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Sample records for carnivora mammalia assessed

  1. Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange.

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    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    The Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) have played a central role in resolving the controversial systematics of the giant and red pandas, but phylogenetic relationships of species within the family itself have received much less attention. Cladistic analyses of morphological characters conducted during the last two decades have resulted in topologies that group ecologically and morphologically similar taxa together. Specifically, the highly arboreal and frugivorous kinkajou (Potos flavus) and olingos (Bassaricyon) define one clade, whereas the more terrestrial and omnivorous coatis (Nasua), raccoons (Procyon), and ringtails (Bassariscus) define another clade, with the similar-sized Nasua and Procyon joined as sister taxa in this latter group. These relationships, however, have not been tested with molecular sequence data. We examined procyonid phylogenetics based on combined data from nine nuclear and two mitochondrial gene segments totaling 6534bp. We were able to fully resolve relationships within the family with strongly supported and congruent results from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analyses. We identified three distinct lineages within the family: a (Nasua, Bassaricyon) clade, a (Bassariscus, Procyon) clade, and a Potos lineage, the last of which is sister to the other two clades. These findings, which are in strong disagreement with prior fossil and morphology-based assessments of procyonid relationships, reemphasize the morphological and ecological flexibility of these taxa. In particular, morphological similarities between unrelated genera possibly reflect convergence associated with similar lifestyles and diets rather than ancestry. Furthermore, incongruence between the molecular supermatrix and a morphological character matrix comprised mostly of dental characters [Baskin, J.A., 2004. Bassariscus and Probassariscus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) from the early Barstovian (Middle Miocene). J. Vert. Paleo. 24

  2. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

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    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  3. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

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    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  4. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil

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    SHIRLLEY RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI. Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  5. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-11-28

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  6. The evolution of orbit orientation and encephalization in the Carnivora (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, John A; Goswami, Anjali

    2009-05-01

    Evolutionary change in encephalization within and across mammalian clades is well-studied, yet relatively few comparative analyses attempt to quantify the impact of evolutionary change in relative brain size on cranial morphology. Because of the proximity of the braincase to the orbits, and the inter-relationships among ecology, sensory systems and neuroanatomy, a relationship has been hypothesized between orbit orientation and encephalization for mammals. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 68 fossil and living species of the mammalian order Carnivora, comparing orbit orientation angles (convergence and frontation) to skull length and encephalization. No significant correlations were observed between skull length and orbit orientation when all taxa were analysed. Significant correlations were observed between encephalization and orbit orientation; however, these were restricted to the families Felidae and Canidae. Encephalization is positively correlated with frontation in both families and negatively correlated with convergence in canids. These results indicate that no universal relationship exists between encephalization and orbit orientation for Carnivora. Braincase expansion impacts orbit orientation in specific carnivoran clades, the nature of which is idiosyncratic to the clade itself.

  7. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  8. Comprehensive species set revealing the phylogeny and biogeography of Feliformia (Mammalia, Carnivora) based on mitochondrial DNA

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    Ma, Jian-Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Extant Feliformia species are one of the most diverse radiations of Carnivora (~123 species). Despite substantial recent interest in their conservation, diversification, and systematic study, no previous phylogeny contains a comprehensive species set, and no biogeography of this group is available. Here, we present a phylogenetic estimate for Feliformia with a comprehensive species set and establish a historical biogeography based on mitochondrial DNA. Both the Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogeny for Feliformia are elucidated in our analyses and are strongly consistent with many groups recognized in previous studies. The mitochondrial phylogenetic relationships of Felidae were for the first time successfully reconstructed in our analyses with strong supported. When divergence times and dispersal/vicariance histories were compared with historical sea level changes, four dispersal and six vicariance events were identified. These vicariance events were closely related with global sea level changes. The transgression of sea into the lowland plains between Eurasia and Africa may have caused the vicariance in these regions. A fall in the sea level during late Miocene to Pliocene produced the Bering strait land bridge, which assisted the migration of American Feliformia ancestors from Asia to North America. In contrast with the ‘sweepstakes hypothesis’, our results suggest that the climate cooling during 30–27 Ma assisted Feliformia migration from the African mainland to Madagascar by creating a short-lived ice bridge across the Mozambique Channel. Lineages-through-time plots revealed a large increase in lineages since the Mid-Miocene. During the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, the ecosystems and population of Feliformia rapidly expanded. Subsequent climate cooling catalyzed immigration, speciation, and the extinction of Feliformia. PMID:28358848

  9. A preliminary baseline status of the Syrian Brown Bear Ursus arctos syriacus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Golestanak, Northern Iran

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    Mohammad Sadegh Farhadinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information is lacking for the Syrian Brown Bear across the sub-species range, making it difficult to assess at any level.  In the present investigation, our goal was to illustrate the population status of the Brown Bear in the Golestanak area, northern Iran, based on field surveys we conducted during the summers of 2011 and 2012.  We counted a total of 30 and 21 bears in two consecutive years, with family groups consisting of more than half of the identified individuals.  Sub-adults had the lowest contribution among the observed individuals, just below 10%, which may be due to their high dispersal behaviour to avoid adults.  Our results provide a foundation for future systematic baseline investigations on the population status of the brown bear in northern Iran, which can be used in management programs.  Aside from improving monitoring efforts within key habitats of the species, enhancing conservation efforts to secure the population is essential to safeguard this female core area. 

  10. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Cerridae Deer Cervus canadensis Elk 2 Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer X 1 Order: Carnivora Carnivores Family: Canidae Wolves, Foxes, and the Coyote...NA NA Y Cat Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Felis domesticus N Cow Mammalia Artiodactyla Bovidae Bos taurus N Dog Mammalia Carnivore Canidae Canis...fauna Invertebrata Varies Varies No NA Plants Plantae NA NA Yes (Ute ladies’ tresses, Clay phacelia) Yes ♦ This receptor is a Special Status

  11. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae

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    Ligia Tchaicka

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus.

  12. Enamel microstructure in Lemuridae (Mammalia, Primates): assessment of variability.

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    Maas, M C

    1994-10-01

    This study describes the molar enamel microstructure of seven lemurid primates: Hapalemur griseus, Varecia variegata, Lemur catta, Lemur macaco, Lemur fulvus rufus, Lemur fulvus fulvus, and Lemur fulvus albifrons. Contrary to earlier accounts, which reported little or no prism decussation in lemurid enamel, both Lemur and Varecia molars contain a prominent inner layer of decussating prisms (Hunter-Schreger bands), in addition to an outer radial prism layer, and a thin, nonprismatic enamel surface layer. In contrast, Hapalemur enamel consists entirely of radial and, near the surface, nonprismatic enamel. In addition, for all species, prism packing patterns differ according to depth from the tooth surface, and for all species but Varecia (which also has the thinnest enamel of any lemurid), average prism area increases from the enamel-dentine junction to the surface; this may be a developmental solution to the problem of accommodating a larger outer surface area with enamel deposited from a fixed number of cells. Finally, contradicting some previous reports, Pattern 1 prisms predominate only in the most superficial prismatic enamel. In the deeper enamel, prism cross-sections include both closed (Pattern 1) and arc-shaped (Pattern 2 or, most commonly, Pattern 3). This sequence of depth-related pattern change is repeated in all taxa. It should also be emphasized that all taxa can exhibit all three prism patterns in their mature enamel. The high degree of quantitative and qualitative variation in prism size, shape, and packing suggests that these features should be used cautiously in phylogenetic studies. Hapalemur is distinguished from the other lemurids by unique, medially constricted or rectangular prism cross-sections at an intermediate depth and the absence of prism decussation, but, without further assessment of character polarity, these differences do not clarify lemurid phylogenetic relations. Some characters of enamel microstructure may represent synapomorphies

  13. The evolution of the brain in Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora)

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    Lyras, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Canid brain evolution followed three independent, yet convergent paths. Each of the three canid subfamilies (Hesperocyoninae, Borophaginae and Caninae) started with a simple brain, which gradually became more complicated as the cerebral cortex became larger and more fissured, the cerebellar hemisphe

  14. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals (Mammalia, Carnivora of Ukraine. Trematodes

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    Korol E. N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9 was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata (Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

  15. Músculos mandibulares de Puma concolor (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae

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    Romina Paola Llanos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen los músculos mandibulares del puma (Puma concolor, un mamífero carnívoro de amplia distribución en América. Se disecaron y fotografiaron los músculos izquierdos y derechos de la cabeza de tres individuos, dos machos adultos y una hembra juvenil. Este estudio incrementa nuestro conocimiento de los tejidos blandos mandibulares y por lo tanto, aporta información anatómica valiosa de la escasamente conocida y documentada musculatura de este félido, el más grande de la subfamilia Felinae.

  16. Morfología del aparato músculo-esqueletario del postcráneo de los mustélidos (Carnivora, Mammalia) fósiles y vivientes de América del Sur: implicancias funcionales en un contexto filogenético

    OpenAIRE

    Ercoli, Marcos Darío

    2015-01-01

    La familia Mustelidae es la más diversa del Orden Carnivora, representada por 22 géneros vivientes, que presentan una gran variación eco-morfológica. Los mustélidos de América del Sur están representados por 11 especies vivientes: el gulonino Eira barbara; los hurones ictoniquinos lincodontininos Lyncodon patagonicus, Galictis cuja y Ga. vittata; los lutrinos Lontra felina, Lo. longicaudis, Lo. provocax y Pteronura brasiliensis; y los hurones mustelinos Mustela frenata, Mu. felipei y Mu. afri...

  17. Biological Assessment of the Effects of Military Associated Activities on Endangered Species at Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    food), accidental (a species washed, fallen, or carried into caves and not part of the cave ecosystem). CECKLIST OF SPECIES KINGDOM PLANTAE DIVISION...MAMMALIA Order Chiroptera (bats) Undetermin~d material ’trogloxene) RCeords.--CORYELZ COUNTY: Egypt Cave; Shell Mountain Bat Cave. Order Carnivora Family

  18. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

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    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology.

  19. Notas para una monografía de potos flavus (mammalia: carnivora) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dentro de los estudios acerca de la taxonomía, distribución y ecología de mamíferos colombianos, surgen numerosos problemas debidos a que la información pertinente, a menudo bastante fragmentaria, se halla muy dispersa, y a la necesidad de compilarla, analizarla e interpretarla como paso previo para la identificación de aspectos críticos y el esclarecimiento de losmismos mediante la obtención de material e información adicional. El presente artículo debe tomarse como un ensayo o contribución ...

  20. A new species of Adelpharctos (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae from the late Oligocene of the “Phosphorites du Quercy” (France

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    de Bonis, L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Adelpharctos was known until now through the species A. mirus by a unique mandible (p2-m2 from the old collections of the Quercy whose geological age was unknown. New material coming from the locality of Pech-du-Fraysse completes our knowledge of the genus particularly for the maxilla and upper teeth. Adelpharctos belongs to the sub-family Hemicyoninae in the family Ursidae. It differs from the middle Miocene hemicyonines which have more massive molars and from the group Cephalogale-Phoberogale by some morphological characters. It seems to be a branch coming from the ancestral stem group of the sub-family.El género Adelpharctos era solo conocido por una especie A. mirus representada por una única mandibular (p2-m2 procedente de las colecciones antiguas del Quercy, cuya edad geológica es desconocida. Nuevo material procedente de la localidad de Pech-du-Fraysse completa nuestro conocimiento sobre el género, en particular para el maxilar y la dentición superior. Adelpharctos pertenece a la subfamilia Hemicyoninae, familia Ursidae. El género difiere de los hemicioninos del Mioceno medio, que tienen dentición más robusta, y de los del grupo Cephalogae-Phoberogale por algunos caracteres morfológicos. Se interpreta como perteneciente a una línea procedente del grupo ancestral primitivo de la subfamilia Hemicyoninae.

  1. People’s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Hyaenidae conservation in lowland Nepal

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    Shivish Bhandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore people’s attitudes toward Striped Hyaena conservation in lowland Nepal.  Structured questionnaire sheets were used to collect information on major threats, human casualties, and people’s perception towards Hyaenas and other carnivores.  People’s perceptions toward Hyaenas and conservation were overall positive.  During the study, 400 people were interviewed and questionnaire sheets were filled.  It was discovered that 63% had a positive attitude toward the Hyaenas.  On the other hand, 37% of the people had a negative attitude regarding the species’ conservation.  It was found that local people had understood various aspects of Hyaena ecology.  Sixty-five percent of the people responded that the Hyaena entered human populated areas due to an absence of food in the natural forests and habitat degradation.  A total of 19% of the respondents reported killing carnivores including the Hyaena due to human-carnivore conflicts.  

  2. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

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    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

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    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTU's, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

  5. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

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    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%, vegetative matter (24.38%, Chital (21.61%, Nilgai (9.57%, rodent (1.54%, birds (1.23%, Sambar (0.62% and Wild Pig (0.31% were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential prey killed by jackals, 89.4kg came from Chital and 10.6kg came from Nilgai calves.  The impact that predation can have on the ungulate population in an enclosed area is discussed. 

  6. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

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    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  7. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to th

  8. The ancestral karyotype of Carnivora: comparison with that of platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, B; Couturier, J

    1983-01-01

    The karyotypes of six species of Carnivora (Mungos mungo, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Potos flavus, Mustela furo, Felis serval, and Halichoerus grypus), representative of five different families, were studied and compared. Correspondence between almost all chromosome segments was found, and a presumed ancestral karyotype of Carnivora is proposed. Analogies to human chromosomes are also given, and the results obtained are in excellent agreement with previously published gene mapping data on man and the domestic cat.

  9. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  10. Risk factors associated to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive mammals from Carnivora and Primate Order

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro M., Dennis; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Pinedo V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Muñoz D., Karina; Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas (PATPAL), Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive wild animals of the Carnivora and Primates orders and identify the epidemiologic variables involved in its presentation. The study was conducted at the Patronato del Parque de las Leyendas Zoo, Lima, Peru. Blood samples were collected (Carnivora, n=49; Primates, n=52). In addition, samples were collected from 87 urban rodents and 18 domesticcats captured in the zoo. Surveys were done to identify potencial ...

  11. Morphometric variation in the pusillus group of the genus Rhinolophus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.

  12. El orden Carnivora (Mammalia en el Perú: Estado del conocimiento y prioridades de investigación para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Daniel Cossíos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La alta diversidad de especies de carnívoros del Perú puede generar problemas al momento de decidir los taxa y temas sobre los que deben dirigirse los esfuerzos de investigación. En este trabajo se evalúa el esfuerzo de investigación en base al número de publicaciones realizadas para cada familia y especie de carnívoro en el Perú. Asimismo, se señalan los vacíos de información relevantes para la conservación de cada especie y se presenta la primera evaluación de las prioridades de investigación sobre este grupo animal en el Perú. Se registró 145 publicaciones sobre carnívoros peruanos realizadas desde el año 1943. El número de publicaciones presentó grandes diferencias entre taxa, entre temas estudiados y entre las ecorregiones en las que se realizaron las investigaciones. Según la escala de prioridades propuesta, la especie que debe ser estudiada con mayor prioridad es el coatí andino Nasua olivacea y la de menor prioridad es el ocelote Leopardus pardalis. Los resultados de nuestro trabajo resaltan la urgencia de realizar investigaciones sobre ciertas especies de carnívoros de las que existen pocos datos publicados, tanto a nivel local como global, y que se distribuyen en pocas ecorregiones del Perú. Tanto la escala de prioridades de investigación como la lista de vacíos de información serán de utilidad para guiar esfuerzos logísticos y financieros de investigadores particulares, instituciones privadas y gubernamentales.

  13. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene ‘Miacis’ from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2016-01-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we rep...

  14. The first record of Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis Bennett, 1835 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumpatla Balaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been no records of the Stripe-necked Mongoose from the entire range of the Eastern Ghats. This is the first photographic evidence reported on distribution of Stripe-necked Mongoose from Papikonda National Park and its adjacent reserve forests in the Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh.   

  15. A new machairodont from the Palmetto Fauna (early Pliocene of Florida, with comments on the origin of the Smilodontini (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Wallace

    Full Text Available South-central Florida's latest Hemphillian Palmetto Fauna includes two machairodontine felids, the lion-sized Machairodus coloradensis and a smaller, jaguar-sized species, initially referred to Megantereon hesperus based on a single, relatively incomplete mandible. This made the latter the oldest record of Megantereon, suggesting a New World origin of the genus. Subsequent workers variously accepted or rejected this identification and biogeographic scenario. Fortunately, new material, which preserves previously unknown characters, is now known for the smaller taxon. The most parsimonious results of a phylogenetic analysis using 37 cranio-mandibular characters from 13 taxa place it in the Smilodontini, like the original study; however, as the sister-taxon to Megantereon and Smilodon. Accordingly, we formally describe Rhizosmilodon fiteae gen. et sp. nov. Rhizosmilodon, Megantereon, and Smilodon ( = Smilodontini share synapomorphies relative to their sister-taxon Machairodontini: serrations smaller and restricted to canines; offset of P3 with P4 and p4 with m1; complete verticalization of mandibular symphysis; m1 shortened and robust with widest point anterior to notch; and extreme posterior "lean" to p3/p4. Rhizosmilodon has small anterior and posterior accessory cusps on p4, a relatively large lower canine, and small, non-procumbent lower incisors; all more primitive states than in Megantereon and Smilodon. The former also differs from Megantereon and Smilodon gracilis by having a very small mandibular flange. Rhizosmilodon is the oldest known member of the Smilodontini, suggesting that the tribe originated in North America. Two more derived, similar-sized species evolved in parallel during the Blancan, Megantereon hesperus and Smilodon gracilis. The former is rarer, known only from the north-central and northwestern US, and presumably dispersed into the Old World. The latter is known from the eastern and southern US, and dispersed into South America.

  16. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  17. The Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chanco Gray (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in northeastern India with a recent sighting from northern Sikkim, India

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    Anwaruddin Choudhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chanco which is a relatively rarer subspecies of the wolf C. lupus occurs in Sikkim in North-east India with unconfirmed reports from Arunachal Pradesh. Its range in Sikkim is in the high elevation areas. There are very few sighting records from the state. This article reports an observation made recently between Thangu and Gyagong or Gogong in North Sikkim district at 4,250m elevation on 17 April 2014. Presence of feral dogs are threats to the Wolf as well as its prey base.  

  18. Recent records and distribution of the Indian Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting four new records of Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 from four protected areas in Western Ghats including Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Tiger Reserve and Pampadum Shola National Park and one new site record outside a protected area from Pambanar Tea plantation in Idukki dt. situated in Kerala part of southern Western Ghats. An updated distribution map of Brown Mongoose in Western Ghats is presented here.  

  19. Arrhinolemur scalabrinii Ameghino, 1898, of the late Miocene : a taxonomic journey from the Mammalia to the Anostomidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes

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    Sergio Bogan

    Full Text Available The fossil species Arrhinolemur scalabrinii, which was described from late Miocene deposits of Entre Ríos, Argentina, is reevaluated. Whereas the species was originally placed in the Primates (Mammalia and later made the unique member of the order Arrhinolemuroidea within the Mammalia, our analysis indicates that the specimen is rather a fish of the genus Leporinus, family Anostomidae (Characiformes. The species is redescribed, and the characters that support its new generic assignment are discussed.

  20. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  1. Monochoroterpes, a replacement name for Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), nec Monophyllus Leach, 1821 (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Nikita J; Jacobus, Luke M

    2015-04-08

    The genus group name Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 was established to include a single species of the mayfly family Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Hainan Island, China, Choroterpes (Monophyllus) monophyllus Kluge, 2012. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Monophyllus Leach, 1821, a genus of Phyllostomidae bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Antilles (type species: M. redmani Leach, 1821: 76). Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the mayfly genus group as follows.

  2. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; de Kroon, Hans; Jongejans, Eelke;

    2013-01-01

    in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration...... of important life cycles and their contributions to population growth rate. These general elasticity patterns among species, and their correlation with simple life history characteristics like body mass, age of first reproduction and life span, enables the extrapolation of population dynamical properties...... to unstudied species. With several examples we discuss how this slow-fast continuum, and related patterns of variation in reproductive loop elasticity, can be used in the formulation of tentative management plans for threatened species that cannot wait for the results of thorough demographic studies. We argue...

  3. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  4. Binturong (Arctictis binturong) and Kinkajou (Potos flavus) Digestive Strategy: Implications for Interpreting Frugivory in Carnivora and Primates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong) that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT) on captive ani...

  5. First report of Diphyllobothrium mansoni (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae infecting Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae in Brazil Ocorrência de Diphyllobothrium mansoni (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae parasitando Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve a ocorrência de Diphyllobothrium mansoni (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae no intestino delgado de um exemplar de Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae, proveniente da região de Itatinga, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este é o primeiro relato da presença desse cestódeo em C. thous.

  6. Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia Neoromicia Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "Rumex" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in Romicia calcarata, specie tipo del genere.

  7. METAXYTHERIUM MEDIUM (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM UPPER MIOCENE SEDIMENTS OF THE ARENARIA DI PONSANO FORMATION (TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Records of Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia from Tononian (Late Miocene sediments from che Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy are described. They consist of fragmentary specimens, including several partial cranial elements representing at least three skulls, two humeri, fragments of venebrae and some incomplete ribs. The new Tuscan records confirm che wide diffusion of Metaxytherium in the Mediterranean during the Miocene. This sirenian's occurrence in the Arenaria di Ponsano sediments is in accordance with the shelf environment indicated by other fossils. The low sea bottom was at least partially covered by segrass meadows, the food source of this dugongid. 

  8. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.

  9. Evolution and function of fossoriality in the carnivora: implications for group-living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Noonan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The societies of group-living carnivores that neither hunt nor interact cooperatively may arise due to ecological drivers and/or constraints. In this study we evaluate whether group-living may be intrinsically associated with fossoriality; a link that is well supported in other taxa, but hitherto under-evaluated in the Carnivora. We make two over-arching predictions: i that fossoriality will be associated with carnivoran sociality; and ii that this association will be most evident in those species making extended use of subterranean dens. From a meta-analysis of key behavioural, ecological, ontological, and trophic traits, we demonstrate that three quarters of carnivore species exhibit some reliance on underground dens. Congruence between life-history traits and metrics of fossoriality evidenced that: 1 there are phylogenetic, and morphological constraints on wholly fossorial life-histories; 2 fossoriality correlated positively with the extent of offspring altriciality, linked to the use of natal dens; 3 burrow use increased with latitude; and 4 insectivorous carnivores were more fossorial than predatory carnivores. Corroborating work in the Rodentia, fossorial traits associated strongly with carnivoran group-living tendencies, where species utilising subterranean natal dens are 2.5 times more likely to form groups than those that do not. Furthermore, using comparative analyses, we evidence support for an evolutionary relationship between diet, fossoriality and sociality. We propose that fossorial dens act as a safe haven, promoting fitness benefits, territorial inheritance and cooperative breeding. We conclude that, among smaller (<15kg den-using carnivores, and especially for omnivorous/ insectivorous species for which food resource dispersion is favorable, continued cohabitation at natal dens can promote cohabitation among adults; that is, philopatric benefits leading to (not necessarily cooperative spatial groups.

  10. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  11. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780 build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.

  12. Distribución potencial del jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) en Guerrero, México: persistencia de zonas para su conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P.; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Potential distribution of jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in Guerrero, Mexico: persistence of areas for its conservation. Studies about the permanence of natural protected areas are important, because they contribute to the promotion of the conservation target and to optimize economical and human resources of specific areas. Although there are no natural protected areas in Guerrero, it has suitable habitat for the jaguar, a common species used for planning and management of ...

  13. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  14. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  15. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode.

  16. Binturong (Arctictis binturong and Kinkajou (Potos flavus digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates.

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    Joanna E Lambert

    Full Text Available Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue, Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF and acid detergent (ADF fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3; P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6. In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon.

  17. Binturong (Arctictis binturong) and Kinkajou (Potos flavus) digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek; McKenney, Erin; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong) that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT) on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue), Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent (ADF) fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3); P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6). In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon.

  18. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  19. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes

  20. 3D models related to the publication: Neogene sloth assemblages (Mammalia, Pilosa) of the Cocinetas Basin (La Guajira, Colombia): implications for the Great American Biotic Interchange

    OpenAIRE

    Amson, Eli; Carrillo, Juan David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : We here present the surface models of two specimens of sloths(Mammalia, Tardigrada) coming from the Late Pliocene WareFormation (Cocinetas Basin, La Guajira, Colombia, see Table 1). Along with three additional sloth taxa found in the same Formation, these specimens document the great diversity of this Neotropical locality. Furthermore, they represent a sloth assemblage from a locality just a few hundred thousand years older than the classically recognized first main pulse of th...

  1. Feeding mechanics and dietary implications in the fossil sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Robert K

    2011-10-01

    Haitian species of the extinct ground sloth genus Neocnus (Mammalia: Pilosa: Megalonychidae) have previously been hypothesized to have a much reduced jugal bone and a correspondingly reduced masseter musculature but a paucity of specimens has prevented further investigation of this hypothesis. Recent discovery of jugal bones belonging to Haitian specimens of Neocnus within the University of Florida Museum collections enables the element to be more accurately described. The discovery also makes it possible to explore mastication in these sloths. Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus. There is a significant difference in moment arm calculations for m. masseter between predicted and actual jugals, but the overall significance for bite force is lost and hampered by small sample size. Neocnus demonstrates a variety of characters that are similar to those of Bradypus and not to Choloepus, which is a close phylogenetic relative. The masticatory musculature of Neocnus enabled a chewing cycle emphasizing a grinding combination of mesiodistal and linguobuccal movements of the molariform dentition. The orientations of m. masseter and m. temporalis are estimated to produce relatively high bite force ratios that imply a masticatory system with stronger versus faster components. Because of the similarity of bite forces and jaw mechanics to those of Bradypus, in addition to a number of osteological adaptations indicative of herbivorous grazers (elevated mandibular condyle, large and complex masseter, and robust angular process), the Haitian forms of Neocnus are considered to have been selective feeders with a folivorous diet.

