil specimens examined show morphometric affinities with the golden jackal (Canis aureus and coyote (Canis latrans and are likely attributable to the genus Canis. Fragmentary fossil specimens from Olduvai Gorge are predicted as habitat generalists (Open for Bed I and Mixed for Bed II adapted for hunting small-medium prey, whereas the specimen from Koobi Fora was predicted as inhabiting mixed habitats and adapted for killing large prey. This study supports the inclusion of fossil Canidae in palaeoecological analyses attempting to clarify the palaeoenvironment of early hominin fossil sites.

  16. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals. PMID:12237403

  17. Marine mammals of Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva, Chile: a review and new records

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    Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean oceanic islands Easter Island (Rapa Nui and Salas y Gómez Island (Motu Motiro Hiva have received little attention with regards to basic marine mammal investigations. Here we review and update available information on the status of marine mammals in this area from different sources, including published accounts, local interviews and two recent expeditions. We also provide detailed accounts for each confirmed family or species, including historical data from published archaeological studies and whalers' logbooks from the 18th to the 20th centuries. Results indicate that a total of five marine mammal families (Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae, Ziphiidae, Delphinidae and Phocidae have been confirmed within the study area, representing two mammalian orders (Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora. Within these, twelve species are known to occur: blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, unidentified minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis or B. acutorostrata, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus, Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris, Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris, false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens, unidentified pilot whale (Globicephala sp., bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, common dolphin (Delphinus sp., southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina and leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx. We discuss the implications of some of most noteworthy records and make a plea for further studies to improve our knowledge of these top predators in one of the most isolated places in the world.

  18. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Chiarello, A G

    2008-11-01

    Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station--SLBS). Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days), 25 records of 16 individual dogs were obtained in the interior of SLBS, making dogs the fourth most frequently recorded species of mammals in general and the first-ranking among Carnivora, ahead of the ocelot and puma, the top two terrestrial predators present in SLBS. Dogs entered the forest year round, in almost half of the sampled months (48%), and predominantly during daytime (89%). They were detected in various trails inside the reserve, but mostly in areas nearest to the reserve's border ( 0.05 in all cases), suggesting an erratic, non-seasonal pattern of entrance in the reserve. Data indicate that domestic dogs can be abundant and frequent visitors to little disturbed Atlantic forest reserves even when these are located in regions of low density of human population. The potential impact to native fauna is discussed. PMID:19197494

  19. Detection of Arctic and European cluster of canine distemper virus in north and center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Rostami, Amir; Majidzadeh-Ardebili, Keyvan; Ghalyanchi Langroudi, Arash; Morovvati, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) creates a very contagious viral multi-systemic canine distemper (CD) disease that affects most species of Carnivora order. The virus is genetically heterogeneous, particularly in section of the hemagglutinin (H) gene. Sequence analysis of the H gene can be useful to investigate distinction of various lineages related to geographical distribution and CDV molecular epidemiology. Since vaccination program is conducted only in large cities of Iran, CD still remains as one of the major causes of death in dogs in this country. In order to monitor H gene, CDV has been detected in 14 out of 19 sampled dogs through the amplification of nucleoprotein (NP) gene in nested-PCR assay. In the next step 665 bp of H gene was amplified in 9 out of 14 NP-gene positive dogs. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two distinct CDV genotypes in Iran. JN941238 has been embedded in European cluster and JN941239 has been embedded in Arctic cluster. Nucleic analysis has been shown high difference among both Iranian CDV lineages with CDV vaccine strains. PMID:26893808

  20. Enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan; Kieser, Jules

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the enamel ultrastructure in modern otariid pinnipeds and in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos. Teeth of the New Zealand fur seal ( Arctocephalus forsteri), sea lion ( Phocarctos hookeri), and fossil walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi were embedded, sectioned, etched, and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The enamel of NZ otariids and Pelagiarctos was prismatic and moderately thick, measuring 150-450 μm on average. It consisted of transversely oriented Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs) from the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to near the outer surface, where it faded into prismless enamel less than 10 μm thick. The width of HSB was variable and averaged between 6 and 10 prisms, and they presented an undulating course both in longitudinal and cross sections. The overall organization of the enamel was similar in all teeth sampled; however, the enamel was thicker in canines and postcanines than in incisors. The crowns of all teeth sampled were uniformly covered by enamel; however, the grooved incisors lacked an enamel cover on the posterior side of the buccal face. Large tubules and tuft-like structures were seen at the EDJ. HSB enamel as well as tubules and tufts at the EDJ suggest increased occlusal loads during feeding, a biomechanical adaptation to avoid enamel cracking and failure. Despite overall simplification in tooth morphology and reduced mastication, the fossil and modern pinnipeds analyzed here retained the complex undulating HSB structure of other fossils and living Carnivora, while other marine mammals such as cetaceans developed simplified radial enamel.

  1. Biting through constraints: cranial morphology, disparity and convergence across living and fossil carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali; Milne, Nick; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-06-22

    Carnivory has evolved independently several times in eutherian (including placental) and metatherian (including marsupial) mammals. We used geometric morphometrics to assess convergences associated with the evolution of carnivory across a broad suite of mammals, including the eutherian clades Carnivora and Creodonta and the metatherian clades Thylacoleonidae, Dasyuromorphia, Didelphidae and Borhyaenoidea. We further quantified cranial disparity across eutherians and metatherians to test the hypothesis that the marsupial mode of reproduction has constrained their morphological evolution. This study, to our knowledge the first to extensively sample pre-Pleistocene taxa, analysed 30 three-dimensional landmarks, focused mainly on the facial region, which were digitized on 130 specimens, including 36 fossil taxa. Data were analysed with principal components (PC) analysis, and three measures of disparity were compared between eutherians and metatherians. PC1 showed a shift from short to long faces and seemed to represent diet and ecology. PC2 was dominated by the unique features of sabre-toothed forms: dramatic expansion of the maxilla at the expense of the frontal bones. PC3, in combination with PC1, distinguished metatherians and eutherians. Metatherians, despite common comparisons with felids, were more similar to caniforms, which was unexpected for taxa such as the sabre-toothed marsupial Thylacosmilus. Contrary to previous studies, metatherian carnivores consistently exhibited disparity which exceeded that of the much more speciose eutherian carnivore radiations, refuting the hypothesis that developmental constraints have limited the morphological evolution of the marsupial cranium.

  2. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  3. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  4. The ecology of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle: Dispersion of zymodeme 3 (Z3) in wild hosts from Brazilian biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2009-10-28

    Two main genotypes in Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations can be distinguished by PCR amplification of sequences from the mini-exon gene non-transcribed spacer, respectively, T. cruzi I (TCI) and T. cruzi II (TCII). This technique is also capable of distinguishing a third assemblage of subpopulations that do not fit in these genotypes and that remain known as zymodeme Z3 (Z3). The distribution pattern as well as the mammalian host range of this latter T. cruzi sublineage still remains unclear. Thus, the intention of our study was to increase the information regarding these aspects. The mini-exon analysis of T. cruzi isolates obtained from sylvatic animals in the Amazon Forest, Atlantic Rainforest, Caatinga and Pantanal showed that prevalence of the Z3 subpopulation in nature was low (15 out of 225 isolates, corresponding to 7%). A higher prevalence of Z3 was observed in the Caatinga (15%) and the Pantanal (12%). Infection by Z3 was observed in mammalian hosts included in Carnivora, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, Rodentia and Xernathra. The T. cruzi Z3 subpopulation was observed also in mixed infections (33%) with TCI (n=2) and TCII (n=3). These results demonstrate that T. cruzi Z3 displays a wider distribution and host range than formerly understood as it has been demonstrated to be able infect species included in five orders of mammalian host species dispersed through all forest strata of the four Brazilian biomes evaluated.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon, with description of a new species, the Olinguito

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    Kristofer M. Helgen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first comprehensive taxonomic revision and review the biology of the olingos, the endemic Neotropical procyonid genus Bassaricyon, based on most specimens available in museums, and with data derived from anatomy, morphometrics, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, field observations, and geographic range modeling. Species of Bassaricyon are primarily forest-living, arboreal, nocturnal, frugivorous, and solitary, and have one young at a time. We demonstrate that four olingo species can be recognized, including a Central American species (B. gabbii, lowland species with eastern, cis-Andean (B. alleni and western, trans-Andean (B. medius distributions, and a species endemic to cloud forests in the Andes. The oldest evolutionary divergence in the genus is between this last species, endemic to the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, and all other species, which occur in lower elevation habitats. Surprisingly, this Andean endemic species, which we call the Olinguito, has never been previously described; it represents a new species in the order Carnivora and is the smallest living member of the family Procyonidae. We report on the biology of this new species based on information from museum specimens, niche modeling, and fieldwork in western Ecuador, and describe four Olinguito subspecies based on morphological distinctions across different regions of the Northern Andes.

  6. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

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    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  7. c-myc gene sequences and the phylogeny of bats and other eutherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M M; Porter, C A; Goodman, M

    2000-09-01

    The complete protein-coding sequences of the c-myc proto-oncogene were determined for five species of four new orders of eutherian (placental) mammals. These newly obtained sequences were aligned to each other and to other available orthologs for the phylogenetic estimation of eutherian interordinal relationships. Several measures of sequence difference and base composition were first calculated to assess the major evolutionary properties of the three codon positions and two protein-coding exons of the gene. On the basis of these calculations, different parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood approaches were adopted, with the most sophisticated involving the separate, then combined, likelihood analyses of the third codon positions of exon 2 versus all other sites. These phylogenetic approaches provided clear support for the grouping of Chiroptera (bats) with Artiodactyla (ruminants, camels, and pigs) and Carnivora (cats, dogs, and their allies), an interordinal arrangement that receives strong corroboration from other lines of evidence including complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. In contrast, these analyses failed to provide strong to reasonable support for any other interordinal group. This study concludes with specific recommendations about sampling and other strategies for maximizing the phylogenetic contributions of the c-myc gene to the continued resolution of the eutherian ordinal tree. PMID:12116424

  8. Epizootiological-epidemiological importance of parasitic infections in wild canids

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    Ilić Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The family of wild canids belongs to the order Carnivora and comprises 16 genuses that are distributed in most countries all over the world. The most important endoparasitic diseases of wild canids are toxocariasis, uncinariasis, capillariasis, trichinellosis, echinococcosis, cestodiasis, opisthorchiasis, and alariasis. Ectoparasites that most often exist as parasites in wild canids are mites, fleas, ticks and scabies.Wild canids have a large epizootiological-epidemiological significance since they are hosts to parasites that cause certain vector diseases, the most important of which are leishmaniasis, ehrilichiosis, babesiasis, borreliosis, dirofilariasis, bartonellosis, and hepatozoonosis. The increased frequency of interaction between domestic and wild canids steps up the risk of the appearance, spread, and maintaining of the disease in domestic dog populations. Observed from the aspect of the biological and ecological risk, that can be caused by zoonotic infections, the knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasistic infections of wild canids is of particular importance for the region of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31084: Praćenje zdravstvenog stanja divljači i uvođenje novih biotehnoloških postupaka u detekciji zaraznih i zoonoznih agenasa - analiza rizika za zdravlje ljudi, domaćih i divljih životinja i kontaminaciju životne sredine i br. 173001: Primena EIIP/ISM bioinformatičke platforme u otkrivanju novih terapeutskih targeta i potencijalnih terapeutskih molekula

  9. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology.

  10. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  11. Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Alba, David M; Robles, Josep M; Valenciano, Alberto; Rotgers, Cheyenn; Carmona, Raül; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae), has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8-7 mya) was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12-11 Ma) Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos). The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint. PMID:23155439

  12. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth – Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I. Kati; Watson, David G.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1–6 (Phase 1), days 7–20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  13. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Ursids (bears in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1, days 7-20 (Phase 2, and beyond day 20 (Phase 3. While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  14. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I Kati; Watson, David G; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1), days 7-20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  15. Giant Panda Maternal Care: A Test of the Experience Constraint Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rebecca J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Zhang, Zhihe; Maple, Terry L.; Charlton, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    The body condition constraint and the experience condition constraint hypotheses have both been proposed to account for differences in reproductive success between multiparous (experienced) and primiparous (first-time) mothers. However, because primiparous mothers are typically characterized by both inferior body condition and lack of experience when compared to multiparous mothers, interpreting experience related differences in maternal care as support for either the body condition constraint hypothesis or the experience constraint hypothesis is extremely difficult. Here, we examined maternal behaviour in captive giant pandas, allowing us to simultaneously control for body condition and provide a rigorous test of the experience constraint hypothesis in this endangered animal. We found that multiparous mothers spent more time engaged in key maternal behaviours (nursing, grooming, and holding cubs) and had significantly less vocal cubs than primiparous mothers. This study provides the first evidence supporting the experience constraint hypothesis in the order Carnivora, and may have utility for captive breeding programs in which it is important to monitor the welfare of this species’ highly altricial cubs, whose survival is almost entirely dependent on receiving adequate maternal care during the first few weeks of life. PMID:27272352

  16. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals.

