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Sample records for carnivora mammalia assessed

  1. Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange.

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    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-06-01

    The Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) have played a central role in resolving the controversial systematics of the giant and red pandas, but phylogenetic relationships of species within the family itself have received much less attention. Cladistic analyses of morphological characters conducted during the last two decades have resulted in topologies that group ecologically and morphologically similar taxa together. Specifically, the highly arboreal and frugivorous kinkajou (Potos flavus) and olingos (Bassaricyon) define one clade, whereas the more terrestrial and omnivorous coatis (Nasua), raccoons (Procyon), and ringtails (Bassariscus) define another clade, with the similar-sized Nasua and Procyon joined as sister taxa in this latter group. These relationships, however, have not been tested with molecular sequence data. We examined procyonid phylogenetics based on combined data from nine nuclear and two mitochondrial gene segments totaling 6534bp. We were able to fully resolve relationships within the family with strongly supported and congruent results from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analyses. We identified three distinct lineages within the family: a (Nasua, Bassaricyon) clade, a (Bassariscus, Procyon) clade, and a Potos lineage, the last of which is sister to the other two clades. These findings, which are in strong disagreement with prior fossil and morphology-based assessments of procyonid relationships, reemphasize the morphological and ecological flexibility of these taxa. In particular, morphological similarities between unrelated genera possibly reflect convergence associated with similar lifestyles and diets rather than ancestry. Furthermore, incongruence between the molecular supermatrix and a morphological character matrix comprised mostly of dental characters [Baskin, J.A., 2004. Bassariscus and Probassariscus (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) from the early Barstovian (Middle Miocene). J. Vert. Paleo. 24

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the masked palm civet (Paguma larvata, Mammalia, Carnivora).

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    Zhang, Dan; Xu, Liwen; Bu, Hongliang; Wang, Di; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the masked palm civet (Paguma larvata, Mammalia, Carnivora) is a circular molecule of 16 710 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region. The features of the mitochondrial genome of the masked palm civet are similar to the other mammals. The phylogenetic analysis shows that all species from the family Viverridae cluster together, in which P. larvata exhibits the closest relationship with Genetta servalina. PMID:26403137

  3. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

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    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  4. A new amphicyonid (Mammalia, Carnivora, Amphicyonidae) from the late middle Miocene of northern Thailand and a review of the amphicyonine record in Asia

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    Peigné, Stéphane; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Recent field research conducted in the middle Miocene basin of Mae Moh, northern Thailand, allow discovering dental remains of a new amphicyonid (Mammalia, Carnivora, Amphicyonidae). A thorough comparison with all known Asian and non-Asian Miocene genera of Amphicyonidae supports the assignment of these specimens to a new amphicyonine, Maemohcyon potisati gen. et sp. nov. We propose the first review of the fossil record of the Amphicyoninae and we discuss the possible geographic origin and phylogenetic relationships of this new taxon. It appears that Maemohcyon does not have close relationships with contemporary ( Amphicyon, Pseudocyon, Ischyrocyon, Pliocyon) or earlier ( Ictiocyon, Pseudarctos, Cynelos, Ysengrinia) genera. We suggest that the Maemohcyon lineage probably arrived much earlier than 13 Ma (age of Mae Moh fauna) and evolved in this insulated region until the late middle Miocene.

  5. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  6. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia: a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates

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    Nyakatura Katrin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has proven to be an important foundation for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age. Additional, largely molecular sequence data are now available for many species and the advancement of computer technology means that many of the limitations of the original analysis can now be avoided. We therefore sought to provide an updated estimate of the phylogenetic relationships within all extant Carnivora, again using supertree analysis to be able to analyze as much of the global phylogenetic database for the group as possible. Results In total, 188 source trees were combined, representing 114 trees from the literature together with 74 newly constructed gene trees derived from nearly 45,000 bp of sequence data from GenBank. The greater availability of sequence data means that the new supertree is almost completely resolved and also better reflects current phylogenetic opinion (for example, supporting a monophyletic Mephitidae, Eupleridae and Prionodontidae; placing Nandinia binotata as sister to the remaining Feliformia. Following an initial rapid radiation, diversification rate analyses indicate a downturn in the net speciation rate within the past three million years as well as a possible increase some 18.0 million years ago; numerous diversification rate shifts within the order were also identified. Conclusions Together, the two carnivore supertrees remain the only complete phylogenetic estimates for all extant species and the new supertree, like the old one, will form a key tool in helping us to further understand the biology of this charismatic group of carnivores.

  7. Ancestral state reconstruction of body size in the Caniformia (Carnivora, Mammalia): the effects of incorporating data from the fossil record.

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    Finarelli, John A; Flynn, John J

    2006-04-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the mammalian order Carnivora implied large body size as the ancestral condition for the caniform subclade Arctoidea using the distribution of species mean body sizes among living taxa. "Extant taxa-only" approaches such as these discount character state observations for fossil members of living clades and completely ignore data from extinct lineages. To more rigorously reconstruct body sizes of ancestral forms within the Caniformia, body size and first appearance data were collected for 149 extant and 367 extinct taxa. Body sizes were reconstructed for four ancestral nodes using weighted squared-change parsimony on log-transformed body mass data. Reconstructions based on extant taxa alone favored large body sizes (on the order of 10 to 50 kg) for the last common ancestors of both the Caniformia and Arctoidea. In contrast, reconstructions incorporating fossil data support small body sizes (fossil data was discarded, body size reconstructions became ambiguous, demonstrating that incorporating both character state and temporal information from fossil taxa unambiguously supports a small ancestral body size, thereby falsifying hypotheses derived from extant taxa alone. Body size reconstructions for Caniformia, Arctoidea, and Musteloidea were not sensitive to potential errors introduced by uncertainty in the position of extinct lineages relative to the molecular topology, or to missing body size data for extinct members of an entire major clade (the aquatic Pinnipedia). Incorporating character state observations and temporal information from the fossil record into hypothesis testing has a significant impact on the ability to reconstruct ancestral characters and constrains the range of potential hypotheses of character evolution. Fossil data here provide the evidence to reliably document trends of both increasing and decreasing body size in several caniform clades. More generally, including fossils in such analyses incorporates evidence of

  8. A preliminary baseline status of the Syrian Brown Bear Ursus arctos syriacus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Golestanak, Northern Iran

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    Mohammad Sadegh Farhadinia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline information is lacking for the Syrian Brown Bear across the sub-species range, making it difficult to assess at any level.  In the present investigation, our goal was to illustrate the population status of the Brown Bear in the Golestanak area, northern Iran, based on field surveys we conducted during the summers of 2011 and 2012.  We counted a total of 30 and 21 bears in two consecutive years, with family groups consisting of more than half of the identified individuals.  Sub-adults had the lowest contribution among the observed individuals, just below 10%, which may be due to their high dispersal behaviour to avoid adults.  Our results provide a foundation for future systematic baseline investigations on the population status of the brown bear in northern Iran, which can be used in management programs.  Aside from improving monitoring efforts within key habitats of the species, enhancing conservation efforts to secure the population is essential to safeguard this female core area. 

  9. A new basal caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora from the middle Eocene of North America and remarks on the phylogeny of early carnivorans.

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    Susumu Tomiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive. Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans. The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. hutchisoni as a basal caniform carnivoran, and placed (1 Tapocyon robustus, Quercygale angustidens, "Miacis" sylvestris, "M." uintensis, and "M." gracilis inside or outside the Carnivora, (2 nimravids within the Feliformia, and (3 the amphicyonid Daphoenus outside the crown-group Canoidea. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium (neither condition is observed in L. hutchisoni are not associated with the origin of the Carnivora as traditionally thought, but instead occurred independently in the Caniformia and the Feliformia. A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. hutchisoni, and the postcranial morphology suggests a scansorial habit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty

  10. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae).

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    Tchaicka, Ligia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E; Wayne, Robert K; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  11. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae)

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    Tchaicka, Ligia; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena; Bager, Alex; Vidal, Stela Luengos; Lucherini, Mauro; Iriarte, Agustín; Novaro, Andres; Geffen, Eli; Garcez, Fabricio Silva; Johnson, Warren E.; Wayne, Robert K.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago) Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus. PMID:27560989

  12. An ecological assessment of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae in Manas National Park, Assam, India

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    Naba K. Nath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the tall grassland habitat of Manas National Park, Assam during 2009–2010 is the first detailed assessment in northeastern India.  We assessed the status, distribution, habitat use and key threats to this rare and little studied lagomorph species.  After interviewing local forest staff, 20 grassland patches within a survey area of 2.65ha were selected and transects (50x2 m laid randomly to determine the presence/absence of Hispid Hare by recording pellets and other indirect evidence.  Hare presence was recorded in 17 grassland patches within transects dominated by Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum narenga.  Hispid Hare preferred dry savannah grasslands to wet alluvial grasslands during winter and avoided recently burned patches due to lack of cover and food.  The distribution pattern observed was clumped (s2/a = 6.2, with more evidence of Hispid Hare presence in areas where ground cover was dense, dry and away from water sources. Population density was estimated at 381.55 individuals/km2, which in comparison with other studies indicates that Manas National Park currently holds the highest density of Hispid Hare.  Habitat loss due to overgrazing, unsustainable thatch harvesting, burning of grassland, weed invasion, encroachment and hunting were identified as key threats which must be addressed to ensure survival of this threatened species in the Park.  

  13. Comparative molecular phylogeny and evolution of sex chromosome DNA sequences in the family Canidae (Mammalia: Carnivora).

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    Tsubouchi, Ayako; Fukui, Daisuke; Ueda, Miya; Tada, Kazumi; Toyoshima, Shouji; Takami, Kazutoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Uraguchi, Kohji; Raichev, Evgeniy; Kaneko, Yayoi; Tsunoda, Hiroshi; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family Canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the Y chromosome (ZFY, 924-1146 bp) and its homologous gene on the X chromosome (ZFX, 834-839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. The phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal ZFY sequences closely agreed with those by mtDNA and autosomal DNA trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between the wolf-like canids clade and the South American canids clade. However, the branching order of some species differed between phylogenies of ZFY and ZFX genes: Cuon alpinus and Canis mesomelas were included in the wolf-like canid clades in the ZFY tree, whereas both species were clustered in a group of Chrysocyon brachyurus and Speothos venaticus in the ZFX tree. The topology difference between ZFY and ZFX trees may have resulted from the two-times higher substitution rate of the former than the latter, which was clarified in the present study. In addition, two types of transposable element sequence (SINE-I and SINE-II) were found to occur in the ZFY final intron of the twelve canid species examined. Because the SINE-I sequences were shared by all the species, they may have been inserted into the ZFY of the common ancestor before species radiation in Canidae. By contract, SINE-II found in only Canis aureus could have been inserted into ZFY independently after the speciation. The molecular diversity of SINE sequences of Canidae reflects evolutionary history of the species radiation. PMID:22379982

  14. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

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    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology.

  15. A Study on Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey

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    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; YİĞİT, Nuri; Sözen, Mustafa

    1999-01-01

    In this study, five specimens of Mustela nivalis collected from five localities in Turkey were examined based on karyological, morphological, bacular and some ecological aspects. The karyotype of M. nivalis has 2n=42, NFa=72 and FN=76. The baculum seems to be similar to that of specimens of M. nivalis dinniki from Erivan (Armenia).

  16. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

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    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-04-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  17. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae) in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

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    S. Prerna; Advait Edgaonkar; Yogesh Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%), vegetative matter (24.38%), Chital (21.61%), Nilgai (9.57%), rodent (1.54%), birds (1.23%), Sambar (0.62%) and Wild Pig (0.31%) were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential ...

  18. Diet composition of Golden Jackals Canis aureus (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small enclosed area.

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    S. Prerna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of Golden Jackals were estimated by an analysis of 200 scats in Van Vihar National Park, India, a small park of 4.45km2 with a very high density of jackals and ungulates.  A total of 10 items including fruits (40.74%, vegetative matter (24.38%, Chital (21.61%, Nilgai (9.57%, rodent (1.54%, birds (1.23%, Sambar (0.62% and Wild Pig (0.31% were consumed.  We estimated relative biomass consumption for the top potential ungulate prey and found that for every 100kg of potential prey killed by jackals, 89.4kg came from Chital and 10.6kg came from Nilgai calves.  The impact that predation can have on the ungulate population in an enclosed area is discussed. 

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

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    Fabiana Lopes Rocha

    Full Text Available Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis' isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores' literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTU's, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.

  1. EVOLUTION OF CRANIAL CAVITIES IN GIANT PANDAS( AILUROPODA, CARNIVORA, MAMMALIA )%大熊猫颅内腔的演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董为; 张觉非

    2011-01-01

    描述比较了早更新世大熊猫小种(Ailuropoda microta)、晚更新世大熊猫巴氏种(A.baconi)、现生大熊猫(A.melanoleuca)和北极熊(Ursus maritimus)的虚拟三维颅内模.大熊猫脑窝内模的形态在小种、巴氏种和现生种之间大致相似,而与北极熊区分明显.大熊猫的脑窝内模容积从小种到巴氏种呈增大趋势,但从巴氏种到现生种呈减小趋势.大熊猫的大脑沟回在脑窝内模上留下的印痕非常明显,并从小种经巴氏种到现生种则呈稳定增长趋势.相反,北极熊的大脑沟回在脑窝内模上留下的印痕不明显,而血管印痕在脑窝枕区的两侧很明显.嗅球窝内模腹部的纵沟在大熊猫小种发育,在巴氏种较弱,在大熊猫现生种几乎不存在,而在北极熊较发育.大熊猫的脑量商在小种、巴氏种和现生种之间差别不大,但大熊猫的脑量商明显大于北极熊.大熊猫的副鼻窦在小种、巴氏种和现生种之间的差别不大,但与北极熊差别较大.大熊猫的额窦很长、较高、背侧脊形,而北极熊的额窦长度相对较短、高度较低、宽度稍大、背侧平缓.大熊猫的上颌窦较宽,而北极熊的则较窄.大熊猫的蝶窦很小,而北极熊的则较大,覆盖在脑腔前侧.大熊猫这3个不同时期的种与北极熊在颅内腔上这些明显的差异支持将大熊猫从熊科中独立出来的分类.%Three-dimensional virtual cranial endocasts of the Early Pleistocene Ailuropocla microta, the late Pleistocene A. baconi, extant A. melanoleuca and Ursus maritimus were described and compared.The morphologies of cranial endocasts of giant pandas are generally similar to each other, but quite different from that of the polar bear. The intracranial volumes appear the smallest in A. microta, intermediate in A. melanoleuca, and the largest in A. baconi. The sulci and gyri impressions are developed on cranial endocasts of the giant pandas, more so in A. rnelanoleuca than in A. microta. On the contrary,they are not developed on the cranial endocast of the polar bear, but the blood vessel impressions are developed on the lateral occipital sides in the polar bears. The ventral longitudinal groove on olfactory endocast is developed in A. microta, weak in A. baconi, nearly absent in A. melanoleuca, but well developed in Ursus maritimus. The encephalization quotient is similar among A. microta, A. baconi and A. melanoleuca, but it is much greater for giant pandas than in the polar bear. The morphology of the paranasal sinuses is also similar among giant pandas, but different from that of the polar bear.The frontal sinuses of giant pandas are rather long, quite high and dorsally ridgy, but those of the polar bear are shorter, relatively lower, wider and dorsally flat. The maxillary sinuses of giant pandas are relatively wide, but those of the polar bear are narrow. The sphenoid sinuses of giant pandas are all small, but those of the polar bear are large and cover the anterior portion of the braincase. These endocranial differences between giant pandas and the polar bear support the classification of giant pandas as an independent family.

  2. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  3. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    OpenAIRE

    Asahara, Masakazu; Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora...

  4. [Summary of phylogeny in family Felidae of Carnivora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li

    2012-11-01

    Felidae (cats) is one of the strict carnivorous groups in the order Carnivora, many of which are most familiar and spectacular to us. They are the top predators in the world. Thirty-six of 37 living cat species are considered as either "endangered" or "threatened". The relationships among species of the family Felidae, which evolved recently and rapidly, are difficult to resolve, and have been the subject of debate. Construction of a reliable Felidae phylogeny will be of evolutionarily significance and conservation value. In this paper, we summarized phylogeny of Felidae, including cytological, morphological and molecular evidence, and pointed out the existing phylogenetic problems. This review is expected to guide future researches of Felidae phylogeny, and to lay a theoretic foundation for the protection of this animal group. PMID:23208134

  5. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; de Kroon, Hans; Conde, Dalia A;

    2013-01-01

    Of the 285 species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks...... in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration...

  6. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  7. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  8. A note on the high elevation distribution record of Red Panda Ailurus fulgens (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    D. Dorjee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present record provides one of the highest documented presence information of red pandas in India, in remote parts of western Arunachal Pradesh. The record came in the form of carcass of a Red Panda which was accidentally caught in an animal snare in remote sub-alpine mountain slopes at 4325m above sea level inside a Community Conserved Area in Tawang District, discovered during a monitoring trip by the villagers. The record also showcases the rich biodiversity of the area and the local community’s efforts to safeguard it.

  9. [Parasite nematodes from Dusycion griseus (Gray, 1837), D. culpaeus (Molina, 1782) and Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Mammalia:Carnivora) in Neuquén, Argentina. Systematics and ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Suriano, D M; Novaro, A J

    1994-01-01

    Four nematode species (Physaloptera clausa Rudolphi, 1819; Ph. maxillaris Molin, 1860; Protospirura numidica criceticola Quentin, Karimi and Rodrigues De Almeida, 1968; Toxascaris leonina (Von Linstow, 1902) were collected from D. griseus, D. culpaeus and C. chinga in Neuquen Province, Argentina. These hosts were captured from April to August in 1990 and 1991. Ph. clausa and Ph. maxillaris ar redescribed. The systematic position of Ph. clausa is discussed and the authors conclude that this species could be considered the type species of the genus. The possibility that D. griseus and D. culpaeus could be the accidental hosts for P. n. criceticola is discussed. Prevalence, mean intensity and frequency of each species are given. These parameters were related with the diets of the hosts and the parasite life cycles. There was no relationship between parasitic burden of each host and their nutritional condition (Kendall Tau Test). Significant differences exist among the diet of each host and among prevalence values of each parasite species (Homogeneity Test SYSTAT Program).

  10. El orden Carnivora (Mammalia) en el Perú: Estado del conocimiento y prioridades de investigación para su conservación

    OpenAIRE

    E. Daniel Cossíos; Paloma Alcázar; Ursula Fajardo; Kelly Chávez; Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto; et al

    2012-01-01

    La alta diversidad de especies de carnívoros del Perú puede generar problemas al momento de decidir los taxa y temas sobre los que deben dirigirse los esfuerzos de investigación. En este trabajo se evalúa el esfuerzo de investigación en base al número de publicaciones realizadas para cada familia y especie de carnívoro en el Perú. Asimismo, se señalan los vacíos de información relevantes para la conservación de cada especie y se presenta la primera evaluación de las prioridades de investigaci...

  11. El orden Carnivora (Mammalia en el Perú: Estado del conocimiento y prioridades de investigación para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Daniel Cossíos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La alta diversidad de especies de carnívoros del Perú puede generar problemas al momento de decidir los taxa y temas sobre los que deben dirigirse los esfuerzos de investigación. En este trabajo se evalúa el esfuerzo de investigación en base al número de publicaciones realizadas para cada familia y especie de carnívoro en el Perú. Asimismo, se señalan los vacíos de información relevantes para la conservación de cada especie y se presenta la primera evaluación de las prioridades de investigación sobre este grupo animal en el Perú. Se registró 145 publicaciones sobre carnívoros peruanos realizadas desde el año 1943. El número de publicaciones presentó grandes diferencias entre taxa, entre temas estudiados y entre las ecorregiones en las que se realizaron las investigaciones. Según la escala de prioridades propuesta, la especie que debe ser estudiada con mayor prioridad es el coatí andino Nasua olivacea y la de menor prioridad es el ocelote Leopardus pardalis. Los resultados de nuestro trabajo resaltan la urgencia de realizar investigaciones sobre ciertas especies de carnívoros de las que existen pocos datos publicados, tanto a nivel local como global, y que se distribuyen en pocas ecorregiones del Perú. Tanto la escala de prioridades de investigación como la lista de vacíos de información serán de utilidad para guiar esfuerzos logísticos y financieros de investigadores particulares, instituciones privadas y gubernamentales.

  12. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?

    OpenAIRE

    Finarelli, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent analysis of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain–body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body mass). I performed phylogenetically corrected regressions to remove the effects of body mass, calculating correlations between residual values of encephalization with basal metabolic rate (BMR) and six life-history variables (gestation time, neonatal...

  13. Unique pattern of dietary adaptation in the dentition of Carnivora: its advantage and developmental origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kishida, Takushi; Takahashi, Katsu; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Carnivora is a successful taxon in terms of dietary diversity. We investigated the dietary adaptations of carnivoran dentition and the developmental background of their dental diversity, which may have contributed to the success of the lineage. A developmental model was tested and extended to explain the unique variability and exceptional phenotypes observed in carnivoran dentition. Carnivorous mammalian orders exhibited two distinct patterns of dietary adaptation in molars and only Carnivora evolved novel variability, exhibiting a high correlation between relative molar size and the shape of the first molar. Studies of Bmp7-hetero-deficient mice, which may exhibit lower Bmp7 expression, suggested that Bmp7 has pleiotropic effects on these two dental traits. Its effects are consistent with the pattern of dietary adaptation observed in Carnivora, but not that observed in other carnivorous mammals. A molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that Bmp7 sequence evolved by natural selection during ursid evolution, suggesting that it plays an evolutionary role in the variation of carnivoran dentition. Using mouse experiments and a molecular evolutionary analysis, we extrapolated the causal mechanism of the hitherto enigmatic ursid dentition (larger M2 than M1 and M3). Our results demonstrate how carnivorans acquired novel dental variability that benefits their dietary divergence.