  2. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the Lyakhov mammoth (Proboscidea, Mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of Elephantidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Régis; Barriel, Véronique; Tassy, Pascal

    2003-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships between recent Elephantidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia), that is to say extant elephants (Asian and African) and extinct woolly mammoth, have remained unclear to date. The prevailing morphological scheme (mammoth grouped with Asian elephant) is either supported or questioned by the molecular results. Recently, the monophyly of woolly mammoths on mitochondrial grounds has been demonstrated (Thomas, et al., 2000), but it conflicts with previous studies (Barriel et al., 1999; Derenko et al., 1997). Here, we report the partial sequencing of two mitochondrial genes: 128 bp of 12S rDNA and 561 bp of cytochrome b for the Lyakhov mammoth, a 49,000-year-old Siberian individual. We use the most comprehensive sample of mammoth (11 sequences) to determine whether the sequences achieved by former studies were congruent or not. The monophyly of a major subset of mammoths sequences (including ours) is recovered. Such a result is assumed to be a good criterion for ascertaining the origin of ancient DNA. Our sequence is incongruent with that of Yang et al. (1996), though obtained for the same individual. As far as the latter sequence is concerned, a contamination by non-identified exogenous DNA is suspected. The robustness and reliability of the sister group relation between Mammuthus primigenius and Loxodonta africana are examined: down-weighting saturated substitutions has no impact on the topology; analyzing data partitions proves that the support of this clade can be assigned to the most conservative phylogenetic signal; insufficient taxonomic and/or characters sampling contributed to former discordant conclusions. We therefore assume the monophyly of "real mammoth sequences" and the (Mammuthus, Loxodonta) clade.

  4. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Carleton, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  5. Status of Asiatic Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Carnivora: Felidae in Bhutan

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    Tashi Dhendup

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Golden Cat is a Near Threatened wild cat species as listed by the IUCN. Being a lesser studied species, there is a general paucity of data and hence, global assessment of its true status has been very difficult. In Bhutan, available information on this species is mainly from biodiversity surveys on big mammals such as Tiger and Snow Leopard. A modest attempt has been made to review all available literature on Asiatic Golden Cat in Bhutan and abroad to describe the current status of the species in the country and the need for further studies. 

  6. [Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi-Catalá, Emiliana; Barreto, Guillermo R

    2008-12-01

    Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot) and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC) (> 70% variance). We assessed the effect of the substrate and type of foot by means of paired t-student tests, and found differences between fore and hind feet and footprints from the same individual when made on soil or sand. No differences were found between right or left feet. The footprints changed over time as revealed by Multiple ANOVA. Different individuals could be identifyied based on discriminant analyses with more than 70% confidence. We conclude that this method is feasible and can be useful when studying endangered felines.

  7. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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    Susan Ziolkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient’s baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound.

  8. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora.

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    Violetta R Beklemisheva

    Full Text Available Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK. However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family, near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32. Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years. Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular.

  9. First Record of Postcranial Bones in Devinophoca emryi (Carnivora, Phocidae, Devinophocinae

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    Rahmat S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Devinophoca emryi material from the early Badenian, early Middle Miocene (16.26–14.89 Ma presents mixed cranial and especially postcranial characters with the three extant phocid subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Monachinae and Phocinae, as well as unique postcranial characters not seen in any taxa. These distinguishing characters (i. e. well-outlined, large oval facet on greater tubercle of humerus; broader width between the head and lesser tubercle of humerus; femoral proximal epiphysis larger than distal; thin innominate ilium that is excavated on ventral surface demonstrate that this material belongs to a recently described species (D. emryi. During ecomorphotype analyses, fossil humerus and femur bones were directly associated with their corresponding mandible to reveal associations based on Recent morphological analogues. Strong correlation between ecomorphotypes and postcranial morphology supports placement of this material to D. emryi and not its sister taxon, D. claytoni. The previously described skull, mandible and teeth and postcranial bones described herein were discovered at the same locality during excavations at the base of the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Slovakia, at the junction of the Morava and Danube rivers. The geological age of D. emryi and the presence of mixed characters strongly suggest that this species was an early relative to the ancestor of seals, possibly being a terminal branch of the phocid tree. This material allows for emended diagnoses of the species, updated assessments of geographical distribution and provides further material for clarification of controversial phylogenetic relationships in Phocidae.

  10. ÁREAS DE ENDEMISMO DE LOS MAMÍFEROS (MAMMALIA NEOTROPICALES

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    Elkin Alexi NOGUERA-URBANO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las áreas de endemismo es un paso fundamental en los análisis de biogeografía evolutiva. Las áreas de endemismo han sido definidas por la congruencia de dos o más áreas de distribución, en donde se asume de manera general que los taxones endémicos tienen una respuesta geográfica similar a factores históricos y ambientales. Los mamíferos tienen alta diversidad en el Neotrópico y muchos de ellos han evolucionado en conjunto con esta región biogeográfica. Sin embargo, hay pocas hipótesis de áreas de endemismo que puedan ser relacionadas con la evolución de los mamíferos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se identificaron las áreas de endemismo de los mamíferos neotropicales a partir del análisis de una matriz de 2052 taxones (familias, géneros y especies. Para ello se aplicó una búsqueda de áreas de endemismo con el método de Análisis de Endemicidad a una cuadrícula de 2° latitud-longitud. Se identificaron 101 áreas de endemismo y 498 taxones endémicos, las áreas coincidieron parcialmente con 65 patrones biogeográficos identificados por otros autores. La región Neotropical está compuesta por nueve áreas de endemismo y mostró múltiples límites, que sugieren un patrón dinámico. Se identificaron dos áreas complejas de intercambio biótico que coincidieron con las zonas de transición Mexicana y Sudamericana. La congruencia de las áreas de endemismo de mamíferos con otros esquemas biogeográficos sugiere que estas áreas han sido formadas tanto por factores históricos como ecológicos. Por otra parte, las incongruencias de las áreas de endemismo soportan un sistema biogeográfico no jerarquizado.Areas of Endemism of the Neotropical Mammals (Mammalia The identification of areas of endemism is an essential step in analyses of evolutionary biogeography. Areas of endemism have been defined by the congruency of two or more distributional areas, where there is a general assumption that the

  11. Los Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y Leon, Espana

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    Cuesta Ruiz-Colmenares, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of the Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia of the Eocene of the Duero Bassin (Castilla y León, Spain has permited to identify 3 new species: Palaeotherium giganteum nov. sp., Cantabrotherium casanovasae nov. sp. and Franzenium durense nov. sp., all of the Mazaterón bed (middle Eocene-upper Eocene, MP16-17, Almazán subbassin, Soria. Franzenium durense nov. sp. is present also in Caenes (middle Eocene, MP16, southoccidental area, Salamanca. The described forrns display a special combination of primitive characters, mainly in the premolars, with almost void molarization, and derived characters, detaching a strong hipsodonty; such combination is not known in the other species of the Family. In a biogeographical order this fauna shows a strong endemic character, with a almost complete independence of the occidental Europe and subpyrenean area, and only sorne peninsular beds, Llamaquique (Oviedo and Huérmeces del Cerro (Guadalajara have similar forms. In 3 other beds, situates in the southoccidental area, Casaseca de Campeán (middle Eocene, MP13-14, Zamora, Molino del Pico (upper Eocene-Oligocene, Zamora and San Morales (Middle Eocene, MP16, Salamanca the Palaeotheriidae are very rares and the limited material doesn't have to perrnit the identification at the generic level.El estudio sistemático de los Palaeotheriidae (Perissodactyla, Marnmalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y León, España ha permitido identificar tres nuevas especies: Palaeotherium giganteum nov. sp., Cantabrotherium casanovasae nov. sp. y Franzenium durense nov. sp., todas ellas del yacimiento de Mazaterón (Eoceno medio-Eoceno superior, MP16-17, subcuenca de Almazán, Soria. Franzenium durense nov. sp. está también presente en Caenes (Eoceno medio, MP16, área suroccidental, Salamanca. Las formas descritas presentan una especial combinación de caracteres primitivos, principalmente en los premolares, con molarización pr

  12. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  13. A new species of Cryptotis (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) from the Sierra de Perijá, Venezuelan-Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Carmona, Marcial; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Sierra de Perijá is the northern extension of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes and includes part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela. The population of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae, Cryptotis) inhabiting the Sierra de Perijá previously was known from only a single skull from an individual collected in Colombia in 1989. This specimen had been referred to alternatively as C. thomasi and C. meridensis, but more precise definition of the known Colombian and Venezuelan species of Cryptotis has since excluded the Sierra de Perijá population from any named species. The recent collection of a specimen from the Venezuelan slope of Sierra de Perijá, prompted us to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of this population and determine its relationship with other Andean shrews. Our examination of the available specimens revealed that they possess a unique suite of morphological and morphometrical characters, and we describe the Sierra de Perijá population as a new species in the South American C. thomasi species group. Recognition of this new species adds to our knowledge of this genus in South America and to the biodiversity of the Sierra de Perijá.

  14. 内蒙古中新世通古尔组 Tungurictis(Carnivora:Hyaenidae)的新材料%NEW MATERIALS OF TUNGURICTIS (HYAENIDAE,CARNIVORA)FROM TUNGGUR FORMATION,NEI MONGOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鸣

    2004-01-01

    New materials of Tungurictis spocki, a basal hyaenid (Hyaenidae, Carnivora), from the Tai rum Nor locality in Tunggur Formation is described. For the first time, associated upper and lower teeth are available for this species, which is previously established on a single skull. The newly available lower molars corroborate current believes that Tungurictis is a primitive hyaenid. A relatively low metaconid and an equal height for m1 hypoconid and entoconid further establish its difference from hypocarnivorous forms such as Plioviverrops. Tungurictis spocki is probably closely related to European and western Asian Pro tictitherium gaillardi.%斯氏通古尔鼬(Tungurictis spocki)是1939年Colbert描述的一个采自内蒙古中中新世通古尔组的小型食肉类的新属、新种.他最初认为通古尔鼬属于灵猫科,但最近Hunt(1989)及Hunt和Solounias(1991)提出通古尔鼬具有一些鬣狗科耳区的特征(如水平方向的听泡隔板等)但缺少典型鬣狗科强壮的用来咬碎骨骼的前臼齿.Werdelin和Solounias(1991)对鬣狗科分支系统的研究也进一步证实通古尔鼬实际上是一种鬣狗科较为原始的成员.因此通古尔鼬成为研究鬣狗科初期演化关系的重要一环.Tungurictis spocki的正型标本(AMNH 26600)是一件相当完整的头骨,但这是美国自然历史博物馆第三次中亚考查团在狼营地点(Wolf Camp)获得的惟一标本.缺少下颌骨和非常关键的下裂齿对于研究鬣狗科关系总是一件憾事.因此在通古尔台地南缘首次发现的出自同一个体的斯氏通古尔鼬上、下颌骨,对加深该种形态特征的认识和对鬣狗科系统关系的研究都具有一定意义.新发现的材料(IVPP V 13784)包括很可能属同一个体头骨的前半部分以及下颌骨,并保存了P3~M2及m1~m2.V 13784采自内蒙古苏尼特左旗IVPP 346地点西1.5 km(美国自然历史博物馆中亚考查团推饶木诺尔地点Tairum Nor locality

  15. New marsupial (Mammalia from the Eocene of Antarctica, and the origins and affinities of the Microbiotheria Nuevo marsupial (Mammalia del Eoceno de la Antártida, y los orígenes y afinidades de los Microbiotheria

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    F.J. Goin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe and comment on an isolated upper molar belonging to Woodburnodon casei gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Microbiotheria, Woodburnodontidae fam. nov., from the Eocene of the La Meseta Fm (TELM 5 or Cucullaea I Member, Marambio (Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. With a body mass estimated between 900 to 1,300 g (depending on the type of equation and the possible molar locus of the type specimen, it represents the largest known Microbiotheria, living or extinct. Besides its size, other diagnostic features include a proportionally large metacone, reduced or absent para- and metaconules, and an unusual labial notch between stylar cusps C and D. Woodburnodon casei is an undoubted Microbiotheria; however, its reference to the Microbiotheriidae is discarded: almost all its morphological characters are plesiomorphic when compared with South American microbiotheriids, even with respect to the oldest representatives of this family. This suggests (a a quite ancient and southern origin for Woodburnodon and its ancestors, and (b that the origins and initial radiation of the Microbiotheria may have occurred from a generalized peradectoid. The new taxon, here referred to the new family Woodburnodontidae, constitutes the second microbiotherian known from these Antarctic levels and age; this confirms the association of representatives of this order within a common, Andean-Patagonian-Antarctic biogeographic region, already present since the Late Cretaceous. Microbiotherians stand as the plesiomorphic sister-group of Bonapartheriiform marsupials, the latter including Glasbius and allied taxa.Se describe y comenta un molar superior aislado perteneciente a Woodburnodon casei gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Microbiotheria, Woodburnodontidae fam. nov., procedente de niveles eocénicos de la Fm. La Meseta (Miembro TELM 5 o Cucullaea I, Isla Marambio (Seymour, Península Antártica. Con una masa corporal estimada entre 900 y 1.300 g

  16. Jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) food habits in a mosaic of Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantations of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tófoli, C F; Rohe, F; Setz, E Z F

    2009-08-01

    Food habits of jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) (Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) were studied between November 2000 and November 2001, in a 24.9 km(2) area of secondary Atlantic Rainforest and eucalypt plantation, in the Serra de Paranapiacaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Analyses of 26 fecal and regurgitate samples, obtained over a stretch of 570.1 km, showed the consumption of 19 prey items and 74 prey occurrences. Small mammals were the most frequent food item (42.5%), followed by birds (21%), reptiles (14%) and medium-sized mammals (3%). The percent occurrence (PO) suggests that the diet consisted mainly of small rodents (30%) and birds (21%). We recorded for the first time the predation of Viperidae snakes by P. yagouaroundi. Although having a large list of items and range of dietary niche breadths (Bsta = 0.76), our data show that jaguarundi prey mainly on small vertebrates (mammals, birds or reptiles), and even in tall tropical forests or eucalypt plantations, it preys mostly on animals that come to, or live on, the ground.

  17. Limb Morphometrics in Camivora: Locomotion, Phylogeny and Size = Análisis morfométrico del esqueleto apendicular en Carnivora: Locomoción, filogenia y alometría

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [spa] La morfología del esqueleto apendicular en Carnivora se estudió desde un punto de vista funcional, filogenético y alométrico. En primer lugar se determinó la estrategia locomotora empleada por los mamíferos no arborícolas sobre soportes estrechos, que se comparó con la de los mamíferos arborícolas. Para ello, se estudiaron múltiples variables cinemáticas y de coordinación en el gato (trepador) y el perro (terrestre). Las especies arborícolas, trepadoras y terrestres usan estrategias di...

  18. Distribución geográfica, historia natural y conservación del hurón menor Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae en la Patagonia central, Argentina Geographic distribution, natural history and conservation of the lesser grison Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae from Central Patagonia, Argentina

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    Marcelo Carrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El hurón menor, Galictis cuja, tiene una amplia distribución en el territorio patagónico extraandino, aunque sus registros puntuales son escasos. Este trabajo se desarrolló en la provincia del Chubut, Patagonia Central, Argentina. Aquí se aportan nuevas localidades de registro de G. cuja para esta región; se discuten aspectos de su distribución geográfica y conservación en el Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad y brevemente se explora la representación de G. cuja en los ensambles de carnívoros del ANP-PV desde el Holoceno tardío hasta la actualidad. Se adicionaron 18 nuevos registros de G. cuja en Patagonia central. Se detectó un conflicto entre los pobladores y hurones, que motiva la caza de estos últimos. Se verificó un aparente incremento de abundancia de G. cuja en los últimos miles de años, concomitante con la extinción regional o dramática disminución de Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.The Lesser Grison, Galictis cuja, is a species widely distributed in extra-Andean Patagonia, although its records are scarce. This work was carried out in Chubut province, Central Patagonia, Argentina. Here we report new occurrence localities of G. cuja for this region; we discuss aspects of their geographical distribution and conservation in the Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; World Heritage Site and briefly explores the representation of G. cuja in carnivore assemblages of ANP-PV, since the late Holocene to the present. We added 18 new records of G. cuja in Central Patagonia. We detected a conflict between the rural residents and the Lesser Grison, which motivates the hunting of the latter. There was an apparent increase in abundance of G. cuja in the last thousands of years, concomitant with regional extinction or dramatic reduction of Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.

  19. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 612 specimens bearing names of 604 species-group taxa of Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea as of May 2016. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprising 582 holotypes; 16 lectotypes, two of which are newly designated herein; 7 syntypes (15 specimens); and 1 neotype. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections and therefore are not in the database. Thirty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Arthur J. Poole and Viola S. Schantz’s 1942 “Catalog of the Type Specimens of Mammals in the United States National Museum, Including the Biological Surveys Collection” (Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 178). One of these, Lutra iowa Goldman, 1941, was transferred to the National Museum’s Paleobiology Department collection and is mentioned only briefly in this work. Orders and families are arranged systematically following D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder’s 2005 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, third edition, volume 1; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically, and within each currently recognized genus, species and subspecies accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon, type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record. An addendum

  20. Los Plagiolophinae (Remy, 1976 nuevo rango (Perissodactyla, Mammalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y Leon, España

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    Cuesta Ruiz-Colmenares, M. A.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of the Plagiolophinae (Remy, 1976 nov. rank (Perissodactyla, Mammalia from the Eocene of the Duero Basin (Castilla y León, Spain has permitted the identification of two new species: Plagiolophus casasecaensis nov. sp. of the Casaseca site (middle Eocene, MP 13-14, Zamora province that is a very primitive species; and Plagiolophus mazateronensis nov. sp. of the Mazaterón (middle-upper Eocene, MP 16-17, Almazán subbasin, Soria province and Caenes sites (middle Eocene, MP 16, Salamanca province which are described by a special combination of primitive and derivative characteristics unknown in other species of the genus. Other forms poorly documented and attributable to genus Plagiolophus occur in Jambrina and El Viso-Sanzoles (MP 13-14, Zamora province, San Morales (MP 16, Salamanca province, Deza (upper Eocene, Soria province, Molino del Pico (upper Eocene-Oligocene, Zamora province, and Mazaterón. The genus Leptolophus that has been determined in Mazaterón, had only been known before in sorne French localities. This Plagiolophinae assemblage is clearly biogeographically different from the already known findings in occidental Europe and subpirenaic area.El estudio de los Plagiolophinae (Remy, 1976 nuevo rango (Perissodactyla, Mammalia del Eoceno de la Cuenca del Duero (Castilla y León, España ha permitido identificar dos nuevas especies: Plagiolophus casasecaensis nov. sp. del yacimiento de Casaseca (Eoceno medio, parte media, MP 13-14, provincia de Zamora caracterizada por un marcado primitivismo, y Plagiolophus mazateronensis nov. sp., del yacimiento de Mazaterón (Eoceno medio-superior, MP 16-17, subcuenca de Almazán, provincia de Soria y de Caenes (Eoceno medio, parte superior, MP 16, provincia de Salamanca, caracterizada por una peculiar combinación de caracteres primitivos y evolucionados, desconocida en el resto de especies del género. Otras formas escasamente documentadas atribuibles al género Plagiolophus

  1. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil

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    L. M. Tiepolo

    Full Text Available Abstract We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil.

  2. [Feeding habits of raccoon (Procyon lotor) (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in a coastal, tropical wet forest of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Wong, G; Rodríguez, M A

    2001-01-01

    Raccoon (Procyon lotor) food habits were studied at Manuel Antonio National Park, a tropical rain forest in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica from May to December 1987, from September to December 1989 and from January to April 1990. A 134 feces sample size was used to assess the most important items in raccoon diet: two crab species (Gecarcinus quadratus and Cardisoma crassum) with a relative frequency of 0.94 in the rainy season of 1987, 0.76 in the rainy season of 1989 and 0.65 in the dry season of 1990. Fruits were the second category in importance, with relative frequencies of 0.09 for 1987, 0.32 for 1989 and 0.44 for 1990.

  3. Selection of habitat by the jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae, in the upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Laury Cullen Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used data from VHF and GPS radio-tagged jaguars, Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 to quantify jaguar habitat selection and how adult individuals in the Upper Paraná River region selected among the available habitat types. We followed the framework in which animals make decisions about resource use at hierarchical stages, namely selection of home range within a study area (second-order selection and selection of patches within a home range (third-order selection. We quantified habitat preferences at two orders of selection with respect to habitat types and to test the null hypothesis that habitat utilization by jaguars was random at both study sites. Using compositional analysis, we assessed habitat selection by jaguars at second- and third-orders of selection. Jaguars consistently preferred dense marshes and primary forests, and avoided human-dominated areas such as intensively managed open pastures. Although the avoidance of disturbed and developed habitat types by jaguars is not surprising, this is the first study to document it. If small protected areas, such as the ones already existing in the Upper Paraná region, are to sustain jaguar populations they, must include and protect as many primary forests and marshlands as possible, so that jaguars can disperse, hunt wild prey and take care of their cubs without being disturbed. What is urgently needed in these jaguar-protected areas is the creation of larger protected areas that can sustain jaguars in their favored habitat.

  4. Impact of jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) predation on marine turtle populations in Tortuguero, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Arce, Stephanny; Salom-Pérez, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effects of jaguars on the population of marine turtles nesting in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica. This study assessed jaguar predation impact on three species of marine turtles (Chelonia mydas, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata) that nest in Tortuguero beach. Jaguar predation data was obtained by using two methodologies, literature review (historical records prior the year 2005) and weekly surveys along the 29 km stretch of beach during the period 2005-2013. Our results indicated that jaguar predation has increased from one marine turtle in 1981 to 198 in 2013. Jaguars consumed annually an average of 120 (SD = 45) and 2 (SD = 3) green turtles and leatherbacks in Tortuguero beach, respectively. Based on our results we concluded that jaguars do not represent a threat to the population of green turtles that nest in Tortuguero beach, and it is not the main cause for population decline for leatherbacks and hawksbills. Future research should focus on continuing to monitor this predator-prey relationship as well as the factors that influence it so the proper management decisions can be taken.

  5. The conservation status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae In Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal

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    Iain Rothie Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal was assessed by camera trapping and pugmark searches from 2011 to 2014.  The reserve is a highly dynamic and unstable snow-fed braided river system with many anabranches and islands.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found throughout most of the reserve.  They were probably more abundant on the eastern side, among the islands of the main river channel, and in the adjacent buffer zone where there was a chain of fishponds and marsh areas fed by seepage from the main river channel.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found up to 6km north of the reserve on the Koshi River but not beyond this.  The population is probably small and may be isolated but given the endangered status of the species, is significant.  The main likely threats identified are wetland and riparian habitat deterioration caused by over exploitation and illegal grazing by villagers, overfishing of wetlands and rivers within the reserve, and direct persecution arising from perceived conflicts with fish farming and poultry husbandry.  Required conservation actions are discussed. 

  6. Population and prey of the Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Felidae in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

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    M.M.H. Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results from intensive small scale surveys are often difficult to extrapolate to wider spatial scales, yet an understanding at such scales is critical for assessing the minimum densities and populations of rare and wide ranging species. In this paper, the minimum size of population and minimum density estimates of Bengal Tigers Panthera tigris tigris and its prey were conducted from 2005 to 2007 using camera traps for 90 days and using distance sampling surveys for over 200 days, respectively. The results were extrapolated from the core study area in Katka-Kochikhali, southeastern Sundarbans, to five additional sites using indices of abundance. With the use of 10 camera-traps at 15 trap-points, field data provided a total of 829 photos, including seven photos of five individual tigers. A total of 5.0 (SE = 0.98 tigers (adults and sub-adults are thus estimated in the core area with an estimated density of 4.8 tigers/100km2. Distance sampling surveys conducted on large mammalian prey species obtained an overall density estimate of 27.9 individuals/km2 and a biomass density of 1,037kg/km2. Indices of abundance were obtained by using tiger track sighting rates (number of tracks/km of riverbank and the sighting rates of the prey species (number of prey/km of riverbank in the core area and in five additional sites across the region. The densities of tiger tracks and sighting rates of prey were strongly correlated suggesting a wide scale relationship between predator and prey in the region. By combining the estimates of absolute density with indices of abundance, an average of 3.7 tigers/100km2 across the region is estimated, which given an area of 5,770km2, predicts a minimum of approximately 200 tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

  7. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

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    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  8. 影响食肉目动物能量学的生态因子%Ecological factors influence energetics in the Order Carnivora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian K. McNAB

    2005-01-01

    The variation of body mass in 62 species of mammals belonging to the Order Carnivora accounts for 86.8% of the variation in their basal rates of metabolism. When four other factors, substrate, food habits, habitat, and latitude, are combined with mass in the analysis, then 98.7% of the total variation in basal rate is accounted for, I.e., these ecological/behavioral factors accounted for 81.1% of the residual variation. Variation in body composition may be another factor influencing basal rate, which may account for the very low basal rates in large arboreal species. The principal mass-independent cause for variation in the basal rate of eutherian mammals is that high rates of energy expenditure, when ecologically feasible, facilitate high reproductive outputs, whereas some habits and environments require low energy expenditures, which lead to low rates of reproduction. Bringing family affiliation into the analysis contributes little to the analysis. Most correlations of physiological parameters with taxonomic affiliation represent crude correlations of ecological and behavioral characteristics with taxonomy. Phylogeny does not determine the states of malleable characters, except as it reflects ecology and behavior%在食肉目的62种动物中,体重的变异可以解释基础代谢率86.8%的变化.当栖息基底、食性、生境和纬度等4个因素与体重合起来一起分析,则可以解释基础代谢率98.7% 的变化, 即这些生态和行为因子可以解释代谢率残差变异的81.1%.身体成分也是影响基础代谢率的另一个因素,可以解释一些大型树栖种类的较低的代谢率.除体重因素外,导致真兽类基础代谢率变异的主要原因是:当生态因素适合时,高水平的能量消耗可以促进动物的高繁殖输出,而动物的某些习性和生存环境则会要求低能量消耗,从而使繁殖率降低.当以科为单元进行分析时,对结果没有影响.生理参数与分类单元之间大多数的

  9. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

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    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  10. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

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    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  11. Methods and insights from the characterization of osteoprogenitor cells of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N

    2016-07-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.

  12. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  13. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  14. Limb preference in the gallop of dogs and the half-bound of pikas on flat ground

    CERN Document Server

    Hackert, Rémi; Herbin, Marc; Abourachid, Anick; Libourel, P A

    2008-01-01

    During fast locomotion - gallop, half bound - of quadruped mammals, the ground contact of the limbs in each pair do not alternate symmetrically. Animals using such asymmetrical gait thus choose whether the left or the right limb will contact the ground first, and this gives rise to limb preference. Here, we report that dogs (Mammalia, Carnivora) and pikas (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) prefer one forelimb as trailing limb and use it as such almost twice as often as the other. We also show that this choice depends on the individual and is not a characteristic of the species, and that the strength of the preference was not dependent on the animal's running speed.

  15. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size...

  16. The origin of the lower fourth molar in canids, inferred by individual variation

    OpenAIRE

    Masakazu Asahara

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. Methods Occl...