  17. Brain size predicts problem-solving ability in mammalian carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Dantzer, Ben; Stricker, Gregory; Swanson, Eli M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable interest in the forces shaping the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities, it remains controversial whether larger-brained animals are, indeed, better problem-solvers. Recently, several comparative studies have revealed correlations between brain size and traits thought to require advanced cognitive abilities, such as innovation, behavioral flexibility, invasion success, and self-control. However, the general assumption that animals with larger brains have superior cognitive abilities has been heavily criticized, primarily because of the lack of experimental support for it. Here, we designed an experiment to inquire whether specific neuroanatomical or socioecological measures predict success at solving a novel technical problem among species in the mammalian order Carnivora. We presented puzzle boxes, baited with food and scaled to accommodate body size, to members of 39 carnivore species from nine families housed in multiple North American zoos. We found that species with larger brains relative to their body mass were more successful at opening the boxes. In a subset of species, we also used virtual brain endocasts to measure volumes of four gross brain regions and show that some of these regions improve model prediction of success at opening the boxes when included with total brain size and body mass. Socioecological variables, including measures of social complexity and manual dexterity, failed to predict success at opening the boxes. Our results, thus, fail to support the social brain hypothesis but provide important empirical support for the relationship between relative brain size and the ability to solve this novel technical problem.

  18. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-04-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  19. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

  20. The effect of different fat sources in the diet on the composition of adipose tissue in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sławomir; Przysiecki, Piotr; Filistowicz, Aneta; Potkański, Andrzej; Filistowicz, Andrzej; Wójtowski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of vegetable and animal fat in the feed ration on the fatty acid profile of reserve fat in the arctic fox. Varying proportions of saturated and unsaturated fats in the feed ration comprised the experimental factor. In order to differentiate contents of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the experimental feed rations, various percentages of rapeseed oil and turkey fat were applied. The subcutaneous and circum-organal fat in this study differed considerably in terms of contents of individual fatty acids and between individual groups of acids. The circum-organal fat contained much higher amounts of unsaturated acids, but at the same time it was characterized by a lower amount of monounsaturated acids. Significant differences were also found in the contents of as many as 11 fatty acids. Recorded results indicate a potential modification of reserve fat in the arctic fox, a model representative of carnivorous animals (Carnivora). The possibility of the partial substitution of animal fat with vegetable oil (rape oil) in the nutritive diet of artic foxes was confirmed. PMID:25134342

  1. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J.; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste).

  2. Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, U; Janke, A

    2002-01-01

    Reasonably correct phylogenies are fundamental to the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we present phylogenetic findings based on analyses of 67 complete mammalian mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The analyses, irrespective of whether they were performed at the amino acid (aa) level or on nucleotides (nt) of first and second codon positions, placed Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and their kin) as the sister group of remaining eutherians. Thus, the analyses separated Erinaceomorpha from other traditional lipotyphlans (e.g., tenrecs, moles, and shrews), making traditional Lipotyphla polyphyletic. Both the aa and nt data sets identified the two order-rich eutherian clades, the Cetferungulata (comprising Pholidota, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea) and the African clade (Tenrecomorpha, Macroscelidea, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, and Sirenia). The study corroborated recent findings that have identified a sister-group relationship between Anthropoidea and Dermoptera (flying lemurs), thereby making our own order, Primates, a paraphyletic assembly. Molecular estimates using paleontologically well-established calibration points, placed the origin of most eutherian orders in Cretaceous times, 70-100 million years before present (MYBP). The same estimates place all primate divergences much earlier than traditionally believed. For example, the divergence between Homo and Pan is estimated to have taken place approximately 10 MYBP, a dating consistent with recent findings in primate paleontology. PMID:12438776

  3. A unique feeding strategy of the extinct marine mammal Kolponomos: convergence on sabretooths and sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Z Jack; Grohé, Camille; Flynn, John J

    2016-03-16

    Mammalian molluscivores feed mainly by shell-crushing or suction-feeding. The extinct marine arctoid, Kolponomos, has been interpreted as an otter-like shell-crusher based on similar dentitions. However, neither the masticatory biomechanics of the shell-crushing adaptation nor the way Kolponomos may have captured hard-shelled prey have been tested. Based on mandibular symphyseal morphology shared by Kolponomos and sabre-toothed carnivores, we hypothesize a sabretooth-like mechanism for Kolponomos prey-capture, whereby the mandible functioned as an anchor. Torque generated from jaw closure and head flexion was used to dislodge prey by prying, with prey then crushed using cheek teeth. We test this hypothesized feeding sequence using phylogenetically informed biomechanical simulations and shape analyses, and find a strongly supported, shared high mandibular stiffness in simulated prey-capture bites and mandibular shape in Kolponomos and the sabre-toothed cat Smilodon. These two distantly related taxa converged on using mandibles to anchor cranial torqueing forces when prying substrate-bound prey in the former and sabre-driving forces during prey-killing in the latter. Simulated prey-crushing bites indicate that Kolponomos and sea otters exhibit alternative structural stiffness-bite efficiency combinations in mandibular biomechanical adaptation for shell-crushing. This unique feeding system of Kolponomos exemplifies a mosaic of form-function convergence relative to other Carnivora. PMID:26936242

  4. The anterior process of the malleus in Cetartiodactyla.

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    Maier, Wolfgang; Ruf, Irina

    2016-02-01

    The anterior fixation of the anterior process of the malleus has been studied in a number of Cetartiodactyla. This anterior process, also known as processus gracilis, is provided by the prearticular (gonial), a dermal bone, whereas the cartilage of Meckel becomes resorbed in perinatal ontogenetic stages. Posteriorly, the prearticular fuses with the cartilaginous caput of the malleus; rostrally, the prearticular (= processus gracilis) is always fixed to the anterior crus of the ectotympanic by an extremely thin splint (thickness fused to the adjacent bones already in juveniles. However, in ruminants, the tegmen tympani tends to disappear and the processus internus praearticularis appears as relatively small bony knob at the floor of the medial cranial cavity, and it seems not to be fused to the surrounding bones; in later age stages, it may become secondarily overgrown by the petrosal. This dorsally exposed processus internus praearticularis seems to be a synapomorphy of the Ruminantia. The functional meaning of this internal process of the prearticular, which is also developed to a minor degree in Carnivora, remains unclear at the moment - but we present some speculations about this. PMID:26510377

  5. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  6. Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Erin A; Ashwell, Melissa; Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    Microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to host health and nutrition. Although gut microbial ecology is well studied in livestock and domestic animals, little is known of the endogenous populations inhabiting primates or carnivora. We characterized microbial populations in fecal cultures from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) to compare the microbiomes associated with different gastrointestinal morphologies and different omnivorous feeding strategies. Each species was fed a distinct standardized diet for 2 weeks prior to fecal collection. All diets were formulated to reflect the species' feeding strategies in situ. Fresh fecal samples were pooled within species and used to inoculate in vitro batch cultures. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were measured after 24 h of incubation. Eubacterial DNA was extracted from individual fecal samples, pooled, and the cpn60 gene region was amplified and then sequenced to identify the major eubacterial constituents associated with each host species. Short chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) and methane (P < 0.001) were significantly different across species. Eubacterial profiles were consistent with fermentation data and suggest an increase in diversity with dietary fiber. PMID:25236539

  7. The broad spectrum of Trichinella hosts: from cold- to warm-blooded animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, studies on Trichinella have shown that the host range is wider than previously believed and new Trichinella species and genotypes have been described. Three classes of vertebrates are known to act as hosts, mammals, birds and reptiles, and infected vertebrates have been detected on all continents but Antarctica. Mammals represent the most important hosts and all Trichinella species are able to develop in this vertebrate class. Natural infections with Trichinella have been described in more than 150 mammalian species belonging to 12 orders (i.e., Marsupialia, Insectivora, Edentata, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Cetacea, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Tylopoda and Primates). The epidemiology of the infection greatly varies by species relative to characteristics, such as diet, life span, distribution, behaviour, and relationships with humans. The non-encapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis, detected in both mammals (14 species) and birds (13 species), shows a cosmopolitan distribution with three distinguishable populations in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Australian regions. Two additional non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, detected in wild pigs and saltwater crocodiles of Papua New Guinea, and Trichinella zimbabwensis, detected in farmed Nile crocodiles of Zimbabwe, can complete their life cycle in both mammals and reptiles. To the best of our knowledge, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are the only two parasites known to complete their entire life cycle independently of whether the host is warm-blooded or cold-blooded. This suggests that these two Trichinella species are capable of activating different physiological mechanisms, according to the specific vertebrate class hosting them. PMID:15970384

  8. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  9. Man's other best friend: domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) and their discrimination of human emotion cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Moriah; Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The ability of domestic dogs (C. lupus famaliaris) to follow and attend to human emotion expressions is well documented. It is unknown whether domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) possess similar abilities. Because cats belong to the same order (Carnivora), but did not evolve to live in complex social groups, research with them enables us to tease apart the influence of social structure versus domestication processes on the capacity to recognize human communicative cues, such as emotions. Two experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which domestic cats discriminate between human emotion cues. The first experiment presented cats with facial and postural cues of happiness and anger from both an unfamiliar experimenter and their familiar owner in the absence of vocal cues. The second experiment presented cats with vocal cues of human emotion through a positively or negatively charged conversation between an experimenter and owner. Domestic cats were only modestly sensitive to emotion, particularly when displayed by their owner, suggesting that a history of human interaction alone may not be sufficient to shape such abilities in domestic cats. PMID:26400749

  10. For whales and seals the ocean is not blue: a visual pigment loss in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, L; Behrmann, G; Kröger, R H

    2001-04-01

    Most terrestrial mammals have colour vision based on two spectrally different visual pigments located in two types of retinal cone photoreceptors, i.e. they are cone dichromats with long-to-middle-wave-sensitive (commonly green) L-cones and short-wave-sensitive (commonly blue) S-cones. With visual pigment-specific antibodies, we here demonstrate an absence of S-cones in the retinae of all whales and seals studied. The sample includes seven species of toothed whales (Odontoceti) and five species of marine carnivores (eared and earless seals). These marine mammals have only L-cones (cone monochromacy) and hence are essentially colour-blind. For comparison, the study also includes the wolf, ferret and European river otter (Carnivora) as well as the mouflon and pygmy hippopotamus (Artiodactyla), close terrestrial relatives of the seals and whales, respectively. These have a normal complement of S-cones and L-cones. The S-cone loss in marine species from two distant mammalian orders strongly argues for convergent evolution and an adaptive advantage of that trait in the marine visual environment. To us this suggests that the S-cones may have been lost in all whales and seals. However, as the spectral composition of light in clear ocean waters is increasingly blue-shifted with depth, an S-cone loss would seem particularly disadvantageous. We discuss some hypotheses to explain this paradox.