  14. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  15. The black-backed jackal (Carnivora: Canidae) in Namibia as intermediate host of two Sarcocystis species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemeier, H H; Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1995-12-01

    Two structurally different sarcocysts are reported from the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) in Namibia by means of light and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. They cannot be attributed to any of the hitherto described Sarcocystis species from Carnivora, of which the ultrastructure of the cyst wall is known. PMID:8745738

  16. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and as fast as those of other mammals: implications for their conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Of the 285 species of Carnivora 71 are threatened, while many of these species fulfill important ecological roles in their ecosystems as top or meso-predators. Population transition matrices make it possible to study how age-specific survival and fecundity affect population growth, extinction risks, and responses to management strategies. Here we review 38 matrix models from 35 studies on 27 Carnivora taxa, covering 11% of the threatened Carnivora species. We show that the elasticity patterns (i.e. distribution over fecundity, juvenile survival and adult survival in Carnivora cover the same range in triangular elasticity plots as those of other mammal species, despite the specific place of Carnivora in the food chain. Furthermore, reproductive loop elasticity analysis shows that the studied species spread out evenly over a slow-fast continuum, but also quantifies the large variation in the duration of important life cycles and their contributions to population growth rate. These general elasticity patterns among species, and their correlation with simple life history characteristics like body mass, age of first reproduction and life span, enables the extrapolation of population dynamical properties to unstudied species. With several examples we discuss how this slow-fast continuum, and related patterns of variation in reproductive loop elasticity, can be used in the formulation of tentative management plans for threatened species that cannot wait for the results of thorough demographic studies. We argue, however, that such management programs should explicitly include a plan for learning about the key demographic rates and how these are affected by environmental drivers and threats.

  17. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora)

    OpenAIRE

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Perelman, Polina L.; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; Alexander S Graphodatsky

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea li...

  18. Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, WeiHua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J; Gary K Beauchamp; Brand, Joseph G

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding reg...

  19. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Olifiers; Rita de C. Bianchi; Guilherme de M. Mourão; Matthew E. Gompper

    2009-01-01

    The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780) build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766) nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume w...

  20. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear

  1. Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

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    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia Neoromicia Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "Rumex" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in Romicia calcarata, specie tipo del genere.

  2. METAXYTHERIUM MEDIUM (MAMMALIA: SIRENIA FROM UPPER MIOCENE SEDIMENTS OF THE ARENARIA DI PONSANO FORMATION (TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Records of Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia from Tononian (Late Miocene sediments from che Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy are described. They consist of fragmentary specimens, including several partial cranial elements representing at least three skulls, two humeri, fragments of venebrae and some incomplete ribs. The new Tuscan records confirm che wide diffusion of Metaxytherium in the Mediterranean during the Miocene. This sirenian's occurrence in the Arenaria di Ponsano sediments is in accordance with the shelf environment indicated by other fossils. The low sea bottom was at least partially covered by segrass meadows, the food source of this dugongid. 

  3. Current status of Myoxids (Mammalia: Rodentia in Calabria (Southern Italy

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    Mara Cagnin

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four species of Myoxids are presently known to live in the southern region of the Italian peninsula: Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula, Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius. The only paleontological evidence, dating from the Würm period, refers to E. quercinus, M. avellanarius and M. glis, which were found in caves of the Northern Thyrrenian Coast. The historical data concerning the Calabrian Myoxids, do not include the presence of Dryomys nitedula which was recorded for the first time in the Aspromonte Massif only in 1964 (von Lehmann, 1964. The actual geographical distribution of D. nitedula in Southern Italy seems to include the Calabrian and Basilicata mountains. The ecological distribution of D. nitedula seems to be tied to the presence of beech woods from 1300 m to 1800 m above sea level. Present knowledge concerning Calabrian Glirids is very scanty and fragmentary since no specific studies have been carried out. Most available data refer to Muscardinus avellanarius, a species frequently found in bird of prey pellets (mainly froin Tyto alba from sea level to 1300 m a.s.l., both in the sclerophyll and in the decidous biomes. By contrast, few data dealing with Eliomys quercinus exist probably due to a fragmented distribution within this region. Myoxus glis seems to be frequent and continous, in areas ranging from sea level to wooded mountains. Riassunto Stato delle conoscenze sui Mioxidi (Rodentia, Mammalia in Calabria - In Calabria, la regione più meridionale della penisola italiana, sono presenti quattro specie di Mioxidi: Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula, Myoxus glis e Muscardinus avellanarius. Gli scarsi dati paleontologici risalenti a1 Würm, di caverne della costa Tirrenica settentrionale segnalano la presenza

  4. Evolution and function of fossoriality in the carnivora: implications for group-living

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    Michael James Noonan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The societies of group-living carnivores that neither hunt nor interact cooperatively may arise due to ecological drivers and/or constraints. In this study we evaluate whether group-living may be intrinsically associated with fossoriality; a link that is well supported in other taxa, but hitherto under-evaluated in the Carnivora. We make two over-arching predictions: i that fossoriality will be associated with carnivoran sociality; and ii that this association will be most evident in those species making extended use of subterranean dens. From a meta-analysis of key behavioural, ecological, ontological, and trophic traits, we demonstrate that three quarters of carnivore species exhibit some reliance on underground dens. Congruence between life-history traits and metrics of fossoriality evidenced that: 1 there are phylogenetic, and morphological constraints on wholly fossorial life-histories; 2 fossoriality correlated positively with the extent of offspring altriciality, linked to the use of natal dens; 3 burrow use increased with latitude; and 4 insectivorous carnivores were more fossorial than predatory carnivores. Corroborating work in the Rodentia, fossorial traits associated strongly with carnivoran group-living tendencies, where species utilising subterranean natal dens are 2.5 times more likely to form groups than those that do not. Furthermore, using comparative analyses, we evidence support for an evolutionary relationship between diet, fossoriality and sociality. We propose that fossorial dens act as a safe haven, promoting fitness benefits, territorial inheritance and cooperative breeding. We conclude that, among smaller (<15kg den-using carnivores, and especially for omnivorous/ insectivorous species for which food resource dispersion is favorable, continued cohabitation at natal dens can promote cohabitation among adults; that is, philopatric benefits leading to (not necessarily cooperative spatial groups.

  5. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  6. Osos (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) del Pleistoceno Ibérico: III. Estudio anatómico y métrico del miembro torácico, carpo y metacarpo.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    1988-01-01

    En esta nota se realiza un estudio biométrico y morfológico comparado de los huesos del miembro torácico, carpo y metacarpo de U. deningeri, U. spelaeus y U. arctos. Las medidas de los huesos largos revelan la existencia de dimorfismo sexual, que no se detecta tan claramente en las de los huesos del carpo y metacarpo. El oso de las cavernas tenia huesos pesados y su disposición general indica que era un excelente cavador, pero mal corredor y trepador. El aumento de tamaño fue acom...

  7. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Natalie Olifiers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780 build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.

  8. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  9. Historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae Natural history of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae

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    AGUSTÍN M ABBA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural del piche llorón Chaetophractus vellerosus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante dos años (2006-2008 se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y recaptura. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 237 capturas de un total de 136 individuos. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue insectos coleópteros, seguido por material vegetal y pequeños mamíferos; se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios dada por una marcada caída de la ocurrencia de coleópteros durante la primavera. Durante las estaciones frías concentran su actividad al mediodía y primeras horas de la tarde y durante las estaciones cálidas el horario medio de actividad se da durante la tarde-noche. Seleccionan los suelos calcáreos arenosos y los pastizales de baja altura y alta cobertura de vegetación. El área de acción media registrada fue de 2670 m². Son individuos asociales, con comportamiento diferente entre las estaciones y seleccionan los montes de tala para refugiarse. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente y el peso. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan con lo observado para la especie en otras áreas distantes y con diferentes condiciones ambientales. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos poco estudiados de una población aislada y bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat que la pueden llevar a la extinción en un mediano plazo.This contribution presents new data about the natural history of the screaming hairy

  10. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (...

  11. Remarks on Correlations and Implications of the Mandibular Structure and Diet in Some Seals (Mammalia, Phocidae

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    Koretsky I.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remarks on Correlations and Implications of the Mandibular Structure and Diet in Some Seals (Mammalia, Phocidae. Koretsky, I. A., Rahmat, S. J., Peters, N. — The diverse representatives of Recent seals within the three extant subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Phocinae, Monachinae of the family Phocidae exhibit dietary variations among species, feeding on invertebrates and a diversity of prey depending on the season and availability. To explain this variability, an introductory morphological examination of the mandibular structure of Recent seals from each subfamily was performed, focusing on: heights of the mandibular ramus and condyloid process; measurements of the masseteric fossa; and attachments of muscles of mastication. After measuring the condyloid angles (the inclination of the condyloid process in relation to the axis of the alveolar row among the examined species, a correlation between the size ofthe angle, function, and diet was recognized. Seals with a tall mandibular ramus and greater condyloid angle (Cystophorinae feed on larger-sized prey, while seals with a shorter ramus and lesser condyloid angle feed on small (Monachinae to medium-sized (Phocinae prey, regardless of the overall size of the seal. This study focused on the mandibular morphology of some living and fossil representatives of Phocidae, providing an association between functional and ecological interpretations of modern seals in general and extrapolating this knowledge for fossil dietary preference.

  12. New marsupial (Mammalia from the Eocene of Antarctica, and the origins and affinities of the Microbiotheria

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    F.J. Goin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe and comment on an isolated upper molar belonging to Woodburnodon casei gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Microbiotheria, Woodburnodontidae fam. nov., from the Eocene of the La Meseta Fm (TELM 5 or Cucullaea I Member, Marambio (Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. With a body mass estimated between 900 to 1,300 g (depending on the type of equation and the possible molar locus of the type specimen, it represents the largest known Microbiotheria, living or extinct. Besides its size, other diagnostic features include a proportionally large metacone, reduced or absent para- and metaconules, and an unusual labial notch between stylar cusps C and D. Woodburnodon casei is an undoubted Microbiotheria; however, its reference to the Microbiotheriidae is discarded: almost all its morphological characters are plesiomorphic when compared with South American microbiotheriids, even with respect to the oldest representatives of this family. This suggests (a a quite ancient and southern origin for Woodburnodon and its ancestors, and (b that the origins and initial radiation of the Microbiotheria may have occurred from a generalized peradectoid. The new taxon, here referred to the new family Woodburnodontidae, constitutes the second microbiotherian known from these Antarctic levels and age; this confirms the association of representatives of this order within a common, Andean-Patagonian-Antarctic biogeographic region, already present since the Late Cretaceous. Microbiotherians stand as the plesiomorphic sister-group of Bonapartheriiform marsupials, the latter including Glasbius and allied taxa.

  13. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  14. Anatomical description of arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati (Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae

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    Daniel Arrais Biihrer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coati (Nasua nasua is a widely distributed species in South America, also in Brazil. This study aimed to observe and describe the branching morphology of the main arterial branches of thoracic and abdominal aorta in the coati, by comparing the findings with existing literature on the other domestic and wild species. For this study, two adult male specimens were used, collected from highways in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, victims of roadkill. The specimens were fixed in formalin solution and their aortic branches were filled with latex for subsequent dissection and analysis. It was observed that the left subclavian artery is a direct branch of the aortic arch, there is no formation of a bicarotid or celiac-mesenteric trunk, facts similarly described in domestic carnivores. Thus, it was noticed that the arterial branches of aorta in the coati, both in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, show a distribution very similar to that observed in domestic carnivores, something which reflects their evolutionary closeness within the Carnivora order. Thus, this study proves to be relevant by deepening anatomical knowledge on this wild species, enabling that aspects already known in canine veterinary medicine are applied to the coati.

  15. Binturong (Arctictis binturong and Kinkajou (Potos flavus digestive strategy: implications for interpreting frugivory in Carnivora and primates.

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    Joanna E Lambert

    Full Text Available Exclusive frugivory is rare. As a food resource, fruit is temporally and spatially patchy, low in protein, and variable in terms of energy yield from different carbohydrate types. Here, we evaluate the digestive physiology of two frugivorous Carnivora species (Potos flavus, Arctictis binturong that converge with primates in a diversity of ecological and anatomical traits related to fruit consumption. We conducted feeding trials to determine mean digestive retention times (MRT on captive animals at the Carnivore Preservation Trust (now Carolina Tiger Rescue, Pittsboro, NC. Fecal samples were collected on study subjects for in vitro analysis to determine methane, pH, and short chain fatty acid profiles; fiber was assayed using standard neutral detergent (NDF and acid detergent (ADF fiber methods. Results indicate that both carnivoran species have rapid digestive passage for mammals that consume a predominantly plant-based diet: A. binturong MRT = 6.5 hrs (0.3; P. flavus MRT = 2.5 hrs (1.6. In vitro experiments revealed no fermentation of structural polysaccharides--methane levels did not shift from 0 h to either 24 or 48 hours and no short chain fatty acids were detected. In both species, however, pH declined from one incubation period to another suggesting acidification and bacterial activity of microbes using soluble carbohydrates. A comparison with primates indicates that the study species are most similar in digestive retention times to Ateles--the most frugivorous anthropoid primate taxon.

  16. Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil

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    Lívia B. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes

  17. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  18. Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the Lyakhov mammoth (Proboscidea, Mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of Elephantidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Régis; Barriel, Véronique; Tassy, Pascal

    2003-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships between recent Elephantidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia), that is to say extant elephants (Asian and African) and extinct woolly mammoth, have remained unclear to date. The prevailing morphological scheme (mammoth grouped with Asian elephant) is either supported or questioned by the molecular results. Recently, the monophyly of woolly mammoths on mitochondrial grounds has been demonstrated (Thomas, et al., 2000), but it conflicts with previous studies (Barriel et al., 1999; Derenko et al., 1997). Here, we report the partial sequencing of two mitochondrial genes: 128 bp of 12S rDNA and 561 bp of cytochrome b for the Lyakhov mammoth, a 49,000-year-old Siberian individual. We use the most comprehensive sample of mammoth (11 sequences) to determine whether the sequences achieved by former studies were congruent or not. The monophyly of a major subset of mammoths sequences (including ours) is recovered. Such a result is assumed to be a good criterion for ascertaining the origin of ancient DNA. Our sequence is incongruent with that of Yang et al. (1996), though obtained for the same individual. As far as the latter sequence is concerned, a contamination by non-identified exogenous DNA is suspected. The robustness and reliability of the sister group relation between Mammuthus primigenius and Loxodonta africana are examined: down-weighting saturated substitutions has no impact on the topology; analyzing data partitions proves that the support of this clade can be assigned to the most conservative phylogenetic signal; insufficient taxonomic and/or characters sampling contributed to former discordant conclusions. We therefore assume the monophyly of "real mammoth sequences" and the (Mammuthus, Loxodonta) clade.

  19. Professor Alan Turner (1947-2012). Specialist in Miocene-Pleistocene Carnivora, particularly Felidae and Hyaenidae and their palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Hannah; Turner, Adam; Antón, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Alan first trained as a telecom engineer, working for the GPO (General Post Office) which later became British Telecom. He never forgot this early training and was fascinated by how things worked - always happy to take something apart and fix it (although his attempt to close a large plate glass window with a geological hammer was not one of his successes). Following a few years as an engineer, he went to Sheffield University to study archaeology as a mature student in 1973. At this time Sheffield was a hotbed of prehistory with Graeme Barker, Robin Dennell and many others contributing to a truly research-led degree (with tutorials in the pub (well, it was the 1970s)) (Fig. 1). Alan's interest in bones developed at this time, and having graduated in 1976 he went on to take a PhD, supervised by Robin Dennell, on "Aspects of the palaeoecology of large predators, including man, during the British Upper Pleistocene, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships" which resulted in a life-long interest in the Carnivora and particularly hyaenas. Following his PhD, Alan moved to the Environmental Archaeology Unit at York to undertake a Science Research Council project on the morphometrics of domestic cattle and pigs from Coppergate and other major urban excavations in the city. Faced with a lot of measurements and statistics, Alan retained his interest in the animals themselves. The project also confirmed to Alan that prehistory was his metier, rather than the historic periods. Former York colleagues still fondly recall Alan's dry wit, and the day that he successfully put the irritating lab telephone beyond use with no externally visible trace of damage.

  20. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti.

  1. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti. PMID:17622560

  2. This shrew is a jumping mouse (Mammalia, Dipodidae): Sorex dichrurus Rafinesque 1833 is a synonym of Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann 1780)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Carleton, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Constantine S. Rafinesque described Sorex dichrurus as a shrew in 1833, based on a specimen he found in a proprietary museum near Niagara Falls on the New York/Ontario border. The name subsequently has been ignored by the scientific community. By describing this specimen as a shrew and ascribing it to the genus Sorex, Rafinesque clearly indicated that his species should be considered a member of the taxonomic family now recognized as the Soricidae (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla). Yet, the description of the animal, and its comparison to ‘‘Gerbillus,’’ clearly identify it as a dipodid rodent, specifically Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann, 1780); S. dichrurus should be treated as a junior subjective synonym of that taxon. Based on its type locality of Goat Island, New York, this name is also a junior synonym of the subspecies Z. hudsonius canadensis (Davies, 1798).

  3. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia with Leishmania infantum in Brazil

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    Carreira João Carlos

    2012-06-01

    through dot blot hybridization using a L. infantum-specific biotinylated probe. Conclusions In the present paper we present the first report of amastigotes in the tissues of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. We also attempt to claim the particular role of some opossum species as hosts of Leishmania infantum, contributing at least in part on the description of potential sylvatic reservoirs.

  4. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

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    Susan Ziolkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient’s baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound.

  5. First Record of Postcranial Bones in Devinophoca emryi (Carnivora, Phocidae, Devinophocinae

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    Rahmat S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Devinophoca emryi material from the early Badenian, early Middle Miocene (16.26–14.89 Ma presents mixed cranial and especially postcranial characters with the three extant phocid subfamilies (Cystophorinae, Monachinae and Phocinae, as well as unique postcranial characters not seen in any taxa. These distinguishing characters (i. e. well-outlined, large oval facet on greater tubercle of humerus; broader width between the head and lesser tubercle of humerus; femoral proximal epiphysis larger than distal; thin innominate ilium that is excavated on ventral surface demonstrate that this material belongs to a recently described species (D. emryi. During ecomorphotype analyses, fossil humerus and femur bones were directly associated with their corresponding mandible to reveal associations based on Recent morphological analogues. Strong correlation between ecomorphotypes and postcranial morphology supports placement of this material to D. emryi and not its sister taxon, D. claytoni. The previously described skull, mandible and teeth and postcranial bones described herein were discovered at the same locality during excavations at the base of the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Slovakia, at the junction of the Morava and Danube rivers. The geological age of D. emryi and the presence of mixed characters strongly suggest that this species was an early relative to the ancestor of seals, possibly being a terminal branch of the phocid tree. This material allows for emended diagnoses of the species, updated assessments of geographical distribution and provides further material for clarification of controversial phylogenetic relationships in Phocidae.

  6. Predictive equations for the estimation of body size in seals and sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Body size plays an important role in pinniped ecology and life history. However, body size data is often absent for historical, archaeological, and fossil specimens. To estimate the body size of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) for today and the past, we used 14 commonly preserved cranial measurements to develop sets of single variable and multivariate predictive equations for pinniped body mass and total length. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to test whether separate family specific regressions were more appropriate than single predictive equations for Pinnipedia. The influence of phylogeny was tested with phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). The accuracy of these regressions was then assessed using a combination of coefficient of determination, percent prediction error, and standard error of estimation. Three different methods of multivariate analysis were examined: bidirectional stepwise model selection using Akaike information criteria; all-subsets model selection using Bayesian information criteria (BIC); and partial least squares regression. The PCA showed clear discrimination between Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and Phocidae (earless seals) for the 14 measurements, indicating the need for family-specific regression equations. The PIC analysis found that phylogeny had a minor influence on relationship between morphological variables and body size. The regressions for total length were more accurate than those for body mass, and equations specific to Otariidae were more accurate than those for Phocidae. Of the three multivariate methods, the all-subsets approach required the fewest number of variables to estimate body size accurately. We then used the single variable predictive equations and the all-subsets approach to estimate the body size of two recently extinct pinniped taxa, the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus). Body size estimates using single variable regressions

  7. Estudio paleopatológico de una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) del Mioceno Medio de Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Burgos, Nohemi; Cuevas González, Jaime; López Martínez, Nieves

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia el origen paleopatológico de una cavidad situada en el talónido del primer molar inferior en una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) hallada en el yacimiento paleontológico del Mioceno Medio (Aragoniense) de Somosaguas Norte (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid). El molar afectado muestra un desgaste anómalo con una fuerte reducción de la altura del talónido y una gran cavidad, que conecta la superficie oclusal con la cámara pulpar, bordeada de dentina ...

  8. Estudio paleopatológico de una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) del Mioceno Medio de Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Sala-Burgos, N.; Cuevas-González, Jaime; López Martínez, Nieves

    2007-01-01

    [ES] En este artículo se estudia el origen paleopatológico de una cavidad situada en el talónido del primer molar inferior en una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) hallada en el yacimiento paleontológico del Mioceno Medio (Aragoniense) de Somosaguas Norte (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid). El molar afectado muestra un desgaste anómalo con una fuerte reducción de la altura del talónido y una gran cavidad, que conecta la superficie oclusal con la cámara pulpar, bordeada ...