  17. 新疆东北部晚侏罗世一新的柱齿兽%A NEW LATE JURASSIC DOCODONT (MAMMALIA) FROM NORTHEASTERN XINJIANG,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡耀明; 孟津; 詹姆斯 M.克拉克

    2007-01-01

    A new genus and species of docodontid(Docodonta,Mammalia),Acuodulodon sunae,represented by a partial left lower jaw and dentition,is described.It is from the upper part of the Shishugou Formation in the Wucaiwan area of the Junggar Basin in northeastern Xinjiang,China,with an estimated age of 159~161 Ma(Oxfordian,early Late Jurassic).The new mammal is typical of docodonts in having a cusp b in front of cusp a,a cusp c distolingual to cusp a and a cusp g mesiolingual to cusp a on lower molariforms.Differing from other docodonts,it has no cusp e or crest b-e developed on lower molariforms.Unique among docodonts.cusps a and c of the new animal maintained their sharpness while cusp g and crest b-g wore away fast,indicating that both shearing and crushing/grinding occurred in the chewing cycle and probably last for most of the life span of the animal.Phylogenetic analysis of a data matrix with 24 lower molariform characters across 15 taxa recovers a monophyletic Docodonta,which has distinct diagnostic characters in lower molariforms.Within docodonts,Docodon and Borealestes are successively basal to other docodonts;Acuodulodon and Itatodon +(Simpsonodon,Castorocauda+(Tegotherium+Sibirotherium))form a monophyletic clade.Tegotheriid genera are nested within Docodontidae,but a monophyletic tegotheriid clade composed of Tegotherium,Sibirotherium,hatodon,and Tashkumyrodon is not recovered.The dentary of Acuodulodon is typical of docodonts.It has a shallow postdentary trough and a wide and sharp medial ridge,both of which do not extend onto the medial side of the condylar peduncle,indicating looser contact between postdentary bones and the dentary than in morganucodontids,a more derived condition in the evolution toward the definitive mammalian middle ear.%描述了哺乳纲柱齿兽目柱齿兽科(Docodontidae,Docodonta,Mammalia)一新属种--孙氏尖钝齿兽(Acuodulodon sunae gen.et sp.nov.).标本产于新疆东北部准噶尔盆地五彩湾地区上侏罗

  18. Chemical restraint of captive Kinkajous Potos flavus (Schreber, 1774 (Carnivora: Procyonidae using a ketamine, xylazine and midazolam combination and reversal with yohimbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lescano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of drug combinations used for the chemical immobilization of Kinkajous (Potos flavus is scarce.  This study assessed the effects of ketamine (2.5mg/kg, xylazine (1mg/kg and midazolam (0.5mg/kg combination in P. flavus.  Five clinically healthy adult Kinkajous of both sexes were included.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and body temperature were recorded at five-minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then, animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine by intramuscular injection.  Anaesthetic depth was assessed based on stimulus response and muscle tone.  Induction, immobilization, and recovery periods were recorded and qualitatively assessed based on the absence of adverse effects.  The durations of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods were 9.42±1.73, 33.33±2.16, and 31.37±5.82 minutes.  All periods showed good quality and adequate anaesthetic depth was achieved.  Mean heart and respiratory rates were 99±20 beats/minute and 44±9 breaths/minute.  Both parameters decreased over the duration of the anaesthesia but they did not reach levels suggesting either bradycardia or bradypnea.  Mean body temperature was 37.1±1.5 0C and it also showed a decreasing trend over the duration of the anaesthesia.  Mean oxygen saturation was 92±6% and it showed a mildly increasing trend over the duration of the anesthesia.  Mean blood pressure was 129±23 mmHg and mild to moderate hypertension was observed.  No mortality occurred and no adverse effects were observed in any of the individuals during the three months following immobilization.  The assessed anaesthetic combination effectively immobilized the P. flavus individuals, provided good quality and acceptable duration of both induction and recovery periods.  It should, however, not be used in Kinkajous with either known hypertension record or pre-existing target organ disease (e

  19. Reconsidering the taxonomy of the Black-Faced Uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus group (Mammalia: Pitheciidae), from the northern Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Guedes, Patrícia G; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea M B; Barnett, Adrian A

    2014-09-24

    The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi.

  20. Phylogenetic position of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: a molecular perspective Posición filogenética de las liebres mexicanas dentro del género Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: una perspectiva molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although phylogenetic affinities of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus have been evaluated for a few species, no study has included all 5 species occurring in Mexico. In this study we assess the phylogenetic position of the Mexican species relative to other forms within the genus and evaluate evolutionary affinities among the Mexican forms. To do so, we analyzed 57 complete cytochrome b sequences belonging to the 5 Mexican jackrabbits and 18 species of Lepus distributed across Asia, Africa, Europe and America. We performed phylogenetic tree reconstruction with the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches. We also used a minimum spanning network to evaluate relationships among Mexican species. We found 5 main phylogenetic groups within Lepus, 4 of which corresponded to geographically well defined lineages. One group included L. americanus, 3 others corresponded to Mexican, African and European species, respectively. A fifth group included Asiatic, European and American forms. Our results suggest that Mexican species constitute a monophyletic entity that evolved independently of the other American species of Lepus. Within the Mexican forms, 2 main clades are apparent; 1 that includes L. alleni, L. callotis, and L. flavigularis, previously referred to as the white-sided jackrabbits, and a second one that groups together L. californicus and L. insularis, although L. californicus is a paraphyletic relative of L. insularis.Aunque la afinidad filogenética de las liebres mexicanas, dentro del género Lepus, ha sido evaluada para algunas especies, ningún estudio ha incluido las 5 especies que se presentan en México. En este trabajo estimamos la posición filogenética de las especies mexicanas de liebres en relación con otras formas dentro del género, y evaluamos las afinidades evolutivas entre ellas. Para ello analizamos 57 secuencias completas del citocromo b pertenecientes a las 5 especies mexicanas y 18

  1. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S C Nogueira

    Full Text Available Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3 and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled. The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2 than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3. The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1 and the following control phase (C2 than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2, also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.

  2. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions identify East Asia as the cradle for the evolution of the cosmopolitan genus Myotis (Mammalia, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedi, Manuel; Stadelmann, Benoît; Gager, Yann; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Francis, Charles M; Lin, Liang-Kong; Guillén-Servent, Antonio; Cibois, Alice

    2013-12-01

    Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1140 bp) and nuclear Rag 2 (1148 bp) genes were used to assess the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan bat genus Myotis, based on a worldwide sampling of over 88 named species plus 7 species with uncertain nomenclature. Phylogenetic reconstructions of this comprehensive taxon sampling show that most radiation of species occurred independently within each biogeographic region. Our molecular study supports an early divergence of species from the New World, where all Nearctic and Neotropical species plus a lineage from the Palaearctic constitute a monophyletic clade, sister to the remaining Old World taxa. The major Old World clade includes all remaining Eurasian taxa, most Oriental species, one Oceanian, and all Ethiopian species. Another lineage, including M. latirostris from Taiwan, appears at the base of these two major biogeographic clades and, because it bears nyctalodont molars, could be considered as a distinct genus. However, this molar configuration is also found in crown-group species, indicating that these dental characters are variable in the genus Myotis and may confound interpretation of the fossil record. Molecular datings suggest an origin of all recent Myotis in the early Miocene (about 21MYA with 95% highest posterior density interval 23-20MYA). This period was characterized by a global climatic cooling that reduced the availability of tropical habitats and favoured the development of more temperate vegetation. This sharp climatic change might have triggered the evolution of Myotis in the Northern continents, because Myotis ancestors seem to have been well adapted and successful in such temperate habitats. Ancestral area reconstructions based on the molecular phylogeny suggest that the eastern portion of the Asian continent was an important center of origin for the early diversification of all Myotis lineages, and involved relatively few subsequent transcontinental range expansions.

  3. Vertical structure of an assemblage of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy. Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50, "less frequent" (25 < C < 50 and "occasional" (C < 25. We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810, Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.

  4. The Effects of Feeding Unpredictability and Classical Conditioning on Pre-Release Training of White-Lipped Peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Selene S. C.; Abreu, Shauana A.; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild. PMID:24475072

  5. Functional anatomy of the postcranial skeleton of Styriofelis lorteti (Carnivora, Felidae, Felinae from the Middle Miocene (MN 6 locality of Sansan (Gers, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peigné, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The postcranial skeleton of the European Middle Miocene feline Styriofelis lorteti has been traditionally known on the basis of fragmentary fossils mainly from the French locality of Sansan. The discovery of an almost complete skeleton in the same site in the excavations of 1990 opened the possibility of unprecedented assessment of the morphology and function of this early felid. In this paper we describe this material, and compare it with a sample of modern and fossil felids, finding a combination of a generally modern morphology, with moderate adaptations to terrestrial locomotion, besides a set of primitive characters linking S. lorteti with earlier felids like Proailurus lemanensis.El esqueleto post-craneal del felino Styriofelis lorteti, del Mioceno medio de Europa, ha sido tradicionalmente conocido en base a fósiles fragmentarios, procedentes principalmente del yacimiento francés de Sansan. El descubrimiento en este yacimiento de un esqueleto casi completo, durante la campaña de 1990, abrió la posibilidad de llevar a cabo un análisis sin precedentes de la morfología y función de este félido primitivo. En este trabajo se describe este material, comparándose con una muestra de felinos fósiles y actuales, hallándose una combinación entre una morfología general moderna, con adaptaciones moderadas para la locomoción terrestre, junto con una serie de caracteres primitivos que relacionan a S. lorteti con los félidos más antiguos como Proailurus lemanensis.

  6. Chemical immobilization of captive Cougars Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (Carnivora: Felidae using a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine and xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lescano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Handling of large felids is highly risky, hence immobilization is required for the safety of personnel.  Data on the effects of anesthetic drugs used for immobilizing Cougars Puma concolor are scarce. This study describes the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg, ketamine (1.6mg/kg and xylazine (0.4mg/kg in pumas. Five captive adult and clinically healthy Cougars were included in this study.  Animals were immobilized by remote injection using blow pipe and darts.  The durations of induction, immobilization and recovery periods and their qualities were recorded.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature and blood pressure were recorded at five minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then all animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine, intramuscularly administered.  Central tendency and dispersal statistics were calculated for each parameter.  The duration of the induction period was 10.4±6.4 minutes and the duration of the recovery period was 83.3±35.1 minutes. Induction, immobilization and recovery periods were smooth and adequate anesthetic depth was achieved.  The mean heart rate was 122±10 beats/minute, mean respiratory rate was 10±1 breaths/minute, mean body temperature was 39.1±0.2 0C and mean blood pressure was 139±12 mmHg.  No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in vital parameters over the duration of the assessment.  The tested anesthetic combination effectively immobilized the cougars included in this study and provided safety for the personnel involved.  Though vital signs were not significantly affected, a degree of hypoventilation was observed and respiratory support is recommended when using this anesthetic combination in cougars. 

  7. Summary of Laurasiatheria (Mammalia) Phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyang HU; Yaping ZHANG; Li YU

    2012-01-01

    Laurasiatheria is one of the richest and most diverse superorders of placental mammals.Because this group had a rapid evolutionary radiation,the phylogenetic relationships among the six orders of Laurasiatheria remain a subject of heated debate and several issues related to its phylogeny remain open.Reconstructing the true phylogenetic relationships of Laurasiatheria is a significant case study in evolutionary biology due to the diversity of this suborder and such research will have significant implications for biodiversity conservation.We review the higher-level (inter-ordinal) phylogenies of Laurasiatheria based on previous cytogenetic,morphological and molecular data,and discuss the controversies of its phylogenetic relationship.This review aims to outline future researches on Laurasiatheria phylogeny and adaptive evolution.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lion Panthera leo Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Panthera_leo_L.png Panthera..._leo_NL.png Panthera_leo_S.png Panthera_leo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera...+leo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda..._melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Mirounga_leon...ina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png ht...tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leon...ina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leon...ina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  12. Diet and potential feeding overlap between Trichiurus lepturus (Osteichthyes: Perciformes and Pontoporia blainvillei (Mammalia: Cetacea in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa T. Bittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the diet and assesses potential overlap in the feeding habits of Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 and Pontoporia blainvilleiGervais & D'Orbigny, 1844 in northern Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Fishes were numerically dominant in both diets, followed by cephalopods for P. blainvillei and crustaceans for T. lepturus. Both predators move along similar coastal feeding areas in northern Rio de Janeiro, but our results indicate differences in their resource exploitation, what allows for their coexistence.

  13. The reassessment of the threatened status of the Indian endemic Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae

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    Bhargavi Srinivasulu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.

  14. The Nilgiri Tahr (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae: Nilgiritragus hylocrius Ogilby, 1838 in the Agastyamalai range, Western Ghats, India: population status and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah Hopeland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius Ogilby, 1838 has not been comprehensively surveyed in the southern Western Ghats, India.  Here we present results of a survey conducted in 2012 and 2013 in 25 sites where Nilgiri Tahr was reported in Agastyamalai range south of the Shencottah gap.  The objectives of the survey were to assess population status; evaluate threats and propose conservation measures. In each site the geographical coordinates were noted.  If Nilgiri Tahr (=Tahr were sighted, the number and herd structure were recorded.  Indirect signs of Tahr presence such as faecal pellets and feedback from local informants were noted in sites with no direct sightings of Tahr.  The total sightings were 247 Tahr in 10 sites, and indication of Tahr presence in seven sites.  Only two populations viz. Kalamalai-Varraiattumudi and Muthukulivayal-Balamore were large (>30 individuals.  Tahr were not present in eight sites: of which four had earlier records of Tahr presence, and the other four had no prior data.  There was a significant positive association between percentage of young (kids and yearlings and number of Tahr sighted.  Illegal hunting was widespread in the past, and continues to be a serious threat.  Loss of Tahr grazing habitat to successional processes resulting in increased tree cover, is a long term threat that could increase with climate change.  A landscape level management plan to reconnect small populations, rehabilitate Tahr in sites where they have disappeared, use fire to restore short grass habitats, and stringent curb on illegal hunting is required for the long term viability of the Nilgiri Tahr in this region.  

  15. A comparative haematological analysis of Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae managed under different captive conditions in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.D. Mel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Haematological parameters were assessed from elephants of three institutions in Sri Lanka with different captive conditions, in order to evaluate if different captive conditions influence the physiology of the animals. The institutions were: The National Zoological Gardens (NZG, where elephants live a comparatively sedentary lifestyle, Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage (PEO, where elephants are allowed to walk and engage in intra-specific behaviours, and Millennium Elephant Foundation (MEF, where the elephants are used for tourist rides. Four adult females were examined from the NZG, while only two males and two females could be examined from PEO and MEF respectively. All animals were sampled on four consecutive days. Blood glucose levels, total white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and differential white blood cell counts were carried out. Certain blood parameters of the elephants from NZG differed significantly from the parameters of the elephants from PEO and MEF. These were, the total WBC counts (Kruskal-Wallis, H=21.92, 2d.f., P=0.000, the lymphocyte count (Kruskal-Wallis, H=16.40, 2d.f., P=0.00 and the Neutrophil: Lymphocyte ratios (Kruskal-Wallis , H=14.58, 2d.f., P less than 0.05. PCV , blood glucose levels and monocyte counts were also shown to be significantly different among the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis P less than 0.000. We suggest that differences in the stress levels associated with the different management methods might influence these haematological values.

  16. Le genre Sivanasua (Lophocyoninae, Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta, Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Two upper teeth from the lower Miocene of Le Chêne de Navere (Gers, France are interpreted as MI and M2 of Sivanasua viverroides. The genus is known in Europe by two species. The origin of the Lophocyoninae is re-evaluated. We consider the group as rooted in some African Hyaenodontoid Creodonta.Dos dientes del yacimiento mioceno (MN4b de Chêne de Navere (Gers, Francia se interpretan como MI y M2 de Sivanasua viverroides. El género Sivanasua está representado en Europa por dos especies. El origen de los Lophocyoninae se reconsidera, primero atribuidos a los Ailuridae y después relacionados con los Viverridae, aquí son considerados como emparentados a los Creodontos Hyaenodontidae africanos.

  17. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  18. The snout of Paulocnus petrifactus (Mammalia, Edentata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1964-01-01

    A specimen of the ground sloth discovered by Mr. P. Stuiver in Curaçao, Paulocnus petrifactus Hooijer (1962), recently dressed from the matrix by Mr. P. H. de Buisonjé, comprises the front part of the mandible and the left half of the rostrum of the skull. It holds the left upper and right lower can

  19. The lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus (Monotremata, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, U

    1988-01-01

    A vestigial and transitory lamina cribrosa was found in nestling platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The heads of two nest-young (180 and 333 mm length), one subadult and one adult Ornithorhynchus were serially sectioned and studied with special reference to the development of the nasal region. In nest-young Ornithorhynchus an irregularly shaped bar of cartilage develops at the foramen olfactorium advehens. In the subadult it is largely resorbed, and in the osseous skull of the adult it is completely lacking. Ontogeny and topographical relationships of this bar of cartilage indicate that it is part of a lamina cribrosa. It embraces the ramus medialis of the nervus ethmoidalis and the arteria ethmoidalis, as do the corresponding parts of the lamina cribrosa of Tachyglossus. Compared to other parts of the chondrocranium this bar develops late in ontogeny, as does the lamina cribrosa of other mammals. Therefore, it can be concluded that part of the lamina cribrosa is present for a short period during the ontogeny of Ornithorhynchus, contrary to earlier reports. As in many other water-adapted mammals, the olfactory system of Ornithorhynchus is reduced. This suggests that the rest of the lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus is secondarily reduced. The common ancestor of Ornithorhynchus and Tachyglossidae most probably possessed a lamina cribrosa which can be traced back to the common mammalian stock. The lamina cribrosa developed only once in the phylogeny of mammals. Its lack in the adult Ornithorhynchus is not a "reptilian" character.

  20. Le genre Sivanasua (Lophocyoninae, Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta, Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburg, L.; Morales, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Two upper teeth from the lower Miocene of Le Chêne de Navère (Gers, France) are interpreted as M1 and M2 of Sivanasua viverroides. The genus is known in Europe by two species. The origin of the Lophocyoninae is re-evaluated. We consider the group as rooted in some African hyaenodontoid Creodonta.

  1. Assessing the Assessment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, James

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical use of assessment centers as staff development and promotional tools and their current use in personnel selection. The elements that constitute a true assessment center are outlined, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages for employers and applicants focuses on positions in library administration. (10…

  2. Comparative macroanatomical study of the neurocranium in some carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, M; Timurkaan, S; Ozdemir, D; Unsaldi, E

    2006-02-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the specific anatomical features of the neurocranium of the skull of the dog, cat, badger, marten and otter. Twenty-five animals (five from each species) were used without sexual distinction. The neurocranium consists of os occipitale, os sphenoidale, os pterygoideum, os ethmoidale, vomer, os temporale, os parietale and os frontale. The processus paracondylaris is projected ventrally in the cat, dog, marten and badger, and caudally in the otter. Two foramina were found laterally on each side of the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the otter, and one foramen was found near the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the badger. Foramen was not seen in other species. Paired ossa parietalia joined each other at the midline, forming the sutura sagittalis in the badger, dog, otter and cat while it was separated by the linea temporalis in the marten. The os frontale was small in otters, narrow and long in martens, and quite wide in cats and dogs. The bulla tympanica was rounded in the marten, dog, cat and badger, dorsoventral compressed in otter, and it was very large in all species examined. These observations represented interspecies differences in the neurocranium of marten, otter, badger, cat and dog.

  3. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  4. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  5. Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  6. CORYPHODONTIDS ( MAMMALIA: PANTODONTA ) FROM THE ERLIAN BASIN OF NEI MONGOL, CHINA, AND THEIR BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS%内蒙古二连盆地冠齿兽科(哺乳纲:全齿目)化石及其生物地层学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛方园; 王元青

    2012-01-01

    描述了在内蒙古二连盆地新采集的保存较完好的冠齿兽类化石.基于牙齿特征的比较认为:Eudinoceras kholobolchiensis Osborn & Granger,1931、E.obailiensis Gabunia,1961、Metacoryphodon luminis Chow & Qi,1982和M.?minor Qi,1987的个体大小、上前臼齿前尖V形脊角度、原尖前后棱发育程度、上下臼齿脊形化程度和尖脊形状及位置等特征与E.mongoliensis Osborn,1924一致,应视为后者的次主观异名;M.xintaiensis Chow & Qi,1982应归入Eudinoceras属,变更为E.xintaiensis;Metacoryphodon为无效命名,应予废除.厘定后的Eudinoceras属共含有6个有效种:E.zhichengensis Lei et al.,1987、E.youngi Xu,1980、E.xintaiensis Chow & Qi,1982、E.mongoliensis Osborn,1924、E.crassum Tong & Tang,1977和E.sishuiensis Wang,1994.修订了Eudinoceras属和E.mongoliensis种的齿列特征.将二连盆地冠齿兽类化石的产出层位对应至该盆地重新厘定的地层框架中,E.mongoliensis集中在阿山头组,能确定的最早出现层位为阿山头组底部的AS-1层,最晚出现层位为阿山头组上部的AS-5层,其时代为早始新世中期,约为53~49 Ma.%Coryphodontids ( Mammalia: Pantodonta) , as the most geographically widespread major group of extinct large herbivorous mammals, are among the most useful mammalian index fossils for drawing stratigraphic correlations in North America (Lucas, 1984, 1998; Uhen and Gin-gerich, 1995). In Asia, however, confusion regarding their taxonomy and misinterpretations of the lithostratigraphy of the fossil-bearing units have made it difficult to use coryphodontids for this purpose. Given improved understanding of intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism within this highly variable taxon (Uhen and Gingerich, 1995; McGee, 2001, 2002; McGee and Turnbull, 2010), and the availability of newly clarified lithostratigraphic correlations (Meng,1990; Meng et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2010)and a recently established framework for Asian mammalian

  7. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ). All patients were assessed for risk of future violence utilizing a structured professional judgment model: the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scheme. After a follow-up period of 5.6 years, recidivism outcome were obtained from the Danish National Crime...... predictive of violent recidivism compared to static items. In sum, the findings support the use of structured professional judgment models of risk assessment and in particular the HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme. Findings regarding the importance of the (clinical) structured final risk judgment......International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...

  8. Traditional Assessment versus Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Dana

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a teacher can use one type of assessment to evaluate students' abilities fairly. The question is whether or not alternative assessment strategies are necessary to meet students' individual needs. The research, conducted with 28 fifth-grade students, compared their traditional and alternative…

  9. DIGITAL ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard; Petersen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with The Danish eGOVERNMENT strategy 2011-2015 digital assessment and exam should be implemented at all Danish universities by the end of 2013. University of Southern Denmark (SDU) decided to start the implementation in May 2010.By the exam term of January 2013, the implementation proved successful, and close to completion. The majority of assessments at all of the 5 faculties and 5 campuses were digital, and students had handed in a total of 17.021 digital assessments.On the ba...

  10. Integrated assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N.; Amann, M.; Fischer, G.

    1995-12-31

    Integrated assessment aims to develop a framework for the analysis of mitigation and adaption strategies to deal with the impacts of global change. It is a recent, rapidly evolving field, IIASA has been an active contributor to its development through in-house research as well as collaborative activities. The latter includes a series of influential conferences on economic aspects and integrated assessment of climate change, as well as the Energy Modeling Forum on integrated assessment models comparison, organized jointly with Stanford University. Various impacts including those of energy use are discussed. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Assessing Believability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Karakovskiy, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We discuss what it means for a non-player character (NPC) to be believable or human-like, and how we can accurately assess believability. We argue that participatory observation, where the human assessing believability takes part in the game, is prone to distortion effects. For many games, a fairer...... (or at least complementary) assessment might be made by an external observer that does not participate in the game, through comparing and ranking the performance of human and non-human agents playing a game. This assessment philosophy was embodied in the Turing Test Track of the recent Mario AI...... Championship, where non-expert bystanders evaluated the human-likeness of several agents and humans playing a version of Super Mario Bros. We analyze the results of this competition. Finally, we discuss the possibilities for forming models of believability and of maximizing believability through adjusting game...

  12. Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    The article deals with the calculation of risks, as applied to living near to a) a nuclear reactor or b) an industrial complex. The application of risk assessment techniques to the pressurised water reactor (PWR) is discussed with respect to: containment, frequencies of degraded core accidents, release of radioisotopes, consequences and risk to society, and uncertainties. The risk assessment for an industrial complex concerns the work of the Safety and Reliability Directorate for the chemical complex on Canvey Island. (U.K.).

  13. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fenhann, J.; Gorham, R.; Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  14. Psychobiographical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munter, P O

    1975-08-01

    Psychobiography, the analysis of public persons by competent clinicians, is discussed as a possible assessment technique. Its re-emergence has emanated from recent attempts to psychoanalyze President Nixon, Adolph Hitler, and Emily Dickinson. Its position in relation to traditional personality assessment is considered as well as major previous efforts. Psychobiography is now a part of the curriculum at several leading universities and suggestions are made for future work. Because clinically unsophisticated writers from other disciplines are currently pursuing the trend, clinical psychologists should become involved to provide society with a more accurate psychological perspective.

  15. Management Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management assessment. In "The Air Force ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) Selection System as a Predictor of Leadership" (Orlando V. Griego, George A. Morgan, Gary D. Geroy), 102 ROTC cadets rated their own leadership characteristics and were rated by subordinates; leaders and…

  16. ODONTOLOGICAL AND CRANIOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF THE RECENT HEDGEHOG NEOTETRACUS WITH HYLOMYS AND NEOHYLOMYS ( ERINACEIDAE, INSECTIVORA, MAMMALIA)%现生毛猬Neotetracus属与Hylomys及Neohylomys属齿系和颅骨的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burkart ENGESSER; 蒋学龙

    2011-01-01

    ,is,despite the scarce material at disposal,included in these comparisons as well.The comparisons yield distinct differences between these three hylomyines in almost each tooth and in some skull features,fully justifying the maintenance of the genera Neotetracus,Neohylomys and Hylomys.The differences found are also used to assess the evolutionary level of the three forms with respect to each other.The Hylomyinae are living today in a relatively small area in Southeast Asia and are represented by five genera with a total of six species.In the past,especially during the Middle and Late Miocene,this subfamily was spread over almost the whole northern hemisphere:from Asia to Europe and North Africa,and to North America.The Hylomyinae were also much more diverse than today,so far 9 fossil genera with 47 species having been described.Therefore it is justified to speak of the Hylomyinae as relict forms.To emphasize the shrinking of the distribution area of the Hylomyinae,the reasons for which are not yet understood,an abridged history of the subfamily is given.