  11. Biomechanical determinants of transverse and rotary gallop in cursorial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Carlo M; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-12-01

    Transverse and rotary gallop differ in the placement of the leading hindfeet and forefeet: ipsilateral in the former gait, contralateral in the latter. We analysed 351 filmed sequences to assess the gallop type of 89 investigated mammalian species belonging to Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla orders. Twenty-three biometrical, ecological and physiological parameters were collected for each species both from literature data and from animal specimens. Most of the species showed only one kind of gallop: transverse (42%) or rotary (39%), while some species performed rotary gallop only at high speed (19%). In a factorial analysis, the first principal component (PC), which accounted for 40% of the total variance, was positively correlated to the relative speed and negatively correlated to size and body mass. The second PC was correlated to the ratio between distal and proximal limb segments. Large size and longer proximal limb segments were associated with transverse gallop, while rotary and speed-dependent species showed higher metacarpus/humerus and metatarsus/femur length ratio and faster relative speeds. The resulting limb excursion angles were proportional to the square-root of the Froude number, and significantly higher in rotary gallopers. The gait pattern analysis indicated significant differences between transverse and rotary gallop in forelimb and hindlimb duty factor (t-test; Pnumber of mammalian species, and indicate that the gallop pattern depends on diverse environmental, morphometrical and biomechanical characters. PMID:22933611

  12. Ecological drivers of antipredator defenses in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowich, Theodore; Haverkamp, Paul J; Caro, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Mammals have evolved several morphological and behavioral adaptations to reduce the risk of predation, but we know little about the ecological factors that favor their evolution. For example, some mammalian carnivores have the ability to spray noxious anal secretions in defense, whereas other species lack such weaponry but may instead rely on collective vigilance characteristic of cohesive social groups. Using extensive natural history data on 181 species in the order Carnivora, we created a new estimate of potential predation risk from mammals and birds of prey and used comparative phylogenetic methods to assess how different sources of predation risk and other ecological variables influence the evolution of either noxious weaponry or sociality in this taxon. We demonstrate that the evolution of enhanced spraying ability is favored by increased predation risk from other mammals and by nocturnality, but the evolution of sociality is favored by increased predation risk from birds of prey and by diurnality, which may allow for enhanced early visual detection. These results suggest that noxious defenses and sociality are alternative antipredator strategies targeting different predator guilds under different lighting conditions. PMID:24433406

  13. Data mining in conservation research using Latin and vernacular species names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Ivan; Courchamp, Franck; Gessner, Jörn; Roberts, David L

    2016-01-01

    In conservation science, assessments of trends and priorities for actions often focus on species as the management unit. Studies on species coverage in online media are commonly conducted by using species vernacular names. However, the use of species vernacular names for web-based data search is problematic due to the high risk of mismatches in results. While the use of Latin names may produce more consistent results, it is uncertain whether a search using Latin names will produce unbiased results as compared to vernacular names. We assessed the potential of Latin names to be used as an alternative to vernacular names for the data mining within the field of conservation science. By using Latin and vernacular names, we searched for species from four species groups: diurnal birds of prey, Carnivora, Primates and marine mammals. We assessed the relationship of the results obtained within different online sources, such as Internet pages, newspapers and social media networks. Results indicated that the search results based on Latin and vernacular names were highly correlated, and confirmed that one may be used as an alternative for the other. We also demonstrated the potential of the number of images posted on the Internet to be used as an indication of the public attention towards different species. PMID:27547528

  14. Data mining in conservation research using Latin and vernacular species names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Gessner, Jörn; Roberts, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In conservation science, assessments of trends and priorities for actions often focus on species as the management unit. Studies on species coverage in online media are commonly conducted by using species vernacular names. However, the use of species vernacular names for web-based data search is problematic due to the high risk of mismatches in results. While the use of Latin names may produce more consistent results, it is uncertain whether a search using Latin names will produce unbiased results as compared to vernacular names. We assessed the potential of Latin names to be used as an alternative to vernacular names for the data mining within the field of conservation science. By using Latin and vernacular names, we searched for species from four species groups: diurnal birds of prey, Carnivora, Primates and marine mammals. We assessed the relationship of the results obtained within different online sources, such as Internet pages, newspapers and social media networks. Results indicated that the search results based on Latin and vernacular names were highly correlated, and confirmed that one may be used as an alternative for the other. We also demonstrated the potential of the number of images posted on the Internet to be used as an indication of the public attention towards different species. PMID:27547528

  15. Modeling the Influence of Forest Structure on Microsite Habitat Use by Snowshoe Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus is an important prey species for many Carnivora and has strong influences on community structure and function in northern forests. An understanding of within-stand (microsite forest structural characteristics that promote high use by hares is important to provide forest management guidelines. We measured forest structural characteristics at the microsite-scale in north-central Maine and used an information-theoretic modeling approach to infer which characteristics were most strongly associated with use by hares during winter. We measured overwinter hare pellet density to model relationships among microsite-scale vegetation structure and hare use. Overwinter pellet density was positively associated with live stem cover (3 × coniferous saplings + deciduous saplings and negatively associated with overstory canopy closure; the two variables explained 71% of the variation in microsite use by hares. The highest pellet densities were in grids with canopy closure 22,000 stems/ha. Silvicultural practices that create dense areas of conifer and deciduous saplings should receive high within-stand use by hares in winter. These conditions can be achieved by promoting the release of advanced regeneration and reducing overstory cover to encourage establishment of shade-intolerant species; clearcutting is one such silvicultural prescription to achieve these conditions.

  16. Lung morphology of cursorial and non-cursorial mammals: lagomorphs as a case study for a pneumatic stabilization hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R S

    1996-12-01

    Gross lung morphology is examined in representative species from four genera within the order Lagomorpha (Lepus californicus, Sylvilagus nuttalli, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Ochotona princeps), and compared with a representative rodent out-group (Spermophilus richardonsii). Examination of pulmonary morphology reveals several correlations between the thoracic morphology and locomotor behavior. Lepus, the most cursorial species, exhibits a distinct suite of characteristics: 1) tissue of the right cranial lobe interposed between the heart and sternum; 2) well-defined grooves in the lung tissue for both the aorta and ribs; 3) a fibrous pericardial attachment to the sternum; 4) relatively large heart and lung mass. Sylvilagus, a sprinter, exhibits these features to a lesser degree, whereas Oryctolagus and Ochotona, non-cursorial species, lack most of these features. This same suite of pulmonary features is also observed in a wide range of unrelated cursorial taxa (including selected Artiodactlya, Perissodactyla, Carnivora). Corrosion casts of the internal airways demonstrate that the cursorial and non-cursorial taxa examined here have similar branching patterns despite their variable external morphologies. The juxtaposition of pulmonary lobes, heart, and ribs leads to the hypothesis that the lungs themselves provide mechanical support of the heart and visceral mass during locomotion. Analyses of cineradiographic and pneumotachographic data obtained from Oryctolagus tend to support a pneumatic stabilization hypothesis: the lungs themselves, intimately associated with the chest walls and positively pressurized during landing, may provide some mechanical support to the viscera. This mechanism may be important in stabilizing the relatively large hearts of the most cursorial species during running.

  17. Bacterial populations and metabolites in the feces of free roaming and captive grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Gänzle, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Gut physiology, host phylogeny, and diet determine the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) belong to the Order Carnivora, yet feed on an omnivorous diet. The role of intestinal microflora in grizzly bear digestion has not been investigated. Microbiota and microbial activity were analysed from the feces of wild and captive grizzly bears. Bacterial composition was determined using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The feces of wild and captive grizzly bears contained log 9.1 +/- 0.5 and log 9.2 +/- 0.3 gene copies x g(-1), respectively. Facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were dominant in wild bear feces. Among the strict anaerobes, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group was most prominent. Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in the feces of captive grizzly bears, at log 8.9 +/- 0.5 gene copies x g(-1). Strict anaerobes of the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group and the Clostridium coccoides cluster were present at log 6.7 +/- 0.9 and log 6.8 +/- 0.8 gene copies x g(-1), respectively. The presence of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) verified microbial activity. Total SCFA content and composition was affected by diet. SCFA composition in the feces of captive grizzly bears resembled the SCFA composition of prey-consuming wild animals. A consistent data set was obtained that associated fecal microbiota and metabolites with the distinctive gut physiology and diet of grizzly bears.

  18. Epidemiology of leptospirosis at Sorocaba Zoo, São Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil

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    Leila S. Ullmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is considered a worldwide distributed zoonosis, caused by the bacteria Leptospira spp. Since several species of wildlife animals are reportedly reservoirs, the aim of the present study was to know the epidemiology of leptospirosis at the Sorocaba Zoo, Southern Brazil. Serum samples of wild mammals from Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Diprotodontia, Perissodactyla, Pilosa, Primates, Proboscidea and Rodentia orders, kept in captivity as well as from zoological staff were assayed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Whole blood, urine and tissue samples from wild mammals and synanthropic animals were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. An epidemiological survey was applied to evaluate the risk factors for animal infection and staff level of knowledge on leptospirosis. A total of 13/229 (5.68%; CI95% 3.37-9.47% serum samples from wild mammals were reagent on MAT. Serology from synanthropic animals, zoo staff and molecular analysis of animal samples were all negative. Leptospirosis knowledge of zoo park staff was considered medium. In conclusion, leptospiral infection occurs at the studied zoo but due to the low occurrence found, the lowest reported in literature, wild captive mammals do not act as source of infection of leptospirosis to other animals and human beings.

  19. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

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    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  20. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

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    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  1. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  2. Nutritional management and disease prevention in healthy dogs and cats Manejo nutricional e prevenção de doenças em cães e gatos saudáveis

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    Andrea J. Fascetti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthy animals normally eat sufficient food to satisfy their energy requirements. It is one of the jobs of the nutritionist to ensure that all other nutrient needs have been met when animals stop eating because they have met their energy needs. While dogs and cats are members of the biological order Carnivora, scientific observation and research support that differences in their metabolism and nutritional requirements exist. However, the goal in feeding both species is the same; to optimize the health and well-being of the individual. This approach results in dietary recommendations that will vary from individual animal to animal, based on a variety of factors that include the animal's signalment, occupation and environment. Feeding approaches vary between the two species and within the same species during different physiological life stages. However, the practice of feeding to maintain a lean body condition is a common goal. The maintenance of a lean body condition has been proven to increase both the quantity and quality of life in dogs. Currently, similar data does not exist in cats but is suspected to hold true. Each dog and cat's feeding program should be assessed routinely and adjustments made as indicated based on the animal's body condition, life stage and general health.Animais saudáveis normalmente comem alimentos suficientes para satisfazer suas necessidades energéticas. Uma das funções dos nutricionistas é garantir que todas as necessidades de nutrientes ingeridas serão adequadas quando os animais pararem de comer após terem atingido suas necessidades energéticas. Enquanto cães e gatos são membros da ordem Carnivora, a observação científica e de pesquisa apoia as diferenças existentes em suas exigências nutricionais e o metabolismo. No entanto, o objetivo de alimentar as duas espécies é o mesmo, para otimizar a saúde e o bem-estar do indivíduo. Esta abordagem resulta em recomendações dietéticas que variam de

  3. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (Pfossil evidence that extends the early adaptive radiation of the total clade of musteloids to the Eocene-Oligocene transition and also suggests Asia as a center of this radiation. PMID:19699810

  4. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    The body masses of cats (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) span a ~300-fold range from the smallest to largest species. Despite this range, felid musculoskeletal anatomy remains remarkably conservative, including the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at unusually large sizes. The forelimbs in felids are important for body support and other aspects of locomotion, as well as climbing and prey capture, with the assistance of the vertebral (and hindlimb) muscles. Here, we examine the scaling of the anterior postcranial musculature across felids to assess scaling patterns between different species spanning the range of felid body sizes. The muscle architecture (lengths and masses of the muscle-tendon unit components) for the forelimb, cervical and thoracic muscles was quantified to analyse how the muscles scale with body mass. Our results demonstrate that physiological cross-sectional areas of the forelimb muscles scale positively with increasing body mass (i.e. becoming relatively larger). Many significantly allometric variables pertain to shoulder support, whereas the rest of the limb muscles become relatively weaker in larger felid species. However, when phylogenetic relationships were corrected for, most of these significant relationships disappeared, leaving no significantly allometric muscle metrics. The majority of cervical and thoracic muscle metrics are not significantly allometric, despite there being many allometric skeletal elements in these regions. When forelimb muscle data were considered in isolation or in combination with those of the vertebral muscles in principal components analyses and MANOVAs, there was no significant discrimination among species by either size or locomotory mode. Our results support the inference that larger felid species have relatively weaker anterior postcranial musculature compared with smaller species, due to an absence of significant positive allometry of forelimb or vertebral muscle architecture. This difference in strength