  9. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  10. ÁREAS DE ENDEMISMO DE LOS MAMÍFEROS (MAMMALIA NEOTROPICALES

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    Elkin Alexi NOGUERA-URBANO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las áreas de endemismo es un paso fundamental en los análisis de biogeografía evolutiva. Las áreas de endemismo han sido definidas por la congruencia de dos o más áreas de distribución, en donde se asume de manera general que los taxones endémicos tienen una respuesta geográfica similar a factores históricos y ambientales. Los mamíferos tienen alta diversidad en el Neotrópico y muchos de ellos han evolucionado en conjunto con esta región biogeográfica. Sin embargo, hay pocas hipótesis de áreas de endemismo que puedan ser relacionadas con la evolución de los mamíferos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se identificaron las áreas de endemismo de los mamíferos neotropicales a partir del análisis de una matriz de 2052 taxones (familias, géneros y especies. Para ello se aplicó una búsqueda de áreas de endemismo con el método de Análisis de Endemicidad a una cuadrícula de 2° latitud-longitud. Se identificaron 101 áreas de endemismo y 498 taxones endémicos, las áreas coincidieron parcialmente con 65 patrones biogeográficos identificados por otros autores. La región Neotropical está compuesta por nueve áreas de endemismo y mostró múltiples límites, que sugieren un patrón dinámico. Se identificaron dos áreas complejas de intercambio biótico que coincidieron con las zonas de transición Mexicana y Sudamericana. La congruencia de las áreas de endemismo de mamíferos con otros esquemas biogeográficos sugiere que estas áreas han sido formadas tanto por factores históricos como ecológicos. Por otra parte, las incongruencias de las áreas de endemismo soportan un sistema biogeográfico no jerarquizado.Areas of Endemism of the Neotropical Mammals (Mammalia The identification of areas of endemism is an essential step in analyses of evolutionary biogeography. Areas of endemism have been defined by the congruency of two or more distributional areas, where there is a general assumption that the

  11. A new species of Cryptotis (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) from the Sierra de Perijá, Venezuelan-Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Carmona, Marcial; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The Sierra de Perijá is the northern extension of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes and includes part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela. The population of small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Eulipotyphla, Soricidae, Cryptotis) inhabiting the Sierra de Perijá previously was known from only a single skull from an individual collected in Colombia in 1989. This specimen had been referred to alternatively as C. thomasi and C. meridensis, but more precise definition of the known Colombian and Venezuelan species of Cryptotis has since excluded the Sierra de Perijá population from any named species. The recent collection of a specimen from the Venezuelan slope of Sierra de Perijá, prompted us to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of this population and determine its relationship with other Andean shrews. Our examination of the available specimens revealed that they possess a unique suite of morphological and morphometrical characters, and we describe the Sierra de Perijá population as a new species in the South American C. thomasi species group. Recognition of this new species adds to our knowledge of this genus in South America and to the biodiversity of the Sierra de Perijá.

  12. Can they dig it? Functional morphology and semifossoriality among small-eared shrews, genus Cryptotis (Mammalia, Soricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Gaffney, Sarah A

    2014-07-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia: Soricidae: Cryptotis), exhibit modifications of the forelimb skeleton that have been interpreted as adaptations for semifossoriality. Most species inhabit remote regions, however, and their locomotory and foraging behaviors remain mostly speculative. To better understand the morphological modifications in the absence of direct observations, we quantified variation in these species by measuring 151 individuals representing 18 species and populations of Cryptotis and two species of moles (Talpidae) for comparison. From our measurements, we calculated 22 indices, most of which have been used previously to characterize substrate use among rodents and other taxa. We analyzed the indices using 1) average percentile ranks, 2) principal components analysis, and 3) cluster analysis. From these analyses, we determined that three basic modes of substrate adaptation are present within Cryptotis: 1) a primarily terrestrial mode, with species that are capable of burrowing, but lack adaptations to increase digging efficiency, 2) a semifossorial mode, with species whose forelimbs bones show strong muscle attachment areas and increased mechanical advantage, and 3) an intermediate mode. In addition to identifying new morphological characters and contributing to our understanding of the functional morphology of soricids, these analyses provide additional insight into the ecology of the species of interest.

  13. Distribución geográfica, historia natural y conservación del hurón menor Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae en la Patagonia central, Argentina Geographic distribution, natural history and conservation of the lesser grison Galictis cuja (Carnivora: Mustelidae from Central Patagonia, Argentina

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    Marcelo Carrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El hurón menor, Galictis cuja, tiene una amplia distribución en el territorio patagónico extraandino, aunque sus registros puntuales son escasos. Este trabajo se desarrolló en la provincia del Chubut, Patagonia Central, Argentina. Aquí se aportan nuevas localidades de registro de G. cuja para esta región; se discuten aspectos de su distribución geográfica y conservación en el Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad y brevemente se explora la representación de G. cuja en los ensambles de carnívoros del ANP-PV desde el Holoceno tardío hasta la actualidad. Se adicionaron 18 nuevos registros de G. cuja en Patagonia central. Se detectó un conflicto entre los pobladores y hurones, que motiva la caza de estos últimos. Se verificó un aparente incremento de abundancia de G. cuja en los últimos miles de años, concomitante con la extinción regional o dramática disminución de Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.The Lesser Grison, Galictis cuja, is a species widely distributed in extra-Andean Patagonia, although its records are scarce. This work was carried out in Chubut province, Central Patagonia, Argentina. Here we report new occurrence localities of G. cuja for this region; we discuss aspects of their geographical distribution and conservation in the Área Natural Protegida Península Valdés (ANP-PV; World Heritage Site and briefly explores the representation of G. cuja in carnivore assemblages of ANP-PV, since the late Holocene to the present. We added 18 new records of G. cuja in Central Patagonia. We detected a conflict between the rural residents and the Lesser Grison, which motivates the hunting of the latter. There was an apparent increase in abundance of G. cuja in the last thousands of years, concomitant with regional extinction or dramatic reduction of Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae.

  14. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: Orders Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 612 specimens bearing names of 604 species-group taxa of Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Cetacea as of May 2016. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprising 582 holotypes; 16 lectotypes, two of which are newly designated herein; 7 syntypes (15 specimens); and 1 neotype. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections and therefore are not in the database. Thirty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Arthur J. Poole and Viola S. Schantz’s 1942 “Catalog of the Type Specimens of Mammals in the United States National Museum, Including the Biological Surveys Collection” (Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 178). One of these, Lutra iowa Goldman, 1941, was transferred to the National Museum’s Paleobiology Department collection and is mentioned only briefly in this work. Orders and families are arranged systematically following D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder’s 2005 Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, third edition, volume 1; within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically, and within each currently recognized genus, species and subspecies accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon, type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record. An addendum

  15. Summary of phylogeny in family Felidae of Carnivora%食肉目猫科物种的系统发育学研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 张亚平; 于黎

    2012-01-01

    猫科动物(Felidae)是食肉目中肉食性最强的一科,其中许多成员是人们最熟悉、最引人注目的动物,也 是各地的顶级食肉动物.目前 37 个现存猫科物种中有 36 个已经被列为濒危和稀有对象.食肉目猫科物种的进 化历史是一个快速辐射和较近时期发生的物种形成事件,使得猫科物种之间系统发育关系的重建非常困难,一 直处于广泛争论的状态.构建可靠的猫科系统发育关系,具有重要的进化理论意义和保护生物学价值.文章对 猫科物种的系统发育学研究进展,包括来自于形态学特征、细胞学和分子生物学方面的证据做简要概述,并提 出目前研究中存在的问题.以期对今后猫科物种的系统发育方面的进一步研究工作具有指导意义,并为该类群 的生物多样性资源保护提供科学依据.%Felidae (cats) is one of the strict carnivorous groups in the order Carnivora, many of which are most familiar and spectacular to us. They are the top predators in the world. Thirty-six of 37 living cat species are considered as either "endangered" or "threatened". The relationships among species of the family Felidae, which evolved recently and rapidly, are difficult to resolve, and have been the subject of debate. Construction of a reliable Felidae phylogeny will be of evolu-tionarily significance and conservation value. In this paper, we summarized phylogeny of Felidae, including cytological, morphological and molecular evidence, and pointed out the existing phylogenetic problems. This review is expected to guide future researches of Felidae phylogeny, and to lay a theoretic foundation for the protection of this animal group.

  16. [Feeding habits of raccoon (Procyon lotor) (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in a coastal, tropical wet forest of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Wong, G; Rodríguez, M A

    2001-01-01

    Raccoon (Procyon lotor) food habits were studied at Manuel Antonio National Park, a tropical rain forest in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica from May to December 1987, from September to December 1989 and from January to April 1990. A 134 feces sample size was used to assess the most important items in raccoon diet: two crab species (Gecarcinus quadratus and Cardisoma crassum) with a relative frequency of 0.94 in the rainy season of 1987, 0.76 in the rainy season of 1989 and 0.65 in the dry season of 1990. Fruits were the second category in importance, with relative frequencies of 0.09 for 1987, 0.32 for 1989 and 0.44 for 1990.

  17. Selection of habitat by the jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae, in the upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Laury Cullen Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We used data from VHF and GPS radio-tagged jaguars, Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758 to quantify jaguar habitat selection and how adult individuals in the Upper Paraná River region selected among the available habitat types. We followed the framework in which animals make decisions about resource use at hierarchical stages, namely selection of home range within a study area (second-order selection and selection of patches within a home range (third-order selection. We quantified habitat preferences at two orders of selection with respect to habitat types and to test the null hypothesis that habitat utilization by jaguars was random at both study sites. Using compositional analysis, we assessed habitat selection by jaguars at second- and third-orders of selection. Jaguars consistently preferred dense marshes and primary forests, and avoided human-dominated areas such as intensively managed open pastures. Although the avoidance of disturbed and developed habitat types by jaguars is not surprising, this is the first study to document it. If small protected areas, such as the ones already existing in the Upper Paraná region, are to sustain jaguar populations they, must include and protect as many primary forests and marshlands as possible, so that jaguars can disperse, hunt wild prey and take care of their cubs without being disturbed. What is urgently needed in these jaguar-protected areas is the creation of larger protected areas that can sustain jaguars in their favored habitat.

  18. Population and prey of the Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carnivora: Felidae in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

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    M.M.H. Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The results from intensive small scale surveys are often difficult to extrapolate to wider spatial scales, yet an understanding at such scales is critical for assessing the minimum densities and populations of rare and wide ranging species. In this paper, the minimum size of population and minimum density estimates of Bengal Tigers Panthera tigris tigris and its prey were conducted from 2005 to 2007 using camera traps for 90 days and using distance sampling surveys for over 200 days, respectively. The results were extrapolated from the core study area in Katka-Kochikhali, southeastern Sundarbans, to five additional sites using indices of abundance. With the use of 10 camera-traps at 15 trap-points, field data provided a total of 829 photos, including seven photos of five individual tigers. A total of 5.0 (SE = 0.98 tigers (adults and sub-adults are thus estimated in the core area with an estimated density of 4.8 tigers/100km2. Distance sampling surveys conducted on large mammalian prey species obtained an overall density estimate of 27.9 individuals/km2 and a biomass density of 1,037kg/km2. Indices of abundance were obtained by using tiger track sighting rates (number of tracks/km of riverbank and the sighting rates of the prey species (number of prey/km of riverbank in the core area and in five additional sites across the region. The densities of tiger tracks and sighting rates of prey were strongly correlated suggesting a wide scale relationship between predator and prey in the region. By combining the estimates of absolute density with indices of abundance, an average of 3.7 tigers/100km2 across the region is estimated, which given an area of 5,770km2, predicts a minimum of approximately 200 tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

  19. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

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    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  20. 影响食肉目动物能量学的生态因子%Ecological factors influence energetics in the Order Carnivora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian K. McNAB

    2005-01-01

    The variation of body mass in 62 species of mammals belonging to the Order Carnivora accounts for 86.8% of the variation in their basal rates of metabolism. When four other factors, substrate, food habits, habitat, and latitude, are combined with mass in the analysis, then 98.7% of the total variation in basal rate is accounted for, I.e., these ecological/behavioral factors accounted for 81.1% of the residual variation. Variation in body composition may be another factor influencing basal rate, which may account for the very low basal rates in large arboreal species. The principal mass-independent cause for variation in the basal rate of eutherian mammals is that high rates of energy expenditure, when ecologically feasible, facilitate high reproductive outputs, whereas some habits and environments require low energy expenditures, which lead to low rates of reproduction. Bringing family affiliation into the analysis contributes little to the analysis. Most correlations of physiological parameters with taxonomic affiliation represent crude correlations of ecological and behavioral characteristics with taxonomy. Phylogeny does not determine the states of malleable characters, except as it reflects ecology and behavior%在食肉目的62种动物中,体重的变异可以解释基础代谢率86.8%的变化.当栖息基底、食性、生境和纬度等4个因素与体重合起来一起分析,则可以解释基础代谢率98.7% 的变化, 即这些生态和行为因子可以解释代谢率残差变异的81.1%.身体成分也是影响基础代谢率的另一个因素,可以解释一些大型树栖种类的较低的代谢率.除体重因素外,导致真兽类基础代谢率变异的主要原因是:当生态因素适合时,高水平的能量消耗可以促进动物的高繁殖输出,而动物的某些习性和生存环境则会要求低能量消耗,从而使繁殖率降低.当以科为单元进行分析时,对结果没有影响.生理参数与分类单元之间大多数的

  1. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

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    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  2. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

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    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  3. Methods and insights from the characterization of osteoprogenitor cells of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N

    2016-07-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.

  4. Metal and metalloid accumulation in shrews (Soricomorpha, Mammalia) from two protected Mediterranean coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ecotoxicological data on heavy metals are abundant, information on other potentially toxic elements with attributed deficiency and/or toxic disturbances is scarce. Here we quantify zinc, copper, iron, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, strontium, barium, and boron in bones of greater white-toothed shrews, Crocidura russula, inhabiting two protected Mediterranean coastal sites: the Ebro Delta, a wetland impacted by human activities, and the Medas Islands, a reference site. Natural and anthropogenic inputs significantly increase Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Ba, and B in specimens from the Ebro Delta, whereas Cu and Cr were higher in Medas' shrews. Principal component analysis allowed complete separation between sites along the first two axes in particular due to B, Sr, and Cu. This study provides metal reference values in bones of insectivores, explores their variability and bioaccumulation patterns in depth, and assesses the potential environmental risk and toxicity for biota exposed to the above elements. - Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo and B were bioaccumulated in bones of shrews from the Ebro Delta area and Cu in Medas Islands, whereas Cr and Zn showed similar levels at both sites

  5. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  6. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27272640

  7. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  8. Limb preference in the gallop of dogs and the half-bound of pikas on flat ground

    CERN Document Server

    Hackert, Rémi; Herbin, Marc; Abourachid, Anick; Libourel, P A

    2008-01-01

    During fast locomotion - gallop, half bound - of quadruped mammals, the ground contact of the limbs in each pair do not alternate symmetrically. Animals using such asymmetrical gait thus choose whether the left or the right limb will contact the ground first, and this gives rise to limb preference. Here, we report that dogs (Mammalia, Carnivora) and pikas (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) prefer one forelimb as trailing limb and use it as such almost twice as often as the other. We also show that this choice depends on the individual and is not a characteristic of the species, and that the strength of the preference was not dependent on the animal's running speed.

  9. Aspects of carnivoran evolution in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Reihaneh

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concerns the evolution of African small carnivorans, with emphasis on East African Viverridae and Herpestidae (Carnivora, Mammalia). Viverridae and Herpestidae are two Old World feliform (belonging to the cat branch) carnivoran families with a confusing, and sometimes even misleading, taxonomic and systematic history, in addition to a scarce fossil record. A new genus and species from Fort Ternan, western Kenya, dated to ca 14 Mya (million years ago), was described and tentativel...

  10. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua)

    OpenAIRE

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos; Bruno Machado Bertassoli; Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Ana Flávia de Carvalho; Ricardo Alexandre Rosa; Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2010-01-01

    The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work w...

  11. 新疆东北部晚侏罗世一新的柱齿兽%A NEW LATE JURASSIC DOCODONT (MAMMALIA) FROM NORTHEASTERN XINJIANG,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡耀明; 孟津; 詹姆斯 M.克拉克

    2007-01-01

    A new genus and species of docodontid(Docodonta,Mammalia),Acuodulodon sunae,represented by a partial left lower jaw and dentition,is described.It is from the upper part of the Shishugou Formation in the Wucaiwan area of the Junggar Basin in northeastern Xinjiang,China,with an estimated age of 159~161 Ma(Oxfordian,early Late Jurassic).The new mammal is typical of docodonts in having a cusp b in front of cusp a,a cusp c distolingual to cusp a and a cusp g mesiolingual to cusp a on lower molariforms.Differing from other docodonts,it has no cusp e or crest b-e developed on lower molariforms.Unique among docodonts.cusps a and c of the new animal maintained their sharpness while cusp g and crest b-g wore away fast,indicating that both shearing and crushing/grinding occurred in the chewing cycle and probably last for most of the life span of the animal.Phylogenetic analysis of a data matrix with 24 lower molariform characters across 15 taxa recovers a monophyletic Docodonta,which has distinct diagnostic characters in lower molariforms.Within docodonts,Docodon and Borealestes are successively basal to other docodonts;Acuodulodon and Itatodon +(Simpsonodon,Castorocauda+(Tegotherium+Sibirotherium))form a monophyletic clade.Tegotheriid genera are nested within Docodontidae,but a monophyletic tegotheriid clade composed of Tegotherium,Sibirotherium,hatodon,and Tashkumyrodon is not recovered.The dentary of Acuodulodon is typical of docodonts.It has a shallow postdentary trough and a wide and sharp medial ridge,both of which do not extend onto the medial side of the condylar peduncle,indicating looser contact between postdentary bones and the dentary than in morganucodontids,a more derived condition in the evolution toward the definitive mammalian middle ear.%描述了哺乳纲柱齿兽目柱齿兽科(Docodontidae,Docodonta,Mammalia)一新属种--孙氏尖钝齿兽(Acuodulodon sunae gen.et sp.nov.).标本产于新疆东北部准噶尔盆地五彩湾地区上侏罗

  12. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Bredt; Wilson Uieda; Edvard Dias Magalhães

    1999-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae...

  13. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  14. Reconsidering the taxonomy of the Black-Faced Uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus group (Mammalia: Pitheciidae), from the northern Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Guedes, Patrícia G; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea M B; Barnett, Adrian A

    2014-09-24

    The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi.

  15. OCCURRENCE OF BAT FLIES (DIPTERA, HIPPOBOSCOIDEA IN DESMONDUS RODUNTUS (MAMMALIA, CHIROPTERA IN ZONA DA MATA, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight the importance of these agents that are restricted parasites of bats and could be responsible for transmission of the rabies virus between them. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of assessing the distribution of these parasites of bats according to the climatic conditions of a given site, because these elements are essential to limit the distribution of these parasites. The presence of parasites in animals presents itself as an important element for understanding the mechanisms that are configured in the control of population of a given agent. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of flies in vampire bats in the Forest of Minas Gerais State.

  16. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguirre, Camilo; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A B

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations. PMID:26413433

  17. Phylogenetic position of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: a molecular perspective Posición filogenética de las liebres mexicanas dentro del género Lepus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: una perspectiva molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although phylogenetic affinities of Mexican jackrabbits within the genus Lepus have been evaluated for a few species, no study has included all 5 species occurring in Mexico. In this study we assess the phylogenetic position of the Mexican species relative to other forms within the genus and evaluate evolutionary affinities among the Mexican forms. To do so, we analyzed 57 complete cytochrome b sequences belonging to the 5 Mexican jackrabbits and 18 species of Lepus distributed across Asia, Africa, Europe and America. We performed phylogenetic tree reconstruction with the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches. We also used a minimum spanning network to evaluate relationships among Mexican species. We found 5 main phylogenetic groups within Lepus, 4 of which corresponded to geographically well defined lineages. One group included L. americanus, 3 others corresponded to Mexican, African and European species, respectively. A fifth group included Asiatic, European and American forms. Our results suggest that Mexican species constitute a monophyletic entity that evolved independently of the other American species of Lepus. Within the Mexican forms, 2 main clades are apparent; 1 that includes L. alleni, L. callotis, and L. flavigularis, previously referred to as the white-sided jackrabbits, and a second one that groups together L. californicus and L. insularis, although L. californicus is a paraphyletic relative of L. insularis.Aunque la afinidad filogenética de las liebres mexicanas, dentro del género Lepus, ha sido evaluada para algunas especies, ningún estudio ha incluido las 5 especies que se presentan en México. En este trabajo estimamos la posición filogenética de las especies mexicanas de liebres en relación con otras formas dentro del género, y evaluamos las afinidades evolutivas entre ellas. Para ello analizamos 57 secuencias completas del citocromo b pertenecientes a las 5 especies mexicanas y 18

  18. Functional anatomy of the postcranial skeleton of Styriofelis lorteti (Carnivora, Felidae, Felinae from the Middle Miocene (MN 6 locality of Sansan (Gers, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peigné, S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The postcranial skeleton of the European Middle Miocene feline Styriofelis lorteti has been traditionally known on the basis of fragmentary fossils mainly from the French locality of Sansan. The discovery of an almost complete skeleton in the same site in the excavations of 1990 opened the possibility of unprecedented assessment of the morphology and function of this early felid. In this paper we describe this material, and compare it with a sample of modern and fossil felids, finding a combination of a generally modern morphology, with moderate adaptations to terrestrial locomotion, besides a set of primitive characters linking S. lorteti with earlier felids like Proailurus lemanensis.El esqueleto post-craneal del felino Styriofelis lorteti, del Mioceno medio de Europa, ha sido tradicionalmente conocido en base a fósiles fragmentarios, procedentes principalmente del yacimiento francés de Sansan. El descubrimiento en este yacimiento de un esqueleto casi completo, durante la campaña de 1990, abrió la posibilidad de llevar a cabo un análisis sin precedentes de la morfología y función de este félido primitivo. En este trabajo se describe este material, comparándose con una muestra de felinos fósiles y actuales, hallándose una combinación entre una morfología general moderna, con adaptaciones moderadas para la locomoción terrestre, junto con una serie de caracteres primitivos que relacionan a S. lorteti con los félidos más antiguos como Proailurus lemanensis.

  19. Chemical immobilization of captive Cougars Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771 (Carnivora: Felidae using a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine and xylazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lescano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Handling of large felids is highly risky, hence immobilization is required for the safety of personnel.  Data on the effects of anesthetic drugs used for immobilizing Cougars Puma concolor are scarce. This study describes the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg, ketamine (1.6mg/kg and xylazine (0.4mg/kg in pumas. Five captive adult and clinically healthy Cougars were included in this study.  Animals were immobilized by remote injection using blow pipe and darts.  The durations of induction, immobilization and recovery periods and their qualities were recorded.  Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature and blood pressure were recorded at five minute intervals for 25 minutes.  Then all animals received 0.125mg/kg of yohimbine, intramuscularly administered.  Central tendency and dispersal statistics were calculated for each parameter.  The duration of the induction period was 10.4±6.4 minutes and the duration of the recovery period was 83.3±35.1 minutes. Induction, immobilization and recovery periods were smooth and adequate anesthetic depth was achieved.  The mean heart rate was 122±10 beats/minute, mean respiratory rate was 10±1 breaths/minute, mean body temperature was 39.1±0.2 0C and mean blood pressure was 139±12 mmHg.  No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was observed in vital parameters over the duration of the assessment.  The tested anesthetic combination effectively immobilized the cougars included in this study and provided safety for the personnel involved.  Though vital signs were not significantly affected, a degree of hypoventilation was observed and respiratory support is recommended when using this anesthetic combination in cougars. 