  17. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  18. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  19. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  20. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Suidae (Mammalia) in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardjasasmita, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Fossil and extant suids from Indonesia, ranging in age from Pliocene? to Recent, are revised. All material is ascribed to the genus Sus, except two species found on Sulawesi (Celebes) which belong to Babyrousa and Celebochoerus, respectively. From the ten Recent species and subspecies recognised, on

  1. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  2. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  3. Morphology and environment in some fossil Hominoids and Pedetids (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senut, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Linking the environment to functional anatomy is not an easy exercise, especially when dealing with fossils, which are often fragmentary and represent animals that are extinct. A holistic approach permits us to fill the gaps in reconstructing the evolutionary patterns in fossil groups. Identifying the environment where animals lived can help to interpret some anatomical structures and, vice versa, the functional morphological pattern can help to refine some fossil environments. Two examples focusing on locomotor behaviours in fossil mammals are considered in this paper: the hominoids and the origins of hominid bipedalism and the springing adaptations in fossil rodents (Pedetidae) in connection with different habitats. In the first case, the limits of the chimp-based models and the necessity to take into account detailed environmental reconstructions will be addressed. The famous 'savannah hypothesis' is no longer tenable because the palaeontological data support a more vegetated environment for the origins of bipedal hominids. Data from the environment will be considered. The earliest putative hominid fossils which preserve skeletal remains of the locomotor apparatus show mixed adaptations to terrestrial bipedalism and arboreal activities. The second example focuses on the variation in springing adaptations in Pedetidae in the Lower Miocene of East Africa and Southern Africa. In the East, the sites where Pedetidae were preserved were mainly forested, whereas in the South the region was more open and drier, with extensive grassy patches. In the first case, pedetids were robust and heavy jumpers, whereas in the South they were smaller, their skeleton more gracile and their springing was lighter. During the desertification of the southern part of Africa, the large pedetid species became extinct, but a smaller species developed. In the case of primates, as in the case of rodents, the skeletal morphology was adapted to its environment.

  4. Heterochromatin heterogeneity and chromosome heteromorphism in Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumi Hatanaka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Few cytogenetic studies have been conducted on South American canids. Cerdocyon thous is a representative of the Canidae, living in the forests, open wooded areas and savannahs of South America. Compared to other canid species, C. thous has a large proportion of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes as well as a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin, especially along the short arm of submetacentric chromosomes. In the present study, different chromosome banding methods were used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of the large heterochromatic segments and to propose an organizational model for this segment that occupies the entire short arm of most two-armed chromosomes. Furthermore, chromosome heteromorphism related to the short arm of large submetacentric chromosome corresponding to no. 3 in male and female karyotypes is described.Os estudos citogenéticos em canídeos sul-americanos, de uma forma geral, são raros. Cerdocyon thous é um representante da família Canidae e habita florestas, matas abertas e savanas da américa do Sul. O seu cariótipo é formado por uma grande proporção de cromossomos metacêntricos e submetacêntricos quando comparado com outras espécies desta família e possui também uma grande quantidade de heterocromatina constitutiva, especialmente ao longo do braço curto dos cromossomos submetacêntricos. No presente estudo, diferentes métodos de bandamentos cromossômicos permitiram verificar o caráter heterogêneo dos grandes segmentos heterocromáticos e a proposição de um modelo de organização deste segmento que ocupa todo o braço curto da maioria dos cromossomos de dois braços. Além disso, é descrito um heteromorfismo cromossômico relacionado ao braço curto de um grande cromossomo submetacêntrico, equivalente ao no. 3 do cariótipo de animais de ambos os sexos.

  5. Proboscidea (Mammalia) from the Upper Miocene of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, A.V.; Montoya, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fossil Proboscidea from the Spanish Turolian (Upper Miocene) sites of Crevillente 2 (MN11) and Crevillente 15 and 16 (MN12) are described. The mastodont from Crevillente 2 is assigned to Tetralophodon cf. longirostris ‘grandincisivoid form’, recognised for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula

  6. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  7. Assessing Assessment Texts: Where Is Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Helenrose; Barnes, Nicole; Dacey, Charity; Gillis, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a content analysis of 27 assessment textbooks to determine how assessment planning was framed in texts for preservice teachers. We identified eight assessment planning themes: alignment, assessment purpose and types, reliability and validity, writing goals and objectives, planning specific assessments, unpacking, overall assessment…

  8. Alternative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Porto Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O ensino/aprendizagem tem mudado nas últimas três décadas e também a avaliação que não deve ser vista apenas como uma forma de testar os alunos e promovê-los, mas ajudá-los a se envolver no processo de aprendizagem, e que forneça ao professor informações para o planejamento de instrução e práticas pedagógicas. É um diagnóstico dos pontos fortes e fracos do aluno que direciona a sala de aula para a avaliação através de atividades reunidas em portfólio, incluindo todas as ações do processo ensino/ aprendizagem, visando atender às necessidades dos domínios cognitivos, afetivos e psicomotores do aluno, definir objetivos, planejamento e instrução, o envolvimento do aprendiz em sua aprendizagem e a avaliação, desconstruindo, construindo e reconstruindo o seu conhecimento.The teaching/learning has changed over the past three decades and assessment musn´t be seen as just a means of testing learners´ achievement and promotion. This type of evaluation helps students get more involved in their learning and provides teachers with useful information as the basis for instructional plans and pedagogical practices. It is a way of diagnosing the students´ strengths and weaknesses so that class procedures are directed to include activities in which students measurable outcomes are collected in a portfolio that include all types of learning/assessment procedures aiming to match the students´ cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains, to define objectives, planning, instruction and active participation in the process, deconstructing, constructing and reconstructing knowledge.

  9. Responsive Assessment: Assessing Student Nurses' Clinical Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Mary

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 300 nursing students, 155 nurse practitioners, and 80 assessors tested a model of responsive assessment that includes identification of learning needs and potential, assignment to suitable placements, continuous assessment of clinical practice and patient care, and alignment of teaching and assessment with patient needs and…

  10. Assessment: A Driving Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that educational assessment drives the curriculum. Thus, assessment is very important in contemplating reform in science education. Assessment should be an integral part of the instructional process, utilizing diagnostic testing, monitoring, and summative evaluations. (PR)

  11. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  12. Patient Assessment File (PAF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Patient Assessment File (PAF) database compiles the results of the Patient Assessment Instrument (PAI) questionnaire filled out for intermediate care Veterans...

  13. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  14. Implementing Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mauree Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Portfolio assessment is a valuable form of authentic assessment. Once early childhood educators understand the purposes of appropriate assessment, they can use portfolios to scaffold individual children's learning. This article discusses the purposes of portfolio assessment and describes the different benefits it provide for children, families,…

  15. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  16. Sustainable Assessment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boud, David; Soler, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable assessment has been proposed as an idea that focused on the contribution of assessment to learning beyond the timescale of a given course. It was identified as an assessment that meets the needs of the present in terms of the demands of formative and summative assessment, but which also prepares students to meet their own future…

  17. Collaborative Assessment: Fostering Ownership in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the results of a study conducted to explore the effects of collaborative assessment. Forty college students studying at the English Language Teaching Department participated in the study. During the study the participants were briefed about the principles and practices of collaborative and self-assessment and were given the…

  18. Developmental Assessment. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    Developmental assessment is the process of monitoring a student's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning. The unique feature of developmental assessment is its use of a progress map. The progress map, or continuum, describes the development in an area of learning and so…

  19. First larval record of Mesocestoides in carnivora of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Pérez Rivero, Alfredo; Santana Morales, María A; Kabdur, Alicia; González, Ana C; Quispe Ricalde, M Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

    2007-02-01

    Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. were recovered in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in 2004 from the peritoneal cavities of 2 domestic dogs and a domestic cat. Morphological and molecular identification were carried out. Mesocestoides litteratus from Vulpes vulpes was sequenced for the first time using the ITS-2 region (18S rDNA), and was included in the phylogenetic analysis to compare the sequence variability among these and other Mesocestoides spp. belonging to different carnivores. Phylogenetic studies were carried out based on maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analysis. The results showed the relationships between these and other previously published Mesocestoides species. Moreover, it is demonstrated that Mesocestoides sp. from Tenerife comprises a previously unreported sequence. This is the first larval record of Mesocestoides sp. in domestic animals from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

  20. Summer diet composition of the Common Leopard Panthera pardus (Carnivora: Felidae in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achyut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Common Leopard Panthera pardus is one of the most widely distributed of all big cats. It is a threatened species throughout its range due to the degradation of natural habitat, poaching and persecution as a killer of humans and livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of the Common Leopard diet in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR of Nepal. Among prey species Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak were observed most frequently (18% in leopard scats, while Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur were observed less frequently (6%.

  1. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

    2010-07-01

    The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and understanding the historical events surrounding the origin of the members of this lineage.

  2. Feeding ecology and morphology of the upper canines in bears (carnivora: Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-07-01

    The morphology and mechanical strength of the upper canines in all eight extant species of ursids is analyzed, and the findings are discussed in relation to feeding ecology. Ursids have proportionally smaller canines than other large carnivores with a specialized feeding ecology, such as large felids, and the upper canine morphology is both canid-like and felid-like. The giant panda is the most divergent species, and its short, blunt, and cone-like canines appear well adapted for tearing into bamboo. The almost equally herbivorous spectacled bear has a less derived canine morphology. The large canines of the sun bear are divergent from other ursine ursids, and may be an adaptation for tearing open tree trunks in search of insects. Discriminant Analysis is successful in separating ursid species on the basis of canine morphology, but the canines of ursine ursids, and also of the spectacled bear, show greater resemblance among the species than the marked differences in feeding ecology would suggest. This could be in part due to a short evolutionary history, and in part due to canines not having been subjected to much evolutionary selection as has been the case among other large carnivores, such as large felids. Ursids are probably evolutionarily and ecologically successful due to physical size and strength rather than a derived craniodental anatomy.

  3. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  4. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported for many species ranging from voles to humans. The range size hypothesis predicts that sex differences in spatial ability will only occur in species in which the mating system selects for differential range size. Consistent with this prediction, we observed sex differences in spatial ability in giant pandas, a promiscuous species in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed ...

  5. Inferring palaeoecology in extinct tremarctine bears (Carnivora, Ursidae) using geometric morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Figueirido, Borja; Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the ecomorphological patterns of extinct tremarctine bears in South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). These patterns are used to derive palaeoautoecological inferences in extinct tremarctines and their palaeosinecological relationships within Plio-Pleistocene ecosystems. We used geometric morphometrics of landmark data to recover the shape of the craniomandibular skeleton of bears. The results reveal different ecomorphological specialization...

  6. A New species of Agriarctos (Ailuropodinae, Ursidae, Carnivora in the locality of Nombrevilla 2 (Zaragoza, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study documents a new primitive ursid species, Agriarctosbeatrix from the Spanish locality of Nombrevilla 2 (Calatayud-Daroca basin, province of Zaragoza. The new fossils of Nombrevilla 2 are closely related to those of A. depereti of Soblay (France, Late vallesian, but in the Spanish form the shared derived characters are more primitive. Agriarctos beatrix is the oldest occurrence of a member of the subfamily Ailuropodinae in the fossil record.Una nueva especie de úrsido primitivo, Agriarctos beatrix procedente de la localidad de Nombrevilla 2 (Zaragoza, cuenca de Calatayud-Daroca es descrita en este trabajo. Los nuevos fósiles de Nombrevilla 2 se relacionan estrechamente con Agriarctos depereti de la localidad de Soblay (Vallesiense superior, Francia, pero en la forma española los caracteres derivados compartidos son más primitivos. Agriarctos beatrix es la primera aparición conocida hasta el presente de un miembro de la subfamilia Ailuropodinae en el registro fossil.

  7. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol.

  8. Habitat features influencing jaguar Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) occupancy in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Arce, Stephanny; Guilder, James; Salom-Pérez, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Habitat characteristics and human activities are known to play a major role in the occupancy of jaguars Panthera onca across their range, however the key variables influencing jaguar distribution in Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica, have yet to be identified. This study evaluated jaguar occupancy in Tortuguero National Park and the surrounding area. Jaguar detection/non-detection data was collected using digital camera traps distributed within the boundaries of the protected area. Local community members were also interviewed to determine jaguar occurrence in the Park's buffer zone. Occupancy models were then applied to identify the habitat characteristics that may better explain jaguar distribution across the study area. From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 4,339 camera trap days were used to identify 18 individual jaguars inside the protected area; 17 of these jaguars were exclusively detected within the coastal habitat, whilst the remaining individual was detected solely within the interior of the Park. Interviewees reported 61 occasions of jaguar presence inside the buffer zone, between 1995 and 2013, with 80% of these described by the communities of Lomas de Sierpe, Barra de Parismina and La Aurora. These communities also reported the highest levels of livestock predation by jaguars (85% of attacks). In the study area, jaguar occurrence was positively correlated with the seasonal presence of nesting green turtles Chelonia mydas, and negatively correlated with distance to the Park boundary. Our findings suggested that the current occupancy of the jaguar in the study area may be a response to: 1) the vast availability of prey (marine turtles) on Tortuguero beach, 2) the decline of its primary prey species as a result of illegal hunting inside the Park, and 3) the increase in anthropogenic pressures in the Park boundaries.

  9. Dental Anomalies in Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae collected in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the occurrence of dental anomalies in a specimen of Lontra longicaudis from the extreme south of Brazil. The specimen examined (MCNU-1584 underwent radiographic and macroscopic analysis of the dental number, shape and structure. Anomalies were observed in the alveoli of the right PM1 and PM2, which were obstructed by bone tissue and tooth loss was possibly due to trauma or pathogenesis. The presence of a supernumerary tooth, not erupted, inclined and incisiform, was also observed on the midline of the palate. Its position and null functionality suggest that it originated because of the hyper development of the dental lamina.

  10. Dental Anomalies in Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) collected in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters; Eduardo de Lima Coelhoff; Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito Vasconcelos; Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira Roth; Alexandre Uarth Christoff

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of dental anomalies in a specimen of Lontra longicaudis from the extreme south of Brazil. The specimen examined (MCNU-1584) underwent radiographic and macroscopic analysis of the dental number, shape and structure. Anomalies were observed in the alveoli of the right PM1 and PM2, which were obstructed by bone tissue and tooth loss was possibly due to trauma or pathogenesis. The presence of a supernumerary tooth, not erupted, inclined and incisiform, was also...

  11. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  12. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  13. Ancylostoma genettae, A. protelesis, A. somaliense: three new species from wild Carnivora in the Somali Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, G

    1995-12-01

    Ancylostoma braziliense was found in Somalia in Acinonyx jubatus, Canis familiaris, C. mesomelas, Crocuta crocuta, Felis catus, F. libyca, Genetta genetta, Otocyon megalotis, Proteles cristatus; A. caninum in A. jubatus, C. familiaris, C. mesomelas, C. crocuta; A. duodenale in C. crocuta; A. iperodontatum in Lynx caracal; A. paraduodenale in Felis serval; A. tubaeforme in A. jubatus, F. catus, F. libyca; Arthrocephalus gambiense in Ichneumia albicauda; Uncinaria parvibursata in Mellivora capensis. In addition, three new species of Ancylostoma were collected: A. genettae in Genetta genetta, A. protelesis in Proteles cristatus, A. somaliense in Canis mesomelas. These new species are described and illustrated.

  14. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Resende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I period prior to the enrichment, II period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.

  15. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The result...

  16. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13–11, 8–7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13–11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8–7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13–11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  17. Neogene tectonics and climate forcing of carnivora dispersals between Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, T.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.

    2015-08-01

    Exchange records of terrestrial mammals can be combined with available tectonic and climatic documents to evaluate major biological and environmental events. Previous studies identified four carnivoran dispersals between Eurasia and North America in the Neogene, namely, at ∼ 20, 13-11, 8-7, and ∼ 4 Ma. In order to evaluate driving mechanism of these biological events, we collected, compared and analyzed a large number of published records. The results indicate that the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at ∼ 20 Ma was probably caused by intense tectonic movements in Asia. During 13-11 Ma, global cooling possibly drove the mammal exchanges between Eurasia and North America. By comparison, the carnivoran dispersal from Eurasia to North America at 8-7 Ma was probably caused by the combination of global cooling and tectonic movements of the Tibetan Plateau. Similar to during 13-11 Ma, the carnivoran exchanges between Eurasia and North America at ∼ 4 Ma were possibly driven by global cooling.

  18. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients.

  19. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  20. Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miranda C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods. There were surveyed 720 canines belonging to 57 communities. Results. The results showed that 84% of the dogs were infested with at least one species of ectoparasite. Dogs from lowlands showed a higher percentage of parasitism and a greater biodiversity of parasites than dogs from highlands. There were found seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice, and one specie of botfly. The ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale and the flea Ctenocephalides felis were widespread; however Ixodes boliviensis and Pulex simulans showed a much narrower geographic distribution and they were found only in dogs from highlands. The flea species Rhopalopsyllus cacicus and the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found for the first time in panamanian dogs. Conclusions. The environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts. This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors.

  1. ANATOMY OF BONE AND MUSCLE OF SCAPULA AND ARM OF Chrysocyon Brachyurus (CARNIVORA, CANIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus - Illiger, 1815, is the largest canid of South America     and its found in the central region of the continent, preferably in open field biomes. It may reach between 20 and 33 kg and up to 125 cm. It is under threat of extinction. Anatomical knowledge is  of great importance to the completion of information about wild species and clinical, surgical, and conservationist implications. This study aimed to describe the bones and the bone accidents of the cingulate forelimb of brachial region and their respective muscles in maned wolf, through dissection procedures of animals preserved in 10% formalin solution. The animals belong to the didactic collection of the Laboratory of Education and Research on Wild Animals of UFU, and are the result of roadkill. The bones are scapula and humerus. There was no clavicula. The muscles are: M. deltoideus; M. supraspinatus; M. infraspinatus; M. teres major; M. teres minor; M. triceps brachii caput: laterale, accessorium, longum and mediale; M. anconeus; M. biceps; M. subscapularis; M.  coracobrachialis; M. tensor fasciae antebrachii; M. brachial. The scapula and arm have specific accidents; however, they are similar to domestic dogs. The humerus is straight. The muscles have some peculiarities. Keywords: anatomy; canids; maned wolf; muscles; osteology.

  2. Occurrence (new record of maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (Carnivora, Canidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.

  3. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger (Carnivora, Canidae in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.

  4. Reproductive Biology Including Evidence for Superfetation in the European Badger Meles meles (Carnivora: Mustelidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A L Corner

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the European badger (Meles meles is of wide interest because it is one of the few mammal species that show delayed implantation and one of only five which are suggested to show superfetation as a reproductive strategy. This study aimed to describe the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers with a view to increasing our understanding of the process of delayed implantation and superfetation. We carried out a detailed histological examination of the reproductive tract of 264 female badgers taken from sites across 20 of the 26 counties in the Republic of Ireland. The key results show evidence of multiple blastocysts at different stages of development present simultaneously in the same female, supporting the view that superfetation is relatively common in this population of badgers. In addition we present strong evidence that the breeding rate in Irish badgers is limited by failure to conceive, rather than failure at any other stages of the breeding cycle. We show few effects of age on breeding success, suggesting no breeding suppression by adult females in this population. The study sheds new light on this unusual breeding strategy of delayed implantation and superfetation, and highlights a number of significant differences between the reproductive biology of female Irish badgers and those of Great Britain and Swedish populations.

  5. New Information About The Behavior Of Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae By Radio-Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano-Oliveira E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira, Roberto Fusco, Etiene A. V. Dos Santos, Emygdio L. A. CDuring the development of a study about a community of carnivorous mammals, an otter was captured and equiped with a radio transmitter in an area of mangrove in the south coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. This study verified that: 1 - the animal used at least three burrows without communication between them. 2 – the most used burrow was at a distance of 2,6 km from the capture place; 3 - this individual usually moved between two islands that were separated by an estuary whose medium width was of approximately 1 km; 4 – it spent a long period on a small island of approximately 0,06 Km2 where a muddy substratum prevailed, not allowing the construction of a burrow. In spite of the little time that the otter stayed with the radio-transmitter, the data obtained are of relevant importance as they show an unknown activity pattern, besides showing in a short period some patterns of burrow use. Even though the otter removed its radio-collar, it didn’t cause any damage to the individual and it allowed the registration of behaviour patterns that had not been described before. Based upon the radio-transmitter as adapted, new perspectives open up for the effective study of this species, increasing the possibilities of obtaining data about activity patterns and home range for Lontra longicaudis.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... and toxicity. Whereas Risk Assessment (RA) aims to identify absolute risks, LCA assess potential or relative impacts. LCA is readily applicable to nanotechnologies and several studies have been carried out, but LCA faces large problems when addressing toxic impacts of nanomaterials emitted during the life...... cycle. The models for assessing toxic impacts in LCA are to a large extent based on those developed for RA, e.g. EUSES, and require basic information about the inherent properties of the emissions like solubility, LogKow,ED50 etc. Additionally, it is a prerequisite to know how to characterize...

  7. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  8. Assessing the assessment in emergency care training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E W Dankbaar

    Full Text Available Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills.Residents were assessed at the end of a 2-week emergency course; a subgroup was videotaped. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess the validity and inter-rater reliability of the assessment instrument, which included a checklist, a 9-item competency scale and a global performance scale.A group of 144 residents and 12 raters participated in the study; 22 residents were videotaped and re-assessed by 8 raters. The checklists showed limited validity and poor inter-rater reliability for the dimensions "correct" and "timely" (ICC = .30 and.39 resp.. The competency scale had good construct validity, consisting of a clinical and a communication subscale. The internal consistency of the (subscales was high (α = .93/.91/.86. The inter-rater reliability was moderate for the clinical competency subscale (.49 and the global performance scale (.50, but poor for the communication subscale (.27. A generalizability study showed that for a reliable assessment 5-13 raters are needed when using checklists, and four when using the clinical competency scale or the global performance scale.This study shows poor validity and reliability for assessing emergency skills with checklists but good validity and moderate reliability with clinical competency or global performance scales. Involving more raters can improve the reliability substantially. Recommendations are made to improve this high stakes skill assessment.

  9. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  10. National Assessment Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Assessment Database stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and other watershed plans designed to...

  11. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  12. Advocacy and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A highly structured treatment is presented of adversarial systems as they apply to technology assessment. One approach to the problem of adequate criteria of assessment focuses upon the internal operations of assessment entities; operations include problem perception, problem formulation, selection, utilization, determination, and evaluation. Potential contributions of advocacy as a mode of inquiry in technology are discussed; advocacy is evaluated by representative sets of criteria of adequate assessment which include participant criteria, perspectives criteria, situations criteria, base values criteria, and strategies criteria.

  13. DEVELOPING ASSESSMENT FOR SPEAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Yenny Rahmawati; Ertin Ertin

    2015-01-01

    Recently there have been debates on assessing students’ performances on speaking since the cultural and subjective issues embedded in bringing awareness on how teachers construct their speaking assessment. The main focus of this paper is a way to design assessment for speaking suitable for the Indonesian context at a university level. This paper stresses the criteria of effective assessment proposed by Brown and Abeywicrama which consists of a specific criterion, an appropriate task, a maximu...

  14. Assessment of Students Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Stachowicz, Marian S.

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation and assessment of engineering programmes is a big issue, and there exist many concepts and methods. This paper deals with the assessment methods which can be used when assessing the knowledge, skills and competences developed in projects using PBL (problem based and project organized....... The conclusion is that process as well as product has to be assessed in a way which evaluates all aspects of students’ learning outcomes....

  15. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  16. Authentic Assessment in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Leadership, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the teacher-developed California Assessment Program (CAP) writing measure, designed to support California's reform curriculum and based on matrix sampling techniques. This program will be supplemented by literature and mathematics assessments. The greatest challenge is designing an assessment to match the state's new history and social…

  17. Is Psychodiagnostic Assessment Humanistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Alan

    1978-01-01

    Humanistic psychologists tend to describe psychodiagnostic assessment as nonhumanistic. They argue that assessment is reductionistic and artificial, ignores the examiner-patient relationship, judges people, and is overly intellectual. These concerns are then addressed from a pro-assessment perspective. (EVH)

  18. Defense Research Enterprise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    MEMORANDUM FOR: SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Final Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Research Enterprise Assessment The...attached report contains the findings and recommendations of the Defense Science Board (DSB) Study on Defense Research Enterprise Assessment. The 2015...National Defense Authorization Act directed the Secretary of Defense to task the DSB to conduct an assessment of the organization, missions, authorities

  19. Authentic Assessment, Professional's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Concetta Doti

    Authentic assessment is the process of gathering evidence and documenting student learning and growth in an authentic context. Authentic assessment can do a better job than more traditional forms of assessment in informing educators and parents about a student's real achievement. The first chapter of this book presents an overview of authentic…

  20. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  1. DEVELOPING ASSESSMENT FOR SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rahmawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been debates on assessing students’ performances on speaking since the cultural and subjective issues embedded in bringing awareness on how teachers construct their speaking assessment. The main focus of this paper is a way to design assessment for speaking suitable for the Indonesian context at a university level. This paper stresses the criteria of effective assessment proposed by Brown and Abeywicrama which consists of a specific criterion, an appropriate task, a maximum output and practical and a reliable scoring procedure. It is recommended that teachers develop their speaking assessment which is appropriate and contextual.

  2. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  3. Sustainability assessment and complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.

  4. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment. This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability assessments of

  5. Integrated impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.L.; Rossini, F.A.

    1981-12-01

    Impact assessment studies the effects on society of proposed projects, programs, or policies. It is perhaps best known in the forms of technology assessment and environmental-impact assessment. The institutionalization of impact assessment, the principal features of impact assessment and its performance are discussed here, keynoting interdisciplinarity as a critical factor. Substantial progress in performance has occurred over the past decade, especially in environmental and social analyses, pointing to some critical issues for the decade ahead. Within studies, integration across disciplinary components, between contributions from professionals and parties-at-interest, and between producers and users must be improved. Across studies, practitioners of impact assessment need to intercommunicate to advance the state of their art. 38 references.

  6. Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani HABIB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on the concept of assessment as an essential pedagogical practice for the improvement of the teaching-learning process. Particularly, it stresses the strategies and the techniques that should be used in assessing reading comprehension with reference to EFL classrooms. It describes the kinds of tasks that actually reveal students’ reading comprehension abilities and needs. Moreover, this paper aims to illustrate the types and the advantages of assessment for both teachers and learners. More importantly, this study tries to bring equitable evidence of how reading comprehension can be adequately assessed. The findings showed that assessment of reading comprehension is central to English language teaching as it provides teachers with essential information about students’ weaknesses, needs, obstacles, and deficits. Thus, teachers can implement the appropriate techniques and use the assessment results to amend their classroom instruction and enhance the learning abilities.