  5. Diversity of Sucking Lice on Small Mammals in the Surrounding Areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表吸虱多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammals was carried out in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan from 2003 to 2004.From investigation sites, 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured and identified into 7families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), while 14 635 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 5 families, 6 genera and 21 species in the Order Anoplura. The sites stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas are different landscapes within the same zone where the longitude, latitude, altitude and fauna are homologous but isolated by Erhai Lake as inartificial barrier. The aim of this study was to recognize features of the species diversity,abundance, community structure, similarity and distribution of sucking lice in different landscapes within the same zone. The results showed the species diversity of sucking lice was very low with a very simple community structure. The distribution of sucking lice and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven among different oriented areas and this may imply that ecological environment influences the species composition and distribution of sucking li ce and their corresponding hosts. A certain species of hosts usually have theirfixed louse species. The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. Species of sucking lice on the same small mam mal host in different oriented areas of Erhai Lake are homologous. The results stronglysuggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  6. Origin and phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan Mastiff based on the mitochondrial DNA sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Li; Zhuang Xie; Zhenshan Liu; Yinxia Li; Xingbo Zhao; Liyan Dong; Zengxiang Pan; Yuanrong Sun; Ning Li; Yinxue Xu

    2008-01-01

    At present, the Tibetan Mastiff is the oldest and most ferocious dog in the world. However, the origin of the Tibetan Mastiff and its Phylogenetic relationship with other large breed dogs such as Saint Bernard are unclear. In this study, the primers were designed according to the mitochondrial genome sequence of the domestic dog, and the 2,525 bp mitochondrial sequence, containing the whole sequence of Cytochrome b, tRNA-Thr, tRNA-Pro, and control region of the Tibetan Mastiff, was obtained. Using grey wolves and coyotes as outgroups, the Tibetan Mastiff and 12 breeds of domestic dogs were analyzed in phylogenesis. Tibetan Mastiff, domestic dog breeds, and grey wolves were clustered into a group and coyotes were clustered in a group separately. This indicated that the Tibetan Mastiff and the other domestic dogs originated from the grey wolf, and the Tibetan Mastiff belonged to Carnivora, Canidae, Canis, Canis lupus, Canis lupus familiaris on the animal taxonomy. In domestic dogs, the middle and small breed dogs were clustered at first; German Sheepdog, Swedish Elkhound, and Black Russian Terrier were clustered into one group, and the Tibetan Mastiff, Old English Sheepdog, Leonberger, and Saint Bernard were clustered in another group. This confirmed the viewpoint that many of the famous large breed dogs worldwide Such as Saint Bernard possibly had the blood lineage of the Tibetan Mastiff, based on the molecular data. According to the substitution rate, we concluded that the approximate divergence time between Tibetan Mastiff and grey wolf was 58,000 years before the present (YBP), and the approximate divergence time between other domestic dogs and grey wolf was 42,000 YBP, demonstrating that the time of origin of the Tibetan Mastiff was earlier than that of the other domestic dogs.

  7. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  8. More than a rabbit's tale – Encephalitozoon spp. in wild mammals and birds

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    Barbara Hinney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the microsporidian genus Encephalitozoon, three species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon intestinalis have been described. Several orders of the Class Aves (Passeriformes, Psittaciformes, Apodiformes, Ciconiiformis, Gruiformes, Columbiformes, Suliformes, Podicipediformes, Anseriformes, Struthioniformes, Falconiformes and of the Class Mammalia (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Artyodactyla, Soricomorpha, Chiroptera, Carnivora can become infected. Especially E. cuniculi has a very broad host range while E. hellem is mainly distributed amongst birds. E. intestinalis has so far been detected only sporadically in wild animals. Although genotyping allows the identification of strains with a certain host preference, recent studies have demonstrated that they have no strict host specificity. Accordingly, humans can become infected with any of the four strains of E. cuniculi as well as with E. hellem or E. intestinalis, the latter being the most common. Especially, but not exclusively, immunocompromised people are at risk. Environmental contamination with as well as direct transmission of Encephalitozoon is therefore highly relevant for public health. Moreover, endangered species might be threatened by the spread of pathogens into their habitats. In captivity, clinically overt and often fatal disease seems to occur frequently. In conclusion, Encephalitozoon appears to be common in wild warm-blooded animals and these hosts may present important reservoirs for environmental contamination and maintenance of the pathogens. Similar to domestic animals, asymptomatic infections seem to occur frequently but in captive wild animals severe disease has also been reported. Detailed investigations into the epidemiology and clinical relevance of these microsporidia will permit a full appraisal of their role as pathogens.

  9. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago. PMID:26044348

  10. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear of Placental Mammals.

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    Eric G Ekdale

    Full Text Available Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT. Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported.The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha.The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear.

  11. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago.

  12. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

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    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  13. An evaluation of the PCR-RFLP technique to aid molecular-based monitoring of felids and canids in India

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    Home Chandrima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The order Carnivora is well represented in India, with 58 of the 250 species found globally, occurring here. However, small carnivores figure very poorly in research and conservation policies in India. This is mainly due to the dearth of tested and standardized techniques that are both cost effective and conducive to small carnivore studies in the field. In this paper we present a non-invasive genetic technique standardized for the study of Indian felids and canids with the use of PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of scat collected in the field. Findings Using existing sequences of felids and canids from GenBank, we designed primers from the 16S rRNA region of the mitochondrial genome and tested these on ten species of felids and five canids. We selected restriction enzymes that would cut the selected region differentially for various species within each family. We produced a restriction digestion profile for the potential differentiation of species based on fragment patterns. To test our technique, we used felid PCR primers on scats collected from various habitats in India, representing varied environmental conditions. Amplification success with field collected scats was 52%, while 86% of the products used for restriction digestion could be accurately assigned to species. We verified this through sequencing. A comparison of costs across the various techniques currently used for scat assignment showed that this technique was the most practical and cost effective. Conclusions The species-specific key developed in this paper provides a means for detailed investigations in the future that focus on elusive carnivores in India and this approach provides a model for other studies in areas of Asia where many small carnivores co-occur.

  14. Nuclear and mitochondrial genes for inferring Trichuris phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Rocío; Cutillas, Cristina; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene (624 bp) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) gene (520 bp) were obtained by PCR and evaluated for utility in inferring the phylogenetic relationships among Trichuris species. Published sequences of one other nuclear gene (18S or SSU rRNA, 1816-1846 bp) and one additional mitochondrial (mtDNA) gene (cytochrome oxidase 1, cox1, 342 bp) were also analyzed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to infer phylogenies for each gene separately but also for the combined mitochondrial data (two genes), the combined nuclear data (two genes), and the total evidence (four gene) dataset. Few Trichuris clades were uniformly resolved across separate analyses of individual genes. For the mtDNA, the cob gene trees had greater phylogenetic resolution and tended to have higher support values than the cox1 analyses. For nuclear genes, the SSU gene trees had slightly greater resolution and support values than the TPI analyses, but TPI was the only gene with reliable support for the deepest nodes in the tree. Combined analyses of genes yielded strongly supported clades in most cases, with the exception of the relationship among Trichuris clades 1, 2, and 3, which showed conflicting results between nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Both the TPI and cob genes proved valuable for inferring Trichuris relationships, with greatest resolution and support values achieved through combined analysis of multiple genes. Based on the phylogeny of the combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, parsimony mapping of definitive host utilization depicts artiodactyls as the ancestral hosts for these Trichuris, with host-shifts into primates, rodents, and Carnivora.

  15. Examining the prey mass of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous mammals: minimum, maximum and range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-01-01

    Predator-prey body mass relationships are a vital part of food webs across ecosystems and provide key information for predicting the susceptibility of carnivore populations to extinction. Despite this, there has been limited research on the minimum and maximum prey size of mammalian carnivores. Without information on large-scale patterns of prey mass, we limit our understanding of predation pressure, trophic cascades and susceptibility of carnivores to decreasing prey populations. The majority of studies that examine predator-prey body mass relationships focus on either a single or a subset of mammalian species, which limits the strength of our models as well as their broader application. We examine the relationship between predator body mass and the minimum, maximum and range of their prey's body mass across 108 mammalian carnivores, from weasels to baleen whales (Carnivora and Cetacea). We test whether mammals show a positive relationship between prey and predator body mass, as in reptiles and birds, as well as examine how environment (aquatic and terrestrial) and phylogenetic relatedness play a role in this relationship. We found that phylogenetic relatedness is a strong driver of predator-prey mass patterns in carnivorous mammals and accounts for a higher proportion of variance compared with the biological drivers of body mass and environment. We show a positive predator-prey body mass pattern for terrestrial mammals as found in reptiles and birds, but no relationship for aquatic mammals. Our results will benefit our understanding of trophic interactions, the susceptibility of carnivores to population declines and the role of carnivores within ecosystems. PMID:25162695

  16. Efficacy of two canine distemper vaccines in wild Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a contagious morbillivirus, infects families in the order Carnivora, including Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis). As a preventative measure, vaccinations against CDV are frequently given to mustelids in captive environments. The Pennsylvania River Otter Reintroduction Project (PRORP) used wild-caught river otters to evaluate the efficacy and need for vaccinations against CDV as part of any reintroduction project. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of exposure to CDV in wild river otters, 2) determine the immunologic response of river otters (i.e., seroconversion) after vaccination with a single (primary) vaccine dose compared to a second (booster) dose of Galaxy-D, a modified live-virus canine distemper (CD) vaccine (MLV CDV), and 3) determine the immunologic response after being vaccinated with a primary vaccination compared to a booster dose of Fervac-D, an MLV CDV. River otters were injected subcutaneously in the nape of the neck with their designated vaccine. Timeframes for collection of blood samples and/or injection of booster vaccines varied depending on the parameters of PRORP. Ten of the 22 river otters had positive prevaccination titer levels to CD. Both vaccines, Galaxy-D and Fervac-D, produced sufficient seroconversion or rise of titer levels (86% and 57%, respectively) to recommend the use of vaccines in wild river otters. Future studies are recommended to evaluate currently produced CD vaccines. Future research should also focus on the number of days required between administration of primary and booster vaccines to achieve sufficient immune response. If only a primary dose is required, then hard-release reintroduction projects for river otters could be recommended. If primary and booster vaccines are required then soft-release reintroduction projects should be recommended. Soft-release projects should include captive management periods that allow for appropriate vaccination intervals

  17. The role of wild mammals in the maintenance of Rift Valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Goodman, Steven M; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2012-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. Numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of RVFV. The role of mammals in the maintenance of RVFV, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of RVFV, remain largely unknown. Our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on RVFV, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potential reservoirs of the virus. Natural and experimental infections related to RVFV in several mammalian orders, including Artiodactyla, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Primata (nonhuman), Perissodactyla, Carnivora, Proboscidea, Erinaceomorpha, and Lagomorpha, are reviewed; the first four orders have received the greatest attention. The possible role of wild ruminants, especially African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), is also discussed. Conflicting results have been published concerning rodents but, based on the literature, the likely candidate species include the African genera Arvicanthis and Micaelamys and the widely introduced roof rat (Rattus rattus). Members of the orders Chiroptera and Rodentia should receive greater attention associated with new research programs. For the other orders mentioned above, few data are available. We are unaware of any investigation concerning the orders Afrosoricida and Soricomorpha, which are represented in the geographic area of RVFV and can be abundant. As a first step to resolve the question of wild mammals as a reservoir of RVFV, serologic and virologic surveys should be promoted during epizootic periods to document infected wild animals and, in the case of positive results, extended to interepidemic periods to explore the role of wild animals as possible reservoirs.