  20. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S C Nogueira

    Full Text Available Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3 and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled. The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2 than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3. The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1 and the following control phase (C2 than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2, also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.

  1. Summary of Laurasiatheria (Mammalia) Phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyang HU; Yaping ZHANG; Li YU

    2012-01-01

    Laurasiatheria is one of the richest and most diverse superorders of placental mammals.Because this group had a rapid evolutionary radiation,the phylogenetic relationships among the six orders of Laurasiatheria remain a subject of heated debate and several issues related to its phylogeny remain open.Reconstructing the true phylogenetic relationships of Laurasiatheria is a significant case study in evolutionary biology due to the diversity of this suborder and such research will have significant implications for biodiversity conservation.We review the higher-level (inter-ordinal) phylogenies of Laurasiatheria based on previous cytogenetic,morphological and molecular data,and discuss the controversies of its phylogenetic relationship.This review aims to outline future researches on Laurasiatheria phylogeny and adaptive evolution.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda..._melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  4. Assessment of the toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Guo; Nan Mei

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick carbon nanosheet, has attracted great interest as a promising nanomaterial for a variety of bioapplications because of its extraordinary properties. However, the potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene-family nanomaterials. This review summarizes recent findings on the toxicological effects and the potential toxicity mechanisms of graphene-family nanomaterials in bacteria, mammalia...

  5. Diet and potential feeding overlap between Trichiurus lepturus (Osteichthyes: Perciformes and Pontoporia blainvillei (Mammalia: Cetacea in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa T. Bittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the diet and assesses potential overlap in the feeding habits of Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 and Pontoporia blainvilleiGervais & D'Orbigny, 1844 in northern Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Fishes were numerically dominant in both diets, followed by cephalopods for P. blainvillei and crustaceans for T. lepturus. Both predators move along similar coastal feeding areas in northern Rio de Janeiro, but our results indicate differences in their resource exploitation, what allows for their coexistence.

  6. The reassessment of the threatened status of the Indian endemic Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargavi Srinivasulu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.

  7. A comparative haematological analysis of Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae managed under different captive conditions in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.D. Mel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Haematological parameters were assessed from elephants of three institutions in Sri Lanka with different captive conditions, in order to evaluate if different captive conditions influence the physiology of the animals. The institutions were: The National Zoological Gardens (NZG, where elephants live a comparatively sedentary lifestyle, Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage (PEO, where elephants are allowed to walk and engage in intra-specific behaviours, and Millennium Elephant Foundation (MEF, where the elephants are used for tourist rides. Four adult females were examined from the NZG, while only two males and two females could be examined from PEO and MEF respectively. All animals were sampled on four consecutive days. Blood glucose levels, total white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV and differential white blood cell counts were carried out. Certain blood parameters of the elephants from NZG differed significantly from the parameters of the elephants from PEO and MEF. These were, the total WBC counts (Kruskal-Wallis, H=21.92, 2d.f., P=0.000, the lymphocyte count (Kruskal-Wallis, H=16.40, 2d.f., P=0.00 and the Neutrophil: Lymphocyte ratios (Kruskal-Wallis , H=14.58, 2d.f., P less than 0.05. PCV , blood glucose levels and monocyte counts were also shown to be significantly different among the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis P less than 0.000. We suggest that differences in the stress levels associated with the different management methods might influence these haematological values.

  8. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    The body masses of cats (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) span a ~300-fold range from the smallest to largest species. Despite this range, felid musculoskeletal anatomy remains remarkably conservative, including the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at unusually large sizes. The forelimbs in felids are important for body support and other aspects of locomotion, as well as climbing and prey capture, with the assistance of the vertebral (and hindlimb) muscles. Here, we examine the scaling of the anterior postcranial musculature across felids to assess scaling patterns between different species spanning the range of felid body sizes. The muscle architecture (lengths and masses of the muscle-tendon unit components) for the forelimb, cervical and thoracic muscles was quantified to analyse how the muscles scale with body mass. Our results demonstrate that physiological cross-sectional areas of the forelimb muscles scale positively with increasing body mass (i.e. becoming relatively larger). Many significantly allometric variables pertain to shoulder support, whereas the rest of the limb muscles become relatively weaker in larger felid species. However, when phylogenetic relationships were corrected for, most of these significant relationships disappeared, leaving no significantly allometric muscle metrics. The majority of cervical and thoracic muscle metrics are not significantly allometric, despite there being many allometric skeletal elements in these regions. When forelimb muscle data were considered in isolation or in combination with those of the vertebral muscles in principal components analyses and MANOVAs, there was no significant discrimination among species by either size or locomotory mode. Our results support the inference that larger felid species have relatively weaker anterior postcranial musculature compared with smaller species, due to an absence of significant positive allometry of forelimb or vertebral muscle architecture. This difference in strength

  9. The snout of Paulocnus petrifactus (Mammalia, Edentata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1964-01-01

    A specimen of the ground sloth discovered by Mr. P. Stuiver in Curaçao, Paulocnus petrifactus Hooijer (1962), recently dressed from the matrix by Mr. P. H. de Buisonjé, comprises the front part of the mandible and the left half of the rostrum of the skull. It holds the left upper and right lower can

  10. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Mustela eversmannii (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Honghai; Sun, Guolei; Zhao, Chao; Dou, Huashan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Steppe polecat, Mustela eversmannii, was sequenced for the first time using muscle tissue. The mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16 463 bp in length and overall base composition is A (32.7%), T (27.3%), C (26.1%), and G (13.9%), which indicates a strong A-T bias. A phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 13 protein-coding genes and two rRNA genes of 10 Mustela species' mitochondrial genomes using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) demonstrated that these Mustela species were clustered into two clades and M. eversmannii was close to M. putorius. PMID:26367202

  12. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  13. Pain Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Types of Pain Pain Assessment Pain Treatments Integrative Pain Therapy Pain Management Recommendations References September 04, 2016 Pain Assessment Effective pain management begins with a comprehensive ...

  14. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  15. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  16. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  17. CORYPHODONTIDS ( MAMMALIA: PANTODONTA ) FROM THE ERLIAN BASIN OF NEI MONGOL, CHINA, AND THEIR BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS%内蒙古二连盆地冠齿兽科(哺乳纲:全齿目)化石及其生物地层学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛方园; 王元青

    2012-01-01

    描述了在内蒙古二连盆地新采集的保存较完好的冠齿兽类化石.基于牙齿特征的比较认为:Eudinoceras kholobolchiensis Osborn & Granger,1931、E.obailiensis Gabunia,1961、Metacoryphodon luminis Chow & Qi,1982和M.?minor Qi,1987的个体大小、上前臼齿前尖V形脊角度、原尖前后棱发育程度、上下臼齿脊形化程度和尖脊形状及位置等特征与E.mongoliensis Osborn,1924一致,应视为后者的次主观异名;M.xintaiensis Chow & Qi,1982应归入Eudinoceras属,变更为E.xintaiensis;Metacoryphodon为无效命名,应予废除.厘定后的Eudinoceras属共含有6个有效种:E.zhichengensis Lei et al.,1987、E.youngi Xu,1980、E.xintaiensis Chow & Qi,1982、E.mongoliensis Osborn,1924、E.crassum Tong & Tang,1977和E.sishuiensis Wang,1994.修订了Eudinoceras属和E.mongoliensis种的齿列特征.将二连盆地冠齿兽类化石的产出层位对应至该盆地重新厘定的地层框架中,E.mongoliensis集中在阿山头组,能确定的最早出现层位为阿山头组底部的AS-1层,最晚出现层位为阿山头组上部的AS-5层,其时代为早始新世中期,约为53~49 Ma.%Coryphodontids ( Mammalia: Pantodonta) , as the most geographically widespread major group of extinct large herbivorous mammals, are among the most useful mammalian index fossils for drawing stratigraphic correlations in North America (Lucas, 1984, 1998; Uhen and Gin-gerich, 1995). In Asia, however, confusion regarding their taxonomy and misinterpretations of the lithostratigraphy of the fossil-bearing units have made it difficult to use coryphodontids for this purpose. Given improved understanding of intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism within this highly variable taxon (Uhen and Gingerich, 1995; McGee, 2001, 2002; McGee and Turnbull, 2010), and the availability of newly clarified lithostratigraphic correlations (Meng,1990; Meng et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2010)and a recently established framework for Asian mammalian

  18. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hormesis hypothesis is discussed claiming that low dose ionizing radiation shows positive biological effects. The hypothesis could not be demonstrably proved. In the last decade, new disciplines have been developing, such as risk assessment and risk management that, on the basis of proven results and the consideration of all circumstances quantitatively assess and test possible risks. (M.D.). 1 fig

  19. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  20. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  1. Assessment centrum

    OpenAIRE

    Mládková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Thesis is focused on the Assessment Center, the method of recruitment, which becomes increasingly popolar. The gosl of my disertation is to apply the most convinient methods on the call center. Interview with HR of various campanies, questionnaire survey and empirici observation is used. Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part explaines and describes the koncept of Assessment Center and describes various methods that are most commonly used. The practi...

  2. Neurological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Ann Butler

    2016-08-01

    Neurological system assessment is an important skill for the orthopaedic nurse because the nervous system has such an overlap with the musculoskeletal system. Nurses whose scope of practice includes such advanced evaluation, e.g. nurse practitioners, may conduct the examination described here but the information will also be useful for nurses caring for patients who have abnormal neurological assessment findings. Within the context of orthopaedic physical assessment, possible neurological findings are evaluated as they complement the patient's history and the examiner's findings. Specific neurological assessment is integral to diagnosis of some orthopaedic conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome. In other situations such as crushing injury to the extremities, there is high risk of associated neurological or neurovascular injury. These patients need anticipatory examination and monitoring to prevent complications. This article describes a basic neurological assessment; emphasis is on sensory and motor findings that may overlap with an orthopaedic presentation. The orthopaedic nurse may incorporate all the testing covered here or choose those parts that further elucidate specific diagnostic questions suggested by the patient's history, general evaluation and focused musculoskeletal examination. Abnormal findings help to suggest further testing, consultation with colleagues or referral to a specialist. PMID:27118633

  3. Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  4. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fenhann, J.; Gorham, R.; Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  5. Energy assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy industry initiatives during the 1970s and during the 1990s are compared. During the 1970s, the objective was to reduce energy consumption and to reduce dependency on foreign fuel. Today, the emphasis is on reducing energy costs and to improve net operating income. The challenges posed by the drive to reduce energy costs are discussed. As a tool in the drive to reduce energy cost, the energy assessment process was described. The process entails a detailed analysis of energy consumption, an investigation of energy rates and an assessment of site conditions and equipment, with a view towards an optimum combination that will lead to energy cost reductions

  6. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...

  7. Audiological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Darrell E., Ed.

    The text, designed for students and others interested in clinical audiology, is intended to provide comprehensive coverage of not only important concepts in audiology but particularly of the methods and procedures used in audiological assessment. The functions of tests, the administration of specific tests, and the analysis of test results are…

  8. Management Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management assessment. In "The Air Force ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) Selection System as a Predictor of Leadership" (Orlando V. Griego, George A. Morgan, Gary D. Geroy), 102 ROTC cadets rated their own leadership characteristics and were rated by subordinates; leaders and…

  9. Cardiac Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Deborah; McKenzie, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    Heart disease remains the number one cause of mortality in both men and women in the United States and patients with heart failure are at high risk for hospitalization. Thirty-day readmission rates have become a benchmark for hospitals and home healthcare agency reimbursement. Physical exam and history taking are essential to evaluate patients with suspected or known heart disease, and to detect early symptoms of worsening heart failure. Home care clinicians have the opportunity to assess the patient in the home environment, identify significant changes in the patient's status, and form a plan of care for effective intervention to prevent the need for emergency department care or rehospitalization. In this second article of a four-part series, the subjective and objective assessment of the cardiovascular system exam is reviewed. PMID:26418104

  10. ODONTOLOGICAL AND CRANIOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF THE RECENT HEDGEHOG NEOTETRACUS WITH HYLOMYS AND NEOHYLOMYS ( ERINACEIDAE, INSECTIVORA, MAMMALIA)%现生毛猬Neotetracus属与Hylomys及Neohylomys属齿系和颅骨的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burkart ENGESSER; 蒋学龙

    2011-01-01

    ,is,despite the scarce material at disposal,included in these comparisons as well.The comparisons yield distinct differences between these three hylomyines in almost each tooth and in some skull features,fully justifying the maintenance of the genera Neotetracus,Neohylomys and Hylomys.The differences found are also used to assess the evolutionary level of the three forms with respect to each other.The Hylomyinae are living today in a relatively small area in Southeast Asia and are represented by five genera with a total of six species.In the past,especially during the Middle and Late Miocene,this subfamily was spread over almost the whole northern hemisphere:from Asia to Europe and North Africa,and to North America.The Hylomyinae were also much more diverse than today,so far 9 fossil genera with 47 species having been described.Therefore it is justified to speak of the Hylomyinae as relict forms.To emphasize the shrinking of the distribution area of the Hylomyinae,the reasons for which are not yet understood,an abridged history of the subfamily is given.

  11. Technology assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies in assessment methodology have concentrated in the past year on computerization of state-of-the-art models for internal radiation dosimetry and development and evaluation of environmental transport models. Methodology applications continued to cover a broad spectrum of radiation exposure scenarios. Potential exposure situations requiring assessment arise from assorted deployments of all parts of nuclear fuel cycles, including comparisons of alternative uranium and thorium based cycles, and preliminary evaluations of advanced reactor fuel concepts. Measurements and samples were collected characterizing and documenting the current radiological status of formerly used Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites. This survey program encompasses research activities in the areas of survey design, instrumentation development, sample analysis, and data reduction and analysis. Other laboratory activities within TAS center around the unique capabilities of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as an irradiation source. Typically the HPRR was involved in testing and intercomparison of dosimetry and criticality alarm systems and in exposure of physical and biological experiments

  12. Assessing Assessment Texts: Where Is Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Helenrose; Barnes, Nicole; Dacey, Charity; Gillis, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a content analysis of 27 assessment textbooks to determine how assessment planning was framed in texts for preservice teachers. We identified eight assessment planning themes: alignment, assessment purpose and types, reliability and validity, writing goals and objectives, planning specific assessments, unpacking, overall assessment…

  13. Self Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJR Office IJR Office

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available CME Objectives and Tests"nThe main purpose of the self-assessment program is to help Iranian radiologists and other specialists to update their professional knowledge and skills in clinical and research fields through studying the articles published in the Iranian Journal of Radiology (IJR. These series of IJR tests are CME tests, authorized by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. We suggest you study the articles before and after taking the test, and use other sources as well. Please write your answers in the provided answer sheet and return it to the journal office. You can also download the answer sheet from www.ijr.ir, complete it, and email it to info@ijr.ir.

  14. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  15. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphisvirginiana, 15 Didelphismarsupialis, and 5 Philanderopossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaimadidelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopaliascoronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchusmicrocephalus and the nematodes Cruziatentaculata, Gnathostomaturgidum, and Turgidaturgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  16. A key to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivasulu; Racey, Paul A.; Shahroukh Mistry

    2010-01-01

    A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise), status and main identification characters

  17. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares Ioni G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.

  18. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Acosta-Virgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes. Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals.

  19. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  20. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  1. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  2. Proboscidea (Mammalia) from the Upper Miocene of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, A.V.; Montoya, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fossil Proboscidea from the Spanish Turolian (Upper Miocene) sites of Crevillente 2 (MN11) and Crevillente 15 and 16 (MN12) are described. The mastodont from Crevillente 2 is assigned to Tetralophodon cf. longirostris ‘grandincisivoid form’, recognised for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula

  3. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  4. Assessing Leadership Using National Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Sharra

    2016-09-01

    Determining the appropriate use of national or multicampus leadership assessments requires careful consideration of program goals and resources. This chapter explores quantitative dimensions of assessing leadership. PMID:27502098

  5. Ectoparasites of Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae from an urban forest in Southeastern Brazil Ectoparasitos de quatis Nasua nasua (Carnivora, Procyonidae em uma floresta urbana no sudeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.S.F. Rodrigues

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Em um fragmento de mata na área urbana de Juiz de Fora (MG foram capturados 15 quatis com armadilha e ceva, para estudo dos seus ectoparasitos. Outros quatro animais, atropelados no entorno, foram também examinados imediatamente após o atropelamento, e incluídos na análise. Os ectoparasitos foram removidos com a utilização de pinça e pente-fino e acondicionados em etanol 70°GL. Pulgas e piolhos foram clarificados e montados para análise em microscopia. Os ixodídeos foram identificados sob estereoscopia. Não foram encontrados carrapatos adultos. Larvas e ninfas de carrapatos foram encontradas, respectivamente, em 36,8% e 63,1% dos hospedeiros examinados. Ninfas que sofreram muda foram identificadas como Amblyomma cajenennse. A espécie de piolho Neotrichodectes pallidus foi obtida em 52,6% dos quatis. As pulgas Ctenocephalides felis felis e Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi apresentaram, respectivamente, as seguintes prevalências: 36,8% e 35,1%. O estudo mostra que no fragmento de mata na área urbana os quatis podem manter espécies de ectoparasitos comuns a estes hospedeiros, bem como intercambia-las entre o ambiente silvestre e urbano.

  6. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment...

  7. Patient Assessment File (PAF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Patient Assessment File (PAF) database compiles the results of the Patient Assessment Instrument (PAI) questionnaire filled out for intermediate care Veterans...

  8. Samoa Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    SABER-Student Assessment is a component of the SABER program that focuses specifically on benchmarking student assessment policies and systems. The goal of SABER-Student Assessment is to promote stronger assessment systems that contribute to improvededucation quality and learning for all. Samoa has focused on increasing student learningoutcomes by improving the quality of education in the ...

  9. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  10. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  11. Sustainable Assessment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boud, David; Soler, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable assessment has been proposed as an idea that focused on the contribution of assessment to learning beyond the timescale of a given course. It was identified as an assessment that meets the needs of the present in terms of the demands of formative and summative assessment, but which also prepares students to meet their own future…

  12. Molecular detection of Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in procyonids (Carnivora: Procyonidae in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to diagnose the natural infection of captive and free-living procyonids with Trypanosoma evansi in the states of Amapá and Pará, Brazil. From February 2012 to August 2013, whole blood samples and blood smears were obtained from 45 free-living procyonids and from nine procyonids kept in captivity in wild life refuges and zoobotanical parks in the states of Amapá and Pará. Whole blood samples were collected and kept at -20ºC for the detection of T. evansi DNA by PCR using the RoTat 1.2 forward and RoTat 1.2 reverse primers. In addition, the blood smears were processed and examined for the presence of trypomastigote forms of T. evansi. T. evansi DNA was detected in 18.52% (10/54 of the procyonids, namely, in captive crab-eating raccoons and captive and free-living coatis in Pará State. No trypomastigote forms were observed in the blood smears. DNA from T. evansi was detected in P. cancrivorus and N. nasua in Pará State, being this the first such report in P. cancrivorus.

  13. Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive coatis (Nasua nasua Storr, 1780 (Carnivora: Procyonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Langoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide infection that affects many species, including wild animals. The present study aimed to detect Leptospira spp. antibodies in 17 captive coatis (Nasua nasua by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Nine (52.94% animals tested positive and the following serovars were identified: Copenhageni (22.22%, Shermani (22.22%, Andamana (11.11%, Wolfii (11.11% and Pyrogenes (11.11%. Two samples presented coagglutination, one (11.11% for Hebdomadis and Wolfii, and another (11.11% for Hebdomadis, Hardjo and Wolfii. The current study revealed the presence of the infection even in animals without any clinical signs, reinforcing the possibility that wild animals in captivity may be infected by leptospire serovars, thus enabling reservoirs.

  14. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design conservation actions, to follow and evaluate the need for particular protected areas along their geographical gradients. PMID:22017133

  15. First larval record of Mesocestoides in carnivora of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Pérez Rivero, Alfredo; Santana Morales, María A; Kabdur, Alicia; González, Ana C; Quispe Ricalde, M Antonieta; Feliu, Carlos; Valladares, Basilio

    2007-02-01

    Larvae of Mesocestoides sp. were recovered in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in 2004 from the peritoneal cavities of 2 domestic dogs and a domestic cat. Morphological and molecular identification were carried out. Mesocestoides litteratus from Vulpes vulpes was sequenced for the first time using the ITS-2 region (18S rDNA), and was included in the phylogenetic analysis to compare the sequence variability among these and other Mesocestoides spp. belonging to different carnivores. Phylogenetic studies were carried out based on maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analysis. The results showed the relationships between these and other previously published Mesocestoides species. Moreover, it is demonstrated that Mesocestoides sp. from Tenerife comprises a previously unreported sequence. This is the first larval record of Mesocestoides sp. in domestic animals from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis chinensis (Carnivora:Felidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Xu, Jie-Tian; Zou, Fang-Dong; Peng, Que-Kun; Peng, Rui

    2016-09-01

    The full-length of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Prionailurus bengalensis chinensis was first determined in this study and consisted of a 16,990 bp fragment, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region (CR), and an origin of L-strand replication (OLR). The total base composition of the heavy strand was A, 33.0%; G, 13.6%; C, 26.0%; and T, 27.4%, with a slight AT bias of 60.4%. The complete mitogenomic data of P. b. chinensis may provide an important data set for further phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses of Genus Prionailurus species. PMID:25629472

  17. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  18. New Information About The Behavior Of Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae By Radio-Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano-Oliveira E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira, Roberto Fusco, Etiene A. V. Dos Santos, Emygdio L. A. CDuring the development of a study about a community of carnivorous mammals, an otter was captured and equiped with a radio transmitter in an area of mangrove in the south coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. This study verified that: 1 - the animal used at least three burrows without communication between them. 2 – the most used burrow was at a distance of 2,6 km from the capture place; 3 - this individual usually moved between two islands that were separated by an estuary whose medium width was of approximately 1 km; 4 – it spent a long period on a small island of approximately 0,06 Km2 where a muddy substratum prevailed, not allowing the construction of a burrow. In spite of the little time that the otter stayed with the radio-transmitter, the data obtained are of relevant importance as they show an unknown activity pattern, besides showing in a short period some patterns of burrow use. Even though the otter removed its radio-collar, it didn’t cause any damage to the individual and it allowed the registration of behaviour patterns that had not been described before. Based upon the radio-transmitter as adapted, new perspectives open up for the effective study of this species, increasing the possibilities of obtaining data about activity patterns and home range for Lontra longicaudis.