  7. Wound Assessment: Made Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Ousey, Karen; Cook, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    A structured approach to wound assessment is required to maintain a good standard of care. This involves a thorough patient assessment, which should be carried out by skilled and competent practitioners, adhering to local and national guidelines (Harding et al, 2008). Inappropriate or inaccurate assessment can lead to delayed wound healing, pain, increased risk of infection, inappropriate use of wound dressings and a reduction in the quality of life for patients.

  8. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  9. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  10. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...... competency, and communication competency) as well as assessment criteria for a number of skills relevant to these subcompetencies. These assessment criteria, it is argued, largely resonate with existing literature and they provide a detailed glimpse into how assessment of innovation competency could...

  11. Assessment of ketamine uropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S. Yang

    2015-09-01

    Using the standardized tools to assess patients with ketamine abuse, patients characteristics can be clarified and different therapeutic strategies for ketamine uropathy can be compared in the future.

  12. The Assessment Cycle: A Model for Learning through Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances a model describing how peer assessment supports self-assessment. Although prior research demonstrates that peer assessment promotes self-assessment, the connection between these two activities is underspecified. This model, the assessment cycle, draws from theories of self-assessment to elaborate how learning takes place…

  13. Assessment of Troubled Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Thomas, Katherine H.

    1997-01-01

    Tests the utility of four standardized instruments used in assessing 105 families that sought services in a juvenile corrections setting for their teenage children. Results demonstrate that parents and adolescents can complete standardized assessment instruments and that the information provided can help in understanding distressed families. (RJM)

  14. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  15. Discourse and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn; May, Lynette

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the increase in discourse-based studies of oral proficiency assessment techniques. Discusses research carried out on a number of factors in the assessment setting, including the role of interlocutor, candidate, and rater, and the impact of tasks, task performance conditions, and rating criteria. (Author/VWL)

  16. Hydration Assessment of Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Although there is no scientific consensus for 1 ) howbest to assess the hydration status of athletes, 2)what criteria to use as acceptable outcome measurements, or 3) the best time to apply practical assessment methods, there are methods that can be used toprovide athletes with useful feedback about their hydration status

  17. Matriculation Assessment Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; Halliday, Karen

    Assessment testing in California's community colleges (CCC) helps to identify entering students' goals and skills level and to ensure that the students are properly advised of appropriate courses and programs. The California Education Code requires that all assessment instruments be approved by the Office of the Chancellor of the California…

  18. Review of Assessment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrui; De Luca, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews 37 empirical studies, selected from 363 articles and 20 journals, on assessment feedback published between 2000 and 2011. The reviewed articles, many of which came out of studies in the UK and Australia, reflect the most current issues and developments in the area of assessing disciplinary writing. The article aims to outline…

  19. Computerized Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the introduction of a computerized peer assessment system as part of an undergraduate module in computer studies in the United Kingdom. Analyzes student responses to modification of the tutor-student relationship to a student-student relationship for assessment purposes, discusses plagiarism and the Web, and investigates effects on…

  20. Comprehensive neurotoxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulig, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in terms of both the conceptualization of neurotoxicity assessment strategies as well as in the development of behavioral techniques for evaluating neurotoxic exposures. A tiered approach, for example, has been advocated as an assessment strategy in

  1. Classroom Assessment in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  2. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  3. New Assessments, New Rigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan Herman; Robert Linn

    2014-01-01

    Researching. Synthesizing. Reasoning with evidence. The PARCC and Smarter Balanced assessments are clearly setting their sights on complex thinking skills. Researchers Joan Herman and Robert Linn look at the new assessments to see how they stack up against Norman Webb's depth of knowledge framework as well as against current state tests. The…

  4. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  5. Formative Assessment in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  6. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  7. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  8. Competencies and Their Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  9. Assessing Homeschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    During a period spanning more than 2 decades, the author assessed approximately 2,000 school-age students, about 50 of whom were educated entirely at home. In many respects, the data gathering activities were similar regardless of the settings involved, but the uniqueness of homeschooling sometimes made assessment adaptations necessary in order…

  10. Competencies, skills and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging, to a...

  11. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  12. SPAT 15 - Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, J.C. (Coordinator)

    1998-08-01

    In the Spring of 1997, the Department of Energy's Department Standards Committee (DSC) convened a Standards Process Action Team (SPAT-15) to evaluate assessment processes within the DOE complex. If time and resources permitted, the team was also to evaluate assessment processes used by private industry conducting similar work and activities. The specific task statement was as follows: "Define the attributes of assessment programs that effectively support organizational feedback and improvement of safety systems at all the different levels of contractor and Department organizations." The team gathered information on existing assessment programs through surveys and presentations by representatives from national laboratories, processing facilities, and remediation sites. Examples of assessment programs described in this report encompass site-wide, individual facility, and task level applications within the DOE compIex

  13. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. The origin of the lower fourth molar in canids, inferred by individual variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Asahara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae, individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. Methods Occlusal view projected area of lower molars was determined from 740 mandibles obtained from Canis latrans, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus museum specimens. For each molar, relative sizes of molars (M2/M1 and M3/M1 scores affected by inhibition/activation dynamics during development, were compared between individuals with and without supernumerary molar (M4. Results Possession of a supernumerary molar was associated with significantly larger M2/M1 score in Canis latrans, M3/M1 score in Nyctereutes procyonoides, and M2/M1 and M3/M1 scores in Urocyon cinereoargenteus compared to individuals of these species that lacked supernumerary molars. Discussion We propose that, in canids, the supernumerary fourth molar is attributable to reduced inhibition and greater activation during molar development. In the bat-eared fox, altered inhibition and activation dynamics of dental development during omnivorous-insectivorous adaptation may be a contributing factor in the origin of the lower fourth molar.

  16. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  17. Integrated assessment briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  18. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  19. Landslide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, P.; Messina, C.P.; Fonner, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Landslide risk can be assessed by evaluating geological conditions associated with past events. A sample of 2,4 16 slides from urban areas in West Virginia, each with 12 associated geological factors, has been analyzed using SAS computer methods. In addition, selected data have been normalized to account for areal distribution of rock formations, soil series, and slope percents. Final calculations yield landslide risk assessments of 1.50=high risk. The simplicity of the method provides for a rapid, initial assessment prior to financial investment. However, it does not replace on-site investigations, nor excuse poor construction. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. Reusable Assessment Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Web-based Test, Examination and Assessment system that can be used via the Internet. It is therefore suitable for both local and remote examination preparation as well as examination within a lab course (entry test. This solution is also intended for the use in lectures dealing with the design of complex digital control systems within the newly created European Master Degree Program “Remote Engineering”. Actual Learning Management Systems (LMS include mainly tools for authoring multiple choice or cloze questions and the like and use very simple assessment mechanisms. We also describe Web-based scenarios to assess higher levels of knowledge.

  1. Needs Assessment An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Altschuld, Dr James W W

    2009-01-01

    "The strength of the book is its thoroughness and how it actually takes the reader inside the experience, step-by-step, of conducting a Needs Assessment…" -Jody Bortone, Sacred Heart University This book focuses on how results have to be utilized in an organization for an assessment to be considered a success. The authors describe the three phases of needs assessment in depth along with subtleties in implementing them. Although this book can be used in a stand-alone fashion, it is part of the Needs Assessment KIT-five interrelated and sequenced books that take the reader through the n

  2. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  3. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient......, and aid in the development of an individualized and targeted preventive and management plan....

  4. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  5. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from...

  6. RCTA capstone assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Craig; Bodt, Barry; Childers, Marshal; Dean, Robert; Oh, Jean; DiBerardino, Chip; Keegan, Terence

    2015-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory's Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) is a program intended to change robots from tools that soldiers use into teammates with which soldiers can work. This requires the integration of fundamental and applied research in perception, artificial intelligence, and human-robot interaction. In October of 2014, the RCTA assessed progress towards integrating this research. This assessment was designed to evaluate the robot's performance when it used new capabilities to perform selected aspects of a mission. The assessed capabilities included the ability of the robot to: navigate semantically outdoors with respect to structures and landmarks, identify doors in the facades of buildings, and identify and track persons emerging from those doors. We present details of the mission-based vignettes that constituted the assessment, and evaluations of the robot's performance in these vignettes.

  7. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  8. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    . The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  9. Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  10. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  11. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  12. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  13. Information Management Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reviewed existing materials and relevant literature on needs assessments; with input from NALCC team, developed list of questions to ask stakeholders; interviewed...

  14. Assessing Career Indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipow, Samuel H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of career decision-making measures such as My Vocational Situation, Career Decision Scale, Career Factors Inventory, and others. Assesses Holland's contribution to the accurate measurement of career indecision. (SK)

  15. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing......, and in this light discuss how theories of learning based on cooperative learning can show the potential of the tool from both teacher and student perspectives....

  16. Thinking strategically about assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mutch, A

    2002-01-01

    Drawing upon the literature on strategy formulation in organisations, this paper argues for a focus on strategy as process. It relates this to the need to think strategically about assessment, a need engendered by resource pressures, developments in learning and the demands of external stakeholders. It is argued that in practice assessment strategies are often formed at the level of practice, but that this produces contradiction and confusion at higher levels. Such tensions cannot be managed ...

  17. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  18. CHRIS: Hazard Assessment Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-12

    CODE AIJ 91 HAZARD ASSESSMENT CODE-ABC KLMN 95 A. VENTING GAS FIRE -CODE AB 97 B. LIOUID FIRE-CODE AKL 97 C. WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS - CODE AK 99 D...The Hazard Calculation Codes for liquefied natural gas are: AB — venting gas fire . AC - gas dispersion, ADE — liquid fire, and ADFG...5.4). Spill Amount Wind Velocity Wind Direction Weather ppm tons knots Primary Code ABCKLMN Code AB - Venting Gas Fire Assessment

  19. Assessments of adolescent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1995-02-01

    I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.

  20. Portfolio Assessment and Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youb; Yazdian, Lisa Sensale

    2014-01-01

    Our article focuses on using portfolio assessment to craft quality teaching. Extant research literature on portfolio assessment suggests that the primary purpose of assessment is to serve learning, and portfolio assessments facilitate the process of making linkages among assessment, curriculum, and student learning (Asp, 2000; Bergeron, Wermuth,…

  1. Authentic Assessment: Testing in Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2004-01-01

    The new learning paradigm brings with it the need for a change in assessment practices as well. In this chapter, one of the assessment practices that is most consistent with this paradigm, authentic assessment, is discussed.

  2. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  3. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornstra, E; Notermans, S

    2001-05-21

    The production of safe food is being increasingly based on the use of risk analysis, and this process is now in use to establish national and international food safety objectives. It is also being used more frequently to guarantee that safety objectives are met and that such guarantees are achieved in a cost-effective manner. One part of the overall risk analysis procedure-risk assessment-is the scientific process in which the hazards and risk factors are identified, and the risk estimate or risk profile is determined. Risk assessment is an especially important tool for governments when food safety objectives have to be developed in the case of 'new' contaminants in known products or known contaminants causing trouble in 'new' products. Risk assessment is also an important approach for food companies (i) during product development, (ii) during (hygienic) process optimalization, and (iii) as an extension (validation) of the more qualitative HACCP-plan. This paper discusses these two different types of risk assessment, and uses probability distribution functions to assess the risks posed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in each case. Such approaches are essential elements of risk management, as they draw on all available information to derive accurate and realistic estimations of the risk posed. The paper also discusses the potential of scenario-analysis in simulating the impact of different or modified risk factors during the consideration of new or improved control measures.

  4. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  5. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  6. Teachers' Assessment Literacy and Washback Effect of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment literacy, as a term, is not well known in the educational field. This is unfortunate because teachers' assessment knowledge and competence can have an important influence on the way they teach and the way their students learn.  The relationship between the degree of assessment literacy a teacher has and the washback of this type of assessment is not clearly identified, especially in higher education context.  In view of this gap, this article attempts to examine important assessment literacy issues in relation to student learning: definition and importance of assessment literacy, assessment in higher education and assessment practices through reviewing related studies. The review pinpoints the harmful effects of being assessment illiterate for both teachers and students. Keywords: assessment, assessment literacy, student learning, washback

  7. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  8. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  9. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.

  10. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    . Practical implications – The integration of three different strategy assessment approaches has been made to obtain a holistic, multi-perspective reflection on strategy formulation. Such reflection is assumed to enable managers to proactively evaluate the potential outcome and performance of their chosen......Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...

  11. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  12. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  13. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  14. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Passos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.

  15. Nutritional Status Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  16. Acute pain assessment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clear, Elaine

    2016-05-01

    The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage” (IASP, 1997). This definition of pain emphasises that it is neither a sensory nor an emotional experience, but a combination of both. It is a subjective experience influenced by physical, psychological and environmental factors that is assessed from a biopsychosocial perspective. The gold standard in assessing pain however is always what the patient says it is.

  17. Assessing Knowledge in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strømgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko

    2013-01-01

    The Synopsis–Based Oral Examination (S–BOE) is described as deployed in international management education programs in a Danish business school. It assesses students in light of specified learning objectives through time–constrained presentation and dialogue. The format is premised on prior...... submission of a synopsis, although the synopsis has no bearing on grade assessment. Practitioner experience and student feedback suggest that students experience this type of examination as an important learning experience, in itself, in addition to testing course–related knowledge. We reviewed the current...

  18. Assessing together. Peer assessment from an interpersonal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, Anna Eva (Nanine) van

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focused on how the social context in which peer assessment takes place is related to the learning effects of peer assessment. We wanted to identify interpersonal beliefs in peer assessment settings that influence the peer assessment process on the one hand, but could also been seen

  19. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  20. Self Assessment for Socializing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Socializing is an integral part of human relations and auger well for the human development. Defined as "the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgments about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards", self assessment by its nature teaches students how to…

  1. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  2. Research in Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Since its inception in 1990, the Language Testing Research Centre (LTRC) at the University of Melbourne has earned an international reputation for its work in the areas of language assessment and testing as well as program evaluation. The mission of the centre is: (1) to carry out and promote research and development in language testing; (2) to…

  3. Appreciative Assessment: Inquire!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Mary-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Appreciative Inquiry builds on positive experiences to spark positive change; appreciative assessment is all about helping students find and build on their unique abilities and aptitudes by providing positive, supportive feedback with a focus on capabilities and possibilities. Positive stories and anecdotes about best learning practices are the…

  4. Designing and Assessing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hong; Liu, Dandan; Cun, Xiangqin; Lu, Yingchun

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the design, implementation and assessment of a level 2 module for non-English major students in higher vocational and professional education. 1132001 is a code of module that uses active methods to teach college English in China. It specifically reflects on the module's advantage and defect for developing and improving learning…

  5. Adolescent Loneliness Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Sacchi, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a loneliness scale for adolescents in order to assess their perceptions of the quality of their relationships with parents and peers. The scale was administered to 1,233 Argentine secondary school students, aged 13-16 years. Factor analyses (principal axes, oblimin solution) were conducted. Four factors…

  6. Assessment of pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forrest, M; Hermann, G; Andersen, B

    1989-01-01

    In a trial based on 52 patients admitted because of acute abdominal pain, we compared the assessment of pain intensity by doctors and patients according to a visual analogue scale. We found significant differences with regard to the median score of the doctors (3.4 cm) compared to the patients (6...

  7. Assessing Your Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only. To assess the weight of children or teenagers, see the Child and Teen BMI Calculator . Top of Page Want to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain ...

  8. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The author employed a 3-step qualitative research design with multiple instances of source validation to capture expert teachers’ (n = 28) reflections on which manifest signs they would look for when they asses students’ innovation competency. The author reports on the thematic analysis of the re......The author employed a 3-step qualitative research design with multiple instances of source validation to capture expert teachers’ (n = 28) reflections on which manifest signs they would look for when they asses students’ innovation competency. The author reports on the thematic analysis...... of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...... competency, and communication competency) as well as assessment criteria for a number of skills relevant to these subcompetencies. These assessment criteria, it is argued, largely resonate with existing literature and they provide a detailed glimpse into how assessment of innovation competency could...

  9. Assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess 6 general competencies.1 A.G. Lee and K.D. Carter, Managing the new mandate in resident education: A blueprint for translating a national mandate into local compliance, Ophthal

  10. Mozambique social protection assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Silverio Marques, Jose

    2012-01-01

    This assessment shows that Mozambique social protection system is developing. While programs to address most of the risks identified exist, there are still major gaps. Poor families with children are not adequately supported, there is no significant youth program, and subsistence farmers and other workers are not properly protected against recurrent shocks. The government spends a consider...

  11. Technologies for Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jill; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews current and developing technology uses that are relevant to language assessment and discusses examples of recent linguistic applications from the laboratory at the Educational Testing Service. The processes of language test development are described and the functions they serve from the perspective of a large testing organization are…

  12. Pre-Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  13. ASSESSMENT OF PLUME DIVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation presents an assessment of plume diving. Observations included: vertical plume delineation at East Patchogue, NY showed BTEX and MTBE plumes sinking on either side of a gravel pit; Lake Druid TCE plume sank beneath unlined drainage ditch; and aquifer recharge/dis...

  14. Assessing spatial data infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grus, L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades many countries and regions throughout the world have taken steps to establish Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). Developing SDIs requires a considerable amount of time, energy and financial resources. Therefore it is increasingly important to assess SDI outcomes in order

  15. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...

  16. Assessing Metacognitive Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraw, Gregory; Dennison, Rayne Sperling

    1994-01-01

    A 52-item inventory was constructed to measure the metacognitive awareness of adults. Items were classified into eight subcomponents under categories of knowledge and regulation of cognition. Two experiments with 307 undergraduates support a 2-factor structure. Implications for assessment are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  18. Nontraditional Forms of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The author discusses the benefits of nontraditional assessments and shares how she has used them in her 5th-grade classroom in rural South Carolina. The examples include doing a Gallery Walk, writing poetry, integrating the arts into other subjects, having students reenact historical scenes, using social media, and rewriting popular songs with…

  19. Assess Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Terri; Konrad, Moira; Alber-Morgan, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Determining what constitutes good writing is difficult, though many say they know it when they see it. Although this approach may have support in the literature, there are other efficient and valid ways to assess students' writing. To obtain a complete picture of a student's writing skills, it is important that teachers take a balanced approach to…

  20. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Assessment Related tests: Lipid Profile , VLDL Cholesterol , hs-CRP , Lp(a) Overview | Common Questions | Related Pages What ... cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring CRP with a ...

  1. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  2. Multilevel IRT Model Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling complex cognitive and psychological outcomes in, for example, educational assessment led to the development of generalized item response theory (IRT) models. A class of models was developed to solve practical and challenging educational problems by generalizing the basic IRT models. An IRT

  3. Music therapy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Når klienter henvises til musikterapi, gennemgår de en assessment-procedure (en klinisk vurdering), som kræver terapeutens ekspertise inden for forskellige områder - med henblik på at stille en en diagnose og identificere klientens behov og potentialer, samt at opstille realistiske forventninger ...

  4. Application of ''Earl's Assessment "as", Assessment "for", and Assessment "of" Learning Model'' with Orthopaedic Assessment Clinical Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry; Vaughn, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Context: In order to study the efficacy of assessment methods, a theoretical framework of Earl's model of assessment was introduced. Objective: (1) Introduce the predictive learning assessment model (PLAM) as an application of Earl's model of learning; (2) test Earl's model of learning through the use of the Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool…

  5. Structured assessments of clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Katharine A M

    2010-06-01

    Clinical teachers are often involved in assessing clinical competence in the workplace, in universities and colleges. Assessments commonly used to formally assess clinical competence include long and short cases and the objective structured clinical examination which, if well designed, is a fair and reliable method of assessing clinical competence.

  6. Portfolios. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    In developmental assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a map of developing skills, knowledge, and understanding. Portfolio assessment is a tool to use in developmental assessment, and there are many types of portfolios to support developmental assessment of students. When considering a portfolio type, it is important to consider…

  7. The Scope of Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to put the field of writing assessment into a historical, linguistic, and geographical/cultural context, in order to stimulate work in writing assessment from across as broad a set of perspectives as possible. Presents a history of writing assessment, looks at writing assessment in the modern period, and considers the future of writing…

  8. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  9. Assessment of the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Joan B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessment of visually impaired students is traced historically, and current practices in visual functioning, movement and spatial awareness, cognition, tactile performance, and emotional/social development are noted. Federal requirements for assessment are discussed and recommended assessment practices for six major assessment domains are listed.…

  10. Assessment in Intercultural Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides background to considering how to assess intercultural language learning. It describes why traditional views of assessment are not sufficient. Essentially, assessing intercultural language learning requires assessment of both students' performance of communication in the target language and how they understand and explain the…

  11. Assessment in Elementary Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebright, Krissa; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two public school elementary dance educators share their experiences developing and implementing dance performance assessments. The assessments were developed for the State of Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to assess student learning in dance education and bring dance assessment to an equal platform…

  12. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor

  13. Specialization-Specific Course Assessments Integrated for Program Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban A. Memon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The program assessment process combines assessments from individual courses to generate final program assessment to match accreditation benchmarks. In developing countries, industrial environment is not diversified to allow graduating engineers to seek jobs in all disciplines or specializations of an engineering program. Hence, it seems necessary to seek evolution of an engineering program assessment for specialized requirements of the industry. This paper describes how specialization-specific courses’ assessments are grouped per requirements and then integrated towards overall program assessment. A software program application is developed to automate this development to reduce assessment work and show equivalently as integration of specialization-specific assessments per outcome per term. The implementation also shows how outcomes are integrated per specialization-specific courses in order to judge the implementation of the program assessment. This effort is expected to help stake holders of the program to judge evolution and quality of specialization tracks vis-à-vis expectations of the local industry.

  14. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  15. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  16. Culturally sensitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C P; Kumru, A

    1999-04-01

    Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways.

  17. Structural assessment of nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yong X

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides an overview on structural assessment of nanocomposite materials. First of all, a brief description of advanced structure characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy is presented. Secondly, applications of these methods for analysis of structures and compositions of typical nanocomposites are introduced. The nanocomposites are formed by different nanoscale processing technologies. Electrochemically polymerized polyaniline (PANi) nanocomposites, thermomechanically processed metal matrix nanocomposites, nanocast ceramic matrix composites are typical examples discussed in this paper. Case studies on several functional nanocomposites for energy storage/conversion, catalysis and sensing applications are mentioned. After that, assessment of the interface structures of nanocomposite materials using surface characterization techniques and mechanical damage models is discussed. Finally, concluding remarks are provided.

  18. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  19. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  20. Management self assessment plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debban, B.L.

    1998-01-30

    Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc., Spent Nuclear Fuel Project is responsible for the operation of fuel storage facilities. The SNF project mission includes the safe removal, processing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel from 100 K Area fuel storage basins to a new Storage facility in the Hanford 200 East Area. Its mission is the modification of the 100 K area fuel storage facilities and the construction of two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building. The management self assessment plan described in this document is scheduled to begin in April of 1999 and be complete in May of 1999. The management self assessment plan describes line management preparations for declaring that line management is ready to commence operations.

  1. Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  2. CBERS-02 Application Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jianning; YU Jin; MIN Xiangjun; LI Xingchao; HOU Minghui

    2004-01-01

    As the successor of CBERS-01, CBERS-02 was launched successfully on 21October 2003 and transmitted its first downlink data the next day. According to the OBT (On Board Test) outline, CRESDA cooperated with CAST and many remote sensing organizations in China in implementing the test of the satellite payloads, ground processing system and data application. In this paper, the test is briefly illustrated in three parts: Ⅰ. Satellite Parameters Test (especially the test for payloads), Ⅱ. Payload Image Quality Assessment, and Ⅲ. Data Application Assessment. The results of the test show that the image quality of CBERS-02 is much improved over CBERS-01 and will continue to play a more important role in the society and economic development of China.

  3. Assessing Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further

  4. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... mental model for the operators to be aware of the situations has motivated the utilization of functional representation in system level of situation assessment. The thesis has summarized the MFM syntax and provides detail instructions of how to model by using the modeling technique. A PWR primary system...

  5. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  6. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  7. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  8. Assessment of building sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo; Koukkari, Heli

    2007-01-01

    The concept of sustainable building is usually related to environmental characteristics although the social, economics and cultural indicators of the life-cycle impacts are of substancial importance. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects; emphasizing the qualitative criteria only increases confusion. The R&D and standardization is thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the enviromental methods. Other directions of research are aiming at...

  9. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  10. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    key concepts and practices within the course content. The guide also addresses the TRADOC’s ALM objectives by presenting procedures by which senior...Marksmanship data also illustrate the concept of skill plasticity. While Dyer (1999) found relatively high correlations (0.50 to 0.67) between practice ...W. (1990). Assessment procedures for predicting and optimizing skill acquisition after extensive practice . In N. Frederickson, R. Glaser, A

  11. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  12. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  13. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  14. Metrics and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Carpenter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An important and timely plenary session at the 2015 UKSG Conference and Exhibition focused on the role of metrics in research assessment. The two excellent speakers had slightly divergent views.Todd Carpenter from NISO (National Information Standards Organization argued that altmetrics aren’t alt anymore and that downloads and other forms of digital interaction, including social media reference, reference tracking, personal library saving, and secondary linking activity now provide mainstream approaches to the assessment of scholarly impact. James Wilsdon is professor of science and democracy in the Science Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex and is chair of the Independent Review of the Role of Metrics in Research Assessment commissioned by the Higher Education Funding Council in England (HEFCE. The outcome of this review will inform the work of HEFCE and the other UK higher education funding bodies as they prepare for the future of the Research Excellence Framework. He is more circumspect arguing that metrics cannot and should not be used as a substitute for informed judgement. This article provides a summary of both presentations.

  15. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  16. Pediatric Nutrition Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Corkins, Kelly; Teague, Erin E

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric patients with chronic illnesses or diseases or who require long-term nutrition support are most vulnerable to nutrition-related issues. Malnutrition in a pediatric patient may negatively affect long-term growth and development. Children also become malnourished much more quickly than adults. A comprehensive nutrition assessment that includes food and nutrition-related history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical data, medical tests and procedures, nutrition-focused physical findings, and patient history should be completed on these patients as no one parameter is a comprehensive indicator of nutrition status. Anthropometric measurements provide important information on the growth and nutrition status of a child, yet many times it is difficult to get accurate and valid measurements due to physical limitations of the child or improper technique. Inaccurate measurements may result in a missed diagnosis of malnutrition or may lead to an incorrect diagnosis of a healthy child. Knowledge of appropriate anthropometric measurements and alternatives is crucial when assessing growth in all children and essential for those who are physically handicapped or critically ill. The purpose of this review is to present key components of a pediatric nutrition assessment so proper nutrition-related diagnosis, including malnutrition, can be accomplished, a nutrition care plan established, and expected outcomes documented.