  18. Comparative seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans in Colombian mammals along a climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo, Viviana González; Hernández, Dave Wehdeking; Stadlin, Juliana Peña; Bernal, Leonardo Arias; Rodríguez, Dora Adriana Lombo; Hernández, Miryam Astudillo

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease with well-established impacts on human health in tropical and subtropical regions. Although Leptospira spp. are known to readily infect many wildlife species, the understanding of interspecies and climatic variability in patterns of infection in Neotropical mammals is limited. To improve the understanding of this interplay, 85 mammals representing 17 species were sampled from four Colombian zoos along a climatic gradient. Prevalence of the 21 primary serovars against Leptospira interrogans was determined using the microagglutination test. Individuals were considered positive for a given serovar if antibodies were observable at a 1:100 dilution or greater. Overall prevalence was 9.52%, with positive titers to serovar hurstbridge in Carnivora (Canidae); serovar sarmin in Primata (Atelidae); and serovars australis, mini, autumnalis, pomona, icterohaemorrhagiae, and seramanga in Primata (Cebidae). Prevalence was positively correlated with humidity and temperature, with significantly higher prevalence at the site characterized by high humidity, severe flooding because of rainfall, and warm weather throughout the year. All positive animals were classified as clinically asymptomatic, meaning that antibodies from a current or past infection were detected but no overt symptoms were apparent. The diversity of serovars observed and the taxon-specific nature of these associations suggest that the epidemiology of Leptospira transmission is likely to be complex and multidimensional. The strong association observed between prevalence and climate suggests that the important role of climate as an indicator of Leptospira infection risk in humans may also be applicable to wildlife. Future studies in both wild and captive populations of Neotropical wildlife will further elucidate this disease interplay. PMID:23272343

  19. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

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    Pharo Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A. Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1 and early lactation (Phase 2A. The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI, spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5 genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  20. Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.

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    Paula Stewart

    Full Text Available Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo and pine marten (Martes martes were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus and mountain lion (Puma concolor from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.

  1. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Clauss, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S) distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record), in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora). Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods), in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey exists in mammals

  2. Ecological interactions in dinosaur communities: influences of small offspring and complex ontogenetic life histories.

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    Daryl Codron

    Full Text Available Because egg-laying meant that even the largest dinosaurs gave birth to very small offspring, they had to pass through multiple ontogenetic life stages to adulthood. Dinosaurs' successors as the dominant terrestrial vertebrate life form, the mammals, give birth to live young, and have much larger offspring and less complex ontogenetic histories. The larger number of juveniles in dinosaur as compared to mammal ecosystems represents both a greater diversity of food available to predators, and competitors for similar-sized individuals of sympatric species. Models of population abundances across different-sized species of dinosaurs and mammals, based on simulated ecological life tables, are employed to investigate how differences in predation and competition pressure influenced dinosaur communities. Higher small- to medium-sized prey availability leads to a normal body mass-species richness (M-S distribution of carnivorous dinosaurs (as found in the theropod fossil record, in contrast to the right-skewed M-S distribution of carnivorous mammals (as found living members of the order Carnivora. Higher levels of interspecific competition leads to a left-skewed M-S distribution in herbivorous dinosaurs (as found in sauropods and ornithopods, in contrast to the normal M-S distribution of large herbivorous mammals. Thus, our models suggest that differences in reproductive strategy, and consequently ontogeny, explain observed differences in community structure between dinosaur and mammal faunas. Models also show that the largest dinosaurian predators could have subsisted on similar-sized prey by including younger life stages of the largest herbivore species, but that large predators likely avoided prey much smaller than themselves because, despite predicted higher abundances of smaller than larger-bodied prey, contributions of small prey to biomass intake would be insufficient to satisfy meat requirements. A lack of large carnivores feeding on small prey

  3. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2012-03-27

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized Tas1r2 caused by ORF-disrupting mutations. Fittingly, the purifying selection pressure is markedly relaxed in these species with a pseudogenized Tas1r2. In behavioral tests, the Asian otter (defective Tas1r2) showed no preference for sweet compounds, but the spectacled bear (intact Tas1r2) did. In addition to the inactivation of Tas1r2, we found that sea lion Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 are also pseudogenized, consistent with their unique feeding behavior, which entails swallowing food whole without chewing. The extensive loss of Tas1r receptor function is not restricted to the sea lion: the bottlenose dolphin, which evolved independently from the sea lion but displays similar feeding behavior, also has all three Tas1rs inactivated, and may also lack functional bitter receptors. These data provide strong support for the view that loss of taste receptor function in mammals is widespread and directly related to feeding specializations. PMID:22411809

  4. Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Xenobiotic Metabolizing Activity and Genetic Evolution in Pinniped Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Mayu; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Kawai, Yusuke K; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-10-01

    There are various interspecies differences in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. It is known that cats show slow glucuronidation of drugs such as acetaminophen and strong side effects due to the UGT1A6 pseudogene. Recently, the UGT1A6 pseudogene was found in the Northern elephant seal and Otariidae was suggested to be UGT1A6-deficient. From the results of measurements of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity using liver microsomes, the Steller sea lion, Northern fur seal, and Caspian seal showed UGT activity toward 1-hydroxypyrene and acetaminophen as low as in cats, which was significantly lower than in rat and dog. Furthermore, UGT1A6 pseudogenes were found in Steller sea lion and Northern fur seal, and all Otariidae species were suggested to have the UGT1A6 pseudogene. The UGT1 family genes appear to have undergone birth-and-death evolution based on a phylogenetic and synteny analysis of the UGT1 family in mammals including Carnivora. UGT1A2-1A5 and UGT1A7-1A10 are paralogous genes to UGT1A1 and UGTA6, respectively, and their numbers were lower in cat, ferret and Pacific walrus than in human, rat, and dog. Felidae and Pinnipedia, which are less exposed to natural xenobiotics such as plant-derived toxins due to their carnivorous diet, have experienced fewer gene duplications of xenobiotic-metabolizing UGT genes, and even possess UGT1A6 pseudogenes. Artificial environmental pollutants and drugs conjugated by UGT are increasing dramatically, and their elimination to the environment can be of great consequence to cat and Pinnipedia species, whose low xenobiotic glucuronidation capacity makes them highly sensitive to these compounds. PMID:26179383

  5. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

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    Zhijie Jack Tseng

    Full Text Available Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  6. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences. PMID:25923776

  7. Examining the prey mass of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous mammals: minimum, maximum and range.

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    Marlee A Tucker

    Full Text Available Predator-prey body mass relationships are a vital part of food webs across ecosystems and provide key information for predicting the susceptibility of carnivore populations to extinction. Despite this, there has been limited research on the minimum and maximum prey size of mammalian carnivores. Without information on large-scale patterns of prey mass, we limit our understanding of predation pressure, trophic cascades and susceptibility of carnivores to decreasing prey populations. The majority of studies that examine predator-prey body mass relationships focus on either a single or a subset of mammalian species, which limits the strength of our models as well as their broader application. We examine the relationship between predator body mass and the minimum, maximum and range of their prey's body mass across 108 mammalian carnivores, from weasels to baleen whales (Carnivora and Cetacea. We test whether mammals show a positive relationship between prey and predator body mass, as in reptiles and birds, as well as examine how environment (aquatic and terrestrial and phylogenetic relatedness play a role in this relationship. We found that phylogenetic relatedness is a strong driver of predator-prey mass patterns in carnivorous mammals and accounts for a higher proportion of variance compared with the biological drivers of body mass and environment. We show a positive predator-prey body mass pattern for terrestrial mammals as found in reptiles and birds, but no relationship for aquatic mammals. Our results will benefit our understanding of trophic interactions, the susceptibility of carnivores to population declines and the role of carnivores within ecosystems.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of conservation priorities for aquatic mammals and their terrestrial relatives, with a comparison of methods.

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    Laura J May-Collado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Habitat loss and overexploitation are among the primary factors threatening populations of many mammal species. Recently, aquatic mammals have been highlighted as particularly vulnerable. Here we test (1 if aquatic mammals emerge as more phylogenetically urgent conservation priorities than their terrestrial relatives, and (2 if high priority species are receiving sufficient conservation effort. We also compare results among some phylogenetic conservation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A phylogenetic analysis of conservation priorities for all 620 species of Cetartiodactyla and Carnivora, including most aquatic mammals. Conservation priority ranking of aquatic versus terrestrial species is approximately proportional to their diversity. However, nearly all obligated freshwater cetartiodactylans are among the top conservation priority species. Further, ∼74% and 40% of fully aquatic cetartiodactylans and carnivores, respectively, are either threatened or data deficient, more so than their terrestrial relatives. Strikingly, only 3% of all 'high priority' species are thought to be stable. An overwhelming 97% of these species thus either show decreasing population trends (87% or are insufficiently known (10%. Furthermore, a disproportional number of highly evolutionarily distinct species are experiencing population decline, thus, such species should be closely monitored even if not currently threatened. Comparison among methods reveals that exact species ranking differs considerably among methods, nevertheless, most top priority species consistently rank high under any method. While we here favor one approach, we also suggest that a consensus approach may be useful when methods disagree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results reinforce prior findings, suggesting there is an urgent need to gather basic conservation data for aquatic mammals, and special conservation focus is needed on those confined to freshwater. That

  9. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  10. Ecología trófica de la Sabaleta Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae en el río Portugal de Piedras, Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    Alvaro Botero-Botero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica de la sabaleta (Brycon henni en el río Portugal de Piedras, cordillera Oriental, departamento del Valle del Cauca. Materiales y métodos. Desde octubre de 2008 hasta junio de 2009 se realizaron pescas exploratorias y se determinaron parámetros físico y químicos del hábitat. Los ejemplares capturados fueron eviscerados y el contenido estomacal fue determinado hasta el mínimo taxón posible. Resultados. La especie presenta una dieta generalista que incluye 35 categorías alimenticias, con tendencia al consumo de larvas y ninfas de insectos acuáticos entre los cuales se destacan tricópteros, dípteros y odonatos; también, consume organismos alóctonos al cauce como hormigas (Hymenoptera, escarabajos (Coleoptera y material vegetal: frutos, semillas y hojas. La relación longitud intestino (LI vs. longitud estándar (LS indican que la especie presenta características propias de una especie carnívora (LI = -13.8728 + 1.02377*LS, r= 0.35, n= 22, a su vez, el peso total (PT depende directamente de la longitud total (LT y LS del pez (PT = -49.308 + 0.609962*LT; r= 0.92 n=30; PT = -41.6011 + 0.672529*LS; r= 0.89, n=30, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La sabaleta (Brycon henni presentó caracteristicas de una especie carnivora.

  11. Evolution of C, D and S-type cystatins in mammals: an extensive gene duplication in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa-Pereira, Patrícia; Abrantes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ana; Colaço, Bruno; Vitorino, Rui; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Cystatins are a family of inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that comprises the salivary cystatins (D and S-type cystatins) and cystatin C. These cystatins are encoded by a multigene family (CST3, CST5, CST4, CST1 and CST2) organized in tandem in the human genome. Their presence and functional importance in human saliva has been reported, however the distribution of these proteins in other mammals is still unclear. Here, we performed a proteomic analysis of the saliva of several mammals and studied the evolution of this multigene family. The proteomic analysis detected S-type cystatins (S, SA, and SN) in human saliva and cystatin D in rat saliva. The evolutionary analysis showed that the cystatin C encoding gene is present in species of the most representative mammalian groups, i.e. Artiodactyla, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Primates. On the other hand, D and S-type cystatins are mainly retrieved from Primates, and especially the evolution of S-type cystatins seems to be a dynamic process as seen in Pongo abelii genome where several copies of CST1-like gene (cystatin SN) were found. In Rodents, a group of cystatins previously identified as D and S has also evolved. Despite the high divergence of the amino acid sequence, their position in the phylogenetic tree and their genome organization suggests a common origin with those of the Primates. These results suggest that the D and S type cystatins have emerged before the mammalian radiation and were retained only in Primates and Rodents. Although the mechanisms driving the evolution of cystatins are unknown, it seems to be a dynamic process with several gene duplications evolving according to the birth-and-death model of evolution. The factors that led to the appearance of a group of saliva-specific cystatins in Primates and its rapid evolution remain undetermined, but may be associated with an adaptive advantage.

  12. Preliminary inventory of mammals from Yurubí National Park, Yaracuy, Venezuela with some comments on their natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Franger J; Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; Aular, Luis

    2012-03-01

    In Venezuela, mammals represent an important group of wildlife with high anthropogenic pressures that threaten their permanence. Focused on the need to generate baseline information that allows us to contribute to document and conserve the richness of local wildlife, we conducted a mammalogical inventory in Yurubí National Park, located in Yaracuy State in Venezuela. We carried out fieldworks in three selected vegetation types: an evergreen forest at 197m, a semi-deciduous forest ranging between 100-230m, and a cloud forest at 1 446m. We used Victor, Sherman, Havahart and pitfall traps for the capture of small non-volant mammals and mist nets for bats. In addition, we carried out interviews with local residents and direct-indirect observations for medium-large sized mammals. At least 79 species inhabit the area, representing 28% of the species recorded for the North side of the country. Chiroptera (39 spp.), Carnivora (13 spp.) and Rodentia (9 spp.) were the orders with the highest richness, as expected for the Neotropics. The evergreen forest had the greatest species richness (n=68), with a sampling effort of 128 net-hours, 32 bucket-days, 16 hours of observations, and three persons interviewed, followed by cloud forest (n=45) with 324 net-hours, 790 traps-night, 77 bucket-days, 10 hours of observations, and one person interviewed. The lowest richness value was in the semi-deciduous forest (n=41), with 591 traps-night, 15 net-hours, 10 hours of observations and three persons interviewed. Data and observations obtained in this inventory (e.g., endemism, species known as "surrogate species" threatened in Venezuela) give an important role at the Yurubí National Park in the maintenance and conservation of local ecosystems and wildlife, threatened by human pressures in the Cordillera de la Costa.