  19. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger) (Carnivora, Canidae) in southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cory T. de Carvalho; Luiz E. M. Vasconcellos

    1995-01-01

    The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782). It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II) to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gat...

  20. Musculoskeletal anatomy of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx (Carnivora: Felidae) forelimb: Adaptations to capture large prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viranta, Suvi; Lommi, Hanna; Holmala, Katja; Laakkonen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian carnivores adhere to two different feeding strategies relative to their body masses. Large carnivores prey on animals that are the same size or larger than themselves, whereas small carnivores prey on smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) falls in between these two categories. Lynx descend from larger forms that were probably large prey specialists, but during the Pleistocene became predators of small prey. The modern Eurasian lynx may be an evolutionary reversal toward specializing in large prey again. We hypothesized that the musculoskeletal anatomy of lynx should show traits for catching large prey. To test our hypothesis, we dissected the forelimb muscles of six Eurasian lynx individuals and compared our findings to results published for other felids. We measured the bones and compared their dimensions to the published material. Our material displayed a well-developed pectoral girdle musculature with some uniquely extensive muscle attachments. The upper arm musculature resembled that of the pantherine felids and probably the extinct sabertooths, and also the muscles responsible for supination and pronation were similar to those in large cats. The muscles controlling the pollex were well-developed. However, skeletal indices were similar to those of small prey predators. Our findings show that lynx possess the topographic pattern of muscle origin and insertion like in large felids. J. Morphol. 277:753-765, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26997516

  1. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  2. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo) (Carnivora: Felidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; Noll, Jéssica Caroline Gomes; Freitas, Ítallo Barros de; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time. PMID:27580395

  3. Occurrence (new record of maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (Carnivora, Canidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.

  4. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf: Chrysocyon Brachyurus (Illiger (Carnivora, Canidae in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent endoparasite of the Maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the giant kidney-worm. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782. It has heen responsible for the majority of deaths of captive animals. Twenty-six marked wolves have been followed in the field with ear-tags and radio-collar tagged (Tab. II to investigate their interactions with the environment, their diurnal shelters, movements and habits, and their delivery sites. Ten years of life history data have heen gathered. They are territorial and monogamous, and give birth to two or three young once a year, after a 63 days gestation, on average. Maned wolves inhabit the open areas and have omnivorous feeding habits.

  5. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  6. Distribution of ectoparasites of Canis lupus familiaris L. (Carnivora: Canidae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miranda C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the distribution of ectoparasites in dogs in Panama. Materials and methods. There were surveyed 720 canines belonging to 57 communities. Results. The results showed that 84% of the dogs were infested with at least one species of ectoparasite. Dogs from lowlands showed a higher percentage of parasitism and a greater biodiversity of parasites than dogs from highlands. There were found seven species of ticks, four species of fleas, two species of lice, and one specie of botfly. The ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale and the flea Ctenocephalides felis were widespread; however Ixodes boliviensis and Pulex simulans showed a much narrower geographic distribution and they were found only in dogs from highlands. The flea species Rhopalopsyllus cacicus and the tick Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found for the first time in panamanian dogs. Conclusions. The environmental situation in Panama, can encourage that wildlife ectoparasites parasitized dogs in absence of their native hosts. This condition may increase transmission risk of some diseases where the ticks and fleas are vectors.

  7. New Information About The Behavior Of Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) By Radio-Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano-Oliveira E.; Fusco R.; Dos Santos E.A.V.; Monteiro-Filho E.L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Eduardo Nakano-Oliveira, Roberto Fusco, Etiene A. V. Dos Santos, Emygdio L. A. CDuring the development of a study about a community of carnivorous mammals, an otter was captured and equiped with a radio transmitter in an area of mangrove in the south coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. This study verified that: 1 - the animal used at least three burrows without communication between them. 2 – the most used burrow was at a distance of 2,6 km from the capture place; 3 - this i...

  8. Cats in the forest : predicting habitat adaptations from humerus morphometry in extant and fossil Felidae (Carnivora).

    OpenAIRE

    Meloro, C; Elton, S.; Louys, J.; Bishop, L.C.; Ditchfield, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores are rarely incorporated in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, largely because of their rarity within the fossil record. However, multivariate statistical modeling can be successfully used to quantify specific anatomical features as environmental predictors. Here we explore morphological variability of the humerus in a closely related group of predators (Felidae) to investigate the relationship between morphometric descriptors and habitat categories. We analyze linear mea...

  9. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irineo, Gabriela; Santos-Moreno, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22 km2) during a two years period (March 2011-June, 2013), in Oaxaca state, Southeast Mexico. Data allowed the estimation of the population density, activity pattern, sex ratio, residence time, and spatial distribution. Population density was calculated using Capture-Recapture Models for demographically open populations; besides, circular techniques were used to determine if nocturnal and diurnal activity varied significantly over the seasons, and Multiple Discriminant Analysis was used to determine which of the selected environmental variables best explained ocelot abundance in the region. A total of 103 ocelot records were obtained, with a total sampling effort of 8,529 trap-days. Density of 22-38 individuals/100 km2 was estimated. Ocelot population had a high proportion of transient individuals in the zone (55%), and the sex ratio was statistically equal to 1:1. Ocelot activity was more frequent at night (1:00-6:00h), but it also exhibited diurnal activity throughout the study period. Ocelot spatial distribution was positively affected by the proximity to the village as well as by the amount of prey. The ocelot population here appears to be stable, with a density similar to other regions in Central and South America, which could be attributed to the diversity of prey species and a low degree of disturbance in Los Chimalapas. PMID:25720177

  10. Is it possible to identify four small Neotropical felids (Carnivora: Felidae based on hair microstructure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and L. pardalis. To accomplish that, we used measurements of the length, width and area of the cuticular scales in the guard hairs and calculated the relationship between width and length (quotient for each species. A multiple discriminant analysis was conducted on the measurements and the percentage of correct identification was obtained. We found a high overlap in the quotients of these species, which indicates that this technique does not identify Neotropical felids accurately. This inefficiency was also confirmed by the multiple discriminant analysis, where only 74% correct identifications were obtained. Therefore we recommend that hair analysis is used only in combination with other sources of evidence, for instance molecular tools.

  11. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rafael; Moreno, Ricardo S; Kays, Roland W; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot's parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult's increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. PMID:19256443

  12. Is it possible to identify four small Neotropical felids (Carnivora: Felidae) based on hair microstructure?

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi; Flávia Heloisa Rodriguez; Fernando C. Passos

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic characters of the hair can be used to indirectly identify species that are either uncommon or are difficult to see, for instance small Neotropical felids of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forests. This widely used technique, which has not yet been standardized, involves the identification of hairs collected from feces. We tested the hypothesis that this tool is effective to identify four species of small Neotropical felids: Leopardus guttulus, Puma yagouaroundi, L. wiedii and...

  13. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  14. Density, distribution, and activity of the ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) in Southeast Mexican rainforests

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Pérez-Irineo; Antonio Santos-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The ocelot Leopardus pardalis is of particular significance in terrestrial communities due to its ecological role within the group of small-sized felids and as a mesopredator. However, despite the reduction of ocelot habitat in Southeast Mexico, there are still very few ecological studies. This research aimed to contribute with some ecological aspects of the species in this region. For this, 29 camera trap stations were established in a rain forest in Los Chimalapas (an area of 22km 2 ) durin...

  15. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol. PMID:26666134

  16. Diet of margay, Leopardus wiedii, and jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi, (Carnivora: Felidae in Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Bianchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range

  17. Developmental Assessment. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    Developmental assessment is the process of monitoring a student's progress through an area of learning so that decisions can be made about the best way to facilitate further learning. The unique feature of developmental assessment is its use of a progress map. The progress map, or continuum, describes the development in an area of learning and so…

  18. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... and toxicity. Whereas Risk Assessment (RA) aims to identify absolute risks, LCA assess potential or relative impacts. LCA is readily applicable to nanotechnologies and several studies have been carried out, but LCA faces large problems when addressing toxic impacts of nanomaterials emitted during the life...... the emissions, how should they be defined and classified and what should be measured? LCA have many of these issues in common with RA. There is a need to understand which properties of nanomaterials are crucial for the assessment of their potential transformation and fate as well as their ability to cause...

  19. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  20. Biting through constraints: cranial morphology, disparity and convergence across living and fossil carnivorous mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Anjali; Milne, Nick; Wroe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carnivory has evolved independently several times in eutherian (including placental) and metatherian (including marsupial) mammals. We used geometric morphometrics to assess convergences associated with the evolution of carnivory across a broad suite of mammals, including the eutherian clades Carnivora and Creodonta and the metatherian clades Thylacoleonidae, Dasyuromorphia, Didelphidae and Borhyaenoidea. We further quantified cranial disparity across eutherians and metatherians to test the h...

  1. Assessing the assessment in emergency care training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E W Dankbaar

    Full Text Available Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills.Residents were assessed at the end of a 2-week emergency course; a subgroup was videotaped. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess the validity and inter-rater reliability of the assessment instrument, which included a checklist, a 9-item competency scale and a global performance scale.A group of 144 residents and 12 raters participated in the study; 22 residents were videotaped and re-assessed by 8 raters. The checklists showed limited validity and poor inter-rater reliability for the dimensions "correct" and "timely" (ICC = .30 and.39 resp.. The competency scale had good construct validity, consisting of a clinical and a communication subscale. The internal consistency of the (subscales was high (α = .93/.91/.86. The inter-rater reliability was moderate for the clinical competency subscale (.49 and the global performance scale (.50, but poor for the communication subscale (.27. A generalizability study showed that for a reliable assessment 5-13 raters are needed when using checklists, and four when using the clinical competency scale or the global performance scale.This study shows poor validity and reliability for assessing emergency skills with checklists but good validity and moderate reliability with clinical competency or global performance scales. Involving more raters can improve the reliability substantially. Recommendations are made to improve this high stakes skill assessment.

  2. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  3. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  4. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  5. National Assessment Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Assessment Database stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and other watershed plans designed to...

  6. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  7. Advocacy and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A highly structured treatment is presented of adversarial systems as they apply to technology assessment. One approach to the problem of adequate criteria of assessment focuses upon the internal operations of assessment entities; operations include problem perception, problem formulation, selection, utilization, determination, and evaluation. Potential contributions of advocacy as a mode of inquiry in technology are discussed; advocacy is evaluated by representative sets of criteria of adequate assessment which include participant criteria, perspectives criteria, situations criteria, base values criteria, and strategies criteria.

  8. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  9. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  10. Learning needs assessment: assessing the need

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Learning needs assessment has a fundamental role in education and training, but care is needed to prevent it becoming a straitjacket It might seem self evident that the need to learn should underpin any educational system. Indeed, the literature suggests that, at least in relation to continuing professional development, learning is more likely to lead to change in practice when needs assessment has been conducted, the education is linked to practice, personal incentive drives the educati...

  11. Authentic Assessment in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Leadership, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the teacher-developed California Assessment Program (CAP) writing measure, designed to support California's reform curriculum and based on matrix sampling techniques. This program will be supplemented by literature and mathematics assessments. The greatest challenge is designing an assessment to match the state's new history and social…

  12. Dynamic Speaking Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent; Sabet, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an attempt to adopt dynamic assessment (DA) methods in classroom speaking assessments. The study reported in this article focused on four particular applications of dynamic speaking assessment (DSA). The first, "mediated assistance" (MA), involves interaction between an assistor and a learner to reveal problems in spoken…

  13. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  14. Sustainability assessment and complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments bring together different perspectives that pertain to sustainability to produce overall assessments, and a wealth of approaches and tools have been developed in the past decades. However, two major problems remain. The problem of integration concerns the surplus of possibilities for integration; different tools produce different assessments. The problem of implementation concerns the barrier between assessment and transformation; assessments do not lead to the expected changes in practice. We aim to analyze issues of complementarity in sustainability assessment and transformation as a key to better handling the problems of integration and implementation. Based on a generalization of Niels Bohr's complementarity from quantum mechanics, we have identified two forms of complementarity in sustainability assessment, observer stance complementarity and value complementarity. Unlike many other problems of sustainability assessment, complementarity is of a fundamental character connected to the very conditions for observation. Therefore, complementarity cannot be overcome methodologically, only handled better or worse. Science is essential to the societal goal of sustainability, but these issues of complementarity impede the constructive role of science in the transition to more sustainable structures and practices in food systems. The agencies of sustainability assessment and transformation need to be acutely aware of the importance of different perspectives and values and the complementarities that may be connected to these differences. An improved understanding of complementarity can help to better recognize and handle issues of complementarity. These deliberations have relevance not only for sustainability assessment, but more generally for transdisciplinary research on wicked problems.

  15. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  16. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment. This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability assessments of

  17. Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani HABIB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on the concept of assessment as an essential pedagogical practice for the improvement of the teaching-learning process. Particularly, it stresses the strategies and the techniques that should be used in assessing reading comprehension with reference to EFL classrooms. It describes the kinds of tasks that actually reveal students’ reading comprehension abilities and needs. Moreover, this paper aims to illustrate the types and the advantages of assessment for both teachers and learners. More importantly, this study tries to bring equitable evidence of how reading comprehension can be adequately assessed. The findings showed that assessment of reading comprehension is central to English language teaching as it provides teachers with essential information about students’ weaknesses, needs, obstacles, and deficits. Thus, teachers can implement the appropriate techniques and use the assessment results to amend their classroom instruction and enhance the learning abilities.

  18. Educational Assessment Reassessed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Sanders

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the assessment of educational entities--school systems, individual schools, and teachers--has evoked strong and sometimes violent emotions from the educational community, the general public, and their legislative representatives. In spite of attempts to codify standards for the evaluation of these entities, assessment experts remain denominationalized--often religiously so. Methods of assessment based on the use of standardized tests have come under intense fire in recent years with some critics going so far as to call for their complete elimination. Those who advocate alternative methods of assessment have become increasingly outspoken in establishing exclusive rights to the legitimate assessment paradigm. However, some of the most respected advocates of alternative assessment have taken a more moderate view, warning against an "either-or" mentality (Brandt, 1992, p. 35. Reflecting this more moderate perspective, this paper strongly advocates the use of multiple indicators of student learning, including those provided by standardized tests.

  19. Integrated impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.L.; Rossini, F.A.

    1981-12-01

    Impact assessment studies the effects on society of proposed projects, programs, or policies. It is perhaps best known in the forms of technology assessment and environmental-impact assessment. The institutionalization of impact assessment, the principal features of impact assessment and its performance are discussed here, keynoting interdisciplinarity as a critical factor. Substantial progress in performance has occurred over the past decade, especially in environmental and social analyses, pointing to some critical issues for the decade ahead. Within studies, integration across disciplinary components, between contributions from professionals and parties-at-interest, and between producers and users must be improved. Across studies, practitioners of impact assessment need to intercommunicate to advance the state of their art. 38 references.

  20. Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Madani HABIB

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to shed light on the concept of assessment as an essential pedagogical practice for the improvement of the teaching-learning process. Particularly, it stresses the strategies and the techniques that should be used in assessing reading comprehension with reference to EFL classrooms. It describes the kinds of tasks that actually reveal students’ reading comprehension abilities and needs. Moreover, this paper aims to illustrate the types and the advantages of assessment for b...

  1. Assessment in physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Mørken, Bent

    2010-01-01

    THE AIM WITH THIS STUDY: The aim with the presented study was to examine how the relations between the instructions of assessment in KL 06 (approved by the Dept of education) and the assessment practice in physical education (P.E.) in upper secondary schools in Vestfold and Telemark could be described. Further on, the study wanted to look into in what degree the instructions of assessment were well known to the physical education teachers and whether they believed the instructi...

  2. Financial Sector Assessment : Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) is based on the work of the joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)- World Bank missions that visited Kenya from July 15 to July 24,2003, and from September 30 to October 15, 2003, in the context of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). The principal objective of the missions was to assist the Kenyan authorities in assessing the development ...

  3. Assessment in anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Erich; Chirculescu, Andy R M; Reblet, Concepción; Smith, Claire

    2015-01-01

    From an educational perspective, a very important problem is that of assessment, for establishing competency and as selection criterion for different professional purposes. Among the issues to be addressed are the methods of assessment and/or the type of tests, the range of scores, or the definition of honour degrees. The methods of assessment comprise such different forms such as the spotter examination, short or long essay questions, short answer questions, true-false questions, single best...

  4. Wound Assessment: Made Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Ousey, Karen; Cook, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    A structured approach to wound assessment is required to maintain a good standard of care. This involves a thorough patient assessment, which should be carried out by skilled and competent practitioners, adhering to local and national guidelines (Harding et al, 2008). Inappropriate or inaccurate assessment can lead to delayed wound healing, pain, increased risk of infection, inappropriate use of wound dressings and a reduction in the quality of life for patients.

  5. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  6. Educational Assessment Reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    William L. Sanders; Sandra P. Horn

    1995-01-01

    For decades, the assessment of educational entities--school systems, individual schools, and teachers--has evoked strong and sometimes violent emotions from the educational community, the general public, and their legislative representatives. In spite of attempts to codify standards for the evaluation of these entities, assessment experts remain denominationalized--often religiously so. Methods of assessment based on the use of standardized tests have come under intense fire in recent years w...

  7. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  8. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  9. How to assess vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-09-21

    Rationale and key points An objective assessment of the patient's vision is important to assess variation from 'normal' vision in acute and community settings, to establish a baseline before examination and treatment in the emergency department, and to assess any changes during ophthalmic outpatient appointments. » Vision is one of the essential senses that permits people to make sense of the world. » Visual assessment does not only involve measuring central visual acuity, it also involves assessing the consequences of reduced vision. » Assessment of vision in children is crucial to identify issues that might affect vision and visual development, and to optimise lifelong vision. » Untreatable loss of vision is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. » Timely and repeated assessment of vision over life can reduce the incidence of falls, prevent injury and optimise independence. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update you practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice when assessing people holistically. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues in the assessment of vision. PMID:27654560

  10. Assessment of ketamine uropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S. Yang

    2015-09-01

    Using the standardized tools to assess patients with ketamine abuse, patients characteristics can be clarified and different therapeutic strategies for ketamine uropathy can be compared in the future.

  11. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  12. Competencies, skills and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of the challenge of assessing student learning and how that is affected by using descriptions of competencies as a core element when describing the aims of the learning process. Assessment is modelled as a three step process; characterising, identifying and judging......, to allow for the following argument: Working with competency descriptions is rightly said to make judging more difficult. This potentially lowers the reliability of the assessment. But competency descriptions also carry a great potential of raising the validity of the assessment by focusing...

  13. The Assessment Cycle: A Model for Learning through Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances a model describing how peer assessment supports self-assessment. Although prior research demonstrates that peer assessment promotes self-assessment, the connection between these two activities is underspecified. This model, the assessment cycle, draws from theories of self-assessment to elaborate how learning takes place…

  14. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back ... How Effective are X-rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the ...

  15. Competencies and Their Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  16. Comprehensive area assessment consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    The proposals for the new comprehensive area assessment are a very positive step forward for sustainable development compared to previous local performance assessment frameworks, but will need further strengthening if they are to help support the Government's aim of putting sustainable development at the heart of sustainable community strategies and their delivery mechanism, local area agreements. Publisher PDF

  17. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...

  18. Armenia : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, Armenia joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ Trust Fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Armenia ...

  19. Tajikistan : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Tajikistan joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...

  20. Mozambique : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Mozambique joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Mozambique ...

  1. Angola : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Angola joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-student assessment is a component of the SABER program that focuses specifically on benchmarking studen...

  2. Assessing Homeschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    During a period spanning more than 2 decades, the author assessed approximately 2,000 school-age students, about 50 of whom were educated entirely at home. In many respects, the data gathering activities were similar regardless of the settings involved, but the uniqueness of homeschooling sometimes made assessment adaptations necessary in order…

  3. INTERMOUNTAIN INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MELINDA KRAHENBUHL

    2010-05-28

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s Intermountain Industrial Assessment Center (IIAC) at the University of Utah has been providing eligible small- and medium-sized manufacturers with no-cost plant assessments since 2001, offering cost-effective recommendations for improvements in the areas of energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement.

  4. Discourse and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn; May, Lynette

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the increase in discourse-based studies of oral proficiency assessment techniques. Discusses research carried out on a number of factors in the assessment setting, including the role of interlocutor, candidate, and rater, and the impact of tasks, task performance conditions, and rating criteria. (Author/VWL)

  5. Lithuania : Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) mission visited Lithuania during November 4-15, 2001 to undertake an assessment of the financial sector. The principal objective of the mission was to assist the authorities in identifying potential vulnerabilities in the Lithuanian financial system and obstacles to its future development. Finan...

  6. Assessing Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Susan; Rottier, Jerry

    Interdisciplinary middle school level teams capitalize on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Administrators and team members can maximize the advantages of teamwork using team assessments to increase the benefits for students, teachers, and the school environment. Assessing team performance can lead to high performing…

  7. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  8. Hydration Assessment of Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Although there is no scientific consensus for 1 ) howbest to assess the hydration status of athletes, 2)what criteria to use as acceptable outcome measurements, or 3) the best time to apply practical assessment methods, there are methods that can be used toprovide athletes with useful feedback about their hydration status

  9. Assessment of Students Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Stachowicz, Marian S.

    2012-01-01

    learning) pedagogical approaches. The experience of assessing first year projects from the Medialogy education at Aalborg University and third year projects from the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at University of Minnesota, Duluth are presented, and the different methods discussed....... The conclusion is that process as well as product has to be assessed in a way which evaluates all aspects of students’ learning outcomes....

  10. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  11. Financial Sector Assessment : Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank financial sector assessment team visited Kuwait in early September 2003, at the request of the government of Kuwait and the central bank. This financial sector assessment report is based on analyses undertaken during that mission. The principal objective of the mission was to assist the authorities in evaluating the strengths, vulnerabil...