  17. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  18. Formative assessments as pedagogic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting a state of the art status of formative assessment as a pedagogic tool. To this end, a brief developmental account of different modes of assessment over the last decades will be presented first. Then, formative assessment will be discussed in its constructivist guise. The present literature on assessment suggests that assessment for learning (formative assessment not only represents an assessment tool but it also serves as a pedagogic tool to enhance learning and thinking. It has also gone to lengths to affect the design of classroom tasks and activities. Attempts have been made to delineate the underlying principles of formative assessment which can be used to picture the formation process of learners’ knowledge and development. Subsequently, alternative assessment techniques of which the present article will give an account have been suggested by scholars to operationalize these principles.

  19. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  20. World Assessment Unit Geological Characterizations, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapfile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of the World. Each assessment unit is...

  1. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  2. Involving Assessment Buddies in the Assessment of Design Project Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Jane; Clough, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of a specially developed assessment and feedback system implemented within a second year industrial design module at Coventry University, UK. The "Assessment Buddy" system was developed in response to the need for a successful assessment and feedback method that could cope with the complexities of a creative…

  3. Prior Learning Assessment: How Institutions Use Portfolio Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Becky; Hain, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The term Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) refers not to a single kind of assessment but rather an entire family of assessment methods that can be used by institutions. Some of these methods are exam-based. In addition, there are other methods of PLA. One of the more innovative methods of offering PLA, however, is through the development of student…

  4. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of factor

  5. Assessing Assessment: Toward a Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Assessment is generally not a favorite subject for many teachers, and this is likely due to a perceived tension between the goals they wish to accomplish as educators and the methods of assessments prescribed by accrediting agencies. With even President Obama calling for improvements in assessing education, this paper seeks to develop an…

  6. The Summative Assessment Diet: How We Assess in Mathematics Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Paola; Simpson, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Much research and many papers on mathematics pedagogy have discussed assessment and, in particular, the need to provide a varied diet of methods by which students are assessed for the award of their degree. In this article, we explore the mix of assessment methods provided across a range of UK university mathematics departments. We examine the…

  7. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En...

  8. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  9. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  10. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  11. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  12. Audit and Assessment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Craig [Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  13. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... that the SEA directive will influence the decision-making process positively and will help to promote improved environmental decisions. However, the guidelines for public participation are not sufficient and the democratic element is strongly limited. On the basis of these findings, recommendations relating...

  14. "Orthogonality" in Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David

    2014-01-01

    This chapter proposes a simple framework, "orthogonality," to help clarify what stakeholders think about learning in college, how we assess outcomes, and how clear assessment methods might help increase confidence in returns on investment.

  15. Assessing Learning With Children (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Task 1 What is assessment? The following is a list of understanding by different teachers about assessment. Tick the ones that are closest to your understanding. Then compare and discuss them with another teacher.

  16. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  17. Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC) is a 39,000-square-foot facility that doubles the warfare center's high-secured performance assessment capabilities. DMAC...

  18. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  19. Stock Assessment Supplementary Information (SASINF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the interest of efficiency, clarity and standardization of stock assessment materials, the stock assessment reports for the 2015 Groundfish update have been...

  20. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5 were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.Para o Brasil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 foi registrada em cinco espécies de felídeos silvestres. No presente estudo, cinco gatos-do-mato-pequenos (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775, vítimas de atropelamento, foram coletados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões crônicas causadas por O. pardalis foram observadas no intestino delgado de um dos espécimes. Cortes histológicos permitiram a identificação de um infiltrado leucocitário bem definido e uma área de fibrose do colágeno. Somente machos (n = 5 de O. pardalis foram encontrados, com prevalência de 20%. O ciclo biológico das espécies de Oligacanthorhynchus é pouco conhecido, no entanto, artrópodes foram considerados como hospedeiros intermediários. A baixa prevalência encontrada pode estar relacionada ao número de hospedeiros examinados, bem como, com a ingestão de poucos artrópodes infectados por larvas de O. pardalis. Este é o primeiro registro de O. pardalis parasitando L. tigrinus para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  1. New evidence of the sabertooth cat Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae in the late Pleistocene of southern Chilean Patagonia Nueva evidencia del gato dientes de sable Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae en el Pleistoceno tardío de Patagonia meridional chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO PRIETO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil dental evidence that supports the presence of Smilodon populator (Lund in the region. This evidence corresponds to the most southern record of the genus in the world, and the final step in the colonization of South America after the Great American Biotic Interchange. An AMS radiocarbon date on teeth indicates that the remains from Southern Chilean Patagonia are the most recent record for the genus in South America.Surpatagonia es particularmente rica en mamíferos finiplesitocenos, particularmente camélidos, équidos y xenartros. Los carnívoros, por su parte, se encuentran representados en menor número en el registro paleontológico. Dentro de estos, el género Smilodon, es de particular interés debido a que su presencia en la región no ha sido convincentemente demostrada. En este trabajo presentamos evidencia dental que permite confirmar la presencia de Smilodon populator (Lund en la región. Esta evidencia corresponde al registro más sureño de este taxón y al paso final en la colonización de América del Sur después del Gran Intercambio Biótico Americano. Un fechado radiocarbónico directo AMS indica que los restos de Patagonia del Sur corresponden a los registros más tardíos para este género en el subcontinente.

  2. Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.

  3. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos não-voadores e aves foram os itens mais freqüentes, sendo proporcionalmente mais predados no outono e no verão, respectivamente. Artrópodos foram mais predados no inverno e na primavera e ovos de aves e/ou répteis somente no verão e na primavera, período de reprodução nestes dois grupos.

  4. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  5. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  6. Assessment Approaches In Virtual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Azam RASTGOO; Yousef NAMVAR

    2010-01-01

    Today, the traditional assessment methods are not enough for measuring students’ ability. Internet and its technologies have a strong impact to change it and there are some new ways to measure students’ ability and knowledge. This article identifies some assessment methods and tools in online education and describes findings that show the importance of online assessment and online technologies. It also describes some advantages and disadvantages of new methods of assessment. Additionally this...

  7. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  8. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  9. Impact assessment revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Markussen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need to be addre......The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need...... to be addressed: (1) Some impacted ecosystem traits are spatially not additive; (2) invader effects may increase non-linearly with abundance or there may be effect thresholds impairing estimates of linear impact models; (3) the abundance and impact of alien species will often co-vary with environmental variation......; and (4) the total invaded range is an inappropriate measure for quantifying regional impact because the habitat area available for invasion can vary markedly among invasive species. Mathematical models and empirical data using an invasive alien plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum) indicate...

  10. Risk assessment for carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, John N; Shao, Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential amino acid-like compound involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria during the beta-oxidation process. Carnitine has become an increasingly popular ingredient in dietary supplements, especially weight loss and some sports nutrition products. A number of clinical trials have been conducted examining the effect of carnitine supplementation on weight loss and energy balance. Regarding safety, systematic evaluation of the research designs and data do not provide a basis for risk assessment and the usual safe upper level of intake (UL) derived from it unless the newer methods described as the observed safe level (OSL) or highest observed intake (HOI) are utilized. The OSL risk assessment method indicates that the evidence of safety is strong at intakes up to 2000mg/day l-carnitine equivalents for chronic supplementation, and this level is identified as the OSL. Although much higher levels have been tested without adverse effects and may be safe, the data for intakes above 2000mg/day are not sufficient for a confident conclusion of long-term safety.

  11. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existence of products of knowledge expression which could be created in acquisition, creation, usage and development of them. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as knowledge expression characteristics: economic and social context, human resources, ICT, innovative business and innovation policy. The reason for this analysis was based on the idea that in spite of the knowledge economy existence in all developed World countries adefinitive, universal list of indicators for mapping and measuring the KBE does not yet exists. Knowledge Expression Assessment Models are presented in the article.

  12. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  13. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  14. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  15. Student assessment and examination rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, J

    1999-01-01

    Assessment influences cognitive and operant aspects of learning. Cognitive aspects of learning are influenced by the content of assessment: what and how do students learn. Usually students only study the educational objectives which will be assessed. If teachers want students to meet all the objecti

  16. Assessing Learning With Children(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Potential difficulties in carrying out assessment in the classroom Task 1 After a full discussion on assessment,what potential problems or difficulties do you foresee for using this kind of assessment in our teaching?Make a list of problems and discuss

  17. Data Science in Educational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second of two articles in this special issue that were developed following discussions of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2013. The article extends the analysis of assessments of collaborative problem solving (CPS) to examine the significance of the data concerning this complex assessment problem and then for…

  18. Meaningful Assessment: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrond, Mary A.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations of nine references on alternative student assessment methods in second language programs, particularly at the secondary school level. The references include a critique of conventional reading comprehension assessment, a discussion of performance assessment, a proposal for a multi-trait, multi-method…

  19. Self-Assessment of Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlaska, Andrea; Krekeler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is generally assumed that second language (L2) learners find it difficult to self-assess their pronunciation skills. In view of the benefits of self-assessment for the language learning process and the need to monitor one's pronunciation in independent learning environments, we investigated the reliability of self-assessments of pronunciation…

  20. Assessing Learning With Children(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Potential difficulties in carrying out assessment in the classroom Task 1After a full discussion on assessment,what potential problems or difficulties do you foresee for using this kind of assessment in our teaching?Make a list of problems and discuss with another teacher how you can solve the problems.

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.; Spruijt, M.; Molag, M.; Ramírez, A.; Turkenburg, W.; Faaij, A.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic assessment, based on an extensive literature review, of the impact of gaps and uncertainties on the results of quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) for CO2 pipelines is presented. Sources of uncertainties that have been assessed are: failure rates, pipeline pressure, temperat

  2. Performances. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    Performance assessment is the assessment of students engaged in an activity. It is the on-the-spot evaluation of a performance, behavior, or interaction. Ordinarily, there is no concrete product that can be judged at a later date. In Developmental Assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a preconstructed map of developing skills,…

  3. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  4. Assessment Strategies for Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jan Hendrik; Mentz, Elsa; Meyer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Although pair programming has proved its usefulness in teaching and learning programming skills, it is difficult to assess the individual roles and abilities of students whilst programming in pairs. (Note that within this manuscript, the term assessment refers to evaluating individual student performance.) Assessing only the outcomes of a pair…

  5. Interim Assessments: A User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Interim assessments are hot in American schools. Also called benchmark or periodic tests, these assessments are given every four to nine weeks to check on students' progress. Although interim assessments are an important tool for school improvement, they are easy to misuse. In the author's work coaching principals in a number of districts, he has…

  6. Self-deprecations through assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Oshima, Sae; Larsen, Tine

    In her seminal paper on assessments, Pomerantz (1984) has pointed out that when someone does an initial assessment, s/he "formulates the assessment so as to accomplish an action or multiple actions, for example, praise, complain, compliment, insult, brag, self-deprecate" (Pomerantz 1984: 63). She...

  7. Shaping Assessment Through Instructional Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Stephanie Z.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the assessment beliefs and practices of four middle school mathematics teachers implementing a reformed mathematics curriculum for the first time. The constraints on change in assessment include time available to develop, implement, and interpret alternative assessments, as well as parent and student beliefs about what it means…

  8. Assessment and Transfer: Unexamined Complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Mary L.; Bers, Trudy H.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the complexities, costs, and questions in planning and implementing feasible, reasoned assessment created by the dual phenomena of assessment and student mobility. Highlights institutional responsibility, student competence, timeliness, multiple and redundant assessment requirements, and lack of interinstitutional collaboration as issues…

  9. Implicit spiritual assessment: an alternative approach for assessing client spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2013-07-01

    To provide optimal services, a spiritual assessment is often administered to understand the intersection between clients' spirituality and service provision. Traditional assessment approaches, however, may be ineffective with clients who are uncomfortable with spiritual language or who are otherwise hesitant to discuss spirituality overtly. This article orients readers to an implicit spiritual assessment, an alternative approach that may be more valid with such clients. The process of administering an implicit assessment is discussed, sample questions are provided to help operationalize this approach, and suggestions are offered to integrate an implicit assessment with more traditional assessment approaches. By using terminology that is implicitly spiritual in nature, an implicit assessment enables practitioners to identify and operationalize dimensions of clients' experience that may be critical to effective service provision but would otherwise be overlooked.

  10. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  11. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  12. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  13. The primary structure of the hemoglobin of Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus, Carnivora) and structural comparison to other hemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, O; Braunitzer, G; Göltenboth, R

    1987-05-01

    The complete primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) is presented. After cleavage of the heme-protein link and chain separation by RP-HPLC, amino-acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation in liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. An interesting result of this work is the demonstration that the hemoglobin of Malayan Sun Bear is identical to the hemoglobins of Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) and Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus tibetanus). The paper gives an updated table of identical hemoglobin chains from different species. This paper may be considered as a compilation of work on the genetic relationship of Pandas.

  14. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae, appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km² and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more diurnal, with a cathemeral activity pattern, when the other cats were present. Oncilla is likely to be in a subordinate position in interactions with larger cats and changes its activity to decrease the chances for interspecific encounters. In this study, however, the presence of other cat species covaries with habitat changes (from coastal forest patches to dense evergreen forests. We also verified the highest oncilla relative abundance in an area with no sympatric larger cats, with abundance decreasing when it was in sympatry with margay, ocelot and puma. Our results, together with recent records of oncilla in other degraded landscapes of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, provide evidence that oncillas may thrive even in harsh environments where other cats have already been extinct. This raise interesting conservation insights, as in the absence of other cats, L. tigrinus may assume a top predator role of these impoverished vertebrate communities.

  15. Morfo-histologia dos pulmões e árvore bronquial de Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora: Procyonidae

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    J.F.F.S. Paranaíba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nenhuma característica dos seres vivos é tão primordial quanto a respiração, e os pulmões são os principais órgãos do sistema respiratório. Este estudo tem por objetivo descrever os aspectos macroscópicos da traqueia, dos brônquios e dos lobos pulmonares bem como os aspectos microscópicos dos brônquios pulmonares do mão-pelada e compará-los com dados da literatura de estudos realizados com mamíferos silvestres e domésticos. Utilizaram-se três exemplares de Procyon cancrivorus, que foram fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Os pulmões e a traqueia foram dissecados e fotografados com câmera fotográfica digital (Câmera Sony a200, 10.2mpx. Para a identificação das características microscópicas, foram coletados fragmentos de cada brônquio seguindo as técnicas de rotina histológica. O pulmão do Procyon cancrivorus se divide em quatro lobos direito e dois lobos esquerdo e a traqueia apresenta cerca de 31 a 34 anéis. Os brônquios extrapulmonares se dividem em direito e esquerdo; o direito se subdivide em brônquios lobares cranial, médio, acessório e caudal, e o esquerdo em lobares cranial e caudal, com seus respectivos brônquios segmentares. Microscopicamente, os brônquios apresentam um epitélio prismático pseudoestratificado ciliado com células caliciformes e feixes de fibras de musculatura lisa, placas de cartilagem hialina e fibras elásticas. O conhecimento da morfologia desses órgãos nas espécies silvestres auxilia em estudos descritivos e/ou comparativos entre espécies.

  16. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  17. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

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    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  18. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora

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    MSL. Abreu

    Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.

  19. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  20. A complete skull of Chasmaporthetes lunensis (Carnivora, Hyaenidae from the Spanish Pliocene site of La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel

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    Morales, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkably complete, well-preserved skull of the Pliocene hunting hyaena Chasmaporthetes lunensis from La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel is described. This exceptional find allows us to define more clearly the cranial morphology of this taxon, and to put its morphological features into evolutionary and functional perspective. Compared with the sympatric hyaenid Pliocrocuta perrieri, C. lunensis has a higher and wider rostrum, cheek teeth placed more anteriorly in relation to the orbits, a lower zygoma and a dorsally concave saggital crest, all pointing to a lesser development of the muscle temporalis and a greater emphasis on canine bite over premolar crushing bite. Horizontal wear on the premolars, caudal extension of the frontal sinus and other features indicate that scavenging or at least complete utilization of carcasses was a behavioural trait of the hunting hyaena. Overall, the available evidence suggests that C. lunensis was an active, group hunting predator of medium-sized ungulates, able to fully utilize carcasses but less dedicated to scavenging than the contemporary species P. perrieri.Describimos un cráneo prácticamente completo y bien preservado de la hiena cazadora del Plioceno, Chasmaporthetes lunensis, proveniente de La Puebla de Valverde (Teruel. Este hallazgo excepcional nos permite definir más claramente la morfología craneal de este taxón, y poner sus rasgos morfológicos en perspectiva funcional y evolutiva. Comparado con el hiénido simpátrico Pliocrocuta perrieri, C. lunenis muestra un hocico más alto y ancho, dientes post-caninos situados en posición más anterior respecto a las órbitas, arcos zigomáticos más bajos y una cresta sagital con un perfil dorsal cóncavo, todo lo cual apunta a un desarrollo menor del músculo temporal y un mayor énfasis en la mordida a nivel de los caninos respecto a la mordida trituradora de los premolares. El desgaste horizontal en los premolares, la extensión caudal de los senos frontales y otros rasgos indican que el carroñeo, o al menos la utilización a fondo de los cuerpos de las presas, sería un rasgo del comportamiento de las hienas cazadoras. En conjunto, la evidencia disponible sugiere que C. lunensis era una cazadora activa y grupal de ungulados medianos, capaz de utilizar a fondo las presas pero menos estrictamente carroñera que P. perrieri.

  1. [Potential distribution of jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in Guerrero, Mexico: persistence of areas for its conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2012-09-01

    Studies about the permanence of natural protected areas are important, because they contribute to the promotion of the conservation target and to optimize economical and human resources of specific areas. Although there are no natural protected areas in Guerrero, it has suitable habitat for the jaguar, a common species used for planning and management of conservation areas. Since, there is actual evidence that environmental and anthropogenic variables may modify vertebrate species distribution with time, in this study we predicted the potential distribution of Panthera onca using MaxEnt for this Southeastern region. In addition, we made a projection considering the effect of a moderate climate change scenario, to evaluate the stability of the conservation area for a period of 24 years. Furthermore, we applied three threat scenarios for the actual prediction to define conservation priorities areas. In our results, we have found that 18 361Km2 (29%) of this state has a permanent suitable habitat for jaguar conservation in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Pacific coast, with a possible loss of 2 000km2 in 24 years. This habitat is characterized by a 56% of temperate forest (mainly conifers and hardwoods 34%), and 35% of tropical deciduous forest. With the projections, the Southeastern region resulted with the higher anthropogenic impacts, while at the same time, an area of 7 900km2 in the Central-Western state was determined as a priority for conservation. To assure jaguar conservation, we propose the inclusion of this new conservation area, which is located in the Sierra Madre del Sur, with which we may potentially preserve other 250 species of threatened vertebrates. This way, the suggested habitat conservation may represent a local effort in Guerrero and will strengthen the biological corridor network for P. onca protection in Latin America.

  2. Constraining the time of extinction of the South American fox Dusicyon avus (Carnivora, Canidae) during the late Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosti, Francisco; Santiago, Fernando; Prates, Luciano; Salemme, Mónica; Martin, Fabiana

    2010-05-01

    The mass extinction at the end of the Pleistocene affected South America during the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene, when megamammals and large mammals disappeared. Several carnivores became extinct, like the sabretooth Smilodon, the short face bear (Arctotherium) and some large canids (i.e. Protocyon, Canis dirus). After this mass event virtually no carnivores became extinct in South America. The only exception is the fox Dusicyon avus, a middle sized canid (estimated body mass between 10-15 kg) with a more carnivore diet than the living South American foxes (i.e. Lycalopex culpaeus). The last record of the species comes from middle-late Holocene archaeological sites in the Pampean Region (Argentina) and Patagonia (Argentina and Chile). During the Late Pleistocene D. avus had a wide distribution, that covered part of Uruguay, Argentina (Buenos Aires province) and the southernmost Chile. Albeit some remains from late Holocene sites have been published, these remains lack of isotopic dates that could (allow?) constraint (to determine) the date of extinction of this fox. In this contribution we present several new records from the Pampean Region and Patagonia, and several taxon dates. The new records indicate that D. avus disappeared in the late Holocene at least ≈ 3000 years BP in the island of Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia) and ≈ 1600 BP in the continent. Since at this time humans were occupying most of the Pampas and Patagonia a revision of the causes behind the extinction of this fox is required.

  3. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  4. Megalictis, the Bone-Crushing Giant Mustelid (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Oligobuninae from the Early Miocene of North America.

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    Alberto Valenciano

    Full Text Available We describe cranial and mandibular remains of three undescribed individuals of the giant mustelid Megalictis ferox Matthew, 1907 from the latest Arikareean (Ar4, Early Miocene mammal fauna of Nebraska, and Wyoming (USA housed at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA. Our phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that Ar4 specimens assigned to M. ferox constitute a monophyletic group. We assign three additional species previously referred to Paroligobunis to Megalictis: M. simplicidens, M. frazieri, and "M." petersoni. The node containing these four species of Megalictis and Oligobunis forms the Oligobuninae. We test the hypothesis that Oligobuninae (Megalictis and Oligobunis is a stem mustelid taxon. Our results indicate that the Oligobuninae form the sister clade to the crown extant mustelids. Based on the cranium, M. ferox is a jaguar-size mustelid and the largest terrestrial mustelid known to have existed. This new material also sheds light on a new ecomorphological interpretation of M. ferox as a bone-crushing durophage (similar to hyenas, rather than a cat-like hypercarnivore, as had been previously described. The relative large size of M. ferox, together with a stout rostrum and mandible made it one of the more powerful predators of the Early Miocene of the Great Plains of North America.

  5. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-09-01

    The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, pcerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, pCerrado, that may support conservation efforts.

  6. Tick and flea infestation in a captive Margay Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 (Carnivora: Felidae: Felinae in Peru

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    M. Quevedo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Considering that the captive Margay lived close to domestic dogs and cats, this interaction might be the source of that infestation. Based on this finding, careful attention should be paid to wildlife and domestic animals interactions as ectoparasites can be easily transmitted and new host-pathogen interactions are possible.

  7. Observations on the mating behavior of the eastern lowland olingo Bassaricyon alleni (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Sean M. Williams

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The behavior of wild olingos is poorly known. From May-Jul 2015, I surveyed nocturnal mammals in southeast Peru and recorded the behavior of olingos. Multiple olingos were observed in close proximity on four occasions: two occasions in which multiple olingos were feeding on the inflorescences of a Parkia pendula tree; an adult and immature olingo traveling together; and a pair of olingos copulating. The copulation lasted at least 142 minutes, and was characterized by the male biting the hind neck and back of the female, constant female vocalizations, and rapid head turning by the female toward the male. Olingos and kinkajous were similarly abundant. These observations offer insight into the behavior of the wild olingo.

  8. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  9. Evaluation of abiotic factors on the activity period of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous – Carnivora: Canidae

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    Fernando Rodrigo Tortato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity period of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous was studied in the Itajaí valley, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, through camera traps during a 15-month survey. The existence of relationships between this behavior and abiotic factors was also investigated. We found that the crab-eating fox’s activity is basically nocturnal (54% and crepuscular (25%. It has been classified as cathemeral. However, there were no relationships among the abiotic factors estimated (rainfall, temperature and lunar phases.

  10. Ocorrência (novo registro de lobo-guará chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (carnivora, canidae no sul do Brasil

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    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988459No presente estudo é apresentado o registro da ocorrência de Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger 1815 em uma área de campo úmido adjacente a faixa de mata ciliar do rio Ibicuí, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A espécie foi encontrada através do uso de armadilhas fotográficas e da procura de vestígios em transecções pré-estabelecidas na área, como parte de um programa de monitoramento ambiental de um projeto silvicultural.

  11. A study on karyotype of Small-toothed palm civet, Arctogalidia trivirgata (Carnivora, Viverridae by using conventional staining method

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    Dumnui, S.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first karyotypic study of Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females kept in Dusit Zoo, Bangkok. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr. in presence of Colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa's staining were applied to stain the chromosome. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome of Small-toothed palm civet was 2n = 40, the fundamental number (NF was 66 in both male and female. The type of autosomes were 2 large metacentric, 2 large submetacentric, 8 large acrocentric, 4 large telocentric, 4 medium submetacentric, 4 medium telocentric, 4 small metacentric, 2 small submetacentric, 2 small acrocentric and 6 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, chromosome 17 showed a clearly observable satellite. X-chromosome was the large metacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest acrocentric chromosome.The karyotype formula for the male Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+Y = Lm 3+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 3+St 6The karyotype formula for the female Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+X = Lm 4+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6

  12. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  13. Asynchrony in craniomandibular development and growth in Enhydra lutris nereis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): are southern sea otters born to bite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chris J; Baliga, Vikram B.; Tinker, M. Tim; Mehta, Rita S.

    2017-01-01

    Weaning represents a major ontogenetic dietary shift in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), as juveniles must transition from depending on mother’s milk to independently processing hard-shelled invertebrates. When the skulls of juveniles have reached sufficient maturity to transition to a durophagous diet remains to be investigated. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of skull development and growth and sexual dimorphism using geometric morphometric approaches in 204 southern sea otter skulls. We found that southern sea otters of both sexes exhibit dramatic changes in cranial and mandibular shape and size over ontogeny. Although the majority of these changes occur in the pup stage, full development and growth of the skull does not occur until well after weaning. We hypothesize that the slower maturation of the crania of newly weaned juveniles serves as a handicap by constraining jaw adductor muscle size, biting ability and feeding on hard-shelled prey. In our analysis of sexual dimorphism, we found significant sexual shape and size dimorphism in adult craniomandibular morphology that arose through differences in developmental and growth rates and duration. We postulate that males are selected to attain mature crania faster to presumably reach adult biting ability sooner, gaining a competitive advantage in obtaining food and in male–male agonistic interactions.

  14. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  15. Genetic interest assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  16. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  17. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...... with the issue of power. The introduction represents a ground-clearing exercise intended to clarify the terms of the debate about power in the EA field, and to contribute to the development of a research agenda. Research trends in the field are outlined, and potential analytic and normative lines of inquiry...... are identified. The contributions to this special issue represent contrasting conceptual and methodological approaches that navigate the analytical and normative terrain of power dynamics in EA. Together, they demonstrate that power cannot be removed from EA policy or practices, and is a necessary research focus...