  13. Postcranial morphology and the locomotor habits of living and extinct carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X; Meachen, Julie A; Sakai, Stacey A

    2013-02-01

    Members of the order Carnivora display a broad range of locomotor habits, including cursorial, scansorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, aquatic, and semifossorial species from multiple families. Ecomorphological analyses from osteological measurements have been used successfully in prior studies of carnivorans and rodents to accurately infer the locomotor habits of extinct species. This study uses 20 postcranial measurements that have been shown to be effective indicators of locomotor habits in rodents and incorporates an extensive sample of over 300 individuals from more than 100 living carnivoran species. We performed statistical analyses, including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise discriminant function analysis, using a set of 16 functional indices (ratios). Our ANOVA results reveal consistent differences in postcranial skeletal morphology among locomotor groups. Cursorial species display distal elongation of the limbs, gracile limb elements, and relatively narrow humeral and femoral epicondyles. Aquatic and semiaquatic species display relatively robust, shortened femora and elongate metatarsals. Semifossorial species display relatively short, robust limbs with enlarged muscular attachment sites and elongate claws. Both semiaquatic and semifossorial species have relatively elongate olecranon process of the ulna and enlarged humeral and femoral epicondyles. Terrestrial, scansorial, and arboreal species are characterized by having primarily intermediate features, but arboreal species do show relatively elongate manual digits. Morphological indices effectively discriminate locomotor groups, with cursorial and arboreal species more accurately classified than terrestrial, scansorial, or semiaquatic species. Both within and between families, species with similar locomotor habits converge toward similar postcranial morphology despite their independent evolutionary histories. The discriminant analysis worked particularly well to correctly classify members of the

  14. Diversity, disparity, and evolutionary rate estimation for unresolved Yule trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W; Suchard, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    The branching structure of biological evolution confers statistical dependencies on phenotypic trait values in related organisms. For this reason, comparative macroevolutionary studies usually begin with an inferred phylogeny that describes the evolutionary relationships of the organisms of interest. The probability of the observed trait data can be computed by assuming a model for trait evolution, such as Brownian motion, over the branches of this fixed tree. However, the phylogenetic tree itself contributes statistical uncertainty to estimates of rates of phenotypic evolution, and many comparative evolutionary biologists regard the tree as a nuisance parameter. In this article, we present a framework for analytically integrating over unknown phylogenetic trees in comparative evolutionary studies by assuming that the tree arises from a continuous-time Markov branching model called the Yule process. To do this, we derive a closed-form expression for the distribution of phylogenetic diversity (PD), which is the sum of branch lengths connecting the species in a clade. We then present a generalization of PD which is equivalent to the expected trait disparity in a set of taxa whose evolutionary relationships are generated by a Yule process and whose traits evolve by Brownian motion. We find expressions for the distribution of expected trait disparity under a Yule tree. Given one or more observations of trait disparity in a clade, we perform fast likelihood-based estimation of the Brownian variance for unresolved clades. Our method does not require simulation or a fixed phylogenetic tree. We conclude with a brief example illustrating Brownian rate estimation for 12 families in the mammalian order Carnivora, in which the phylogenetic tree for each family is unresolved.

  15. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

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    Sean C P Coogan

    Full Text Available Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L., relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots, which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction and

  16. Macronutrient optimization and seasonal diet mixing in a large omnivore, the grizzly bear: a geometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Sean C P; Raubenheimer, David; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Nielsen, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose balanced diets by combining their intake from diverse nutritionally complementary foods. Here we apply geometric models to understand how the nutritional compositions of foods available to an omnivorous member of the order Carnivora, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos L.), relate to optimal macronutrient intake, and assess the seasonal nutritional constraints on the study population in west-central Alberta, Canada. The models examined the proportion of macronutrients that bears could consume by mixing their diet from food available in each season, and assessed the extent to which bears could consume the ratio of protein to non-protein energy previously demonstrated using captive bears to optimize mass gain. We found that non-selective feeding on ungulate carcasses provided a non-optimal macronutrient balance with surplus protein relative to fat and carbohydrate, reflecting adaptation to an omnivorous lifestyle, and that optimization through feeding selectively on different tissues of ungulate carcasses is unlikely. Bears were, however, able to dilute protein intake to an optimal ratio by mixing their otherwise high-protein diet with carbohydrate-rich fruit. Some individual food items were close to optimally balanced in protein to non-protein energy (e.g. Hedysarum alpinum roots), which may help explain their dietary prevalence. Ants may be consumed particularly as a source of lipids. Overall, our analysis showed that most food available to bears in the study area were high in protein relative to lipid or carbohydrate, suggesting the lack of non-protein energy limits the fitness (e.g. body size and reproduction) and population density

  17. Historical biogeography of the strepsirhine primates of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Lying some 400 km off the coast of southeastern Africa, Madagascar is the world's largest oceanic island. It has been in roughly the same position relative to its parent continent for 120 million years, and as a consequence its mammal fauna is unusual in composition, with a low number of major taxa but a high diversity at lower taxonomic levels. Among Madagascar's native terrestrial mammals, only the orders Primates, Rodentia, Carnivora and Insectivora are represented (plus, until recently, the enigmatic and endemic Bibymalagasia, and Artiodactyla in the form of semiaquatic pygmy hippopotamuses). This reflects the fact that terrestrial mammals are notoriously poor over-water dispersers; yet at the same time the ancestors of all of Madagascar's mammals had to have crossed a wide oceanic barrier to get to the island at various points during the Tertiary. Here I examine the palaeogeographic evidence for potential land bridge or 'stepping-stone' connections with adjacent continents from the Mesozoic through the Cenozoic, and review the fossil records and phylogenies of each of Madagascar's mammalian groups in an attempt to estimate the minimum number of crossings necessary to produce the island's current faunal composition. Probable monophyletic origins for each major group, and thus a smaller rather than a larger number of crossings of the Mozambique Channel, imply that this water barrier has acted as a powerful filter; so powerful that it is unclear whether any crossings would have been possible without some form of subaerial connection, however ephemeral, at least from time to time during the Tertiary. Clarification of how Madagascar's terrestrial mammal fauna may have originated is thus as likely to emerge from the geology of the seafloor surrounding the island as it is to come from the fossil record or from the internal and external relationships of its various components.

  18. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in wild animals from Kenya, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroglio, E; Wambwa, E; Castiello, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Prouteau, A; Pradere, E; Ndungu, S; De Meneghi, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in six wild Artiodactyla species, and in five wild Carnivora species from Kenya. Blood sera (104 wild ungulates from Marula Estates (MEs), and 31 wild carnivores from Masai-Mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and Southern Kenya), were screened using a Neospora agglutination test (NAT), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). Presence of NAT antibodies to N. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra (Equus burchelli), eland (Taurotragus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Thompson gazelle (Gazella thompsoni), impala (Aepyceros melampus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) and in free-ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). At 1:80 dilution, prevalence was 61.5% in eland, 58.5% in zebra, 19.2% in Thompson gazelle, 33.3% in warthog, 50% in African buffalo, 30% in lion (Panthera leo), 20% in cheetah, and 33.3% in spotted hyena. Antibodies up to 1:320 titre were detected in eland (38.4%), zebra (19.5%), Thompson gazelle (3.8%) and lion (5%). Amongst herbivores, sero-prevalence was significantly (P<0.05) higher, at all dilutions, in "grazer/digger" species (e.g. eland and zebra) than in non-"grazer/digger" species (e.g. impala and Thompson gazelle). No antibodies to N. caninum were found in two leopards (Panthera pardus) and one serval (Felis serval). Our results indicates a steady presence of N. caninum in wild mammals from Kenya. The hypothesis of a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum could be suggested, but more data are needed to verify the hypothesis, as to evaluate the role of N. caninum infection on the dynamics of wild animals population in the study area. PMID:14651874

  19. The path to host extinction can lead to loss of generalist parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maxwell J; Stephens, Patrick R; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Gittleman, John L; Davies, T Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Host extinction can alter disease transmission dynamics, influence parasite extinction and ultimately change the nature of host-parasite systems. While theory predicts that single-host parasites are among the parasite species most susceptible to extinction following declines in their hosts, documented parasite extinctions are rare. Using a comparative approach, we investigate how the richness of single-host and multi-host parasites is influenced by extinction risk among ungulate and carnivore hosts. Host-parasite associations for free-living carnivores (order Carnivora) and terrestrial ungulates (orders Perissodactyla + Cetartiodactyla minus cetaceans) were merged with host trait data and IUCN Red List status to explore the distribution of single-host and multi-host parasites among threatened and non-threatened hosts. We find that threatened ungulates harbour a higher proportion of single-host parasites compared to non-threatened ungulates, which is explained by decreases in the richness of multi-host parasites. However, among carnivores threat status is not a significant predictor of the proportion of single-host parasites, or the richness of single-host or multi-host parasites. The loss of multi-host parasites from threatened ungulates may be explained by decreased cross-species contact as hosts decline and habitats become fragmented. Among carnivores, threat status may not be important in predicting patterns of parasite specificity because host decline results in equal losses of both single-host parasites and multi-host parasites through reduction in average population density and frequency of cross-species contact. Our results contrast with current models of parasite coextinction and highlight the need for updated theories that are applicable across host groups and account for both inter- and intraspecific contact.

  20. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary

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    Rabeder Gernot

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. Results We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete mitochondrial genome sequences from all eight living and two recently extinct bear species, the European cave bear (Ursus spelaeus and the American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus. The mitogenomic data yield a well-resolved topology for ursids, with the sloth bear at the basal position within the genus Ursus. The sun bear is the sister taxon to both the American and Asian black bears, and this clade is the sister clade of cave bear, brown bear and polar bear confirming a recent study on bear mitochondrial genomes. Conclusion Sequences from extinct bears represent the third and fourth Pleistocene species for which complete mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced. Moreover, the cave bear specimen demonstrates that mitogenomic studies can be applied to Pleistocene fossils that have not been preserved in permafrost, and therefore have a broad application within ancient DNA research. Molecular dating of the mtDNA divergence times suggests a rapid radiation of bears in both the Old and New Worlds around 5 million years ago, at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This coincides with major global changes, such as the Messinian crisis and the first opening of the Bering Strait, and suggests a global influence of such events on species radiations.

  1. Reproductive endocrine patterns and volatile urinary compounds of Arctictis binturong: discovering why bearcats smell like popcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lydia K.; Wallen, Timothy W.; Moresco, Anneke; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Drea, Christine M.

    2016-06-01

    Members of the order Carnivora rely on urinary scent signaling, particularly for communicating about reproductive parameters. Here, we describe reproductive endocrine patterns in relation to urinary olfactory cues in a vulnerable and relatively unknown viverrid—the binturong ( Arctictis binturong). Female binturongs are larger than and dominate males, and both sexes engage in glandular and urinary scent marking. Using a large ( n = 33), captive population, we collected serum samples to measure circulating sex steroids via enzyme immunoassay and urine samples to assay volatile chemicals via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male binturongs had expectedly greater androgen concentrations than did females but, more unusually, had equal estrogen concentrations, which may be linked to male deference. Males also expressed a significantly richer array of volatile chemical compounds than did females. A subset of these volatile chemicals resisted decay at ambient temperatures, potentially indicating their importance as long-lasting semiochemicals. Among these compounds was 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), which is typically produced at high temperatures by the Maillard reaction and is likely to be responsible for the binturong's characteristic popcorn aroma. 2-AP, the only compound expressed by all of the subjects, was found in greater abundance in males than females and was significantly and positively related to circulating androstenedione concentrations in both sexes. This unusual compound may have a more significant role in mammalian semiochemistry than previously appreciated. Based on these novel data, we suggest that hormonal action and potentially complex chemical reactions mediate communication of the binturong's signature scent and convey information about sex and reproductive state.