  12. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  13. Balance in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  14. Review of Assessment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrui; De Luca, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews 37 empirical studies, selected from 363 articles and 20 journals, on assessment feedback published between 2000 and 2011. The reviewed articles, many of which came out of studies in the UK and Australia, reflect the most current issues and developments in the area of assessing disciplinary writing. The article aims to outline…

  15. Assessing Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Assessing student-led, open-ended scientific inquiry holds a unique problem for classroom teachers because of the diverse skills and content that emerge from student work. This article provides tangible strategies for teachers to assess divergent student-generated inquiry in a manner that is manageable for teachers, informative for students, and…

  16. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  17. Assessment of Troubled Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Thomas, Katherine H.

    1997-01-01

    Tests the utility of four standardized instruments used in assessing 105 families that sought services in a juvenile corrections setting for their teenage children. Results demonstrate that parents and adolescents can complete standardized assessment instruments and that the information provided can help in understanding distressed families. (RJM)

  18. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  19. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  20. SPAT 15 - Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, J.C. (Coordinator)

    1998-08-01

    In the Spring of 1997, the Department of Energy's Department Standards Committee (DSC) convened a Standards Process Action Team (SPAT-15) to evaluate assessment processes within the DOE complex. If time and resources permitted, the team was also to evaluate assessment processes used by private industry conducting similar work and activities. The specific task statement was as follows: "Define the attributes of assessment programs that effectively support organizational feedback and improvement of safety systems at all the different levels of contractor and Department organizations." The team gathered information on existing assessment programs through surveys and presentations by representatives from national laboratories, processing facilities, and remediation sites. Examples of assessment programs described in this report encompass site-wide, individual facility, and task level applications within the DOE compIex

  1. SPAT 15 - Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Spring of 1997, the Department of Energy's Department Standards Committee (DSC) convened a Standards Process Action Team (SPAT-15) to evaluate assessment processes within the DOE complex. If time and resources permitted, the team was also to evaluate assessment processes used by private industry conducting similar work and activities. The specific task statement was as follows: ''Define the attributes of assessment programs that effectively support organizational feedback and improvement of safety systems at all the different levels of contractor and Department organizations.'' The team gathered information on existing assessment programs through surveys and presentations by representatives from national laboratories, processing facilities, and remediation sites. Examples of assessment programs described in this report encompass site-wide, individual facility, and task level applications within the DOE compIex

  2. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  3. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  6. Integrated assessment briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  7. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP)

  8. Reusable Assessment Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Web-based Test, Examination and Assessment system that can be used via the Internet. It is therefore suitable for both local and remote examination preparation as well as examination within a lab course (entry test. This solution is also intended for the use in lectures dealing with the design of complex digital control systems within the newly created European Master Degree Program “Remote Engineering”. Actual Learning Management Systems (LMS include mainly tools for authoring multiple choice or cloze questions and the like and use very simple assessment mechanisms. We also describe Web-based scenarios to assess higher levels of knowledge.

  9. Assessing Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....

  10. Landslide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, P.; Messina, C.P.; Fonner, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Landslide risk can be assessed by evaluating geological conditions associated with past events. A sample of 2,4 16 slides from urban areas in West Virginia, each with 12 associated geological factors, has been analyzed using SAS computer methods. In addition, selected data have been normalized to account for areal distribution of rock formations, soil series, and slope percents. Final calculations yield landslide risk assessments of 1.50=high risk. The simplicity of the method provides for a rapid, initial assessment prior to financial investment. However, it does not replace on-site investigations, nor excuse poor construction. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Assessment of the paraphilias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Kingston, Drew A; Bourget, Dominique

    2014-06-01

    Paraphilias are recurrent, persistent, and intense sexual interests in atypical objects or activities. The most commonly encountered paraphilias in sexological or forensic settings are pedophilia, sexual sadism, exhibitionism, and voyeurism. Paraphilias are often comorbid with other sexual, mood, and personality disorders. Assessment and diagnosis require an integration of multiple sources of clinical information, given the limits and biases of self-report (through clinical interview or questionnaires). Clinicians ideally have access to more objective assessment methods, such as phallometric testing of sexual arousal. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of paraphilias is essential to effective treatment and management.

  12. Needs Assessment An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Altschuld, Dr James W W

    2009-01-01

    "The strength of the book is its thoroughness and how it actually takes the reader inside the experience, step-by-step, of conducting a Needs Assessment…" -Jody Bortone, Sacred Heart University This book focuses on how results have to be utilized in an organization for an assessment to be considered a success. The authors describe the three phases of needs assessment in depth along with subtleties in implementing them. Although this book can be used in a stand-alone fashion, it is part of the Needs Assessment KIT-five interrelated and sequenced books that take the reader through the n

  13. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  14. CERCLA site assessment workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contains comments for each chapter of exercises (in Vol. 1) which illustrate how to conduct site assessments for CERCLA regulation. A through analysis of the exercises is provided so that work and solutions from Vol 1 can be critiqued and comments are also included on the strategy of site assessment whereas the exercises illustrate the principles involved. Covered exercises include the following: A preliminary assessment of a ground water site; waste characteristics and characterization of sources; documentation of observed releases and actual contamination of targets; the strategy of an SI at a surface water site; the soil exposure pathway; the air pathway

  15. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify t

  16. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...... of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...

  17. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  18. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  19. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  20. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  1. Biosafety risk assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Wagner, Stefan M.; Shigematsu, Mika; Risi, George; Kozlovac, Joe; Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke; Prat, Esmeralda

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  2. Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  3. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  4. Geography Undergraduate Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Brown, Brock J.; Caldwell, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of geography undergraduate programs, which incorporate external reviews and concomitant departmental self-studies, attempt to assure pedagogical excellence within uncompromising commitments to successful student learning outcomes, currency of the knowledge and skills imparted, and continuous programmatic improvement. Programmatic…

  5. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  6. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  7. RCTA capstone assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Craig; Bodt, Barry; Childers, Marshal; Dean, Robert; Oh, Jean; DiBerardino, Chip; Keegan, Terence

    2015-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory's Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) is a program intended to change robots from tools that soldiers use into teammates with which soldiers can work. This requires the integration of fundamental and applied research in perception, artificial intelligence, and human-robot interaction. In October of 2014, the RCTA assessed progress towards integrating this research. This assessment was designed to evaluate the robot's performance when it used new capabilities to perform selected aspects of a mission. The assessed capabilities included the ability of the robot to: navigate semantically outdoors with respect to structures and landmarks, identify doors in the facades of buildings, and identify and track persons emerging from those doors. We present details of the mission-based vignettes that constituted the assessment, and evaluations of the robot's performance in these vignettes.

  8. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from...

  9. Information Management Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reviewed existing materials and relevant literature on needs assessments; with input from NALCC team, developed list of questions to ask stakeholders; interviewed...

  10. FRMAC Assessment Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ingestion pathway assessment procedures cited in the current version of the ''RMAC Assessment Manual'', DOE/NV/11718-061 (September 1996) have been superseded by new US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. This addendum replaces the obsolete procedures with a revised set based on the new guidance released by the FDA in August 1998. This addendum provides an overview of the new guidance, revised assessment methods, and assessment aids. It does not provide a general method of ingestion pathway analysis. The scope is limited to that covered by the new guidance titled, ''Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies,'' issued by the FDA in August 1998

  11. Diversifying Instruction and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The triarchic theory posits that intelligence has analytical, creative, and practical aspects. Instructional and assessment methods should encourage and evaluate all three kinds of abilities, a balanced approach that can reach all students. (SK)

  12. Kyrgyz Republic : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Kyrgyz Republic joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment s...

  13. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  14. Financial Sector Assessment : Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) team produced an Aide Memoire and the following three detailed reports that were reviewed by and delivered to the authorities: 1) technical notes; 2) assessment of compliance with standards and codes; and 3) detailed bank-by-bank stress tests. The Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) section of the report was ...

  15. Assessing prescribing competence

    OpenAIRE

    Mucklow, John; Bollington, Lynne; Maxwell, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Prescribing of medicines is the key clinical activity in the working life of most doctors. In recent years, a broad consensus regarding the necessary competencies has been achieved. Each of these is a complex mix of knowledge, judgement and skills. Surveys of those on the threshold of their medical careers have revealed widespread lack of confidence in writing prescriptions. A valid and reliable assessment of prescribing competence, separate from an overall assessment of medical knowledge and...

  16. Suriname: Health Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rena Eichler

    1999-01-01

    This study assesses the health sector in Suriname, with the goal of assisting policy makers to develop a better understanding of problems and to propose a range of solutions. This study presents the analytical framework used to assess the health sector, reviews the major findings, and presents key recommendations. The focus is on the complex inter-relationships between the major actors in the health sector: policy leaders, consumers, providers, and payers. This market-oriented framework was c...

  17. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  18. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, which are known to occur in association with these diseases, such as extrapyramidal, amyotrophic, and cerebellar features as well as complex cognitive‐motor phenomena such as apraxia. EMAS has been developed by a team of neurologists and psychiatrists at the ...

  19. Portfolio Assessment and Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youb; Yazdian, Lisa Sensale

    2014-01-01

    Our article focuses on using portfolio assessment to craft quality teaching. Extant research literature on portfolio assessment suggests that the primary purpose of assessment is to serve learning, and portfolio assessments facilitate the process of making linkages among assessment, curriculum, and student learning (Asp, 2000; Bergeron, Wermuth,…

  20. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  1. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  2. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  3. Software reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased usage and sophistication of computers applied to real time safety-related systems in the United Kingdom has spurred on the desire to provide a standard framework within which to assess dependable computing systems. Recent accidents and ensuing legislation have acted as a catalyst in this area. One particular aspect of dependable computing systems is that of software, which is usually designed to reduce risk at the system level, but which can increase risk if it is unreliable. Various organizations have recognized the problem of assessing the risk imposed to the system by unreliable software, and have taken initial steps to develop and use such assessment frameworks. This paper relates the approach of Consultancy Services of AEA Technology in developing a framework to assess the risk imposed by unreliable software. In addition, the paper discusses the experiences gained by Consultancy Services in applying the assessment framework to commercial and research projects. The framework is applicable to software used in safety applications, including proprietary software. Although the paper is written with Nuclear Reactor Safety applications in mind, the principles discussed can be applied to safety applications in all industries

  4. Teachers' Assessment Literacy and Washback Effect of Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment literacy, as a term, is not well known in the educational field. This is unfortunate because teachers' assessment knowledge and competence can have an important influence on the way they teach and the way their students learn.  The relationship between the degree of assessment literacy a teacher has and the washback of this type of assessment is not clearly identified, especially in higher education context.  In view of this gap, this article attempts to examine important assessment literacy issues in relation to student learning: definition and importance of assessment literacy, assessment in higher education and assessment practices through reviewing related studies. The review pinpoints the harmful effects of being assessment illiterate for both teachers and students.Keywords: assessment, assessment literacy, student learning, washback

  5. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  6. Design of Staffs Assessing System

    OpenAIRE

    Hůlová, Iva

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the staff assessment system in the organization in connection with reward system. This thesis is divided into the theoretical part and the practical part. The theoretical part describes the concept of staff assessment system and system of reward. Within the frame of staff assessing in addition to these tasks further the basic and additional assessment methods are explained, assessment criteria and also the errors and problems connected with the staff assessing. The c...

  7. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  8. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  9. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  10. Ultrasound assessment of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J; Botelho, M C; Holtfreter, M C; Akpata, R; El Scheich, T; Neumayr, A; Brunetti, E; Hatz, C; Dong, Y; Dietrich, C F

    2016-07-01

    In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued an ultrasound field protocol for assessing the morbidity due to Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni. The experience with this classification has recently been reviewed systematically. The WHO protocol was well accepted worldwide. Here we review the use of ultrasound to assess the morbidity due to schistosomiasis with emphasis on easy, quick, and reproducible ways that can be used in the field. Findings obtained with high-end ultrasound scanners in the hospital setting that might eventually have applications in the field are also described. PMID:27429103

  11. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  12. Assessment of pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forrest, M; Hermann, G; Andersen, B

    1989-01-01

    In a trial based on 52 patients admitted because of acute abdominal pain, we compared the assessment of pain intensity by doctors and patients according to a visual analogue scale. We found significant differences with regard to the median score of the doctors (3.4 cm) compared to the patients (6.......1 cm). The correlation was 0.64 while the differences in dispersion were insignificant. Our findings indicate that it is far from unimportant who makes the pain assessment--the patient who experiences it or the doctor who evaluates it--but they also suggest that the differences could be a matter of...

  13. Acute pain assessment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clear, Elaine

    2016-05-01

    The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage” (IASP, 1997). This definition of pain emphasises that it is neither a sensory nor an emotional experience, but a combination of both. It is a subjective experience influenced by physical, psychological and environmental factors that is assessed from a biopsychosocial perspective. The gold standard in assessing pain however is always what the patient says it is.

  14. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. Presentation at the ICWL 2008 conference. August, 20, 2008, Jinhua, China.

  15. 75 FR 72581 - Assessments, Assessment Base and Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... foreign banks, tangible equity would be defined as eligible assets (determined in accordance with Section...\\ The 2009 assessments rule established the following initial base assessment rate schedule: \\3\\ 74 FR... for Comment on Assessment Dividends, Assessment Rates and Designated Reserve Ratio, 75 FR 66271....

  16. Assessing together. Peer assessment from an interpersonal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, Anna Eva (Nanine) van

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focused on how the social context in which peer assessment takes place is related to the learning effects of peer assessment. We wanted to identify interpersonal beliefs in peer assessment settings that influence the peer assessment process on the one hand, but could also been seen

  17. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  18. Iraq Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Iraq has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes because it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decisionmaking needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and wea...

  19. Kazakhstan : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Kazakhstan has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component to improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders' decision-making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses...

  20. Serbia : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Serbia has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component to improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders' decision-making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of ...

  1. Oman Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Oman has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes because it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decisionmaking needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and wea...

  2. Tunisia Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Tunisia has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is animportant component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weakn...

  3. Sri Lanka : Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This Poverty Assessment report reviews the evolution, and nature of poverty in Sri Lanka, by examining why its significant, recent economic downturn contrasts sharply with its considerable, economic advances during the 1960s; why poverty fell rapidly, and to a relatively, low level in some areas, though it remained high in other parts of the country; and, whether the large resources given ...

  4. Assessing climate impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Roger S. Pulwarty; Zhang, Jian Yun

    2000-01-01

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fu...

  5. Kenya : Participatory Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    1996-01-01

    A Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) was undertaken by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kenya to complement previous statistical studies of poverty in Kenya. While the PPA confirmed many findings of the Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS), it also revealed significant new data concerning poverty, female-headed households, access by the poor to water, education and hea...

  6. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  7. Assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has mandated that all residency training programs teach and assess 6 general competencies.1 A.G. Lee and K.D. Carter, Managing the new mandate in resident education: A blueprint for translating a national mandate into local compliance, Ophthal

  8. Technologies for Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jill; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews current and developing technology uses that are relevant to language assessment and discusses examples of recent linguistic applications from the laboratory at the Educational Testing Service. The processes of language test development are described and the functions they serve from the perspective of a large testing organization are…

  9. Pre-Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  10. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  11. Financial Sector Assessment Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2016-01-01

    This technical note reviews with the status access to finance for enterprises in Montenegro, identifies key bottlenecks, and provides recommendations on how to address main challenges. In particular, the note focuses on SME finance by assessing (i) bank SME lending, and (ii) current constraints facing further development and deepening of the non-bank credit sector. The note develops key fi...

  12. Nontraditional Forms of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The author discusses the benefits of nontraditional assessments and shares how she has used them in her 5th-grade classroom in rural South Carolina. The examples include doing a Gallery Walk, writing poetry, integrating the arts into other subjects, having students reenact historical scenes, using social media, and rewriting popular songs with…

  13. Assessment of General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of general education is often approached through broad surveys or standardized instruments that fail to capture the learning goals most faculty members desire for this portion of the curriculum. The challenge in remedying this situation lies, first, in defining general education in meaningful ways that can be both articulated and…

  14. 75 FR 23515 - Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ..., the rule set initial assessment rates using a financial ratios method, which combined the weighted average CAMELS component rating and certain financial ratios. (This method was also applied to all small... institution is determined by either the financial ratios method applicable to all small institutions or,...

  15. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...

  16. Designing and Assessing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hong; Liu, Dandan; Cun, Xiangqin; Lu, Yingchun

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the design, implementation and assessment of a level 2 module for non-English major students in higher vocational and professional education. 1132001 is a code of module that uses active methods to teach college English in China. It specifically reflects on the module's advantage and defect for developing and improving learning…

  17. Mozambique social protection assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Silverio Marques, Jose

    2012-01-01

    This assessment shows that Mozambique social protection system is developing. While programs to address most of the risks identified exist, there are still major gaps. Poor families with children are not adequately supported, there is no significant youth program, and subsistence farmers and other workers are not properly protected against recurrent shocks. The government spends a consider...

  18. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  19. Music therapy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Når klienter henvises til musikterapi, gennemgår de en assessment-procedure (en klinisk vurdering), som kræver terapeutens ekspertise inden for forskellige områder - med henblik på at stille en en diagnose og identificere klientens behov og potentialer, samt at opstille realistiske forventninger ...

  20. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    the quality of the learning environment in regard to inclusion – this model draws heavily on the logic and mindset of ECERS (Early child environment program). This article will relate the rationale of the assessment model called “Dialoger om Kvalitet” (dialogues on quality) to LSP’s definition of inclusion...

  2. Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a current overview of the basic elements of environmental risk assessment within the basic four-step process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization. These general steps have been applied to assess both human and ecological risks from environmental exposures. Approaches used to identify hazards and exposures are being refined, including the use of optimized field sampling and more representative, rather than conservative,upper-bound estimates. In addition, toxicity data are being reviewed more rigorously as US and European harmonization initiatives gain strength, and the classification of chemicals has become more qualitative to more flexibly accommodate new dose-response information as it is developed. Finally, more emphasis is being placed on noncancer end points, and human and ecological risks are being weighed against each other more explicitly at the risk characterization phase. Recent advances in risk-based decision making reflect the increased transparency of the overall process, with more explicit incorporation of multiple trade-offs. The end result is a more comprehensive life-cycle evaluation of the risks associated with environmental exposures at contaminated sites.

  3. CETA: Assessment and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Evaluation of Employment and Training Programs.

    This document presents the principal findings and recommendations of a study conducted by the Committee on Evaluation of Employment and Training Program to assess the impact of CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) on manpower programs. This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides an overview of CETA's history, summarizes…

  4. Two Concepts of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    It is sometimes said that there has been a "paradigm shift" in the field of assessment over the last two or three decades: a new preoccupation with what learners can do, what they know or what they have achieved. It is suggested in this article that this change has precipitated a need to distinguish two conceptually and logically distinct…

  5. Rwanda Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The last poverty assessment for Rwanda was conducted in 1997. Three years after the genocide, the country was characterized by deep and widespread poverty, rock-bottom health indicators, and pervasive hunger and food insecurity. In real terms, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was lower than it had been in 1960. In real terms, the economy quadrupled between 1995 and 2013. Enrolment in ...

  6. Tunisia Poverty Assessment 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia emerges today the only success story of the Arab Spring revolution that swept the Arab world five years ago. This poverty assessment seeks to learn from the pre and post revolution periods with a view of avoiding the repetition of past mistakes in the future. Specifically, it will provide Tunisians with a more detailed and updated diagnostics of poverty, regional disparities, trend...

  7. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  8. Self-Assessment Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Howard S.; Tamblyn, Robyn M.

    1976-01-01

    The self assessment technique described here allows a student to evaluate his own clinical skills without the need for a faculty observer. In use for over two years for medical and nursing students and residents in the area of neurology, it requires the services of a simulated patient, a videotape machine, and a secretary. (JT)

  9. Brunei Darussalam Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Brunei Darussalam has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decisionmaking needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weak...

  10. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  11. Assessing Knowledge in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strømgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko

    2013-01-01

    submission of a synopsis, although the synopsis has no bearing on grade assessment. Practitioner experience and student feedback suggest that students experience this type of examination as an important learning experience, in itself, in addition to testing course–related knowledge. We reviewed the current...

  12. Health needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A Bani

    2008-01-01

    The findings of the assessment of the health needs of Jazan presented in this review could be utilized as a baseline and reference information for policy formulation, subsequent planning and cost effective intervention programs. It could also be utilized for the curriculum development or review for a community oriented medical schools.

  13. Assessment as Evidential Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Joanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Principles of evidential reasoning have often been discussed in the context of educational and psychological measurement with respect to construct validity and validity arguments. More recently, Mislevy proposed the metaphor of assessment as an evidentiary argument about students' learning and abilities given their…

  14. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  15. Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio R. dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Margareth L. Sekiama

    1999-01-01

    A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.

  16. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Maria K. Onuki

    1993-01-01

    Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  17. Morcegos do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Serra da Tiririca State Parke Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.

  18. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  19. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856); Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842); Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856); Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838); Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767); Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823); Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mor...

  20. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Passos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.

  1. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando C. Passos; Wesley R. Silva; Wagner A. Pedro; Marcela R. Bonin

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2%) were frugivorous. The total number of ...

  2. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  3. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  4. Assessment in Intercultural Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides background to considering how to assess intercultural language learning. It describes why traditional views of assessment are not sufficient. Essentially, assessing intercultural language learning requires assessment of both students' performance of communication in the target language and how they understand and explain the…

  5. Second and Foreign Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the main issues, concerns, and debates that have ensued over the years in the field of L2 assessment and shows how past concerns have shaped contemporary L2 assessment research and practice. The article first describes what L2 assessment is and what it entails, arguing that notions of L2 assessment have been…

  6. Portfolios. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    In developmental assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a map of developing skills, knowledge, and understanding. Portfolio assessment is a tool to use in developmental assessment, and there are many types of portfolios to support developmental assessment of students. When considering a portfolio type, it is important to consider…

  7. Assessment in Elementary Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebright, Krissa; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two public school elementary dance educators share their experiences developing and implementing dance performance assessments. The assessments were developed for the State of Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to assess student learning in dance education and bring dance assessment to an equal platform…

  8. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor

  9. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... mental model for the operators to be aware of the situations has motivated the utilization of functional representation in system level of situation assessment. The thesis has summarized the MFM syntax and provides detail instructions of how to model by using the modeling technique. A PWR primary system...