  18. Assessing efficiency in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.

  19. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dereje Agonafer

    2007-11-30

    The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

  20. Microbiological Quantitative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Schaffner, Donald W.

    The meat and poultry industry faces ongoing challenges due to the natural association of pathogens of concern (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7) with a variety of domesticated food animals. In addition, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes pose a significant cross-contamination risk during further meat and poultry processing, distribution, and storage. Furthermore, the meat and poultry industries are constantly changing with the addition of new products, use of new raw materials, and targeting of new consumer populations, each of which may give rise to potential new risks. National and international regulations are increasingly using a “risk-based” approach to food safety (where the regulatory focus is driven by the magnitude of the risk), so risk assessment is becoming a valuable tool to systematically organize and evaluate the potential public health risk posed by food processing operations.

  1. Indoor Climate Quality Assessment -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansaldi, Roberta; Asadi, Ehsan; Costa, José Joaquim

    This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies for measure......This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies...... for measurement and monitoring have allowed a significantly increased number of possible applications, especially in existing buildings. The Guidebook illustrates several cases with the instrumentation of the monitoring and assessment of indoor climate....

  2. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng; CUI Pei-zhi; YAO Ju-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging theit useful life,protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing.Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  3. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  4. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUSheng; CUIPei-zhi; YAOJu-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging their useful life, protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  5. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  6. Cassini data assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    On October 15, 1997, the Cassini spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and is now on its way to the planet Saturn. The functional support provided to NASA by DOE included the Advance Launch Support Group (ALSG). If there had been a launch anomaly, the ALSG would have provided a level of radiological emergency response support adequate to transition into a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Additional functional radiological emergency response support, as part of the ALSG, included the: (1) Aerial Measurement System (AMS); (2) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC); (3) Geographic Information System (GIS); (4) Emergency Response Data System (ERDS); (5) Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REAC/TS); (6) Field monitoring and sampling; (7) Radioanalysis via RASCAL; (8) Source recovery; and (9) Neutron dosimetry and communications support. This functional support provided the capability to rapidly measure and assess radiological impacts from a launch anomaly. The Radiological Control Officer (RCO) on KSC established a Radiological Control Center (RADCC) as the focal point for all on-site and off-site radiological data and information flow. Scientists and radiological response personnel located at the RADCC managed the field monitoring team on the KSC/CCAS federal properties. Off-site radiological emergency response activities for all public lands surrounding the KSC/CCAS complex were coordinated through the Off-site ALSG located at the National Guard Armory in Cocoa, Florida. All of the in situ measurement data of good quality gathered during the dry run, the first launch attempt and the launch day are listed in this document. The RASCAL analysis results of the air filters and impactor planchets are listed.

  7. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  8. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  9. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  10. Why Conduct a Spiritual Assessment? A Theoretical Foundation for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of increased interest in spirituality, the concept of a spiritual assessment remains a questionable practice in the eyes of many social workers. This paper develops five rationales to underscore the importance of including spirituality in assessment. These reasons can be summarized as follows: spiritual assessment provides insight into clients’ world views, serves as a vehicle to identify strengths, and demonstrates respect for client autonomy. In addition, the profession’s ethics implicitly recommend the administration of a spiritual assessment and, for a growing number of accrediting organizations and agencies, it is explicitly recommended.This paper concludes by discussing the implications for practitioners and educators.

  11. Assessing Assessment: Toward a Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Strawser, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is generally not a favorite subject for many teachers, and this is likely due to a perceived tension between the goals they wish to accomplish as educators and the methods of assessments prescribed by accrediting agencies. With even President Obama calling for improvements in assessing education, this paper seeks to develop an innovative phenomenological-hermeneutic model of assessment, one that focuses on the first-person interpretation of one’s transformative educational experience. After the theoretical framework for developing this model is explained, I present an application of the model through the introduction of “mindful reading assignments.”

  12. Assessing Assessment: Toward a Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Strawser, PhD

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is generally not a favorite subject for many teachers, and this is likely due to a perceived tension between the goals they wish to accomplish as educators and the methods of assessments prescribed by accrediting agencies. With even President Obama calling for improvements in assessing education, this paper seeks to develop an innovative phenomenological-hermeneutic model of assessment, one that focuses on the first-person interpretation of one’s transformative educational experience. After the theoretical framework for developing this model is explained, I present an application of the model through the introduction of “mindful reading assignments.”

  13. Genetic consequences of population subdivision: the marsupial Micoureus paraguayanus (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brito

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation may cause population subdivision, affecting genetic variation, leading to heterozygosity loss and increased inbreeding, and contributing to population extinction. However, some genetic models have shown that under some conditions, population subdivision can favor heterozygosity and allelic diversity, and small populations may adapt to inbreeding. Here I investigate the relationship between population subdivision and genetic diversity for the marsupial Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931 using the program Vortex. Hypothetical populations of 100 and 2000 individuals were partitioned into 1, 2, 5 or 10 populations that were linked by varying rates of dispersal and also by sex-biased dispersal. Results suggested that heterozygosity and allelic diversity declined rapidly when a population was subdivided. Genetic and demographic stochasticity diminished the effectiveness of selection against recessive lethal alleles. Dispersal partly reversed the impacts of population subdivision. However, even high rates of dispersal did not eliminate demographic fluctuations or prevent extinction. Although gene flow largely prevented genetic divergence between populations, dispersal did not prevent heterozygosity from being lost more rapidly in subdivided populations than in single populations of equivalent total size. The dynamics of small, fragmented populations were critically dependent on interactions between demographic and genetic processes. Populations of M. paraguayanus may have to be relatively large and continuous to avoid significant losses of genetic diversity.

  14. La liebre europea, Lepus europaeus (Mammalia, Leporidae, especie invasora en el sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cossíos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La liebre europea fue introducida entre finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX a Argentina y Chile, y desde entonces ha avanzado a través de América del Sur. En 1983 la liebre había alcanzado el sur de Brasil, el departamento de Tarija en el sur de Bolivia y el río Copiapó en Chile, encontrándose ausente en el Perú. En los años 2002 y 2004 se observó varios ejemplares de liebre en estado silvestre en los departamentos peruanos de Tacna y Arequipa, hasta una altitud de 4300 m. Según entrevistas hechas a pobladores de esas zonas, la liebre habría llegado al Perú entre los años 1995 y 1998, lo que significa una velocidad de dispersión mínima de 44,34 km/año partiendo de Tarija. Los entrevistados dijeron no dar uso a la liebre y que ésta les trae problemas al consumir la vegetación. La presente nota es una alerta sobre la llegada de la liebre europea al Perú y los posibles efectos de su presencia.

  15. Age Variations in Microtus guentheri Danford and Alston, 1880 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SÖZEN, Mustafa; ÇOLAK, Ercüment; Nuri YİĞİT

    1999-01-01

    The skull, teeth, phallus and bacula of Microtus guentheri specimens raised in the laboratory were investigated at different stages of postnatal development. The most of the cranial measurements attained those of adults on day 60. There were determined to be some morphological differences between the skulls of young and adult voles. The incisors and the molars began to erupt at 3 and 6 days, respectively. It was shown that there was no difference in respect to the phallic and bacular morpholo...

  16. New fauna of archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Bartonian middle Eocene of southern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Philip D.; Zouhri, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Six genera and species of archaic whales are present in a new fauna from the Aridal Formation at Gueran in the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco. Three of the archaeocete species represent semiaquatic Protocetidae and three species are fully aquatic Basilosauridae. Protocetids are characteristic of Lutetian lower middle Eocene strata, and basilosaurids are characteristic of Priabonian late Eocene beds. Similar representation of both families is restricted to intervening Bartonian strata and indicative of a late middle Eocene age. Archaeocetes from Gueran include (1) a small protocetid represented by a partial humerus, teeth, and vertebrae; (2) a middle-sized protocetid represented by a partial innominate and proximal femur; (3) the very large protocetid Pappocetus lugardi represented by teeth, a partial innominate, and two partial femora; (4) a new species of the small basilosaurid Chrysocetus represented by a dentary, teeth, humeri, and many vertebrae; (5) a new species of the larger basilosaurid Platyosphys (resurrected as a distinct genus) represented by a partial braincase, tympanic bulla, and many vertebrae; and (6) the large basilosaurid Eocetus schweinfurthi represented by teeth, a tympanic bulla, and lumbar vertebrae. The Gueran locality is important geologically because it constrains the age of a part of the Aridal Formation, and biologically because it includes a diversity of archaic whales represented by partial skeletons with vertebrae in sequence and by forelimb and hind limb remains. With further collecting, Gueran archaeocete skeletons promise to clarify the important evolutionary transition from foot-powered swimming in Protocetidae to the tail-powered swimming of Basilosauridae and all later Cetacea.

  17. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzery, E; Catzeflis, F M

    1995-11-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene has been sequenced in 4 Ungulata (hoofed eutherians) and 1 marsupial and compared to 38 available mammalian sequences in order to investigate the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal RNA molecule. Ungulata were represented by one artiodactyl (the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, suborder Suiformes), two perissodactyls (the Grevy's zebra, Equus grevyi, suborder Hippomorpha; the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, suborder Ceratomorpha), and one hyracoid (the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax dorsalis). The fifth species was a marsupial, the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Several transition/transversion biases characterized the pattern of changes between mammalian 12S rRNA molecules. A bias toward transitions was found among 12S rRNA sequences of Ungulata, illustrating the general bias exhibited by ribosomal and protein-encoding genes of the mitochondrial genome. The derivation of a mammalian 12S rRNA secondary structure model from the comparison of 43 eutherian and marsupial sequences evidenced a pronounced bias against transversions in stems. Moreover, transversional compensatory changes were rare events within double-stranded regions of the ribosomal RNA. Evolutionary characteristics of the 12S rRNA were compared with those of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNAs. From a phylogenetic point of view, transitions, transversions and indels in stems as well as transversional and indels events in loops gave congruent results for comparisons within orders. Some compensatory changes in double-stranded regions and some indels in single-stranded regions also constituted diagnostic events. The 12S rRNA molecule confirmed the monophyly of infraorder Pecora and order Cetacea and demonstrated the monophyly of the suborder Ruminantia was not supported and the branching pattern between Cetacea and the artiodacytyl suborders Ruminantia and Suiformes was not established. The monophyly of the order Perissodactyla was evidenced, but the relationships between Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Perissodactyla remained unresolved. Nevertheless, we found no support for a Perissodactyla + Hyracoidea clade, neither with distance approach, nor with parsimony reconstruction. The 12S rRNA was useful to solve intraordinal relationships among Ungulata, but it seemed to harbor too few informative positions to decipher the bushlike radiation of some Ungulata orders, an event which has most probably occurred in a short span of time between 55 and 70 MYA.

  18. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, van W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.; Leirs, H.

    2007-01-01

    Here we report on the existence of a new species of even-toed ungulate in the Brazilian Amazon, which we name Pecari maximus, the giant peccary. It represents the largest of living peccary species. One complete mitochondrial D-loop and two nuclear SINE PRE-1 DNA sequences of giant peccary compared w

  19. Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the collared peccary,Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae, mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, J S; Ke, J; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

    1996-07-01

    Secretions of the dorsal gland of free-ranging adult male and female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both sexes contain (2E,6E,10E)-geranylgeraniol; squalene (allE isomer); and the following isomers of springene, a diterpene homolog of β-farnesene: (3E,6E,10E)-α-springene, (3Z,6E,10E)-α-springene, and (6E,10E)-β-springene. A diterpene alcohol and an additional isomer each of squalene and springene also were observed. Straight- and branched-chain esters abound in the secretions of females, but they were not detected in males.

  20. Los Rumiantes (Artiodactyla, Mammalia del Mioceno inferior de La Encinilla (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a preliminary study of the fossil ruminants found in the Early Miocene site of La Encinilla (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid. The morphological description of dentition and postcranial bones, along with the metrical and comparative study with material from localities of similar age in France and Spain has allowed us to confirm the presence of two Pecoran ruminants in La Encinilla: Andegameryx sp. and a larger species related to Teruelia Moyá-Solá, 1987. Although the identification in one of the cases should be confirmed with more material, the record in the Madrid Bassin would represent new information regarding the known biogeographical distribution of both taxa. The systematic position of Andegameryx and Teruelia is still under discussion, but both forms are clearly distinct from the Cervoidea ruminants found in Europe and the Iberian Peninsula at the same age, such as Amphitragulus, Oriomeryx, Bedenomeryx or Dremotherium.Este trabajo constituye un estudio preliminar de los restos de rumiantes fósiles hallados en el yacimiento del Mioceno inferior de La Encinilla (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid. La descripción morfológica de la dentición y del esqueleto postcraneal, así como el estudio métrico y comparativo con material procedente de localidades francesas y españolas de edad similar ha permitido constatar hasta el momento la presencia de dos formas de rumiantes Pecora en La Encinilla: Andegameryx sp. y un rumiante de mayor talla relacionado con Teruelia Moyá-Solá, 1987. Aunque la identificación en uno de los casos necesitaría confirmarse con más material, la presencia de estas dos formas en la Cuenca de Madrid ampliaría la distribución biogeográfica conocida para ambos taxones. La posición sistemática de Andegameryx y Teruelia permanece abierta a discusión, pero ambos géneros se diferencian de los Cervoidea del Mioceno inferior encontrados en Europa y la Península Ibérica, tales como Amphitragulus, Oriomeryx, Bedenomeryx o Dremotherium.

  1. On the comparative anatomy and function of the nasal tract in odontocetes (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkkan, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the study of phonation in odontocete cetaceans and particularly that of echolocation by means of sonar, a great number of conflicting hypotheses have been advanced regarding the correlation of sound production with the many anatomical features that are to be found in the upper respiratory tract.

  2. Revision of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780 (Mammalia, Rodentia distribution in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article represents a complete review of all published data (with corrections on bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus distribution in Serbia and Montenegro. On the other hand, data of 63 unpublished records stored in the period from 1956 to 1983 in the Mammal Study Collection of the Natural History Museum, Belgrade had not been processed until now. In the period from 1992 to 2004, 29 new findings were recorded, 12 of them outside the currently known area of distribution. New data reveal a wider distribution of bank vole than was known until now, completing and partly modifying previous knowledge about this rodent's bionomy and ecology in Serbia and Montenegro. The occurrence of bank vole in the Prokletije Mountains, Kosovo and Metohija represents its highest known altitude in Europe (2500 m. On the basis of these new data and observations, we can conclude that bank vole is continuously present in small and linear fragments of autochthonous woodlands on plains and hills, and that there are no large discontinuities in its distribution in Serbia and Montenegro, as was assumed earlier. In efforts to preserve overall biological diversity, the example of the bank vole underlines the need to intensify protection and management of woodlands especially remaining fragments of forests on plains and in hills.

  3. Observations on the North African serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus isabellinus (Temminck, 1840) (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1963-01-01

    Eptesicus isabellinus was originally described as Vespertilio isabellinus by Temminck (1840, p. 205, pl. 52 figs. 1, 2) from a series of specimens obtained by J. F. H. Clifford Cocq van Breugel in the vicinity of Tripoli, Libya. Unfortunately Temminck's original description did not include any crani

  4. Taxonomy and biogeography of African fruit bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). 4. The genus Rousettus Gray, 1821

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the genus Rousettus Gray, 1821 as established by Andersen (1912) is revised to accommodate R. madagascariensis Grandidier, 1929, R. obliviosus Kock, 1978 and R. spinalatus Bergmans & Hill, 1980, and to reflect the following mutations. Following Bergmans et al. (1988), the genus Boneia

  5. A reassessment of the taxonomic status of Paraglyptodon Castellanos, 1932 (Mammalia, Cingulata, Glyptodontia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Laura E.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Taglioretti, Matias; Toledo, Nestor

    2016-03-01

    Castellanos described and published about new genera of glyptodonts, according to a phylogenetic scheme mainly based on the evolution of the external surface of the dorsal carapace. Among these new genera, Castellanos proposed Paraglyptodon as the predecessor of Glyptodon, and included within Paraglyptodon all known species of Glyptodontinae recovered from "horizontes pre-Ensenadenses", and within Glyptodon all known species from "Horizontes pampeanos", restricting the latter to the Quaternary. All the species that belong to Paraglyptodon, that is Paraglyptodon chapalmalensis, Paraglyptodon uquiensis, Paraglyptodon dubius, and Paraglyptodon paranensis were established based on one, two or few osteoderms, mostly from the dorsal carapace. Regarding P. paranensis and P. dubius, Oliva and collaborators consider the first as a nomen vanum, representing an indeterminate Glyptodontinae, and the second as a synonym of P. chapalmalensis. Upon re-examination of the holotypes of P. chapalmalensis and P. uquiensis together with their comparison with other well-known specimens of glyptodonts, mainly with Glyptodon (of both juvenile and adult stages), we found the same ornamentation in different sections of the dorsal carapaces, particularly in P. chapalmalensis and in juvenile stages of Glyptodon spp. We could not identify features that would allow us to make a distinction between the holotype of P. uquiensis and Glyptodon spp. Therefore, we consider that a new taxon guide for naming the Upper Chapadmalalan biozone is necessary. The biostratigraphic range of Glyptodon could possibly be extended to the late Pliocene. However, new records and studies are needed to verify the existence of this taxon in the Chapadmalalan Stage/Age in its type locality.

  6. Icnitas de artiodactilos (Mammalia del Paleogeno de Olcoz (Depresion del Ebro, Navarra

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    Murelaga, X.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of fossil mammal ichnites from the proximity of the town of Olcoz (Navarra, Ebro Basin is described herein. The tracks occur on sandstone beds of the Mués Formation of Suevian (Early Oligocene age. Owing to their morphology these ichnites have been assigned to artiodactyl mammals and can be compared to Entelodontipus forms. Moreover, this represents the second known finding of this ichnogenus. Among the tracks of this deposit there is a significant heterogeneity which is due to the variable penetration and displacement of the autopodes on the substrate. On Olcoz the presence of abundant ichnites that follow subparallel tracks allows the establishment of the gregarious behaviour of the producers of such tracks.Se describe un conjunto de icnitas fósiles de mamíferos ubicado en los alrededores de la localidad navarra de Olcoz (Depresión del Ebro. Las huellas se localizan en niveles areniscosos de la «Formación de Mués», de posible edad Sueviense (Oligoceno inferior. Por su morfología pueden asignarse a mamíferos artiodáctilos y resultan comparables a Entelodontipus, constituyendo este hallazgo una segunda cita para dicho icnogénero. En este yacimiento se constata una notable variabilidad morfológica de las huellas, resultado de la distinta penetración y desplazamiento de los autópodos en el sustrato. La presencia en Olcoz de numerosas icnitas formando rastros subparalelos permite inferir el comportamiento gregario de sus productores.

  7. Historical Review and Notes on Small Mammals (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia in Korea

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    Lee, Jeong-Boon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of small mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha and Rodentia was conducted in order to find out the scientific names which have been used in Korea. The synonymy of each species and taxonomical research was reviewed and confirmed in this study. The species names are rearranged based on recent studies. Among the various confused names, available names were adopted such as follows: C. shantungensis shantungensis known as Crocidura suaveolens; C. shantungensis quelpartis known as C. dsinezumi; Rattus tanezumi known as R. rattus, called black rat, roof rat and ship rat, respectively. Apodemus sylvaticus (Muridae, wood mouse is excluded in the checklist based on indistinct previous records and ambiguous habitation on the Korean Peninsula, and neighbors. In addition, we provide a new Korean vernacular name for Myocastor coypus, called the "Nutria" in Korea. We reflect that several species are repositioned to other genera. A checklist of Korean small mammals and synonym list for each species is provided to avoid confusion of scientific names in Korea. In this study, the list of small mammals in Korea is arranged to 33 species, 20 genera, 8 families, and 3 orders.

  8. Insectivores (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha; Mammalia) from Karydia and Komotini (Thrace, Greece; MN 4/5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doukas, C.S.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The insectivores from the Thrace locality of Karydia (MN 4) are described, as well as an erinaceid molar from thenearby locality of Komotini (MN 5). The Karydia assemblagecontains the same genera of the Greek MN 4 localityAliveri, with the addition of a shrew and of Plesiosorex. An M2 of the latter

  9. Species composition and conservation of small mammals (Mammalia: Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Lagomorpha, Rodentia in Vrachanska Planina Mountains

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    NEDKO NEDYALKOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review on the composition of the small mammals in Vrachanska Planina Mts. was completed using published and author’s data. A total of 27 species occur within the territory. All of the species found are typical for the region. The species with the highest conservation status, the European ground squirrel Spermophilus citellus, disappeared from the region in the early 1950s. In the last years activities on its recovery were carried out. We analyze the threats for the small mammals and propose conservation activities to improve their conservation status.

  10. Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia

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    von Helversen Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.

  11. The mammary glands of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia: Sirenia): morphological characteristics and microscopic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda Rosa; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-08-01

    The mammaries from carcasses of two female Amazonian manatees were examined. Trichechus inunguis possesses two axillary mammaries beneath the pectoral fins, one on each side of the body. Each papilla mammae has a small hole on its apex--the ostium papillare. The mammaries are covered by a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. The epithelium of the mammary ducts became thinner more deeply in the tissue and varied from stratified to simple cuboidal. There was no evidence of glandular activity or secretion into the ducts of the mammary glands.

  12. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species.

  13. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  14. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David S; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.

  15. A new species of Murina (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisook, Pipat; Karapan, Sunate; Satasook, Chutamas; Bates, Paul J J

    2013-12-13

    A new species of Murina belonging to 'suilla-group' is described based on two specimens collected with harp traps in lowland evergreen forest in the southernmost part of peninsular Thailand. Morphology and molecular (mitochondrial COI) data suggest that the new species is most closely related to M. eleryi, which is currently known from Indochina. The new species, however, can be distinguished by the size and shape of the upper canine, the shape of the upper and lower premolars, and the colour of the ventral pelage. Additional data on bacular morphology, echolocation, ecology, and distribution are included.

  16. Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats and primates (Mammalia: Chiroptera and Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, J D; Jamieson, B G; Robson, S K; Hall, L S; McAnally, K I; Cooper, H M

    1989-11-30

    We examine the paraphylectic hypothesis of bat origins, both in the light of previous discussions, and in the light of new evidence from our analyses of neurological traits and wing morphology. Megabats share with primates a variety of complex details in the organization of neural pathways that have not been found in any other mammalian group, particularly not in microbats. The features previously used to link microbats and megabats have been examined and found to be questionable bases for support of a monophyletic origin. In particular, morphological analyses of the musculoskeletal adaptations associated with the flight apparatus are consistent with two separate origins of the mammalian wing. Taken together, these analyses suggest that megabats evolved from an early branch of the primate lineage. This branch was comprised of moderate-sized, phytophagous gliders, of which the other living descendants are the dermopterans. Microbats, in contrast, probably evolved much earlier from small, agile insectivores whose forelimbs had long metacarpals in relation to their phalanges.

  17. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean specie...

  18. Bony labyrinth morphometry indicates locomotor adaptations in the squirrel-related clade (Rodentia, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Martin, Thomas; Ruf, Irina

    2015-06-22

    The semicircular canals (SCs) of the inner ear detect angular acceleration and are located in the bony labyrinth of the petrosal bone. Based on high-resolution computed tomography, we created a size-independent database of the bony labyrinth of 50 mammalian species especially rodents of the squirrel-related clade comprising taxa with fossorial, arboreal and gliding adaptations. Our sampling also includes gliding marsupials, actively flying bats, the arboreal tree shrew and subterranean species. The morphometric anatomy of the SCs was correlated to the locomotion mode. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the main significance for functional morphological studies has been found in the diameter of the SCs, whereas the radius of curvature is of minor interest. Additionally, we found clear differences in the bias angle of the canals between subterranean and gliding taxa, but also between sciurids and glirids. The sensitivity of the inner ear correlates with the locomotion mode, with a higher sensitivity of the SCs in fossorial species than in flying taxa. We conclude that the inner ear of flying and gliding mammals is less sensitive due to the large information flow into this sense organ during locomotion.

  19. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

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    Marques Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  20. Activity pattern of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Mammalia: Ursidae in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India

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    T. Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used information from systematic camera trapping surveys to study activity patterns of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during November 2009 to April 2010.Overall 61 independent photographs were obtained from 2600 trap nights. Sloth Bears showed bimodal peaks activities; late evening to midnight and small peak during sunrise. The mean activity time was 21:54 plus or minus 00:46 hrs. Although sloth bears were active throughout the day they exhibited reduced activity during the hottest hours of the day. Sloth Bears might have reduced their activity during the day to avoid the intense heat.Our data demonstrate that use of camera traps in documenting activity patterns can be an effective tool for identifying biological questions of sloth bear ecology for future studies.

  1. Morphological analysis of teeth in Bradypus variegates Schinz, 1825 (Mammalia, Bradypodidae

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    Priscilla Virgínio de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the sloth species, we may highlight the Bradypus variegatus, found especially in northeastern Brazil. Given the importance and scarcity of information about the digestive tract of wild animals, this article aims to describe dental morphology in this sloth species. To do this, four adult specimens, belonging to the anatomy collection of the Academic Center in Vitória de Santo Antão of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE, were used. The sloth teeth were analyzed, removed from the arch, and they underwent two techniques for hard tissue histological preparation, wear, and decalcification. The blades obtained were analyzed using optical microscopes. Sloths have 18 molariform teeth, with cusps and interdental spaces. According to histological analysis, it was noticed that teeth have no enamel, they consist of 1 thick layer of cementum and 2 layers of dentin, one outside and another inside. The pulp looks like that of human beings. The presence of a thick and vascularized periodontal ligament was also noticed between the tooth and the alveolar bone, the latter with easily identified osteons.