  2. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear

  3. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

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    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS, (ii anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by

  4. The Palestinian mammalian fauna acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip

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    ABDEL FATTAH N. ABD RABOU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abd Rabou AFN. 2011. The Palestinian mammalian fauna acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 82-91. The Gaza Strip, which is an arid strip of the Palestinian land along the southeastern Mediterranean, harbors a considerable number of mammalian fauna due to its eco-geo-strategic position. Prior to 2006, the establishment of zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip was a sort of imagination due to Israeli constraints. These constraints were nurtured by the total Israeli destruction and demolition of the Rafah and Gaza private zoological gardens in 2004 and 2009 respectively, using heavy tanks and bulldozers. The establishment of many zoological gardens following the Israeli evacuation from the Gaza Strip in late 2005 encouraged wildlife trading. Hence, the current study comes to document the Palestinian mammalian faunistic species acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip through frequent visits to Gaza zoological gardens and meetings with local people, wildlife hunters and zoo owners. A total number of 17 Palestinian mammalian faunistic species belonging to 12 families and 5 orders was encountered in the zoological gardens throughout the study period. The encountered species represent a good mix of the families and sizes of mammals generally found in other parts of Palestine. Order Carnivora represents 52.94% of the caged mammals, while the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla and Insectivora represent 47.06%. The study documented the first sight of the Greater Egyptian Gerbil Gerbillus pyramidis in the Gaza Strip. Local hunting, tunnel trade and delivery were the lonely sources of the mammals encountered in the zoological gardens. The economic deprivation under the current Israeli blockade and the poor implementation of environmental laws and legislations concerning wildlife protection have made wildlife trading as a common practice. Finally, The author recommends to improving the management

  5. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

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    Justin W Adams

    Full Text Available Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea. Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg, are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT] for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation and serves as a single resource of

  6. Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: Differences between small and large mammals

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    Fernández Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper tests Vrba's resource-use hypothesis, which predicts that generalist species have lower specialization and extinction rates than specialists, using the 879 species of South American mammals. We tested several predictions about this hypothesis using the biomic specialization index (BSI for each species, which is based on its geographical range within different climate-zones. The four predictions tested are: (1 there is a high frequency of species restricted to a single biome, which henceforth are referred to as stenobiomic species, (2 certain clades are more stenobiomic than others, (3 there is a higher proportion of biomic specialists in biomes that underwent through major expansion-contraction alternation due to the glacial-interglacial cycles, (4 certain combinations of inhabited biomes occur more frequently among species than do others. Results Our results are consistent with these predictions. (1 We found that 42 % of the species inhabit only one biome. (2 There are more generalists among species of Carnivora than in clades of herbivores. However, Artiodactyla, shows a distribution along the specialization gradient different from the one expected. (3 Biomic specialists are predominant in tropical rainforest and desert biomes. Nevertheless, we found some differences between small and large mammals in relation to these results. Stenobiomic species of micromammalian clades are more abundant in most biomes than expected by chance, while in the case of macromammalian clades stenobiomic species are more frequent than expected in tropical rainforest, tropical deciduous woodland and desert biomes only. (4 The most frequent combinations of inhabited biomes among the South American mammals are those with few biomes, i.e., the ones that suffered a higher rate of vicariance due to climatic cycles. Conclusion Our results agree with the resource-use hypothesis and, therefore, with a major role of the past climatic changes as

  7. Carnivore rabies: ecological and evolutionary aspects / La rabbia nei Carnivori: aspetti ecologici ed evolutivi

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    Alexander Wandeler

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Populations of a number of species of the order Carnivora sustain independent rabies epidemics in different parts of the world. These main hosts are all small to medium size (0.4 - 20 kg omnivores, scavenging, and foraging on small vertebrates, invertebrates, fruit, and refuse produced by humans. They reach highest population densities in and near human settlements. High intrinsic population growth rates allow rapid recoveries of populations decimated by persecution or disease. The rabies virus is very uniform, so strains circulating in different host populations can be distinguished by the use of monoclonal antibodies. Rabies virus strains and their hosts have to be coadapted in order to allow their prolonged coexistence. The coadapted (or coevolved? traits are pathogenicity, cell specificity (including species specificity, length of incubation period, duration and magnitude of virus excretion, duration and symptoms of clinical illness, per capita population growth rate of the host, its use of resources (habitat use, social organization and behaviour, and mortality factors other than rabies. These virus and host properties determine rates of infectious contacts and all other epidemiological parameters such as incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality rates. Riassunto Diverse specie di Carnivori mantengono indipendentemente epidemie di rabbia in varie parti del mondo. Questi Carnivori sono tutti di piccola o media taglia (0,4 - 20 kg; sono onnivori, spazzini, e si alimentano di piccoli vertebrati, invertebrati, frutti e di vari rifiuti antropici. Essi raggiungono le densità più elevate nelle aree ubane e suburbane. I1 loro elevato tasso di crescita consente una rapida ripresa delle popolazioni decimate dagli abbattimenti o dalle malattie. Il virus della rabbia è molto uniforme, così che i diversi ceppi presenti nelle popolazioni ospite, possono essere distinti con l'impiego degli anticorpi

  8. Nucleotide and protein sequences for dog masticatory tropomyosin identify a novel Tpm4 gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Elizabeth A; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Reiser, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Jaw-closing muscles of several vertebrate species, including members of Carnivora, express a unique, "masticatory", isoform of myosin heavy chain, along with isoforms of other myofibrillar proteins that are not expressed in most other muscles. It is generally believed that the complement of myofibrillar isoforms in these muscles serves high force generation for capturing live prey, breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting. A unique isoform of tropomyosin (Tpm) was reported to be expressed in cat jaw-closing muscle, based upon two-dimensional gel mobility, peptide mapping, and immunohistochemistry. The objective of this study was to obtain protein and gene sequence information for this unique Tpm isoform. Samples of masseter (a jaw-closing muscle), tibialis (predominantly fast-twitch fibers), and the deep lateral gastrocnemius (predominantly slow-twitch fibers) were obtained from adult dogs. Expressed Tpm isoforms were cloned and sequencing yielded cDNAs that were identical to genomic predicted striated muscle Tpm1.1St(a,b,b,a) (historically referred to as αTpm), Tpm2.2St(a,b,b,a) (βTpm) and Tpm3.12St(a,b,b,a) (γTpm) isoforms (nomenclature reflects predominant tissue expression ("St"-striated muscle) and exon splicing pattern), as well as a novel 284 amino acid isoform observed in jaw-closing muscle that is identical to a genomic predicted product of the Tpm4 gene (δTpm) family. The novel isoform is designated as Tpm4.3St(a,b,b,a). The myofibrillar Tpm isoform expressed in dog masseter exhibits a unique electrophoretic mobility on gels containing 6 M urea, compared to other skeletal Tpm isoforms. To validate that the cloned Tpm4.3 isoform is the Tpm expressed in dog masseter, E. coli-expressed Tpm4.3 was electrophoresed in the presence of urea. Results demonstrate that Tpm4.3 has identical electrophoretic mobility to the unique dog masseter Tpm isoform and is of different mobility from that of muscle Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2 and Tpm3.12 isoforms. We

  9. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Olah, Angela; McCurry, Matthew R; Potze, Stephany

    2015-01-01

    Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum) curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea). Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D) surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg), are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource) or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT]) for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation) and serves as a single resource of high

  10. The Late Pleistocene Duoi U'Oi cave in northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology, taphonomy and palaeoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie; Demeter, F.; Duringer, P.; Helm, C.; Bano, M.; Vu, The Long; Kim Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Antoine, P.-O.; Thi Mai, Bui; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Dodo, Y.; Chabaux, F.; Rihs, S.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes new fossil materials recovered at the Duoi U'Oi site, in December 2003, by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Duoi U'Oi cave is located in Man Duc village, 25 km of Hoà Binh city in northern Vietnam. It belongs to a karstic network developed in a dark grey micritic marine limestone dated from the Lower to the Middle Triassic. The sedimentary fill produced a rich mammalian fauna, essentially composed of isolated teeth of middle- to large-sized mammals (Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Rodentia, Primates), and characteristic of Late Pleistocene. The results of the Duoi U'Oi fieldwork are of great interest for the following reasons: (1) the biochronological age of the fauna is consistent with 230Th/ 234U/ 238U dating from the calcitic floors (66±3 ka). The Duoi U'Oi fauna is thus the oldest well-dated modern fauna known for the Southeast Asian mainland; (2) in terms of sedimentology, the analysis of the formation of the fossiliferous breccia and that of the processes of deposits shows a close relation between the karstic deposits inside the cave and the deposits in the alluvial terraces. The observation of three levels of alluvial terraces associated with three caves situated at 62, 10 and 3 m above the present alluvial plain suggests that exokarstic and endokarstic sediments evolved together; (3) in terms of palaeobiogeography, Duoi U'Oi is the continental fauna showing the strongest resemblance with the Late Pleistocene faunas from Indonesian islands (Punung, Gunung Dawung, Lida Ajer, Sibrambang and Djambu caves); this implies that, at the time of Duoi U'Oi, ca 70 ka, the Sundaland was mainly characterised by faunas of modern aspect; (4) the analysis of major taphonomic factors that led to the mammal assemblage reveals a combination of selective agents (selective role of predators and porcupines, selective destruction of age classes for some species, selective preservation of fossils due to the deposition processes in

  11. rasgos funcionales

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    J.P. González-Varo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas especies de mamíferos carnívoros (Orden Carnivora consumen frutos carnosos, transportan semillas en sus tractos digestivos y las defecansin dañarlas en condiciones apropiadas para la germinación. En este artículo, revisamos el conocimiento adquirido sobre este mutualismo en lasúltimas tres décadas, desde que tres trabajos pioneros revelaron la importancia de los carnívoros como dispersores de semillas en ecosistemastemplados. Nos centramos en los rasgos funcionales de los carnívoros consumiendo frutos y diseminando semillas, haciendo especial énfasis ensus diferencias con las aves, el principal grupo de vertebrados frugívoros en ecosistemas templados. Los carnívoros no están sujetos a las restriccionesfenológicas o morfológicas que típicamente limitan el consumo de determinados frutos en muchas especies de aves. Consumen preferentementefrutos cuyos atributos son compartidos con muchas especies de frutos cultivados por el hombre, lo que explica el consumo frecuente deéstos en paisajes antrópicos. Sus amplios requerimientos espaciales favorecen la dispersión de semillas a larga distancia, mientras que su generalismoen relación al hábitat favorece el flujo de semillas entre hábitats contrastados. De este modo, los carnívoros promueven la conectividadentre poblaciones vegetales y la colonización. Estas funciones ecológicas son clave para las comunidades vegetales nativas, especialmente en escenariosde cambios de uso de suelo. Sin embargo, estos patrones de dispersión de semillas pueden contribuir a la invasión de plantas exóticas.Aún ignoramos en gran medida el papel de los carnívoros en términos cuantitativos de la dispersión de semillas y las diferencias funcionales entreespecies dentro del gremio. La integración de muestreos clásicos e innovadoras técnicas moleculares y de análisis espacial promete aportar conocimientoinédito en estas cuestiones.