  10. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  11. Culturally sensitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C P; Kumru, A

    1999-04-01

    Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways. PMID:10202598

  12. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  13. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  14. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  15. [COMPREHENSIVE GERIATRIC ASSESSMENT SCALES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Verdejo, Inés; Postigo Mota, Salvador; Muñoz Bermejo, Laura; Vallejo Villalobos, José Ramón; Arrabal Léon, Nazaret; Pinto Montealegre, Jose Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The process of comprehensive geriatric assessment is one of the key elements of geriatric care management aimed at the population. it includes evaluating the clinical, functional, mental and social aspects of aging result and/or pathological processes that appear at this stage of the life cycle. For their achievement, as well as other tools, professionals have a large number of validated rating scales specifically designed in the assessment of the different areas or fields. Its use can be very useful, especially for the objectification of evaluation results. The future of research in this area goes through deepening the adequacy of the scales to the characteristics and needs of older people in each care level or place of care. PMID:26996044

  16. CBERS-02 Application Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jianning; YU Jin; MIN Xiangjun; LI Xingchao; HOU Minghui

    2004-01-01

    As the successor of CBERS-01, CBERS-02 was launched successfully on 21October 2003 and transmitted its first downlink data the next day. According to the OBT (On Board Test) outline, CRESDA cooperated with CAST and many remote sensing organizations in China in implementing the test of the satellite payloads, ground processing system and data application. In this paper, the test is briefly illustrated in three parts: Ⅰ. Satellite Parameters Test (especially the test for payloads), Ⅱ. Payload Image Quality Assessment, and Ⅲ. Data Application Assessment. The results of the test show that the image quality of CBERS-02 is much improved over CBERS-01 and will continue to play a more important role in the society and economic development of China.

  17. Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  18. Assessing Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further

  19. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  20. Assessment of Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Christozov, D.; Mateev, P.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 62P20, 91B42 In the process of trading, the seller and buyer participate with different initial knowledge about the technical capabilities and about the expected use of the good. This two-side asymmetry affects the success of the negotiation in e -trading. This paper discusses one practical approach to assess information asymmetry and the role of warranty in seller-buyer communication relationship. The presented approach is illustrated with a survey...

  1. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  2. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  3. Assessing the development gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sinitsina, Irina; Chubrik, Alexander; Denisova, Irina; Dubrovskiy, Vladimir; Kartseva, Marina; Makenbaeva, Irina; Rokicka, Magdalena; Tokmazishvili, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Current report aims to identify major existing gaps in the four socio-economic dimensions (economic, human, environmental, and institutional) and to reveal those gaps which could potentially hinder social and economic integration of neighbor states with the EU. To achieve this, the authors aim to assess the existing trends in the size of the gaps across countries and problem areas, taking into consideration the specific origin of the gap between EU15/EU12, on the one hand, and FSU republics, ...

  4. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  5. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  6. Lithuania : Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank undertook an investment climate assessment in Lithuania in 2004 as part of its efforts to support member countries through in-depth analysis of major microeconomic constraints in their business environments. Lithuania has made serious efforts in recent years to improve its investment climate. This report has attempted to capture as much as possible the achievements of those efforts as well as the shortcomings that remain. The general picture in 2004 was of impressively rapid pr...

  7. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  8. Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...

  9. Public Risk Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeck, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Public Entry Risk Assessment (PERA) program addresses risk to the public from shuttle or other spacecraft re-entry trajectories. Managing public risk to acceptable levels is a major component of safe spacecraft operation. PERA is given scenario inputs of vehicle trajectory, probability of failure along that trajectory, the resulting debris characteristics, and field size and distribution, and returns risk metrics that quantify the individual and collective risk posed by that scenario. Due to the large volume of data required to perform such a risk analysis, PERA was designed to streamline the analysis process by using innovative mathematical analysis of the risk assessment equations. Real-time analysis in the event of a shuttle contingency operation, such as damage to the Orbiter, is possible because PERA allows for a change to the probability of failure models, therefore providing a much quicker estimation of public risk. PERA also provides the ability to generate movie files showing how the entry risk changes as the entry develops. PERA was designed to streamline the computation of the enormous amounts of data needed for this type of risk assessment by using an average distribution of debris on the ground, rather than pinpointing the impact point of every piece of debris. This has reduced the amount of computational time significantly without reducing the accuracy of the results. PERA was written in MATLAB; a compiled version can run from a DOS or UNIX prompt.

  10. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  11. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  12. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  13. Training needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one basic requirement which all educators and trainers agree upon as the basis for training is the need. A training need may be described as existing anytime an actual condition differs from a desired condition. In other words, when an employee fails to perform a task according to that person's job description, a training need is established. The training needs assessment process will identify the specific training required to perform a specific, desired task. Training needs must be identified, objectives written and appropriate curriculum developed which targets the specific needs of a job, unit or organization before one can truly say they they have a valid, cost-effective training program. A needs assessment is, therefore, paramount to and the foundation of the training process. The purposes of a training needs assessment are to: 1) Provide a deliberate and orderly process for planning and developing training programs which ensure instructional needs and objectives are met; and 2) Assure that personnel are taught, in a cost-effective way, the knowledge, skills and abilities essential to successful task performance

  14. Power quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances problems. Assessment of power quality is necessary for maintaining accurate operation of sensitive equipment's especially for nuclear installations, it also ensures that unnecessary energy losses in a power system are kept at a minimum which lead to more profits. With advanced in technology growing of industrial / commercial facilities in many region. Power quality problems have been a major concern among engineers; particularly in an industrial environment, where there are many large-scale type of equipment. Thus, it would be useful to investigate and mitigate the power quality problems. Assessment of Power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. The choice of monitoring equipment in a survey is also important to ascertain a solution to these power quality problems. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards); then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. The main objective of the present work is to investigate and mitigate of power quality problems in nuclear installations. Normally electrical power is supplied to the installations via two sources to keep good reliability. Each source is designed to carry the full load. The Assessment of power quality was performed at the nuclear installations for both sources at different operation conditions. The thesis begins with a discussion of power quality definitions and the results of previous studies in power quality monitoring. The assessment determines that one source of electricity was deemed to have relatively good power quality; there were several disturbances, which exceeded the thresholds. Among of them are fifth harmonic, voltage swell, overvoltage and flicker. While the second

  15. Formative assessments as pedagogic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting a state of the art status of formative assessment as a pedagogic tool. To this end, a brief developmental account of different modes of assessment over the last decades will be presented first. Then, formative assessment will be discussed in its constructivist guise. The present literature on assessment suggests that assessment for learning (formative assessment not only represents an assessment tool but it also serves as a pedagogic tool to enhance learning and thinking. It has also gone to lengths to affect the design of classroom tasks and activities. Attempts have been made to delineate the underlying principles of formative assessment which can be used to picture the formation process of learners’ knowledge and development. Subsequently, alternative assessment techniques of which the present article will give an account have been suggested by scholars to operationalize these principles.

  16. World Assessment Unit Geological Characterizations, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapfile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of the World. Each assessment unit is...

  17. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  18. Teachers' Assessment Literacy and Washback Effect of Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Niveen R. M. Elshawa; Chan Swee Heng; Ain Nadzimah Abdullah; Sabariah Md. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy, as a term, is not well known in the educational field. This is unfortunate because teachers' assessment knowledge and competence can have an important influence on the way they teach and the way their students learn.  The relationship between the degree of assessment literacy a teacher has and the washback of this type of assessment is not clearly identified, especially in higher education context.  In view of this gap, this article attempts to examine important assessmen...

  19. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  20. Involving Assessment Buddies in the Assessment of Design Project Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Jane; Clough, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of a specially developed assessment and feedback system implemented within a second year industrial design module at Coventry University, UK. The "Assessment Buddy" system was developed in response to the need for a successful assessment and feedback method that could cope with the complexities of a creative…

  1. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  2. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  3. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  4. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports comprising this volume concern the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in granites in Cornwall, with particular reference to the effect of structures imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses. The topics covered are: in-situ stress measurements using (a) the hydraulic fracturing method, or (b) the US Bureau of Mines deformation probe; scanline discontinuity survey - coding form and instructions, and data; applicability of geostatistical estimation methods to scalar rock properties; comments on in-situ stress at the Carwynnen test mine and the state of stress in the British Isles. (U.K.)

  5. Assessment on shale gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments the recent development of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Poland, the associated political decisions, the locations and the involved companies, and the project of creation of a national operator of energy resources. It also evokes the reactions of the European Union in front of these Polish developments, notably the adoption of a proposal for introducing a mandatory environmental impact study before exploring a site. It comments a visit made by French officials (a parliamentary body) in Poland, outlines some problems faced to precisely assess the cost of shale gas exploitation, and comments technological developments in Poland which therefore represents a reference and a test

  6. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  7. Audit and Assessment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Craig [Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, Juneau, AK (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  8. MRI assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage, cost and efficacy data from the MRI Assessment Program to 30 March 1988 is presented, as a continuation of an earlier analysis. Analysis has been performed on data from 8565 examinations relating to 7997 patients at 4 hospitals. MRI was used mainly for examination of the head and spine. Some details of the follow up studies being conducted on selected patients and disease categories are given. A consensus statement is included which summaries the view of the Technical Committee on the potential applications of MRI in Australia. The MRI unit quench incident at Royal Adelaide Hospital is described. Refs., 10 figs., tabs

  9. Assessment of Innovation Competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The author employed a 3-step qualitative research design with multiple instances of source validation to capture expert teachers’ (n = 28) reflections on which manifest signs they would look for when they asses students’ innovation competency. The author reports on the thematic analysis...... of the recorded talk in interaction that occurred in teacher group discussion sessions at 5 upper secondary schools. Based on the analysis, it was possible to extrapolate assessment criteria for 5 subcompetencies relevant to innovation (creative competency, collaboration competency, navigation competency, action...

  10. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  11. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  12. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  13. Magnetogastrography (MGG) Reproducibility Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Córdova, T.; Hernández, E.; Solorio, S.; Solís Ortiz, S.; Sosa, M.

    2006-09-01

    Seven healthy subjects underwent a magnetic pulse of 32 mT for 17 ms, seven times in 90 minutes. The procedure was repeated one and two weeks later. Assessments of the gastric emptying were carried out for each one of the measurements and a statistical analysis of ANOVA was performed for every group of data. The gastric emptying time was 19.22 ± 5 min. Reproducibility estimation was above 85%. Therefore, magnetogastrography seems to be an excellent technique to be implemented in routine clinical trials.

  14. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... directive is outlined, together with its relationship with the process of spatial planning and public participation in Denmark. This paper analyses the adoption of the proposed directive and discusses whether the SEA is an appropriate tool for opening and democratizing political structures. It concludes...

  15. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo;

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2......) of ASSET is the precise definition of TSA. To do so we analyse why pressures are higher in certain areas (drivers), how these drivers can be measured (indicators) and what thresholds can be set for the indicators to define TSA....

  16. Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benhur Kasper

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.

  17. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos não-voadores e aves foram os itens mais freqüentes, sendo proporcionalmente mais predados no outono e no verão, respectivamente. Artrópodos foram mais predados no inverno e na primavera e ovos de aves e/ou répteis somente no verão e na primavera, período de reprodução nestes dois grupos.

  18. New evidence of the sabertooth cat Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae in the late Pleistocene of southern Chilean Patagonia Nueva evidencia del gato dientes de sable Smilodon (Carnivora: Machairodontinae en el Pleistoceno tardío de Patagonia meridional chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO PRIETO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Southern Patagonia is rich in late Pleistocene mammals, especially herbivores such as Camelids, Equids and Xenarthrans. Carnivores, on the other hand, are not commonly found in the paleontological record. One genus, Smilodon, is of particular interest because its presence in the region has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we present new fossil dental evidence that supports the presence of Smilodon populator (Lund in the region. This evidence corresponds to the most southern record of the genus in the world, and the final step in the colonization of South America after the Great American Biotic Interchange. An AMS radiocarbon date on teeth indicates that the remains from Southern Chilean Patagonia are the most recent record for the genus in South America.Surpatagonia es particularmente rica en mamíferos finiplesitocenos, particularmente camélidos, équidos y xenartros. Los carnívoros, por su parte, se encuentran representados en menor número en el registro paleontológico. Dentro de estos, el género Smilodon, es de particular interés debido a que su presencia en la región no ha sido convincentemente demostrada. En este trabajo presentamos evidencia dental que permite confirmar la presencia de Smilodon populator (Lund en la región. Esta evidencia corresponde al registro más sureño de este taxón y al paso final en la colonización de América del Sur después del Gran Intercambio Biótico Americano. Un fechado radiocarbónico directo AMS indica que los restos de Patagonia del Sur corresponden a los registros más tardíos para este género en el subcontinente.

  19. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Pedó; Ana C. Tomazzoni; Sandra M. Hartz; Alexandre U. Christoff

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  20. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775 were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5 were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.Para o Brasil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821 Schmidt, 1972 foi registrada em cinco espécies de felídeos silvestres. No presente estudo, cinco gatos-do-mato-pequenos (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775, vítimas de atropelamento, foram coletados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Lesões crônicas causadas por O. pardalis foram observadas no intestino delgado de um dos espécimes. Cortes histológicos permitiram a identificação de um infiltrado leucocitário bem definido e uma área de fibrose do colágeno. Somente machos (n = 5 de O. pardalis foram encontrados, com prevalência de 20%. O ciclo biológico das espécies de Oligacanthorhynchus é pouco conhecido, no entanto, artrópodes foram considerados como hospedeiros intermediários. A baixa prevalência encontrada pode estar relacionada ao número de hospedeiros examinados, bem como, com a ingestão de poucos artrópodes infectados por larvas de O. pardalis. Este é o primeiro registro de O. pardalis parasitando L. tigrinus para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

  1. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  2. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil Patologias de Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) em Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Gallas; Eliane Fraga da Silvera

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n...

  3. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae) Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae) por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Felidae)

    OpenAIRE

    João M. D. Miranda; Itiberê P. Bernardi; Kauê C. Abreu; Fernando C. Passos

    2005-01-01

    There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). With our document...

  4. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus (Felidae, Carnivora on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports on puma (Puma concolor have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in order to provide protected habitats and assure the genetic flow amongst puma populations.

  5. Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil Presence of Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) on remnant habitats in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Mazzolli

    1993-01-01

    Several reports on puma (Puma concolor) have been made in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with altitude and mainly with habitat quality. The eastern boundary of the puma range isset by the mountain chains of Serra do Mar and Serra Geral. The definite implementation of National Parks and Reserves, studies of movements, and polimorfism analyses are suggested, in or...

  6. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  7. "Orthogonality" in Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David

    2014-01-01

    This chapter proposes a simple framework, "orthogonality," to help clarify what stakeholders think about learning in college, how we assess outcomes, and how clear assessment methods might help increase confidence in returns on investment.

  8. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  9. Stock Assessment Supplementary Information (SASINF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the interest of efficiency, clarity and standardization of stock assessment materials, the stock assessment reports for the 2015 Groundfish update have been...

  10. Assessing Learning With Children (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Task 1 What is assessment? The following is a list of understanding by different teachers about assessment. Tick the ones that are closest to your understanding. Then compare and discuss them with another teacher.

  11. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  12. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  13. Assessing with e-Ase

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Deeba; Reid, Caroline; Chapman, Alex; Mimirinis, Mike; Torrance, Nicky; Ryder, Agi

    2013-01-01

    The Educational Development Unit have produced a guide to assist academic staff in transforming assessment practices underpinned by technology. 'Assessing with e-Ase' highlights how technology combined with sound pedagogy has the potential to enhance the student experience of learning, teaching and assessment. Drawing on the experiences, knowledge and understanding of the e-assessment project at Middlesex University, it offers a consideration of contextual, procedural and logistical facto...

  14. Assessment Approaches In Virtual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Azam RASTGOO; Yousef NAMVAR

    2010-01-01

    Today, the traditional assessment methods are not enough for measuring students’ ability. Internet and its technologies have a strong impact to change it and there are some new ways to measure students’ ability and knowledge. This article identifies some assessment methods and tools in online education and describes findings that show the importance of online assessment and online technologies. It also describes some advantages and disadvantages of new methods of assessment. Additionally this...

  15. Health care technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  16. Impact assessment revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Markussen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need to be addre......The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need...... to be addressed: (1) Some impacted ecosystem traits are spatially not additive; (2) invader effects may increase non-linearly with abundance or there may be effect thresholds impairing estimates of linear impact models; (3) the abundance and impact of alien species will often co-vary with environmental variation......; and (4) the total invaded range is an inappropriate measure for quantifying regional impact because the habitat area available for invasion can vary markedly among invasive species. Mathematical models and empirical data using an invasive alien plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum) indicate...

  17. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  18. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  19. Decontamination technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technology developments that may represent significant improvements over D and D technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water rector (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign D and D technologies of potential interest to the U.S. were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of D and D literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in D and D costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to U.S. needs

  20. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE in the XXI century isevident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. Theauthors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the existence of products of knowledge expression which could be created in acquisition, creation, usage and development of them. The latter phenomenon is interpreted as knowledge expression characteristics: economic and social context, human resources, ICT, innovative business and innovation policy. The reason for this analysis was based on the idea that in spite of the knowledge economy existence in all developed World countries adefinitive, universal list of indicators for mapping and measuring the KBE does not yet exists. Knowledge Expression Assessment Models are presented in the article.

  1. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  2. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  3. Quantitative risk assessment of CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.; Spruijt, M.; Molag, M.; Ramírez, A.; Turkenburg, W.; Faaij, A.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic assessment, based on an extensive literature review, of the impact of gaps and uncertainties on the results of quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) for CO2 pipelines is presented. Sources of uncertainties that have been assessed are: failure rates, pipeline pressure, temperat

  4. Assessment Strategies for Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jan Hendrik; Mentz, Elsa; Meyer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Although pair programming has proved its usefulness in teaching and learning programming skills, it is difficult to assess the individual roles and abilities of students whilst programming in pairs. (Note that within this manuscript, the term assessment refers to evaluating individual student performance.) Assessing only the outcomes of a pair…

  5. Sri Lanka - Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) is based on the work of the joint World Bank and IMF Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update team that visited Sri Lanka between June 20 and July 3, 2007. The principal objectives of the FSAP Update were to: (i) assess developments in the financial sector and progress in strengthening financial sector regulation since 2002; and (ii) identify...

  6. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  7. Performances. Assessment Resource Kit (ARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Margaret; Masters, Geoff

    Performance assessment is the assessment of students engaged in an activity. It is the on-the-spot evaluation of a performance, behavior, or interaction. Ordinarily, there is no concrete product that can be judged at a later date. In Developmental Assessment, teachers monitor student progress against a preconstructed map of developing skills,…

  8. Assessing Learning With Children(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Potential difficulties in carrying out assessment in the classroom Task 1After a full discussion on assessment,what potential problems or difficulties do you foresee for using this kind of assessment in our teaching?Make a list of problems and discuss with another teacher how you can solve the problems.

  9. Assessing Learning With Children(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Potential difficulties in carrying out assessment in the classroom Task 1 After a full discussion on assessment,what potential problems or difficulties do you foresee for using this kind of assessment in our teaching?Make a list of problems and discuss

  10. Data Science in Educational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second of two articles in this special issue that were developed following discussions of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2013. The article extends the analysis of assessments of collaborative problem solving (CPS) to examine the significance of the data concerning this complex assessment problem and then for…

  11. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Togo

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    During November 12 through November 24, 2007 a World Bank team traveled to Lome, Togo, to undertake an assessment of the government's debt management operations using the Debt Management Performance Measurement Assessment Tool (DeMPA). The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing debt management performance through a set of 15 indicators covering the full range of debt management functions. Th...

  12. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  13. Philippines : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) is an analytical tool, intended to assess the public procurement system, in this case, in the Philippines, and, in the process, generate a dialogue with the Government on reforms needed. This CPAR assessment was conducted from October 2001 to June 2002, and part of an integrated comprehensive Public Expenditures, Procurement, and Financial M...

  14. Utah Surface Impoundment Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    Cleave, Mary L.; Adams, V. Dean; Porcella, Donald B.

    1980-01-01

    Executive Summary: The Surface Impoundment Assessment process presented an organized consistent systme for evaluating potential threats to groundwater resources from surface impoundments of wastes. This assessment established a data base which locates wastes surface impoundments in Utah and assesses the majority of these impoundments with this prescribed system (Appendix F). This data base may be used to identify ...

  15. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  16. CT scanning analysis of Megantereon whitei (Carnivora, Machairodontinae) from Monte Argentario (Early Pleistocene, central Italy): evidence of atavistic teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Sardella, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    CT scanning analysis applied to vertebrate palaeontology is providing an increasing number of data of great interest. This method can be used in many branches of palaeontology such as the investigation of all the fossilized elements in a hard matrix and the hidden structures in the bones. A large number of pathologies are "hidden", completely or partially invisible on the external surface of the bones because their development took place within the bones. However, the study of these diseases and abnormalities plays a crucial role in our understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes of extinct taxa. The analysis of a partial skeleton of the sabre-toothed felid Megantereon whitei from the Early Pleistocene karst filling deposits of Monte Argentario (Tuscany, Italy) has been carried out. The CT scanning analysis put in evidence the presence of supernumerary teeth (P2) and the absence of P3 in the mandible. The occurrence of P2 can be considered as an evidence of atavism. Such an archaic feature is recorded for the first time in Megantereon.

  17. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  18. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae, appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km² and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more diurnal, with a cathemeral activity pattern, when the other cats were present. Oncilla is likely to be in a subordinate position in interactions with larger cats and changes its activity to decrease the chances for interspecific encounters. In this study, however, the presence of other cat species covaries with habitat changes (from coastal forest patches to dense evergreen forests. We also verified the highest oncilla relative abundance in an area with no sympatric larger cats, with abundance decreasing when it was in sympatry with margay, ocelot and puma. Our results, together with recent records of oncilla in other degraded landscapes of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, provide evidence that oncillas may thrive even in harsh environments where other cats have already been extinct. This raise interesting conservation insights, as in the absence of other cats, L. tigrinus may assume a top predator role of these impoverished vertebrate communities.