  2. Filling phylogenetic gaps and the biogeographic relationships of the Octodontidae (Mammalia: Hystricognathi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y; González-Wevar, Claudio A; Gallardo, Milton H; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Poulin, Elie

    2016-12-01

    Endemic to South America, octodontid rodents are remarkable by being the only mammal taxa where allotetraploidy has been documented. The taxon's extensive morpho-physiological radiation associated to niche shifts has allowed testing phylogeographic hypotheses. Using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, applied to all nominal species of octodontids, phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequences of 12S rRNA and growth hormone receptor gene are presented. Species boundaries were determined by coalescent analyses and divergence times among taxa were estimated based on mutation rates. Two main clades associated to the Andean orogenesis were recognized. The essentially western clade comprises genera Aconaemys, Octodon, Spalacopus, and Octodontomys whereas the eastern one included genera Octomys, Pipanacoctomys, Salinoctomys, and Tympanoctomys. Genetic relationships, coalescent analyses, and genetic distance supported the specific status given to Octodon pacificus and that given to Pipanacoctomys aureus as a species of Tympanoctomys. However, these analyses failed to recognize Salinoctomys loschalchalerosorum as a valid taxon considering its position within the diversity of Tympanoctomys barrerae. Although the origin of genome duplication remains contentious, the coincidence of the basal clade split with distinctive modes of karyotypic evolution across the Andes emphasizes the role of physiographic barriers and westerlies in shaping different edaphological conditions, selective grounds, and concomitantly distinct adaptations within the octodontids.

  3. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

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    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  4. Sobre o Hábito Locomotor de Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 (Mammalia: Xenungulata)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S Avilla; Lílian Paglarelli Bergqvist

    2005-01-01

    Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 é a espécie melhor conhecida da ordem Xenungulata, um grupo bastante peculiar de ungulados do Cenozóico sul-americano. Esse grupo foi proposto com base em um esqueleto quase completo descoberto na Bacia de São José de Itaboraí (Iataboraiense, Paleoceno Superior), Rio de Janeiro. Os xenungulados compreendem dois gêneros, Carodnia e Etayoa, ambos registrados apenas em sedimentos paleocênicos. Em aspectos gerais, C. vieirai caracteriza-se por seu grande t...

  5. Sobre o Hábito Locomotor de Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 (Mammalia: Xenungulata

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    Leonardo S. Avilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carodnia vieirai Paula-Couto, 1952 é a espécie melhor conhecida da ordem Xenungulata, um grupo bastante peculiar de ungulados do Cenozóico sul-americano. Esse grupo foi proposto com base em um esqueleto quase completo descoberto na Bacia de São José de Itaboraí (Iataboraiense, Paleoceno Superior, Rio de Janeiro. Os xenungulados compreendem dois gêneros, Carodnia e Etayoa, ambos registrados apenas em sedimentos paleocênicos. Em aspectos gerais, C. vieirai caracteriza-se por seu grande tamanho (em relação aos outros ungulados registrados para a Bacia de Itaboraí, por apresentar os membros anteriores mais longos que os posteriores e apoio digitígrado. Pretende-se aqui caracterizar o hábito locomotor do táxon em questão, com base em índices ecomorfológicos (usuais em estudos dessa natureza dos segmentos proximais (úmero e fêmur e médios (ulna e tíbia do esqueleto apendicular. Esses índices independem da massa corpórea. Os índices são: "Sholder moment" (ISM, indica a vantagem mecânica do músculo deltóide posterior em relação à articulação do ombro; Braquial (IBr, representa a adaptação do membro anterior a movimentos rápidos; e Habilidade fossorial (IFA, representa a capacidade fossorial do animal; e nos membros posteriores -Crural (IC, que sugere a capacidade de cursorialidade. Os membros anteriores de C. vieirai apresentam valores de ISM e IFA relativamente baixos (57.83 e 37.81, respectivamente, indicando um investimento menor em força no membro em questão, com valor de IBr relativamente alto (71.86 que também corrobora esse padrão, sugerindo um investimento em rapidez no movimento do membro anterior. Já, o IC do membro posterior sugere uma menor cursorialidade (50.11. Comparando esses resultados com índices registrados para diversos mamíferos de grande porte (massa: 80kg , o único a possuir valores similares seria o elefante africano Loxodonta africana (IBr=70.93; IFA=31.14; e IC=55.14. Apesar do tamanho, o elefante africano é bastante ágil, e ocupa diversos tipos de ambientes, desde florestas fechadas, savanas, pântanos, "thornbush" (tipo de caatinga africana e semi-desertos. O tipo de locomoção realizado por L. africana (homolateral, onde os membros anteriores e posteriores são sincrônicos na passada e com três patas sempre apoiadas no solo parece ter sido a solução encontrada em diversos grupos de vertebrados para otimizar valores de massa altos e habilidade de locomoção Apesar das diferenças anatômicas gerais dos membros de L. africana e C. vieirai, os índices suportam uma similaridade de hábitos locomotores (cursoriais homolaterais.

  6. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae in Brazil

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    Vicente J Júlio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari.

  7. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J J; Muniz-Pereira, L C; Noronha, D; Pinto, R M

    2000-01-01

    Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari).

  8. Galictis cuja (Mammalia: an update of current knowledge and geographic distribution

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    Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lesser grison (Galictis cuja is one of the least-known mustelids in the Neotropics, despite its broad range across South America. This study aimed to explore current knowledge of the distribution of the species to identify gaps in knowledge and anticipate its full geographic distribution. Eighty-nine articles have mentioned G. cuja since 1969, but only 13 focused on the species. We generated a detailed model of the species' potential distribution that validated previous maps, but with improved detail, supporting previous southernmost records, and providing a means of identifying priority sites for conservation and management of the species.

  9. Osteology and Functional Morphology of the Hind Limb of the Marine Sloth Thalassocnus (Mammalia, Tardigrada)

    OpenAIRE

    Amson, Eli; Argot, Christine; McDonald, H. Gregory; de Muizon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The anatomy of the skeletal elements of the hind limb of Thalassocnus is described. This genus of “ground sloth” comprises five species represented by Neogene specimens from the coast of Peru and Chile, mostly found in the Pisco Formation. The hind limb of the genus Thalassocnus as a whole is characterized by a small iliac wing, a gracile femur with well-formed femoral neck, teardrop shaped patella, long and slender tibia, triangular tuber calcis, and proximal developm...

  10. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

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    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.

  11. Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizirik, E; Kim, J H; Menotti-Raymond, M; Crawshaw, P G; O'Brien, S J; Johnson, W E

    2001-01-01

    The jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest felid in the American Continent, is currently threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and human persecution. We have investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of jaguars across their geographical range by analysing 715 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 29 microsatellite loci in approximately 40 individuals sampled from Mexico to southern Brazil. Jaguars display low to moderate levels of mtDNA diversity and medium to high levels of microsatellite size variation, and show evidence of a recent demographic expansion. We estimate that extant jaguar mtDNA lineages arose 280 000-510 000 years ago (95% CI 137 000-830 000 years ago), a younger date than suggested by available fossil data. No strong geographical structure was observed, in contrast to previously proposed subspecific partitions. However, major geographical barriers such as the Amazon river and the Darien straits between northern South America and Central America appear to have restricted historical gene flow in this species, producing measurable genetic differentiation. Jaguars could be divided into four incompletely isolated phylogeographic groups, and further sampling may reveal a finer pattern of subdivision or isolation by distance on a regional level. Operational conservation units for this species can be defined on a biome or ecosystem scale, but should take into account the historical barriers to dispersal identified here. Conservation strategies for jaguars should aim to maintain high levels of gene flow over broad geographical areas, possibly through active management of disconnected populations on a regional scale.

  12. Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae from the Pleistocene of Brazil

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    Dimila Mothé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Sipson and Paula-Couto (1957, and developed a orphoetric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event.O registro fossilífero do Quaternário de Águas de Araxá (QAA é representado principalmente pelo acúmulo de restos dentários e de esqueleto de diversos tamanhos, atribuídos a uma população pretérita do mastodonte Stegomastodon waringi. Foram analisados 97 molares de acordo com os estágios de desgaste propostos por Simpson e Paula-Couto 1957, e desenvolveu-se um índice morfométrico de desgaste. A estrutura populacional (proporção entre indivíduos imaturos, subadultos, adultos, adultos maduros e adultos senis foi identificada e comparada com populações de elefantes atuais. Foi possível estabelecer que esta população era amplamente composta por adultos: 14,89% eram indivíduos imaturos; 23,04% eram subadultos; 27,65% eram adultos; 17,21% eram adultos maduros e outros 17,21% eram adultos senis. Baseados na estrutura populacional observada, não se descartou a possibilidade desta população estar estável ou em recuperação e/ou de ter passado por um período de predação dos indivíduos mais jovens. O número de indivíduos encontrados nesta população sugere que esta ocupava um ambiente aberto, de acordo com comparações com populações de elefantes atuais. Considerou-se a assembléia de mastodontes do Quaternário de Águas de Araxá como uma agregação de unidades familiares, o que sugere um momento de baixa umidade ambiental. Baseados em literatura e nos resultados encontrados, a sua extinção parece ser regional e possivelmente relacionada a um evento catastrófico.

  13. On the relationship between enamel band complexity and occlusal surface area in Equids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla

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    Nicholas A. Famoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enamel patterns on the occlusal surfaces of equid teeth are asserted to have tribal-level differences. The most notable example compares the Equini and Hipparionini, where Equini have higher crowned teeth with less enamel-band complexity and less total occlusal enamel than Hipparionini. Whereas previous work has successfully quantified differences in enamel band shape by dividing the length of enamel band by the square root of the occlusal surface area (Occlusal Enamel Index, OEI, it was clear that OEI only partially removes the effect of body size. Because enamel band length scales allometrically, body size still has an influence on OEI, with larger individuals having relatively longer enamel bands than smaller individuals. Fractal dimensionality (D can be scaled to any level, so we have used it to quantify occlusal enamel complexity in a way that allows us to get at an accurate representation of the relationship between complexity and body size. To test the hypothesis of tribal-level complexity differences between Equini and Hipparionini, we digitally traced a sample of 98 teeth, one tooth per individual; 31 Hipparionini and 67 Equini. We restricted our sampling to the P3-M2 to reduce the effect of tooth position. After calculating the D of these teeth with the fractal box method which uses the number of boxes of various sizes to calculate the D of a line, we performed a t-test on the individual values of D for each specimen, comparing the means between the two tribes, and a phylogenetically informed generalized least squares regression (PGLS for each tribe with occlusal surface area as the independent variable and D as the dependent variable. The slopes of both PGLS analyses were compared using a t-test to determine if the same linear relationship existed between the two tribes. The t-test between tribes was significant (p < 0.0001, suggesting different D populations for each lineage. The PGLS for Hipparionini was a positive but not significant (p = 0.4912 relationship between D and occlusal surface area, but the relationship for Equini was significantly negative (p = 0.0177. λ was 0 for both tests, indicating no important phylogenetic signal is present in the relationship between these two characters, thus the PGLS collapses down to a non-phylogenetic generalized least squares (GLS model. The t-test comparing the slopes of the regressions was not significant, indicating that the two lineages could have the same relationship between D and occlusal surface area. Our results suggest that the two tribes have the same negative relationship between D and occlusal surface area but the Hipparionini are offset to higher values than the Equini. This offset reflects the divergence between the two lineages since their last common ancestor and may have constrained their ability to respond to environmental change over the Neogene, leading to the differential survival of the Equini.

  14. Sexual dimorphism of the internal mandibular chamber in Fayum Pliohyracidae (Mammalia)

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    de Blieux, D.D.; Baumrind, M.R.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.; Meyer, G.E.; Attia, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    An internal mandibular fenestra and chamber are found in many fossil hyracoids. The internal mandibular fenestra is located on the lingual surface of the mandibular corpus and opens into a chamber within the mandible. The mandibular chamber is maximally developed in late Eocene Thyrohyrax meyeri and early Oligocene Thyrohyrax domorictus from the Fayum Province of Egypt. The function of this chamber is unknown as it is not found in extant hyraxes, nor is it known to occur in any other mammal. In Thyrohyrax, this feature appears to be sexually dimorphic because it is confined to roughly one half of the specimens that otherwise cannot be separated by dental characteristics or measurements. It has been suggested that the chamber is found in females based on the presumed distribution of this character in other fossil hyracoids. Fossils from Fayum Quarry L-41, preserving the sexually dimorphic anterior dentition, show that, in Thyrohyrax meyeri and Thyrohyrax domorictus, the internal mandibular chamber is found in males. In Thyrohyrax litholagus, an internal mandibular fenestra and inflated mandibular chamber occurs in males whereas females show the variable presence of an internal mandibular fossa or fenestra but lack an expanded chamber. Other genera show differing patterns of sexual variation in which some Fayum hyracoids have an internal mandibular fenestra in both sexes but with the greatest development of the mandibular chamber occurring in males. We review functions proposed for the internal mandibular chamber and suggest that it housed a laryngeal air sac that may have had a vocal function by acting as a resonating chamber. ?? 2006 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  15. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  16. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  17. Crocidura sicula Miller, 1900 (Mammalia, Soricidae: a possible new record from Comino island (Maltese Islands

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    Giovanni Amori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Crocidura sicula Miller, 1900 is reported for the first time from the Comino island. Two specimenswere obtained from the analysis of Long-eared Owl Asio otus (Linnaeus, 1758 pellets.

  18. Note on the Giant Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in northern Pakistan

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    Jaffar Ud Din

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Woolly Gliding Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus is an extremely rare, localized, and endangered mammal and may constitute one of the endemic species of Pakistan. The species was rediscovered in northern Pakistan in the mid-1990s after a 70-year absence of records. All the previous information regarding this giant squirrel was limited to museum specimens, collected mostly from areas presently in northern Pakistan in the late 1800s. Sighting of the species is extremely challenging owing to its nocturnal behavior, low densities and the inhospitable terrain it is reported from. Here we report detailed information about the species collected during the rescue of a young male individual from Gilgit City followed by its successful release in its natural habitat. We report that the species is still facing human-induced threats and may disappear from the mountains of northern Pakistan if informed management measures are not taken. Moreover, the occurrence of the species outside its core distribution range, i.e., districts Gilgit and Diamer, still remains questionable; therefore, it is recommended that further in-depth research studies be undertaken to determine the status of the species across the entire reported range. 

  19. Cutaneous eccrine glands of the foot pads of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis, Hyracoidea, mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpf, P; Welsch, U

    2002-01-01

    In order to find correlations between skin gland morphology and specific ethological features, the cutaneous glands of the foot pads of Procavia capensis were studied by histological and various histochemical methods and by electron microscopy. In the foot pads, abundant specific eccrine skin glands occur, which consist of coiled tubular secretory portions and coiled ducts. The wall of the secretory part is composed of cuboidal glandular cells and myoepithelial cells. Among the glandular cell...

  20. Cutaneous eccrine glands of the foot pads of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis, Hyracoidea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, P; Welsch, U

    2002-01-01

    In order to find correlations between skin gland morphology and specific ethological features, the cutaneous glands of the foot pads of Procavia capensis were studied by histological and various histochemical methods and by electron microscopy. In the foot pads, abundant specific eccrine skin glands occur, which consist of coiled tubular secretory portions and coiled ducts. The wall of the secretory part is composed of cuboidal glandular cells and myoepithelial cells. Among the glandular cells two types occur: clear and dark cells. Clear cells have numerous mitochondria and form a basal labyrinth, indicating fluid transport. Dark cells, which stain strongly with periodic acid-Schiff, contain a highly developed perinuclear Golgi apparatus, large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and many secretory granules indicating production of glycoproteins. Cytokeratin (CK) 19 was found in secretory compartments and ducts, CK14 only in duct cells. Single cells of the secretory coils and ducts may be stained with antibodies against antimicrobial peptides. Some glandular cells contain proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei especially in the ducts indicating an increased cell proliferation. Terminal transferase (TdT)-mediated d-UTP nick-end labeling-positive nuclei can be detected predominantly in the secretory coils and rarely in the transitional portions between ducts and end pieces. We suppose that proliferating cells migrate from the ducts to the secretory coils. The secretory product of the eccrine cutaneous glands seems to improve the traction between the foot pads of these animals and the steep and smooth rock formations among which they live.

  1. Functional anatomy of the calcaneum and talus in Cercopithecinae (Mammalia, Primates, Cercopithecidae

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    Pina, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of the order Primates exist a huge variety of forms and habitats. This heterogeneity has encouraged the evolution and development of a great number of locomotor adaptations to different environments. Thus, nowadays there are both arboreal and terrestrial groups within the order. The subfamily Cercopithecinae present taxa with both kinds of locomotor behaviours, although the most of them are adapted to a ground life-style. This group probably has an arboreal ancestor and its radiation is relatively recent. Consequently, species belonged to this group present mixed features or sometimes not too much derived ones. Likewise, it is important the fact that the evolutionary history and phylogeny of the group could influence in some characteristics. Both the calcaneum and the talus are two of the largest bones of the foot and are good for inferring the kind of locomotion. For this reason, it has been used these two tarsal bones to study the morphology of eight species of cercopithecines and then deduce functional implications of the kind of locomotion.

    Dentro del orden Primates existe una gran variedad de especies distribuidas a lo largo de hábitats muy diversos. Dicha heterogeneidad ha fomentado la evolución y desarrollo de un gran número de adaptaciones locomotoras a los diferentes ambientes en los que habitan. Así, existen en la actualidad tanto grupos arborícolas como terrestres. La subfamilia Cercopithecinae agrupa una serie de taxones que representan ambos comportamientos locomotores, aunque la mayoría de las especies están adaptadas a una vida en el suelo. Se supone que este grupo desciende de un ancestro arborícola y que su radiación es relativamente reciente. En consecuencia, las especies de este grupo presentan características mixtas o poco derivadas en algunas ocasiones. Asimismo, es importante tener en cuenta la influencia que la herencia filogenética puede tener sobre alguno de estos rasgos. El calcáneo y el astrágalo son dos de los huesos más grandes del pie y ambos son buenos indicadores del tipo de locomoción. Por este motivo, se han utilizado estos dos tarsales para llevar a cabo el estudio de la morfología de ocho especies de cercopitecoideos, de tal manera que luego se ha podido hacer una serie de inferencias funcionales en cuanto al tipo de locomocón de las mismas.

  2. A late-surviving apatemyid (Mammalia: Apatotheria from the latest Oligocene of Florida, USA

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    Nicholas J. Czaplewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Apatemyidae, Sinclairella simplicidens, is based on four isolated teeth that were screenwashed from fissure fillings at the late Oligocene Buda locality, Alachua County, Florida. Compared to its only congener Sinclairella dakotensis, the new species is characterized by upper molars with more simplified crowns, with the near absence of labial shelves and stylar cusps except for a strong parastyle on M1, loss of paracrista and paraconule on M2 (paraconule retained but weak on M1, lack of anterior cingulum on M1–M3, straighter centrocristae, smaller hypocone on M1 and M2, larger hypocone on M3, distal edge of M2 continuous from hypocone to postmetacrista supporting a large posterior basin, and with different tooth proportions in which M2 is the smallest rather than the largest molar in the toothrow. The relatively rare and poorly-known family Apatemyidae has a long temporal range in North America from the late Paleocene (early Tiffanian to early Oligocene (early Arikareean. The new species from Florida significantly extends this temporal range by roughly 5 Ma to the end of the Paleogene near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (from early Arikareean, Ar1, to late Arikareean, Ar3, and greatly extends the geographic range of the family into eastern North America some 10° of latitude farther south and 20° of longitude farther east (about 2,200 km farther southeast than previously known. This late occurrence probably represents a retreat of this subtropically adapted family into the Gulf Coastal Plain subtropical province at the end of the Paleogene and perhaps the end of the apatemyid lineage in North America.

  3. Macro y Microparásitos Descritos para la Familia Tayassuidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro E Navas-Suárez; Diego Soler-Tovar; Olga Montenegro; Nestor Roncancio; Jimena Cortés; Contreras, J.

    2014-01-01

    Los pecaríes pertenecen a la familia Tayassuidae‚ aunque por sus características morfológicas suelen ser confundidos con porcinos (Familia: Suidae); son conocidas tres especies: el pecarí del Chaco (Catagonus wagneri) en peligro de extinción según la lista roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN)‚ distribuido en Bolivia‚ Paraguay y Argentina; pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu) de preocupación menor (UICN) y distribución desde el sur de Estados Unidos hasta el ...

  4. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  5. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  6. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans.

  7. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: Support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, A.T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, R.K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n = 56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n = 48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n = 20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  8. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, A T; O'Brien, P C M; Fu, B; Bonde, R K; Elder, F F B; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Yang, F; Robinson, T J

    2007-05-22

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n=56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n=48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n=20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events.

  9. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    OpenAIRE

    Pardini, A.T; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B; Bonde, R. K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Yang, F.; Robinson, T J

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions o...

  10. The effect of daytime rain on the Indian Flying Fox (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae Pteropus giganteus

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    S. Baskaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight.  Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day.  When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements.  After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws.  They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree.  Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur.  The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation. 

  11. PROPOTAMOCHOERUS SP. (SUIDAE, MAMMALIA FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF GRAVITELLI (MESSINA, SICILY, ITALY REDISCOVERED

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    GIANNI GALLAI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two casts of a suid from the Late Miocene of Gravitelli (Messina, Sicily, originally described by Seguenza in 1902. The entire Gravitelli faunal collection was lost in the early 1900¡¦s. The recent rediscovery of two casts in the collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Florence represent the only available material from this locality (in addition to the original description and illustration by Seguenza. The study of these casts allow a revision of the Gravitelli suid and its attribution to the genus Propotamochoerus. Although a specific determination is not possible, we suggest probable affinities with the species P. hysudricus or P. provincialis.

  12. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

    2011-02-01

    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

  13. Macroscopic study of the digestive tract of Gracilinanus microtarsus (Wagner, 1842 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Luis Miguel Lobo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gracilinanus microtarsus is a small marsupial species belonging to the Didelphidae family. It has an omnivorous/frugivorous feeding habit and, therefore, it has a great ecological importance, because it is a seed-dispersing species. This article aims to describe the macroscopic morphology of the digestive tract in G. microtarsus. We used 4 animals fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The organs were dissected, measured, and photographed. The animals under study had the dental formula 2x I 5/4 C 1/1 P 3/3 M 4/4. This is the dental formula of the whole Didelphidae family. The dorsum of the tongue had vallate, fungiform, and filiform papillae. Tubular esophagus evidenced the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal portions. The unicavitary stomach consisted of glandular and aglandular region and gastric folds. Small intestine had 3 portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Large intestine consisted of: cecum, colon, and rectum. Parotid salivary gland was the largest and it had a flattened shape. The sublingual salivary gland, whi h was the smallest, had a flattened and elongated shape. Mandibular salivary gland had an oval shape. Pancreas had a dispersed shape and lobulated aspect. Liver had a dome shape and it consisted of the lobes right medial, square, right side, left medial, left side, and caudate. The digestive tract of the animals under study is similar to the marsupial species described in the literature.

  14. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

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    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  15. A new species of Gobiconodon (Triconodonta, Mammalia) and its implication for the age of Jehol Biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new species of Gobiconodon is found from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China. The new taxa, G. zofiae sp. nov., has a confluent opening for branches Ⅱ and Ⅲ of the trigeminal nerve on the anterior lamina of the petrosal. G. zofiae sp. nov. is similar to Repenomamus in having an ossified Meckel's cartilage connecting the lower jaws and ear region. The new species, with enlarged I1/I1, posteriorly located infraorbital foramen and four mental foramina, distinctly differs from the other species of Gobiconodon. The new material indicates that Gobiconodon has four, not five, upper molariforms. The presence of Gobiconodon in Jehol Biota makes it possible to correlate Jehol Biota with faunas in eastern Asia and North America, and suggests the age of the Yixian Formation to be Early Cretaceous.

  16. LATE PLEISTOCENE RODENTS (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA FROM THE BARANICA CAVE NEAR KNJAZEVAC (EASTERN SERBIA: SYSTEMATICS AND PALAEOECOLOGY

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    KATARINA BOGICEVIC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Baranica is a cave in the Balkan mountain range in the eastern part of Serbia. It contains four layers of sediments of Quaternary age. The Upper Pleistocene deposits (layers 2-4 have yielded a rich and diverse assemblage of vertebrate fauna, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. In this work, preliminary results of a study of the rodent fauna from the Upper Pleistocene deposits of the Baranica Cave (Knjazevac, eastern Serbia are presented. The fossil material comes from the 1995 archaeological excavation. The remains of 10 rodent species are described herein: Spermophilus cf. citelloides, Castor fiber, Sicista subtilis, Cricetulus migratorius, Cricetus cricetus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Apodemus ex gr. sylvaticus-flavicollis, Spalax leucodon, Dryomys nitedula, and Muscardinus avellanarius. Along with eight vole species, this makes altogether 18 species of rodents found in this locality. Both layers 2 and 4 (layer 3 is very poor in fossils have yielded a rodent fauna typical for the cold periods of the Late Pleistocene on the Balkan Peninsula, with a prevalence of open and steppe inhabitants, but some forest dwellers were also present. The assemblages from these layers are similar, but there are some differences in the composition of the fauna, which may indicate a slight shift towards drier conditions. They have also been compared to rodent associations from some Serbian and Bulgarian localities of the same age and their similarities and differences are discussed. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  17. Spatial use of rodents (Rodentia: Mammalia host body surface by ectoparasites

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    E. B. BITTENCOURT

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasite and the Amblyopinini beetle fauna associated with four small mammal species of the Atlantic Rainforest of Ilha Grande, an island located off the southern Rio de Janeiro State Coast, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing to what extent the parasites were specific to each region of the host body. During the study, a total of 90 individual rodents were captured: 61 Proechimys iheringi Thomas, 1911 (Echymyidae, 22 Sciurus aestuans (Thomas, 1901 (Sciuridae, 4 Oxymycterus sp. (Waterhouse, 1837, and 2 Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 (Sigmodontinae. The data showed that the ectoparasites and Amblyopinini on some rodent hosts in Ilha Grande tend to prefer particular host body sites, and that some ectoparasite species sites may overlap owing to their inaccessibility to the host.

  18. Estado del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Canidae en el Perú

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    Elena Vivar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se sustenta la presencia del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 en la costa sur del Perú en base a información morfológica externa y craneal. Esta especie es de similar tamaño a L. sechurae (Thomas, 1900 pero diferenciable en una mayor longitud del hocico y menor amplitud del cráneo; esta diferencia es respaldada en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Se sugiere que la población del zorro gris en el Perú podría constituir una subespecie nueva de L. griseus por encontrarse más al norte de su distribución tradicionalmente conocida y separada de otras subespecies por el Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile, notable barrera biogeográfica.

  19. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  20. The first record of Deinotherium (Proboscidea, Mammalia) in the Miocene of Adygea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K K; Lopatin, A V; Maschenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    The data on an isolated upper tooth (P4) of Deinotherium sp. from the Late Miocene beds of the Maikop 1 locality (Maikop, Republic of Adygea) are reported. This is the first record of Deinotherium from the Upper Miocene of Russia. The tooth crown of P4 is similar in size to D. proavum Eichwald, 1831 (= D. gigantissimum Stefanescu, 1892).