  12. Experimental life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Ciclo evolutivo experimental de Lagochilascaris minor, Leiper 1909

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    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa Campos

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Lagochilascaris minor was studied using material collected from human lesion and applying the experimental model: rodents (mice, hamsters, and carnivorae (cats, dogs. In mice given infective eggs, orally, hatch of the third stage larvae was noted in the gut wall, with migration to liver, lungs, skeletal musculature and subcutaneous tissue becoming, soon after, encysted. In cats infected with skinned carcasses of mice (60 to 235 days of infection it was observed: hatch of third stage larvae from the nodules (cysts in the stomach, migration through the oesophagus, pharynx, trachea, related tissues (rhino-oropharynx, and cervical lymphonodes developing to the mature stage in any of these sites on days 9-20 post inoculation (P.I.. There was no parasite development up to the mature stage in cats inoculated orally with infective eggs, which indicates that the life cycle of this parasite includes an obligatory intermediate host. In one of the cats (fed carcass of infected mice necropsied on day 43 P.I., it was observed the occurence of the self-infective cycle of L. minor in the lung tissues and in the cervical region which was characterized by the finding of eggs in different stages of development, third stage larvae and mature worms. It's believed that some component of the carnivorae gastrointestinal tracts may preclude the development of third stage larvae from L. minor eggs what explains the interruption of the life cycle in animals fed infective eggs. It's also pointed out the role of the intermediate host in the first stages of the life cycle of this helminth.A partir de material colhido de lesões humanas estudou-se o ciclo evolutivo de Lagochilascaris minor empregando-se o modelo experimental: roedores (camundongos, hamster e carnívoros (gatos, cão. Em camundongos inoculados com ovos infectantes, por via oral, observou-se eclosão de larvas de 3º estágio na parede do intestino, migração das mesmas para o fígado, pulm

  13. Composição e abundância relativa dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte no Parque Estadual do Turvo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and relative abundance of the medium-large ized mammals of Turvo State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Carlos B. Kasper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2006 foram realizados estudos sobre a composição e abundância relativa dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Parque Estadual do Turvo. Para tanto, foram utilizados registros de armadilhas fotográficas além de visualizações e dados sobre presença e ausência de pegadas ao longo de transectos pré-determinados. No total foram registradas 29 espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, das quais Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 e Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 foram as espécies com maior número de registros. No que se refere a Carnivora, Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 e Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 tiveram os maiores índices de registro, enquanto Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1782 e Galictis cuja (Molina 1782 os menores. Entre os ungulados apenas Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758 mostrou-se freqüente, sendo a quarta espécie em número de registros. Algumas espécies comuns em outros ambientes apresentaram baixos índices de registro no Parque Estadual do Turvo, tais como Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 e Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840. Finalmente, constata-se a provável extinção local de Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795, uma vez que não foram obtidos registros de sua presença ao longo do estudo. A conservação dos mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Parque está fortemente associada à preservação do "Corredor Verde de Misiones", que provavelmente representa uma área fonte para diversas espécies.Between January of 2005 and December of 2006, studies on the composition and relative abundance of medium and large sized mammals were carried out in Turvo State Park. Records came from camera-trapping, in addition to visualization and presence and absence data from track surveys along pre determined transects. At total, 29 species of medium-large sized mammals were listed. Of these, Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 and Sylvilagus

  14. Léonard Ginsburg et la Paléontologie Portugaise. Hommage amical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Antunes, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Léonard Ginsburg has been a distinguished palaeontologist. He was a gifted one: intelligence, high working capacity, experience, knowledge and critical sense. As critical sense is not always the best for some people, adversaries were not rare. He was both an accomplished researcher and a deep connoisseur of the collections under his responsibility, as well as someone with a broad knowledge of the science world. By the high number and value of his contributions, an homage that he deserved so much is but an act of justice. As far as I am concerned, Ginsburg was a Colleague and Friend since 1961 until the end, even after his research activities ceased. Of course, his contributions cannot be valued just from a personal viewpoint. We can recognize their value for, among many others, a Country as Portugal. After obtaining a scholarship to prepare my Ph.D., I drove to Paris loaded with vertebrate fossils from Angola and Portugal, not without a few incidents because, by sheer chance, I arrived just the day of the Algerian “putsch”. Here they are my beginnings in Paris that developed into an institutional and personal collaboration and friendship for half a century. I have been very well received by the Director of the Muséum’s Institut de Paléontologie, Professor Jean-Pierre Lehman. I was lodged at the building’s basement. Soon afterwards, an unknown man approached asking me if I was a young « Spaniard » that came in to study fossil vertebrates, as Mr. Lehman had told him. He was Léonard Ginsburg. Our collaboration begun. We dealt mainly with the Miocene mammalian faunas from Portugal, and especially from Lisbon, as well as some Eocene ones. Nevertheless we also studied some other groups as crocodilians and areas, mostly in France. Research was carried on at the Paris Museum, the concerned Portuguese institutions and on the field. Under a palaeontological viewpoint, a most important place concerns Carnivora and Rhinocerotidae, as well as

  15. Coinfección entre Distemper Canino y un Verme Pulmonar en un Cerdocyon thous en Estado Silvestre en el Municipio de Pereira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Varela-Arias

    2014-12-01

    áticos; en pulmón neumonía broncointersticial con cuerpos de inclusión y múltiples microgranulomas con nemátodos  en estadío L1 intralesionales; en cerebro cambios hipóxicos y en riñón nefrosis tubular multifocal; entre otros hallazgos. La evidencia confirma como causa de muerte una falla multiorgánica por coinfección entre el virus del distemper (Morbillivirus ARN -‚ familia Paramyxoviridae que afecta diferentes mamíferos del orden CARNIVORA y vermes pulmonares compatibles con Filaroides osleri (Oslerus o Angiostrongylus sp. Ambos agentes causan muertes con impacto directo en las poblaciones de zorros en otras latitudes‚ sin embargo la interacción patogénica no está bien descrita‚ por lo que se recomienda monitorear las poblaciones silvestres de C. thous en Galicia‚ zona en la que se han presentado muertes de zorros con signos similares‚ además de importantes generadores de cambio ecosistémico (expansión urbana‚ construcción y operación de proyectos turísticos.

  16. ЭТОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ИДЕИ КОНРАДА ЛОРЕНЦА И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ЭКОЛОГИИ МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИХ МЕТОДОМ ТРОПЛЕНИЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Владимирова, Э.

    2010-01-01

    Особенности поведения млекопитающих в ответ на восприятие внешней информации обеспечиваются врожденными механизмами и приобретенным в онтогенезе опытом. Варьирующие границы поведенческих реакций определены генетически. Рассматривается методика, позволяющая исследовать количественное взаимодействие животных со средой обитания на основе двигательных реакций особей. Выявлена вариативность поведенческих показателей при адаптации представителей отряда Carnivora (Хищные) к обитанию в антропогенных ...

  17. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA%中国云南吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宪国; 钱体军; 郭利军; 王晶; 董文鸽; 张励; 马志敏; 李伟

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.%在对云南省9个县,市,抽样调查的基础上,本文对境内小型哺乳动物(小兽)体表吸虱昆虫物种多样性及群落结构进行了研究.物种多样性用物种丰富度表示,多样性指数及均匀度计算采用Shannon-Wiener方法.所捕获的2745只小兽经分类鉴定隶属啮齿目、食虫目、攀目、兔形目和食肉目5个目中的10科、25属、41种.从各种小兽突主体表共采集到吸虱昆虫18165只,经分类鉴定隶属4科、6属、22种,其种类明显少于突主种类.几科每种小兽突主体表都有固定的吸虱种类寄生,但吸怅是种类数很少(1-4种).动物分类上接近的突主,其体表的优势

  18. 中国云南洱海周边小兽体表革螨多样性%Diversity of gamasid mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    different landscapes within the same zone for inartificial barrier's isolation of Erhai lake.The small mammal hosts were captured from three differently oriented areas belong to 7 families,15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia,Insectivora,Scandentia and Carnivora),while 23 196 individuals of gamasid mites collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 6 families,16 genera and 43 species.The results reveal that the community structure of gamasid mites is complex with high species diversity.The distribution of gamasid mites and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven in differently orientations,but dominant species beside gamasid mites on the same dominant small mammal host in differently oriented areas beside Erhai Lake are homologous.The results indicate that habitat influences the species composition and distribution of gamasid mites and their corresponding hosts.Gamasid mite communities on their corresponding hosts are similar if the taxonomic position and habitats of the hosts (small mammals) are similar. The abundance and diversity of gamasid mites on small mammals across different sites are determined mainly by host identity and by the habitats where the hosts live.This might be an ecological evidence of co-evolution between small mammals and gamasid mites.But by using the niche breadth of gamasid mites,host-specificity of gamasid mites are low,this may imply that the co-evolution between small mammals and gamasid mites exist,but the degree is not high.

  19. Diversity of chigger mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表恙螨多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    the same zone with similar longitude,latitude,altitude and zoological location,which forms an inartificial barrier's isolation by Erhai Lake.A total of 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured from the three differently oriented areas belonging to 7 families,15 genem and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia,Insectivora,Seandentia and Carnivora),56 895 individuals of chigger mites collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts were identified as 3 subfamilies,13 genera and 109 species.The abundance,distribution and diversity of chigger mites vary among different populations ot host species and habitats.Chigger mites spent a considerable time off hosts (only the larvae are ectoparasites) and so are strongly affected by the off-host environment (temperature,precipitation and habitat).Host-specificity of chigger mites is very low,the similarity of chigger mite communities is not highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomv and this implies that the co-evolution between sinail mammals and chigger mites has not reached a high degree,and the above ecological characteristics of chigger mites might strengthen the chigger mites'potential ability of transmitting some mites born diseases among different small mammal hosts.

  20. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    grossly misaligned, and numerous loci with >50% missing data for taxa that are misplaced in their gene trees. These problems were compounded by inadequate tree searches with nearest neighbor interchange branch swapping and inadvertent application of substitution models that did not account for among-site rate heterogeneity. Sixty-six gene trees imply unrealistic deep coalescences that exceed 100 million years (MY). Gene trees that were obtained with better justified models and search parameters show large increases in both likelihood scores and congruence. Coalescence analyses based on a curated set of 413 improved gene trees and a superior coalescence method (ASTRAL) support a Scandentia (treeshrews)+Glires (rabbits, rodents) clade, contradicting one of the three primary systematic conclusions of Song et al. (2012). Robust support for a Perissodactyla+Carnivora clade within Laurasiatheria is also lost, contradicting a second major conclusion of this study. Song et al.'s (2012) MP-EST species tree provided the basis for circular simulations that led these authors to conclude that the multispecies coalescent accounts for 77% of the gene tree conflicts in their dataset, but many internal branches of their MP-EST tree are stunted by an order of magnitude or more due to wholesale gene tree reconstruction errors. An independent assessment of branch lengths suggests the multispecies coalescent accounts for ⩽ 15% of the conflicts among Song et al.'s (2012) 447 gene trees. Unfortunately, Song et al.'s (2012) flawed phylogenomic dataset has been used as a model for additional simulation work that suggests the superiority of shortcut coalescence methods relative to concatenation. Investigator error was passed on to the subsequent simulation studies, which also incorporated further logical errors that should be avoided in future simulation studies. Illegitimate branch length switches in the simulation routines unfairly protected coalescence methods from their Achilles' heel, high

  1. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    grossly misaligned, and numerous loci with >50% missing data for taxa that are misplaced in their gene trees. These problems were compounded by inadequate tree searches with nearest neighbor interchange branch swapping and inadvertent application of substitution models that did not account for among-site rate heterogeneity. Sixty-six gene trees imply unrealistic deep coalescences that exceed 100 million years (MY). Gene trees that were obtained with better justified models and search parameters show large increases in both likelihood scores and congruence. Coalescence analyses based on a curated set of 413 improved gene trees and a superior coalescence method (ASTRAL) support a Scandentia (treeshrews)+Glires (rabbits, rodents) clade, contradicting one of the three primary systematic conclusions of Song et al. (2012). Robust support for a Perissodactyla+Carnivora clade within Laurasiatheria is also lost, contradicting a second major conclusion of this study. Song et al.'s (2012) MP-EST species tree provided the basis for circular simulations that led these authors to conclude that the multispecies coalescent accounts for 77% of the gene tree conflicts in their dataset, but many internal branches of their MP-EST tree are stunted by an order of magnitude or more due to wholesale gene tree reconstruction errors. An independent assessment of branch lengths suggests the multispecies coalescent accounts for ⩽ 15% of the conflicts among Song et al.'s (2012) 447 gene trees. Unfortunately, Song et al.'s (2012) flawed phylogenomic dataset has been used as a model for additional simulation work that suggests the superiority of shortcut coalescence methods relative to concatenation. Investigator error was passed on to the subsequent simulation studies, which also incorporated further logical errors that should be avoided in future simulation studies. Illegitimate branch length switches in the simulation routines unfairly protected coalescence methods from their Achilles' heel, high