  19. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  20. Feeding of small Neotropical felids (Felidae: Carnivora and trophic niche overlap in anthropized mosaic landscape of South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Ricieri Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the diversity of a community and its dynamics is especially important in altered habitats such as agricultural fields, where this information can help biodiversity conservation programs. In an altered landscape of the interior Atlantic Forest, western Paraná State, Brazil (25º41’ to 25º20’S and 53º56’ to 54º35’W, samples (310 were collected and a total of 110 samples could be determined for some small Neotropical felids, including 39 Leopardus guttulus (oncilla, 38 L. wiedii (margay and 33 Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarondi. The diets of these felids contained typical synanthropic prey such as Mus musculus in 44% (L. guttulus, 32% (L. wiedii and 15% (P. yagouaroundi of the total samples. This observation and the sample collection in agricultural places demonstrate that felids can use this anthropized landscape. The small mammals (<100 g were more common in the diet of these species. Nevertheless, the correction factor was shown to have significant efficiency in correcting estimates of biomass ingested for two of the three species of felids, and we therefore recommend that these species be used in future studies. Even with this observed coexistence, the food niche of the three species showed a large overlap.

  1. Abundance changes and activity flexibility of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae), appear to reflect avoidance of conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos; Maurício E. Graipel; Marcos A. Tortato; Carlos A. Zucco; Nilton C. Cáceres; Fernando V. B. Goulart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the density and activity of the oncilla, Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775), a threatened small cat, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using camera-trap data. We described differences in the activity of individuals occurring alone or in sympatry with larger cats. Oncilla presented low densities (7-13 ind./100 km²) and high flexibility in its activity. The oncillas were primarily nocturnal in the absence of other larger cat species - margay, ocelot and puma - but became more d...

  2. First record of Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in stratigraphic context in the Late Pleistocene of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sergio G.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H.; Rodrigues, Shirlley; Morgan, Cecilia C.; Bernardes, Camila; Avilla, Leonardo; Lynch, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Although five genera of procyonids are currently present in South America, only two of the extant genera, Procyon and Nasua are represented in the South American fossil record. A recent discovery of a procyonid lower second molar in Late Pleistocene deposits of Aurora do Tocantins, northern Brazil, offers potential to further our understanding of the stratigraphic and temporal range of South American fossil procyonids. We use geometric morphometric analysis of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks to explore morphological variation in the lower second molars of extant Procyon lotor and Procyon cancrivorus and multivariate methods to support the identification of the Pleistocene specimen as P. cancrivorus. This material represents the second fossil record of P. cancrivorus in South America Procyonids entered South America in two phases: the first comprising by Cyonasua and Chapadmalania during the Late Miocene, and the other recent genera, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. These Late Miocene procyonids were more carnivorous than Late Pleistocene-Recent omnivorous taxa and possible went extinct due to competition with other placental carnivorans that entered South America and diversified during the latest Pliocene-Early Pleistocene.

  3. Study on Pleistocene Fossil Cats (Carnivora, Felidae) From a Limestone Cave in Kenting, Southern Taiwan, East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yi; Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Chee

    2016-04-01

    The limestone cave, Lobster Cave, located in the Kenting National Park of southern Taiwan, is yielding numerous Pleistocene mammalian fossils buried within the continental deposits. In this study, fossil molars of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) recovered from the same horizon in the cave, were examined. Three isolated felid molars; p3, p4 and m1, having a series of progressive increase in size, were believed as belonged to the same individual. Traditional linear measurement and two-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis for the occlusal surface outlines have been conducted on the fossil molars; comparisons were also done with the extant clouded leopard. Results obtained have shown that the cave fossil clouded leopard is closer to the extant clouded leopard in molar characters; but, are slightly larger than the extant ones in their size. Nevertheless, even the clouded leopard in Taiwan was regarded as to have been extinct and its past existence has still been in doubt, the current study revealed that the clouded leopards have inhabited in Taiwan since Pleistocene, and has a larger body size than that of the recent one.

  4. No need to replace an “anomalous” primate (Primates) with an “anomalous” bear (Carnivora, Ursidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Pine, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative “yeti”, “bigfoot”, and other “anomalous primate” hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an “anomalous primate”, but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  5. No need to replace an “anomalous” primate (Primates with an “anomalous” bear (Carnivora, Ursidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliécer Gutiérrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative “yeti”, “bigfoot”, and other “anomalous primate” hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an “anomalous primate”, but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus, but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos, the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  6. Anatomy of the “false thumb” of Tremarctos ornatus (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae: phylogenetic and functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salesa, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the radial sesamoid or “false thumb” of the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus, showing its great morphological similarities with that of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca and the differences with that of the rest of the Ursidae. This points to the existence of a common origin for this structure in both species, but considering the accepted phylogenies of ursids, the sharing of a “false thumb” in T. ornatus and A. melanoleuca would be a plesiomorphy for these groups, whereas in the rest of the ursids the radial sesamoid was probably reduced, lacking the specialised function that this bone has in Tremarctinae and Ailuropodinae.Se describe por primera vez el sesamoideo radial o “falso pulgar” del oso de anteojos (Tremarctos ornatus, mostrando la gran similitud morfológica con el del panda gigante (Ailuropoda melanoleuca y las diferencias que presenta con el resto de los Ursidae. Esto apunta a la existencia de un origen común para esta estructura en ambas especies, pero considerando las filogenias aceptadas de Ursidae, la presencia de falso pulgar en T. ornatus y A. melanoleuca sería una simplesiomorfía respecto al resto de úrsidos, en los cuales el sesamoideo radial nunca aumentó de tamaño, careciendo de la especializada función que posee en Tremarctinae y Ailuropodinae.

  7. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia) and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M S L; Machado, R; Barbieri, F; Freitas, N S; Oliveira, L R

    2013-02-01

    Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp.) in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival. PMID:23644801

  8. Morfo-histologia dos pulmões e árvore bronquial de Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora: Procyonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.F.S. Paranaíba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nenhuma característica dos seres vivos é tão primordial quanto a respiração, e os pulmões são os principais órgãos do sistema respiratório. Este estudo tem por objetivo descrever os aspectos macroscópicos da traqueia, dos brônquios e dos lobos pulmonares bem como os aspectos microscópicos dos brônquios pulmonares do mão-pelada e compará-los com dados da literatura de estudos realizados com mamíferos silvestres e domésticos. Utilizaram-se três exemplares de Procyon cancrivorus, que foram fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Os pulmões e a traqueia foram dissecados e fotografados com câmera fotográfica digital (Câmera Sony a200, 10.2mpx. Para a identificação das características microscópicas, foram coletados fragmentos de cada brônquio seguindo as técnicas de rotina histológica. O pulmão do Procyon cancrivorus se divide em quatro lobos direito e dois lobos esquerdo e a traqueia apresenta cerca de 31 a 34 anéis. Os brônquios extrapulmonares se dividem em direito e esquerdo; o direito se subdivide em brônquios lobares cranial, médio, acessório e caudal, e o esquerdo em lobares cranial e caudal, com seus respectivos brônquios segmentares. Microscopicamente, os brônquios apresentam um epitélio prismático pseudoestratificado ciliado com células caliciformes e feixes de fibras de musculatura lisa, placas de cartilagem hialina e fibras elásticas. O conhecimento da morfologia desses órgãos nas espécies silvestres auxilia em estudos descritivos e/ou comparativos entre espécies.

  9. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  10. A study on karyotype of Small-toothed palm civet, Arctogalidia trivirgata (Carnivora, Viverridae by using conventional staining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnui, S.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was the first karyotypic study of Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata. Blood samples were taken from two males and two females kept in Dusit Zoo, Bangkok. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37ºC for 72 hr. in presence of Colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa's staining were applied to stain the chromosome. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome of Small-toothed palm civet was 2n = 40, the fundamental number (NF was 66 in both male and female. The type of autosomes were 2 large metacentric, 2 large submetacentric, 8 large acrocentric, 4 large telocentric, 4 medium submetacentric, 4 medium telocentric, 4 small metacentric, 2 small submetacentric, 2 small acrocentric and 6 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, chromosome 17 showed a clearly observable satellite. X-chromosome was the large metacentric and Y chromosome was the smallest acrocentric chromosome.The karyotype formula for the male Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+Y = Lm 3+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 3+St 6The karyotype formula for the female Small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata is as follows:2n (40 = Lm 2+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6+X+X = Lm 4+Lsm 2+La 8+Lt 4+Msm 4+Mt 4+Sm 4+Ssm 2+Sa 2+St 6

  11. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  12. Disposition and external morphology of hair on a female of the species otter Lutra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arani Nanci Bonfim Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze aspects of the otter’s hair (Lutra longicaudis. Size, shape and number of hairs, as well as their layers and distribution on the skin were observed. To accomplish this purpose, 1mm2 of skin with its respective hair was removed from 44 points of the body surface and was examined under a stereoscopic microscope in order to be measured, counted and morphologically analyzed. The results were registered in histograms and schematic drawings and compared to the descriptions for other species. The covering hair reached a maximum height of 18mm and a minimum of 3.5mm, while wholly hair showed a maximum height of 11mm and a minimum of 1.5mm. The cuticle flake hairs of the covering coat modified, along the connecting rod according to its bore, shape, number and architecture. The cortex was thick in the portion where the covering coat took the form of a flattened spindle. The wholly coat was practically constituted by the cortex. The results obtained in this study suggest that the otter has a complex fur, different to the other animals. This is probably due mainly to its semi-aquatic habit.

  13. On the morphological variation and taxonomy of the Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geoffroy's cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d'Orbigny & Gervais, 1844 is a small cat found in the Southern Cone of South America and, depending on the author, four or five subspecies have been usually recognized (L. g. geoffroyi, L. g. paraguae, L. g. euxanthus, L. g. salinarum and L. g. leucobaptus, mainly based on external morphological characters, such as color pattern of the pelage. In order to clarify the taxonomy of L. geoffroyi, I analyzed approximately 200 specimens housed in museums. I have examined the external and craniodental morphology in quantitative and qualitative terms in the search for patterns of congruent characters that would indicate the existence of taxonomic units. Twenty craniodental measurements were taken and tested by univariate and multivariate (MANOVA, PCA and DFA procedures. In this study I detected a great variation in the morphological characters, and thus it was not possible to determine whether any of these were geographically consistent and could be used to determine any taxonomic unit. Based on this, I do not recognize any subspecific division for L. geoffroyi. Along its geographic range, a gradual and subtle change from one color pattern to the next along the latitude was detected, but the morphological characters that were used to define the putative subspecies were also detected in a same population. Furthermore, the present study is congruent with the results obtained by previous molecular data, suggesting that L. geoffroyi has a high level of genetic diversity with no geographic structure. This indicates the existence of a large panmictic population with no significant barriers to gene flow and, as a consequence, no subspecies should be recognized.

  14. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  16. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  17. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dereje Agonafer

    2007-11-30

    The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

  18. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    of the business. Hereby the model supports assessment of the elements in the product family and identification of the good solutions which can be included and the more unfortunate elements that should be avoided in a future product design. The research builds on engineering design science research literature...... and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss...... Automatic Controls. Furthermore, the research has been reviewed by a panel of academic researchers and industrial practitioners as well as through discussion in academic communities. The overall response to the tool has been positive and the single case study at Danfoss reports good usefulness and results....

  19. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This consists of three chapters. The contents of the first chapter are introduction and theory of PSA which includes summary of risk and probabilistic safety assessment, basic theory of reliability, data analysis of reliability, method of fault tree analysis and event tree analysis. The second chapter is about application and PSA steps which are three steps of PSA, PSA in external event, PSA of low power range trip and use of information of risk and application of PSA. The last port is about the initiative steps of PSA, which includes introduction, analysis of initiating event, event tree, fault tree, data of reliability, qualification of accident sequence, importance and uncertainty and practice of the initiative steps of PSA.

  1. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  2. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  3. Assessing efficiency in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Snežana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to assess the productivity and efficiency on the basis of the information found in financial statements and operating evidence, as well as implementation of the DEA method. The definition of both input and output in banking is absolutely clear, however, an adequate analysis of efficiency in banking requires that the right combinations of input and output be selected Every company has its own principles to implement in its operations. One of the most important is surely the efficiency principle. Relevant academic literature offers various combinations of input and output in testing bank efficiency. The developing countries will find it highly important to monitor bank efficiency and compare it to the countries in the region.

  4. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  5. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  6. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUSheng; CUIPei-zhi; YAOJu-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging their useful life, protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  7. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng; CUI Pei-zhi; YAO Ju-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging theit useful life,protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing.Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  8. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  9. Cassini data assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 15, 1997, the Cassini spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and is now on its way to the planet Saturn. The functional support provided to NASA by DOE included the Advance Launch Support Group (ALSG). If there had been a launch anomaly, the ALSG would have provided a level of radiological emergency response support adequate to transition into a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Additional functional radiological emergency response support, as part of the ALSG, included the: (1) Aerial Measurement System (AMS); (2) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC); (3) Geographic Information System (GIS); (4) Emergency Response Data System (ERDS); (5) Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REAC/TS); (6) Field monitoring and sampling; (7) Radioanalysis via RASCAL; (8) Source recovery; and (9) Neutron dosimetry and communications support. This functional support provided the capability to rapidly measure and assess radiological impacts from a launch anomaly. The Radiological Control Officer (RCO) on KSC established a Radiological Control Center (RADCC) as the focal point for all on-site and off-site radiological data and information flow. Scientists and radiological response personnel located at the RADCC managed the field monitoring team on the KSC/CCAS federal properties. Off-site radiological emergency response activities for all public lands surrounding the KSC/CCAS complex were coordinated through the Off-site ALSG located at the National Guard Armory in Cocoa, Florida. All of the in situ measurement data of good quality gathered during the dry run, the first launch attempt and the launch day are listed in this document. The RASCAL analysis results of the air filters and impactor planchets are listed

  10. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  11. Cassini data assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    On October 15, 1997, the Cassini spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) and is now on its way to the planet Saturn. The functional support provided to NASA by DOE included the Advance Launch Support Group (ALSG). If there had been a launch anomaly, the ALSG would have provided a level of radiological emergency response support adequate to transition into a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Additional functional radiological emergency response support, as part of the ALSG, included the: (1) Aerial Measurement System (AMS); (2) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC); (3) Geographic Information System (GIS); (4) Emergency Response Data System (ERDS); (5) Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REAC/TS); (6) Field monitoring and sampling; (7) Radioanalysis via RASCAL; (8) Source recovery; and (9) Neutron dosimetry and communications support. This functional support provided the capability to rapidly measure and assess radiological impacts from a launch anomaly. The Radiological Control Officer (RCO) on KSC established a Radiological Control Center (RADCC) as the focal point for all on-site and off-site radiological data and information flow. Scientists and radiological response personnel located at the RADCC managed the field monitoring team on the KSC/CCAS federal properties. Off-site radiological emergency response activities for all public lands surrounding the KSC/CCAS complex were coordinated through the Off-site ALSG located at the National Guard Armory in Cocoa, Florida. All of the in situ measurement data of good quality gathered during the dry run, the first launch attempt and the launch day are listed in this document. The RASCAL analysis results of the air filters and impactor planchets are listed.

  12. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. In F. W. B. Li, J. Zhao, T. K. Shih, R. W. H. Lau, Q. Li & D. McLeod (Eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning - Proceedings of the 7th Inter

  13. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary

  14. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...... conditions. It is concluded that the conceptual background and the purpose of the tools are different but that there are overlaps where they may benefit from each other and they do complement each other in an overall environmental effort....

  16. Uniformity in a Dual Assessment System

    OpenAIRE

    Chicoine, David L.; Giertz, J Fred

    1988-01-01

    Variation in property tax assessment uniformity is studied using data from a "dual" assessment structure where county assessment authority overlaps township assessing responsibility and elected local assessors work with appointed county assessment officers. Particular attention is given to the impact of the size and organization of assessment jurisdictions on assessment uniformity.

  17. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  18. Why Conduct a Spiritual Assessment? A Theoretical Foundation for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of increased interest in spirituality, the concept of a spiritual assessment remains a questionable practice in the eyes of many social workers. This paper develops five rationales to underscore the importance of including spirituality in assessment. These reasons can be summarized as follows: spiritual assessment provides insight into clients’ world views, serves as a vehicle to identify strengths, and demonstrates respect for client autonomy. In addition, the profession’s ethics implicitly recommend the administration of a spiritual assessment and, for a growing number of accrediting organizations and agencies, it is explicitly recommended.This paper concludes by discussing the implications for practitioners and educators.

  19. Beyond self-assessment--assessing organizational cultural responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    While there is growing recognition of the need for health care organizations to provide culturally responsive care, appropriate strategies for assessing organizational responsiveness have not been determined. A document review assessment instrument was designed to assess best practice within eight domains, and along seven dimensions of organizational approach to diversity. Results obtained from the pilot of the instrument were congruent with data collected from key informant interviews, a focus group, observational methods and organizational feedback session; however, they were not consistent with self-assessment results at the same site. A larger pilot is required to determine generalizability of results. PMID:19172974

  20. Geomatics Education: Need Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, A.

    2014-11-01

    the other hand, the industry requires high skilled manpower, high experienced manpower. This is a low equilibrium situation. Since the need is enhancing day by day, the shortage of the skilled manpower is increasing, the need of the geomatics education emerges. This paper researches on the need assessment of the education in geospatial specialization. It emphasises on the challenges and issues prevail in geospatial education and in the specialized fields of remote sensing and GIS. This paper analyse the need assessment through all the three actors: government, geospatial industry and education institutions.

  1. Assessing Risk of Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's manufacturing systems and equipment must perform at levels thought impossible a decade ago. Companies must push operations, quality, and efficiencies to unprecedented levels while holding down costs. In this new economy, companies must be concerned with market shares, equity growth, market saturation, and profit. U.S. manufacturing is no exception and is a prime example of businesses forced to adapt to constant and rapid changes in customer needs and product mixes, giving rise to the term ''Agile Manufacturing''. The survival and ultimate success of the American Manufacturing economy may depend upon its ability to create, innovate, and quickly assess the impact that new innovations will have on its business practices. Given the need for flexibility, companies need proven methods to predict and measure the impact that new technologies and strategies will have on overall plant performance from an enterprise perspective. The Value-Derivative Model provides a methodology and approach to assess such impacts in terms of energy savings, production increases, quality impacts, emission reduction, and maintenance and operating costs as they relate to enabling and emerging technologies. This is realized by calculating a set of first order sensitivity parameters obtained from expanding a Taylor Series about the system's operating point. These sensitivity parameters are invariant economic and operational indicators that quantify the impact of any proposed technology in terms of material throughput, efficiency, energy usage, environmental effects, and costs. These parameters also provide a mechanism to define metrics and performance measures that can be qualified in terms of real economic impact. Value-Derivative Analysis can be applied across all manufacturing and production segments of our economy and has found specific use in steel and textiles. Where economic models give the cost of conducting a business, Value-Derivative Analysis provides the cost to conduct

  2. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  3. Hydrogen energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

  4. Workshop on environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs

  5. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The Phase II study of this project includes the analysis of impact on the reactor safety, the development of core design technology, the development of fuel supply technology of optimal composition, and feasibility analysis on localization and license of DUPIC fuel. From the reactor safety analysis results, it is known that DUPIC fuel satisfies the safety limit of reactor containment and public dose for single failure. But, the safety limit may be exceeded for dual failure. Therefore, more analysis is needed for the removal of excessive conservatism in accident analysis methodology and modification of transient fuel behavior analysis methodology. The results of the validation calculations of core design methodology have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of compatibility and fuel fabrication have shown that DUPIC fuel is technically feasible. For practical use and licensing, however, more research items required in the practical use, fuel rod and bundle design and fuel loading are should be performed. When these items are performed and resolved, the compatibility of the DUPIC fuel is achieved, and, eventually, the possibility of DUPIC fuel licensing can be confirmed

  6. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  7. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.)

  8. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  9. Needs assessment activity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    As part of a Transportation Management Division task (TMD), the Packaging Programs and Testing Group within Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has assessed the packaging needs of some of the mid- and small-sized US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by visiting them and meeting with their transportation and packaging personnel. To date, ten DOE facilities have been visited. As a result, these sites have been informed of some of the packaging activities that TMD has sponsored and is sponsoring, have been apprised of possible upcoming changes to transportation regulations, have discussed their short-term packaging needs, and have shared unique packaging they have developed which may be of use to other DOE facilities.. This report summarizes the findings from visits to the following sites: Fermi National Laboratory; Argonne National Laboratory; New Brunswick Laboratory; EG and G Mound Applied Technologies; Fernald Environmental Management Project; West Valley Demonstration Project; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Brookhaven National Laboratory; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  10. Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Five disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Four sites are recommended to be removed from the annual assessment, and one is recommended for continued evaluation. New sites are also identified for future monitoring as part of the annual assessment.

  11. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) is a methodology for assessing government debt management (DeM) performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of DeM functions. The assessment reveals that Mozambique has points of strength in most areas evaluated by the DeMPA, but that it meets the minimum requirements only in the fields of the legal framew...

  13. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Albania

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    From November 8 to 17, 2010, a World Bank team undertook a Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) mission to Tirana, Albania. The mission's objective was to prepare a comprehensive assessment of government debt management functions by applying the DeMPA methodology. This report presents the results of the assessment, based on the December 2009 version of the DeMPA tool. The assessm...

  14. Quality assessment of healthcare systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koubeková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Quality assessment of healthcare systems is considered to be the basic tool of developing strategic concepts in healthcare quality improvement and has a great impact on quality of life. The thesis' main focus is on possibilities of quality assessment on international quality model level and its transformation into national structures. It includes teoretical points of quality and economic evaluation of quality in healthcare. The objective is to assess the participation of czech hospitals in he...

  15. Assessing Addiction: Concepts and Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Sharon; Waxman, Rachel; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, organized assessment of substance use disorders is essential for clinical research, treatment planning, and referral to adjunctive services. In this article, we discuss the basic concepts of formalized assessment for substance abuse and addiction, as established by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and describe six widely used structured assessment instruments. Our aim is to help researchers and clinical programs identify the ins...

  16. Students' laboratory work performance assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Achumba, Ifeyinwa; Azzi, Djamel; Williams, Roy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory activities are very important in engineering education. Performance assessment of students’ laboratory work is time consuming and an ongoing challenge for teachers. Laboratory work performance assessment is traditionally done by the teacher grading students’ written report of the laboratory activity, despite the fact that the report is often 'doctored'. Assessment of laboratory work based solely on students’ reports has been criticized as failing to address espoused aims. The asses...

  17. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  18. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  19. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J Júlio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari.

  20. Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J J; Muniz-Pereira, L C; Noronha, D; Pinto, R M

    2000-01-01

    Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari).